Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 844

Search results for: sugar beet lime sludge

844 Agronomic Value of Wastewater and Sugar Beet Lime Sludge Compost on Radish Crop

Authors: S. Rida, O. Saadani Hassani, Q. R’zina, N. Saadaoui, K. Fares


Wastewater treatment stations create large quantities of sludge, whose treatment is poorly underestimated in the draft installation. However, chemical analysis of sludge reveals their important concentration in fertilizer elements including nitrogen and phosphorus. The direct application of sludge can reveal contamination of the food chain because of their chemical and organic micropollutants load. Therefore, there is a need of treatment process before use. The treatment by composting of this sludge mixed with three different proportions of sugar beet lime sludge (0%, 20%,30%) and green waste permits to obtain a stable compost rich in mineral elements, having a pleasant smell and relatively hygienic. In addition, the use of compost in agriculture positively affects the plant-soil system. Thus, this study shows that the supply of compost improves the physical properties of the soil and its agronomic quality, which results in an increase in the biomass of cultivated radish plants and a larger crop.

Keywords: agriculture, composting, soil, sugar beet lime, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
843 Using Sugar Mill Waste for Biobased Epoxy Composites

Authors: Ulku Soydal, Mustafa Esen Marti, Gulnare Ahmetli


In this study, precipitated calcium carbonate lime waste (LW) from sugar beet process was recycled as the raw material for the preparation of composite materials. Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt% with DGEBA type epoxy resin (ER). XRD was used for characterization of composites. Effects of ESO and LW filler amounts on mechanical properties of neat ER were investigated. Modification of ER with ESO remarkably enhanced plasticity of ER.

Keywords: epoxy resin, biocomposite, lime waste, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
842 M. J. Rodríguez, F. M. Sánchez, B. Velardo, P. Calvo, M. J. Serradilla, J. Delgado, J. M. López

Authors: Q. Rzina, M. Lahrouni, S. Rida, N. Saadaoui, Y. Almossaid, K. Oufdou, K. Fares


Many organic solid wastes are produced in the world. Poultry manure (PM), municipal organic wastes (MOW) and sugar beet lime sludge (LS) are produced in large quantities in Morocco. The co-composting of these organic wastes was investigated. The recycling and the valorization of such wastes is environmentally and economically beneficial especially for PM which is known source of bacterial pathogens. The aerobic biodegradation process was carried out by using three windrows of variable compositions: C1 prepared without LS (only MOW were composted with PM), C2 prepared from MOW plus PM and10% LS; and the last one C3 from MOW plus PM and 20% LS. The main process physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, humidity and C/N) and microbiological populations (mesophilic and thermophilic flora, total coliform, fecal coliform, Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic fungi) were monitored over three months to ascertain the compost maturity and to ensure the compost hygienic aspect. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 10.6-10.9. The organic matter degradation was reached approximately 59% for C2 and C3. In addition, the monitoring of the microbial population showed that the produced composts are mature and hygienic. The agronomic valorization of the final composts was tested on radish plant with tree level of composts and poultry manure without composting. The primary results of field trial showed a growth of radish plant biomass and root development without any phytotoxicity detected which reflects the quality of the composts produced. As for poultry manure it allowed to have a better results than other composts because of its readily available nitrogen.

Keywords: compost, municipal organic wastes, poultry manure, radish crop, sugar beet lime sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
841 Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, A. Pera, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa


The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.

Keywords: biological sludge, Ca(OH)2, copper, pathogens, sanitation, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
840 Investigation on Strength Properties of Concrete Using Industrial Waste as Supplementary Cementitious Material

Authors: Ravi Prasad Darapureddi


The use of industrial waste in making concrete reduce the consumption of natural resources and pollution of the environment. These materials possess problems of disposal and health hazards. An attempt has been made to use paper and thermal industrial wastes such as lime sludge and flyash. Present investigation is aimed at the utilization of Lime Sludge and Flyash as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) and influence of these materials on strength properties of concrete. Thermal industry waste fly ash is mixed with lime sludge and used as a replacement to cement at different proportions to obtain the strength properties and compared with ordinary concrete prepared without any additives. Grade of concrete prepared was M₂₅ designed according to Indian standard method. Cement has been replaced by paper industry waste and fly ash in different proportions such as 0% (normal concrete), 10%, 20%, and 30% by weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength were assessed. Test results indicated that the use of lime sludge and Fly ash in concrete had improved the properties of concrete. Better results were observed at 20% replacement of cement with these additives.

Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials, lime sludge, fly ash, strength properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
839 Genetic Diversity of Sugar Beet Pollinators

Authors: Ksenija Taški-Ajdukovic, Nevena Nagl, Živko Ćurčić, Dario Danojević


Information about genetic diversity of sugar beet parental populations is of a great importance for hybrid breeding programs. The aim of this research was to evaluate genetic diversity among and within populations and lines of diploid sugar beet pollinators, by using SSR markers. As plant material were used eight pollinators originating from three USDA-ARS breeding programs and four pollinators from Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Depending on the presence of self-fertility gene, the pollinators were divided into three groups: autofertile (inbred lines), autosterile (open-pollinating populations), and group with partial presence of autofertility gene. A total of 40 SSR primers were screened, out of which 34 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 129 different alleles were obtained with mean value 3.2 alleles per SSR primer. According to the results of genetic variability assessment the number and percentage of polymorphic loci was the maximal in pollinators NS1 and tester cms2 while effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosis and Shannon’s index was highest in pollinator EL0204. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 77.34% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. Correspondence analysis results were very similar to grouping by neighbor-joining algorithm. Number of groups was smaller by one, because correspondence analysis merged IFVCNS pollinators with CZ25 into one group. Pollinators FC220, FC221 and C 51 were in the next group, while self-fertile pollinators CR10 and C930-35 from USDA-Salinas were separated. On another branch were self-sterile pollinators ЕL0204 and ЕL53 from USDA-East Lansing. Sterile testers cms1 and cms2 formed separate group. The presented results confirmed that SSR analysis can be successfully used in estimation of genetic diversity within and among sugar beet populations. Since the tested pollinator differed considering the presence of self-fertility gene, their heterozygosity differed as well. It was lower in genotypes with fixed self-fertility genes. Since the most of tested populations were open-pollinated, which rarely self-pollinate, high variability within the populations was expected. Cluster analysis grouped populations according to their origin.

Keywords: auto fertility, genetic diversity, pollinator, SSR, sugar beet

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
838 Shell Lime: An Eco-Friendly and Cost-Efficient Alternative for Agricultural Lime

Authors: Hene L. Hapinat, Mae D. Dumapig


This study aimed to determine the lime potential of 3 mollusks, namely: Crassostrea iredalei (Oyster shell), Turritella terebra (Turret shell), and Anodontia edentula (Mangrove clam shell) as alternative for commercially produced agricultural lime. The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and the lime concentration using Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE) of each shellfish species were measured and tested for the enhancement of an acidic soil. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments replicated 3 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment A- 100 g agricultural lime; B- 100 g oyster shell lime; C- 100 g turret shell lime; and D- 100 g mangrove clam shell lime. Each treatment was combined to the acidic soil sample. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Square Difference (LSD) at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. Results revealed that lime produced from the 3 selected mollusks can be a potential source of alternative and/or supplement materials for agricultural lime in dealing with soil acidity, entailing lower cost of farm production.

Keywords: shell lime, pH, calcium carbonate concentrations, mollusks, agricultural lime, lime potential concentration, acidic soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
837 Changes in Physical Soil Properties and Crop Status on Soil Enriched With Treated Manure

Authors: Vaclav Novak, Katerina Krizova, Petr Sarec


Modern agriculture has to face many issues from which soil degradation and lack of organic matter in the soil are only a few of them. Apart from Climate Change, human utilization of landscape is the cause of a majority part of these problems. Cattle production in Czechia has been reduced by more than half in recent 30 years. However, cattle manure is considered as staple organic fertilizer, and its role in attempts for sustainable agriculture is irreplaceable. This study aims to describe the impact of so-called activators of biological manure transformation (Z´fix, Olmix Group) mainly on physical soil properties but also on crop status. The experiment has been established in 2017; nevertheless, initial measurements of implement draft have been performed before the treated manure application. In 2018, the physical soil properties and crop status (sugar beet) has been determined and compared with the untreated manure and control variant. Significant results have been observed already in the first year, where the implement draft decreased by 9.2 % within the treated manure variant in comparison with the control variant.

Keywords: field experiment, implement draft, vegetation index, sugar beet

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
836 Determination of Yield and Yield Components of Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rapacea Koch.) Cultivars under the Konya Region Conditions

Authors: A. Ozkose


This study was conducted to determination of yield and yield components of some fodder beet types (Amarilla Barres, Feldherr, Kyros, Magnum, and Rota) under the Konya region conditions. Fodder beet was obtained from the Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, at 2006-2007 season and the experiment was established in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Differences among the averages of the fodder beet cultivars are statistically important in terms of all the characteristics investigated. Leaf attitude value was 1.2–2.2 (1=erect; 5= prostrate), root shape scale value was (1=spheroidal – 9=cylindrical), root diameter 11.0–12.2 cm, remaining part of root on the ground was 6.3–13.7 cm, root length was 21.4 – 29.6 cm, leaf yield 1592 – 1917 kg/da, root yield was 10083–12258 kg/da, root dry matter content was %8.2– 18.6 and root dry matter yield was 889–1887 kg/da. As a result of the study, it was determined that fodder beet cultivars are different conditions in terms of yield and yield components. Therefore, determination of appropriate cultivars for each region affect crop yield importantly.

Keywords: fedder beet, root yield, yield components, Konya, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
835 Powdered Beet Red Roots Using as Adsorbent to Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Abdulali Bashir Ben Saleh


The powdered beet red roots (PBRR) were used as an adsorbent to remove dyes namely methylene blue dye (as a typical cationic or basic dye) from aqueous solutions. The present study shows that used beet red roots powder exhibit adsorption trend for the dye. The adsorption processes were carried out at various conditions of concentrations, processing time and a wide range of pH between 2.5-11. Adsorption isotherm equations such as Freundlich, and Langmuir were applied to calculate the values of respective constants. Adsorption study was found that the currently introduced adsorbent can be used to remove cationic dyes such as methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: beet red root, removal of deys, methylene blue, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
834 Mechanical and Hydraulic Behavior of Arid Zone Soils Treated with Lime: Case of Abadla, Bechar Clays, South of Algeria

Authors: Sadek Younes, Fali Leyla, Rikioui Tayeb, Zizouni Khaled


Stabilization of clay with lime as bearing stratum is an alternative to replacement of original soil. By adding lime to clay soil, the soil workability is improved due to the combination of calcium ions to the clay minerals, which means, modified soil properties. The paper investigates the effect of hydrated lime on the behaviour of lime treated, arid zones clay (Abadla Clay). A number of mechanical and hydraulic tests were performed to identify the effect of lime dosage and compaction water content on the compressibility, permeability, and shear strength parameters of the soil. Test results show that the soil parameters can be improved through additives such as lime. Overall, the addition percentages of 6% and 9% lime give the best desired results. Also, results revealed that the compressibility behavior of lime-treated soil strongly affected by lime content. The results are presented in terms of modern interpretation of the behaviour of treated soils, in comparison with the parameters of the untreated soil.

Keywords: arid zones, compressibility, lime, soil behaviour, soil stabilization, unsaturated soil

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833 Extraction of Essential Oil and Pectin from Lime and Waste Technology Development

Authors: Wilaisri Limphapayom


Lime is one of the economically important produced in Thailand. The objective of this research is to increase utilization in food and cosmetic. Extraction of essential oil and pectin from lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm & Panz ) Swing) have been studied. Extraction of essential oil has been made by using hydro-distillation .The essential oil ranged from 1.72-2.20%. The chemical composition of essential oil composed of alpha-pinene , beta-pinene , D-limonene , comphene , a-phellandrene , g-terpinene , a-ocimene , O-cymene , 2-carene , Linalool , trans-ocimenol , Geraniol , Citral , Isogeraniol , Verbinol , and others when analyzed by using GC-MS method. Pectin extraction from lime waste , boiled water after essential oil extraction. Pectin extraction were found 40.11-65.81 g /100g of lime peel. The best extraction condition was found to be higher in yield by using ethanol extraction. The potential of this study had satisfactory results to improve lime processing system for value-added . The present study was also focused on Lime powder production as source of vitamin C or ascorbic acid and the potential of lime waste as a source of essential oil and pectin. Lime powder produced from Spray Dryer . Lime juice with 2 different level of maltodextrins DE 10 , 30 and 50% w/w was sprayed at 150 degrees celsius inlet air temperature and at 90-degree celsius outlet temperature. Lime powder with 50% maltodextrin gave the most desirable quality product. This product has vitamin C contents of 25 mg/100g (w/w).

Keywords: extraction, pectin, essential oil, lime

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832 Generalized Model Estimating Strength of Bauxite Residue-Lime Mix

Authors: Sujeet Kumar, Arun Prasad


The present work investigates the effect of multiple parameters on the unconfined compressive strength of the bauxite residue-lime mix. A number of unconfined compressive strength tests considering various curing time, lime content, dry density and moisture content were carried out. The results show that an empirical correlation may be successfully developed using volumetric lime content, porosity, moisture content, curing time unconfined compressive strength for the range of the bauxite residue-lime mix studied. The proposed empirical correlations efficiently predict the strength of bauxite residue-lime mix, and it can be used as a generalized empirical equation to estimate unconfined compressive strength.

Keywords: bauxite residue, curing time, porosity/volumetric lime ratio, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
831 Scaling-Down an Agricultural Waste Biogas Plant Fermenter

Authors: Matheus Pessoa, Matthias Kraume


Scale-Down rules in process engineering help us to improve and develop Industrial scale parameters into lab scale. Several scale-down rules available in the literature like Impeller Power Number, Agitation device Power Input, Substrate Tip Speed, Reynolds Number and Cavern Development were investigated in order to stipulate the rotational speed to operate an 11 L working volume lab-scale bioreactor within industrial process parameters. Herein, xanthan gum was used as a fluid with a representative viscosity of a hypothetical biogas plant, with H/D = 1 and central agitation, fermentation broth using sewage sludge and sugar beet pulp as substrate. The results showed that the cavern development strategy was the best method for establishing a rotational speed for the bioreactor operation, while the other rules presented values out of reality for this article proposes.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, cavern development, scale down rules, xanthan gum

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830 An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick

Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim


Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.

Keywords: fired clay brick, sludge waste, compressive strength, shrinkage, water absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
829 Field Application of Reduced Crude Conversion Spent Lime

Authors: Brian H. Marsh, John H. Grove


Gypsum is being applied to ameliorate subsoil acidity and to overcome the problem of very slow lime movement from surface lime applications. Reduced Crude Conversion Spent Lime (RCCSL) containing anhydrite was evaluated for use as a liming material with specific consideration given to the movement of sulfate into the acid subsoil. Agricultural lime and RCCSL were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the lime requirement of 6.72 Mg ha-1 to an acid Trappist silt loam (Typic Hapuldult). Corn [Zea mays (L.)]was grown following lime material application and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]was grown in the second year. Soil pH increased rapidly with the addition of the RCCSL material. Over time there was no difference in soil pH between the materials but there was with increasing rate. None of the observed changes in plant nutrient concentration had an impact on yield. Grain yield was higher for the RCCSL amended treatments in the first year but not in the second. There was a significant increase in soybean grain yield from the full lime requirement treatments over no lime.

Keywords: soil acidity, corn, soybean, liming materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
828 Continuous Production of Prebiotic Pectic Oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet Pulp in a Continuous Cross Flow Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Neha Babbar, S. Van Roy, W. Dejonghe, S. Sforza, K. Elst


Pectic oligosaccharides (a class of prebiotics) are non-digestible carbohydrates which benefits the host by stimulating the growth of healthy gut micro flora. Production of prebiotic pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from pectin rich agricultural residues involves a cutting of long chain polymer of pectin to oligomers of pectin while avoiding the formation of monosaccharides. The objective of the present study is to develop a two-step continuous biocatalytic membrane reactor (MER) for the continuous production of POS (from sugar beet pulp) in which conversion is combined with separation. Optimization of the ratio of POS/monosaccharides, stability and productivities of the process was done by testing various residence times (RT) in the reactor vessel with diluted (10 RT, 20 RT, and 30 RT) and undiluted (30 RT, 40 RT and 60 RT) substrate. The results show that the most stable processes (steady state) were 20 RT and 30 RT for diluted substrate and 40 RT and 60 RT for undiluted substrate. The highest volumetric and specific productivities of 20 g/L/h and 11 g/gE/h; 17 g/l/h and 9 g/gE/h were respectively obtained with 20 RT (diluted substrate) and 40 RT (undiluted substrate). Under these conditions, the permeates of the reactor test with 20 RT (diluted substrate) consisted of 80 % POS fractions while that of 40 RT (undiluted substrate) resulted in 70% POS fractions. A two-step continuous biocatalytic MER for the continuous POS production looks very promising for the continuous production of tailor made POS. Although both the processes i.e 20 RT (diluted substrate) and 40 RT (undiluted substrate) gave the best results, but for an Industrial application it is preferable to use an undiluted substrate.

Keywords: pectic oligosaccharides, membrane reactor, residence time, specific productivity, volumetric productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
827 Estimation and Validation of Free Lime Analysis of Clinker by Quantitative Phase Analysis Using X ray diffraction

Authors: Suresh Palla, Kalpna Sharma, Gaurav Bhatnagar, S. K. Chaturvedi, B. N. Mohapatra


Determining the content of free lime is especially important to judge reactivity of the raw materials and clinker quality. The free lime limit isn’t the same for all cements; it depends on several factors, especially the temperature reached during the cooking and the grain size distribution in cement after grinding. Estimation of free lime by conventional method is influenced by the presence of portlandite and misleads the actual free lime content in the clinker for quality check up conditions. To ensure the product quality according to the standard specifications in terms of within the quality limits or not, a reliable, precise, and very reproducible method to quantify the relative phase abundances in the Portland Cement clinker and Portland Cements is to use X-ray diffraction (XRD) in combination with the Rietveld method. In the present study, a methodology was proposed using XRD to validate the obtained results of free lime by conventional method. The XRD and TG/DTA results confirm the presence of portlandite in the clinker to take the decision on the obtained free lime results through conventional method.

Keywords: free lime, quantitative phase analysis, conventional method, x ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
826 The Influence of Partial Replacement of Hydrated Lime by Pozzolans on Properties of Lime Mortars

Authors: Przemyslaw Brzyski, Stanislaw Fic


Hydrated lime, because of the life cycle (return to its natural form as a result of the setting and hardening) has a positive environmental impact. The lime binder is used in mortars. Lime is a slow setting binder with low mechanical properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of improving the properties of the lime binder by using different pozzolanic materials as partial replacement of hydrated lime binder. Pozzolan materials are the natural or industrial waste, so do not affect the environmental impact of the lime binder. The following laboratory tests were performed: the analysis of the physical characteristics of the tested samples of lime mortars (bulk density, porosity), flexural and compressive strength, water absorption and the capillary rise of samples and consistency of fresh mortars. As a partial replacement of hydrated lime (in the amount of 10%, 20%, 30% by weight of lime) a metakaolin, silica fume, and zeolite were used. The shortest setting and hardening time showed mortars with the addition of metakaolin. All additives noticeably improved strength characteristic of lime mortars. With the increase in the amount of additive, the increase in strength was also observed. The highest flexural strength was obtained by using the addition of metakaolin in an amount of 20% by weight of lime (2.08 MPa). The highest compressive strength was obtained by using also the addition of metakaolin but in an amount of 30% by weight of lime (9.43 MPa). The addition of pozzolan caused an increase in the mortar tightness which contributed to the limitation of absorbability. Due to the different surface area, pozzolanic additives affected the consistency of fresh mortars. Initial consistency was assumed as plastic. Only the addition of silica fume an amount of 20 and 30% by weight of lime changed the consistency to the thick-plastic. The conducted study demonstrated the possibility of applying lime mortar with satisfactory properties. The features of lime mortars do not differ significantly from cement-based mortar properties and show a lower environmental impact due to CO₂ absorption during lime hardening. Taking into consideration the setting time, strength and consistency, the best results can be obtained with metakaolin addition to the lime mortar.

Keywords: lime, binder, mortar, pozzolan, properties

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825 Influence of Nano Copper Slag in Strength Behavior of Lime Stabilized Soil

Authors: V. K. Stalin, M. Kirithika, K. Shanmugam, K. Tharini


Nanotechnology has been widely used in many applications such as medical, electronics, robotics and also in geotechnical engineering area through stabilization of bore holes, grouting etc. In this paper, an attempt is made for understanding the influence of nano copper slag (1%, 2% & 3%) on the index, compaction and UCC strength properties of natural soil (CH type) with and without lime stabilization for immediate and 7 days curing period. Results indicated that upto 1% of Nano copper slag, there is an increment in UC strength of virgin soil and lime stabilised soil. Beyond 1% nano copper slag, there is a steep reduction in UC strength and increase of plasticity both in lime stabilised soil and virgin soil. The effect of lime is found to show more influence on large surface area of nano copper slag in natural soil. For both immediate and curing effect, with 1% of Nano copper slag, the maximum unconfined compressive strength was 38% and 106% higher than that of the virgin soil strength.

Keywords: lime, nano copper slag, SEM, XRD, stabilisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
824 Effect of Lime and Leaf Ash on Engineering Properties of Red Mud

Authors: Pawandeep Kaur, Prashant Garg


Red mud is a byproduct of aluminum extraction from Bauxite industry. It is dumped in a pond which not only uses thousands of acres of land but having very high pH, it pollutes the ground water and the soil also. Leaves are yet another big waste especially during autumn when they contribute immensely to the blockage of drains and can easily catch fire, among other risks hence also needs to be utilized effectively. The use of leaf ash and red mud in highway construction as a filling material may be an efficient way to dispose of leaf ash and red mud. In this study, leaf ash and lime were used as admixtures to improve the geotechnical engineering properties of red mud. The red mud was taken from National Aluminum Company Limited, Odisha, and leaf ash was locally collected. The aim of present study is to investigate the effect of lime and leaf ash on compaction characteristics and strength characteristics of red mud. California Bearing Ratio and Unconfined Compression Strength tests were performed on red mud by varying different percentages of lime and leaf ash. Leaf ash was added in proportion 2%,4%,6%,8% and 10% whereas lime was added in proportions of 5% to 15%. Optimized value of lime was decided with respect to maximum CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of red mud mixed with different proportions of lime. An increase of 300% in California Bearing ratio of red mud and an increase of 125% in Unconfined Compression Strength values were observed. It may, therefore, be concluded that red mud may be effectively utilized in the highway industry as a filler material.

Keywords: stabilization, lime, red mud, leaf ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
823 The Usage of Nitrogen Gas and Alum for Sludge Dewatering

Authors: Mamdouh Yousef Saleh, Medhat Hosny El-Zahar, Shymaa El-Dosoky


In most cases, the associated processing cost of dewatering sludge increase with the solid particles concentration. All experiments in this study were conducted on biological sludge type. All experiments help to reduce the greenhouse gases in addition, the technology used was faster in time and less in cost compared to other methods. First, the bubbling pressure was used to dissolve N₂ gas into the sludge, second alum was added to accelerate the process of coagulation of the sludge particles and facilitate their flotation, and third nitrogen gas was used to help floating the sludge particles and reduce the processing time because of the nitrogen gas from the inert gases. The conclusions of this experiment were as follows: first, the best conditions were obtained when the bubbling pressure was 0.6 bar. Second, the best alum dose was determined to help the sludge agglomerate and float. During the experiment, the best alum dose was 80 mg/L. It increased concentration of the sludge by 7-8 times. Third, the economic dose of nitrogen gas was 60 mg/L with separation efficiency of 85%. The sludge concentration was about 8-9 times. That happened due to the gas released tiny bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing them to float to the surface of the water where it could be then removed.

Keywords: nitrogen gas, biological treatment, alum, dewatering sludge, greenhouse gases

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
822 Principles of Municipal Sewage Sludge Bioconversion into Biomineral Fertilizer

Authors: K. V. Kalinichenko, G. N. Nikovskaya


The efficiency of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge in bioleaching with heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic (sulphur-oxidizing) sludge cenoses and chemical leaching (in distilled water, weakly acidic or alkaline medium) was compared. The efficacy of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge varied from 83 % (Zn) up to 14 % (Cr) and followed the order: Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr. The advantages of metals bioleaching process at heterotrophic metabolism was shown. A new process for bioconversation of sewage sludge into fertilizer at middle temperature after partial heavy metals removal was developed. This process is based on enhancing vital ability of heterotrophic microorganisms by adding easily metabolized nutrients and synthesis of metabolites by growing sludge cenoses. These metabolites possess the properties of heavy metals extractants and flocculants which provide sludge flocks sedimentation and concentration. The process results in biomineral fertilizer with immobilized sludge bioelements with prolonged action. The fertilizer obtained satisfied the EU limits for the sewage sludge of agricultural utilization. High efficiency of the biomineral fertilizers obtained has been demonstrated in vegetation experiments.

Keywords: fertilizer, heavy metals, leaching, sewage sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
821 The Effects of Sewage Sludge Usage and Manure on Some Heavy Metals Uptake in Savory (Satureja Hortensis L.)

Authors: Abbas Hani


In recent decades with the development of technology and lack of food sources, sewage sludge in production of human foods is inevitable. Various sources of municipal and industrial sewage sludge that is produced can provide the requirement of plant nutrients. Soils in arid, semi-arid climate of central Iran that most affected by water drainage, iron and zinc deficiencies, using of sewage sludge is helpful. Therefore, the aim of this study is investigation of sewage sludge and manure application on Ni and Zn uptake by Savory. An experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. Sewage sludge treatments consisted of four levels, control, 15, 30, 80 tons per hectares, the manure was used in four levels of control, 20, 40 and 80 tons per hectare. Results showed that the wet and dry weights was not affected by sewage sludge using, while, manure has significant effect on them. The effect of sewage sludge on the cadmium and lead concentrations were significant. Interactions of sewage sludge and manure on dry weight values were not significant. Compare mean analysis showed that increasing the amount of sewage sludge had no significant effect on cadmium concentration and it reduced when sewage sludge usage increased. This is probably due to increased plant growth and reduced concentrations of these elements in the plant.

Keywords: savory, lead, cadmium, sewage sludge, manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
820 Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil

Authors: G. Nitesh


Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.

Keywords: lime pile, granular pile, soft soil, settlement

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819 Vermicomposting of Textile Industries’ Dyeing Sludge by Using Eisenia foetida

Authors: Kunwar D. Yadav, Dayanand Sharma


Surat City in India is famous for textile and dyeing industries which generate textile sludge in huge quantity. Textile sludge contains harmful chemicals which are poisonous and carcinogenic. The safe disposal and reuse of textile dyeing sludge are challenging for owner of textile industries and government of the state. The aim of present study was the vermicomposting of textile industries dyeing sludge with cow dung and Eisenia foetida as earthworm spices. The vermicompost reactor of 0.3 m3 capacity was used for vermicomposting. Textile dyeing sludge was mixed with cow dung in different proportion, i.e., 0:100 (C1), 10:90 (C2), 20:80 (C3), 30:70 (C4). Vermicomposting duration was 120 days. All the combinations of the feed mixture, the pH was increased to a range 7.45-7.78, percentage of total organic carbon was decreased to a range of 31-33.3%, total nitrogen was decreased to a range of 1.15-1.32%, total phosphorus was increased in the range of 6.2-7.9 (g/kg).

Keywords: cow dung, Eisenia foetida, textile sludge, vermicompost

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818 Thermal Characteristics of Sewage Sludge to Develop an IDPG Technology

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim, Byeo Ri Jeong


Sewage sludge is regarded as the residue produced by the waste water treatment process, during which liquids and solids are being separated. Thermal treatments are interesting techniques to stabilize the sewage sludge for disposal. Among the thermal treatments, pyrolysis and/or gasification has been being applied to the sewage sludge. The final goal of our NRF research is to develop a microwave In-line Drying-Pyrolysis-Gasification (IDPG) technology for the dewatered sewage sludge for the bio-waste to energy conversion. As a first step, the pyrolysis characteristics in a bench scale electric furnace was investigated at 800℃ for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge samples of which moisture contents are almost 80% and 0%, respectively. Main components of producer gas are hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Particularly, higher hydrogen for the dewatered sludge is shown as 75%. The hydrogen production for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge are 56% and 32%, respectively. However, the pyrolysis for the dried sludge produces higher carbon dioxide and other gases, while higher methane and carbon dioxide are given to 74% and 53%, respectively. Tar also generates during the pyrolysis process, showing lower value for case of the dewatered sludge. Gravimetric tar is 195 g/m3, and selected light tar like benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene are 9.4 g/m3, 2.1 g/m3, 0.5 g/m3, 0.3 g/m3, respectively. After the pyrolysis process, residual char for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge remain 1g and 1.3g, showing weight reduction rate of 93% and 57%, respectively. Through the results, this could be known that the dewatered sludge can be used to produce a clean hydrogen-rich gas fuel without the drying process. Therefore, the IDPG technology can be applied effectively to the energy conversion for dewater sludge waste without a drying pretreatment. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No. 2015R1A2A2A03003044).

Keywords: pyrolysis, gasification, sewage sludge, tar generation, producer gas, sludge char, biomass energy

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817 A Study of Soft Soil Improvement by Using Lime Grit

Authors: Ashim Kanti Dey, Briti Sundar Bhowmik


This paper presents an idea to improve the soft soil by using lime grits which are normally produced as waste product in the paper manufacturing industries. This waste material cannot be used as a construction material because of its light weight, uniform size and poor compaction control. With scarcity in land, effective disposal of lime grit is a major concern of all paper manufacturing industries. Considering its non-plasticity and high permeability characteristics the lime grit may suitably be used as a drainage material for speedy consolidation of cohesive soil. It can also be used to improve the bearing capacity of soft clay. An attempt has been made in this paper to show the usefulness of lime grit in improving the bearing capacity of shallow foundation resting on soft clayey soil. A series of undrained unconsolidated cyclic triaxial tests performed at different area ratios and at three different water contents shows that dynamic shear modulus and damping ratio can be substantially improved with lime grit. Improvement is observed to be more in case of higher area ratio and higher water content. Static triaxial tests were also conducted on lime grit reinforced clayey soil after application of 50 load cycles to determine the effect of lime grit columns on cyclically loaded clayey soils. It is observed that the degradation is less for lime grit stabilized soil. A study of model test with different area ratio of lime column installation is also included to see the field behaviour of lime grit reinforced soil.

Keywords: lime grit column, area ratio, shear modulus, damping ratio, strength ratio, improvement factor, degradation factor

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816 Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation

Authors: Ahmed S. Abdulrasool


Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.

Keywords: bearing capacity, circular foundation, clay soil, lime-sand wall

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815 Bioremediation of Sewage Sludge Contaminated with Fluorene Using a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant

Authors: X. Vecino, J. M. Cruz, A. Moldes


The disposal and the treatment of sewage sludge is an expensive and environmentally complex problem. In this work, a lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor was used as ecofriendly and cost-competitive alternative for the mobilization and bioremediation of fluorene in sewage sludge. Results have demonstrated that this biosurfactant has the capability to mobilize fluorene to the aqueous phase, reducing the amount of fluorene in the sewage sludge from 484.4 mg/Kg up to 413.7 mg/Kg and 196.0 mg/Kg after 1 and 27 days respectively. Furthemore, once the fluorene was extracted the lipopeptide biosurfactant contained in the aqueous phase allowed the bio-degradation, up to 40.5 % of the initial concentration of this polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

Keywords: fluorene, lipopeptide biosurfactant, mobilization, sewage sludge

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