Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5567

Search results for: growth kinetics

5567 Phase Stability and Grain Growth Kinetics of Oxide Dispersed CoCrFeMnNi

Authors: Prangya P. Sahoo, B. S. Murty


The present study deals with phase evolution of oxide dispersed CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy as a function of amount of added Y2O3 during mechanical alloying and analysis of grain growth kinetics of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy without and with oxide dispersion. Mechanical alloying of CoCrFeMnNi resulted in a single FCC phase. However, evolution of chromium carbide was observed after heat treatment between 1073 and 1473 K. Comparison of grain growth time exponents and activation energy barrier is also reported. Micro structural investigations, using electron microscopy and EBSD techniques, were carried out to confirm the enhanced grain growth resistance which is attributed to the presence oxide dispersoids.

Keywords: grain growth kinetics, mechanical alloying, oxide dispersion, phase evolution

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5566 Modeling and Experimental Verification of Crystal Growth Kinetics in Glass Forming Alloys

Authors: Peter K. Galenko, Stefanie Koch, Markus Rettenmayr, Robert Wonneberger, Evgeny V. Kharanzhevskiy, Maria Zamoryanskaya, Vladimir Ankudinov


We analyze the structure of undercooled melts, crystal growth kinetics and amorphous/crystalline microstructure of rapidly solidifying glass-forming Pd-based and CuZr-based alloys. A dendrite growth model is developed using a combination of the kinetic phase-field model and mesoscopic sharp interface model. The model predicts features of crystallization kinetics in alloys from thermodynamically controlled growth (governed by the Gibbs free energy change on solidification) to the kinetically limited regime (governed by atomic attachment-detachment processes at the solid/liquid interface). Comparing critical undercoolings observed in the crystallization kinetics with experimental data on melt viscosity, atomistic simulation's data on liquid microstructure and theoretically predicted dendrite growth velocity allows us to conclude that the dendrite growth kinetics strongly depends on the cluster structure changes of the melt. The obtained data of theoretical and experimental investigations are used for interpretation of microstructure of samples processed in electro-magnetic levitator on board International Space Station in the frame of the project "MULTIPHAS" (European Space Agency and German Aerospace Center, 50WM1941) and "KINETIKA" (ROSKOSMOS).

Keywords: dendrite, kinetics, model, solidification

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5565 Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Lauric Acid Methyl Ester from DSC Measurements

Authors: Charine Faith H. Lagrimas, Rommel N. Galvan, Rizalinda L. de Leon


An ongoing study, methyl laurate to be used as a refrigerant in an HVAC system, requires the crystallization kinetics of the said substance. Step-wise and normal forms of Avrami model parameters were used to describe the isothermal crystallization kinetics of methyl laurate at different temperatures from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements. At 3 °C, parameters showed that methyl laurate exhibits a secondary crystallization. The primary crystallization occurred with instantaneous nuclei and spherulitic growth; followed by a secondary instantaneous nucleation with a lower growth of dimensionality, rod-like. At 4 °C to 6 °C, the exotherms from DSC implied that the system was under the isokinetic range. The kinetics behavior is the same which is instantaneous nucleation with one-dimensional growth. The differences for the isokinetic range temperatures are the activation energies (directly proportional to T) and nucleation rates (inversely proportional to T). From the images obtained during the crystallization of methyl laurate using an optical microscope, it is confirmed that the nucleation and crystal growth modes obtained from the optical microscope are consistent with the parameters from Avrami model.

Keywords: Avrami model, isothermal crystallization, lipids kinetics, methyl laurate

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5564 Studies on Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of PP/SEBS-g-MA Blends

Authors: Rishi Sharma, S. N. Maiti


The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of PP/SEBS-g-MA blends up to 0-50% concentration of copolymer was studied by differential scanning calorimetry at four different cooling rates. Crystallization parameters were analyzed by Avrami and Jeziorny models. Primary and secondary crystallization processes were described by Avrami equation. Avrami model showed that all types of shapes grow from small dimensions during primary crystallization. However, three-dimensional crystal growth was observed during the secondary crystallization process. The crystallization peak and onset temperature decrease, however

Keywords: crystallization kinetics, non-isothermal, polypropylene, SEBS-g-MA

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5563 Formation of Chemical Compound Layer at the Interface of Initial Substances A and B with Dominance of Diffusion of the A Atoms

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Samuel Akintunde


A theoretical approach to consider formation of chemical compound layer at the interface between initial substances A and B due to the interfacial interaction and diffusion is developed. It is considered situation when speed of interfacial interaction is large enough and diffusion of A-atoms through AB-layer is much more then diffusion of B-atoms. Atoms from A-layer diffuse toward B-atoms and form AB-atoms on the surface of B-layer. B-atoms are assumed to be immobile. The growth kinetics of the AB-layer is described by two differential equations with non-linear coupling, producing a good fit to the experimental data. It is shown that growth of the thickness of the AB-layer determines by dependence of chemical reaction rate on reactants concentration. In special case the thickness of the AB-layer can grow linearly or parabolically depending on that which of processes (interaction or the diffusion) controls the growth. The thickness of AB-layer as function of time is obtained. The moment of time (transition point) at which the linear growth are changed by parabolic is found.

Keywords: phase formation, binary systems, interfacial reaction, diffusion, compound layers, growth kinetics

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5562 Investigation of the Growth Kinetics of Phases in Ni–Sn System

Authors: Varun A Baheti, Sanjay Kashyap, Kamanio Chattopadhyay, Praveen Kumar, Aloke Paul


Ni–Sn system finds applications in the microelectronics industry, especially with respect to flip–chip or direct chip, attach technology. Here the region of interest is under bump metallization (UBM), and solder bump (Sn) interface due to the formation of brittle intermetallic phases there. Understanding the growth of these phases at UBM/Sn interface is important, as in many cases it controls the electro–mechanical properties of the product. Cu and Ni are the commonly used UBM materials. Cu is used for good bonding because of fast reaction with solder and Ni often acts as a diffusion barrier layer due to its inherently slower reaction kinetics with Sn–based solders. Investigation on the growth kinetics of phases in Ni–Sn system is reported in this study. Just for simplicity, Sn being major solder constituent is chosen. Ni–Sn electroplated diffusion couples are prepared by electroplating pure Sn on Ni substrate. Bulk diffusion couples prepared by the conventional method are also studied along with Ni–Sn electroplated diffusion couples. Diffusion couples are annealed for 25–1000 h at 50–215°C to study the phase evolutions and growth kinetics of various phases. The interdiffusion zone was analysed using field emission gun equipped scanning electron microscope (FE–SEM) for imaging. Indexing of selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns obtained from transmission electron microscope (TEM) and composition measurements done in electron probe micro−analyser (FE–EPMA) confirms the presence of various product phases grown across the interdiffusion zone. Time-dependent experiments indicate diffusion controlled growth of the product phase. The estimated activation energy in the temperature range 125–215°C for parabolic growth constants (and hence integrated interdiffusion coefficients) of the Ni₃Sn₄ phase shed light on the growth mechanism of the phase; whether its grain boundary controlled or lattice controlled diffusion. The location of the Kirkendall marker plane indicates that the Ni₃Sn₄ phase grows mainly by diffusion of Sn in the binary Ni–Sn system.

Keywords: diffusion, equilibrium phase, metastable phase, the Ni-Sn system

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5561 Process Performance and Nitrogen Removal Kinetics in Anammox Hybrid Reactor

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta


Anammox is a promising and cost effective alternative to conventional treatment systems that facilitates direct oxidation of ammonium nitrogen under anaerobic conditions with nitrite as an electron acceptor without addition of any external carbon sources. The present study investigates the process kinetics of laboratory scale anammox hybrid reactor (AHR) which combines the dual advantages of attached and suspended growth. The performance & behaviour of AHR was studied under varying hydraulic retention time (HRTs) and nitrogen loading rate (NLRs). The experimental unit consisted of 4 numbers of 5L capacity anammox hybrid reactor inoculated with mixed seed culture containing anoxic and activated sludge. Pseudo steady state (PSS) ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies of 90.6% and 95.6%, respectively, were achieved during acclimation phase. After establishment of PSS, the performance of AHR was monitored at seven different HRTs of 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 d with increasing NLR from 0.4 to 4.8 kg N/m3d. The results showed that with increase in NLR and decrease in HRT (3.0 to 0.25 d), AHR registered appreciable decline in nitrogen removal efficiency from 92.9% to 67.4 %, respectively. The HRT of 2.0 d was considered optimal to achieve substantial nitrogen removal of 89%, because on further decrease in HRT below 1.5 days, remarkable decline in the values of nitrogen removal efficiency were observed. Analysis of data indicated that attached growth system contributes an additional 15.4 % ammonium removal and reduced the sludge washout rate (additional 29% reduction). This enhanced performance may be attributed to 25% increase in sludge retention time due to the attached growth media. Three kinetic models, namely, first order, Monod and Modified Stover-Kincannon model were applied to assess the substrate removal kinetics of nitrogen removal in AHR. Validation of the models were carried out by comparing experimental set of data with the predicted values obtained from the respective models. For substrate removal kinetics, model validation revealed that Modified Stover-Kincannon is most precise (R2=0.943) and can be suitably applied to predict the kinetics of nitrogen removal in AHR. Lawrence and McCarty model described the kinetics of bacterial growth. The predicted value of yield coefficient and decay constant were in line with the experimentally observed values.

Keywords: anammox, kinetics, modelling, nitrogen removal, sludge wash out rate, AHR

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5560 2D Monte Carlo Simulation of Grain Growth under Transient Conditions

Authors: K. R. Phaneesh, Anirudh Bhat, G. Mukherjee, K. T. Kashyap


Extensive Monte Carlo Potts model simulations were performed on 2D square lattice to investigate the effects of simulated higher temperatures effects on grain growth kinetics. A range of simulation temperatures (KTs) were applied on a matrix of size 10002 with Q-state 64, dispersed with a wide range of second phase particles, ranging from 0.001 to 0.1, and then run to 100,000 Monte Carlo steps. The average grain size, the largest grain size and the grain growth exponent were evaluated for all particle fractions and simulated temperatures. After evaluating several growth parameters, the critical temperature for a square lattice, with eight nearest neighbors, was found to be KTs = 0.4.

Keywords: average grain size, critical temperature, grain growth exponent, Monte Carlo steps

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5559 A Unified Model for Orotidine Monophosphate Synthesis: Target for Inhibition of Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: N. Naga Subrahmanyeswara Rao, Parag Arvind Deshpande


Understanding nucleotide synthesis reaction of any organism is beneficial to know the growth of it as in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to design anti TB drug. One of the reactions of de novo pathway which takes place in all organisms was considered. The reaction takes places between phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate and orotate catalyzed by orotate phosphoribosyl transferase and divalent metal ion gives orotdine monophosphate, a nucleotide. All the reaction steps of three experimentally proposed mechanisms for this reaction were considered to develop kinetic rate expression. The model was validated using the data for four organisms. This model could successfully describe the kinetics for the reported data. The developed model can serve as a reliable model to describe the kinetics in new organisms without the need of mechanistic determination. So an organism-independent model was developed.

Keywords: mechanism, nucleotide, organism, tuberculosis

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5558 Study of Nitrogen Species Fate and Transport in Subsurface: To Assess the Impact of Wastewater Irrigation

Authors: C. Mekala, Indumathi M. Nambi


Nitrogen pollution in groundwater arising from wastewater and fertilizer application through vadose zone is a major problem and it causes a prime risk to groundwater based drinking water supplies. Nitrogenous compounds namely ammonium, nitrate and nitrite fate and transport in soil subsurface were studied experimentally. The major process like sorption, leaching, biotransformation involving microbial growth kinetics, and biological clogging due to biomass growth were assessed and modeled with advection-dispersion reaction equations for ammonium, nitrate and acetate in a saturated, heterogeneous soil medium. The transport process was coupled with freundlich sorption and monod inhibition kinetics for immobile bacteria and permeability reduction due to biomass growth will be verified and validated with the numerical model. This proposed mathematical model will be very helpful in the development of a management model for a sustainable and safe wastewater reuse strategies such as irrigation and groundwater recharge.

Keywords: nitrogen species transport, transformation, biological clogging, biokinetic parameters, contaminant transport model, saturated soil

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5557 Kinetic Studies of Bioethanol Production from Salt-Pretreated Sugarcane Leaves

Authors: Preshanthan Moodley, E. B. Gueguim Kana


This study examines the kinetics of S. cerevisiae BY4743 growth and bioethanol production from sugarcane leaf waste (SLW), utilizing two different optimized pretreatment regimes; under two fermentation modes: steam salt-alkali filtered enzymatic hydrolysate (SSA-F), steam salt-alkali unfiltered (SSA-U), microwave salt-alkali filtered (MSA-F) and microwave salt-alkali unfiltered (MSA-U). The kinetic coefficients were determined by fitting the Monod, modified Gompertz, and logistic models to the experimental data with high coefficients of determination R² > 0.97. A maximum specific growth rate (µₘₐₓ) of 0.153 h⁻¹ was obtained under SSA-F and SSA-U whereas, 0.150 h⁻¹ was observed with MSA-F and MSA-U. SSA-U gave a potential maximum bioethanol concentration (Pₘ) of 31.06 g/L compared to 30.49, 23.26 and 21.79g/L for SSA-F, MSA-F and MSA-U respectively. An insignificant difference was observed in the μmax and Pm for the filtered and unfiltered enzymatic hydrolysate for both SSA and MSA pretreatments, thus potentially reducing a unit operation. These findings provide significant insights for process scale up.

Keywords: lignocellulosic bioethanol, microwave pretreatment, sugarcane leaves, kinetics

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5556 Pyrolysis of Dursunbey Lignite and Pyrolysis Kinetics

Authors: H. Sütçü, C. Efe


In this study, pyrolysis characteristics of Dursunbey-Balıkesir lignite and its pyrolysis kinetics are examined. The pyrolysis experiments carried out at three different heating rates are performed by using thermogravimetric method. Kinetic parameters are calculated by Coats & Redfern kinetic model and the degree of pyrolysis process is determined for each of the heating rate.

Keywords: lignite, thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis, kinetics

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5555 Effect of Two Cooking Methods on Kinetics of Polyphenol Content, Flavonoid Content and Color of a Tunisian Meal: Molokheiya (Corchorus olitorius)

Authors: S. Njoumi, L. Ben Haj Said, M. J. Amiot, S. Bellagha


The main objective of this research was to establish the kinetics of variation of total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in Tunisian Corchorus olitorius powder and in a traditional home cooked-meal (Molokheiya) when using stewing and stir-frying as cooking methods, but also to compare the effect of these two common cooking practices on water content, TPC, TFC and color. The L*, a* and b* coordinates values of the Molokheiya varied from 24.955±0.039 to 21.301±0.036, from -1.556±0.048 to 0.23±0.026 and from 5.675±0.052 to 6.313±0.103 when using stewing and from 21.328±0.025 to 20.56±0.021, from -1.093± 0.011to 0.121±0.007 and from 5.708±0.020 to 6.263±0.007 when using stir-frying, respectively. TPC and TFC increased during cooking. TPC of Molokheiya varied from 29.852±0.866 mg GAE/100 g to 220.416±0.519 mg GAE/100 g after 150 min of stewing and from 25.257±0.259 mg GAE/100 g to 208.897 ±0.173 mg GAE/100 g using stir-frying method during 150 min. TFC of Molokheiya varied from 48.229±1.47 mg QE/100 g to 843.802±1.841 mg QE/100 g when using stewing and from 37.031± 0.368 mg QE/100 g to 775.312±0.736 mg QE/100 g when using stir-frying. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final TPC and TFC. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests zero-order kinetics. The mathematical relations and the numerical approach used to model the kinetics of polyphenol and flavonoid contents in Molokheiya are described.

Keywords: Corchorus olitorius, Molokheiya, phenolic compounds, kinetic

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5554 Modelling the Growth of σ-Phase in AISI 347H FG Steel

Authors: Yohanes Chekol Malede


σ-phase has negative effects on the corrosion responses and the mechanical properties of steels. The growth of σ-phase in the austenite matrix of AISI 347H FG steel was simulated using DICTRA software using CALPHAD method. The simulation work included the influence of both volume diffusion and grain boundary diffusion. The simulation results showed a good agreement with the experimental findings. The simulation results revealed a Cr-depleted and a Ni-enriched σ-phase/austenite interface. Effects of temperature, grain size, and composition of alloying elements on the growth kinetics of σ-phase were assessed. The simulated results were fitted to the JMAK equation and a good correlation was obtained.

Keywords: AISI 347H FG austenitic steel, CALPHAD, sigma phase, microstructure evolution

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5553 Kinetics of Growth Rate of Microalga: The Effect of Carbon Dioxide Concentration

Authors: Retno Ambarwati Sigit Lestari


Microalga is one of the organisms that can be considered ideal and potential for raw material of bioenergy production, because the content of lipids in microalga is relatively high. Microalga is an aquatic organism that produces complex organic compounds from inorganic molecules using carbon dioxide as a carbon source, and sunlight for energy supply. Microalga-CO₂ fixation has potential advantages over other carbon captures and storage approaches, such as wide distribution, high photosynthetic rate, good environmental adaptability, and ease of operation. The rates of growth and CO₂ capture of microalga are influenced by CO₂ concentration and light intensity. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of CO₂ concentration on the rates of growth and CO₂ capture of a type of microalga, cultivated in bioreactors. The works include laboratory experiments as well as mathematical modelling. The mathematical models were solved numerically and the accuracy of the model was tested by the experimental data. It turned out that the mathematical model proposed can well quantitatively describe the growth and CO₂ capture of microalga, in which the effects of CO₂ concentration can be observed.

Keywords: Microalga, CO2 concentration, photobioreactor, mathematical model

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5552 Human Kinetics Education and the Computer Operations, Effects and Merits

Authors: Kehinde Adeyeye Adelabu


Computer applications has completely revolutionized the way of life of people which does not exclude the field of sport education. There are computer technologies which help to enhance teaching in every field of education. Invention of computers has done great to the field of education. This study was therefore carried out to examine the effects and merits of computer operations in Human Kinetics Education and Sports. The study was able to identify the component of computer, uses of computer in Human Kinetics education (sports), computer applications in some branches of human kinetics education. A qualitative research method was employed by the author in gathering experts’ views and used to analyze the effects and merits of computer applications in the field of human kinetics education. No experiment was performed in the cause of carrying out the study. The source of information for the study was text-books, journal, articles, past project reports, internet i.e. Google search engine. Computer has significantly helped to improve Education (Human Kinetic), it has complemented the basic physical fitness testing and gave a more scientific basis to the testing. The use of the software and packages has made cost projections, database applications, inventory control, management of events, word processing, electronic mailing and record keeping easier than the pasts.

Keywords: application, computer operation, education, human kinetics

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5551 Biosorption of Phenol onto Water Hyacinth Activated Carbon: Kinetics and Isotherm Study

Authors: Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar


Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of phenol from its aqueous solution using water hyancith activated carbon (WHAC) as an adsorbent. The sorption kinetics were analysed using pseudo-first order kinetics and pseudo-second order model, and it was observed that the sorption data tend to fit very well in pseudo-second order model for the entire sorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Freundlich model with a maximum biosorption capacity of 31.45 mg/g estimated using Langmuir model. The adsorption intensity 3.7975 represents a favorable adsorption condition.

Keywords: adsorption, isotherm, kinetics, phenol

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5550 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Dimethylglyoxime Chromium (III) Complex by Periodate

Authors: Ahmed A. Abdel-Khalek, Reham A. Mohamed


The kinetics of oxidation of binary complex [CrIII(DMG)2(H2O)4 ]+ to Cr(VI) by periodate has been investigated spectrophotometrically where, [DMG= Dimethylglyoxime] at 370nm under pseudo first order reaction conditions in aqueous medium over 20- 40ºC range, PH 2-3, and I=0.07 mol dm-3. The reaction is first order with respect to both [IO4-] and Cr(III), and the reaction increased with PH increased. Thermodymanic activation parameters have been calculated. It is suggested that electron transfer proceeds through an inner sphere mechanism via coordination of IO4- to Cr (III). The reaction obeys the following rate law Rate= {k1 K5+ k2 K6 K2 } [Cr III (DMG)2(H2O)4 ]+ [H5IO6].

Keywords: chromium, dimethylglyoxime, kinetics, oxidation, periodate

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5549 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan


The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

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5548 Poly-ε-Caprolactone Nanofibers with Synthetic Growth Factor Enriched Liposomes as Controlled Drug Delivery System

Authors: Vera Sovkova, Andrea Mickova, Matej Buzgo, Karolina Vocetkova, Eva Filova, Evzen Amler


PCL (poly-ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffolds with adhered liposomes were prepared and tested as a possible drug delivery system for various synthetic growth factors. TGFβ, bFGF, and IGF-I have been shown to increase hMSC (human mesenchymal stem cells) proliferation and to induce hMSC differentiation. Functionalized PCL nanofibers were prepared with synthetic growth factors encapsulated in liposomes adhered to them in three different concentrations. Other samples contained PCL nanofibers with adhered, free synthetic growth factors. The synthetic growth factors free medium served as a control. The interaction of liposomes with the PCL nanofibers was visualized by SEM, and the release kinetics were determined by ELISA testing. The potential of liposomes, immobilized on the biodegradable scaffolds, as a delivery system for synthetic growth factors, and as a suitable system for MSCs adhesion, proliferation and differentiation in vitro was evaluated by MTS assay, dsDNA amount determination, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and real-time PCR. The results showed that the growth factors adhered to the PCL nanofibers stimulated cell proliferation mainly up to day 11 and that subsequently their effect was lower. By contrast, the release of the lowest concentration of growth factors from liposomes resulted in gradual proliferation of MSCs throughout the experiment. Moreover, liposomes, as well as free growth factors, stimulated type II collagen production, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibody against type II collagen. The results of this study indicate that growth factors enriched liposomes adhered to surface of PCL nanofibers could be useful as a drug delivery instrument for application in short timescales, be combined with nanofiber scaffolds to promote local and persistent delivery while mimicking the local microenvironment. This work was supported by project LO1508 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic

Keywords: drug delivery, growth factors, hMSC, liposomes, nanofibres

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5547 An Analysis of the Relationship between Manufacturing Growth and Economic Growth in South Africa: A Cointegration Approach

Authors: Johannes T. Tsoku, Teboho J. Mosikari, Diteboho Xaba, Thatoyaone Modise


This paper examines the relationship between manufacturing growth and economic growth in South Africa using quarterly data ranging from 2001 to 2014. The paper employed the Johansen cointegration to test the Kaldor’s hypothesis. The Johansen cointegration results revealed that there is a long run relationship between GDP, manufacturing, service and employment. The Granger causality results revealed that there is a unidirectional causality running from manufacturing growth to GDP growth. The overall findings of the study confirm that Kaldor’s first law of growth is applicable in South African economy. Therefore, investment strategies and policies should be alignment towards promoting growth in the manufacturing sector in order to boost the economic growth of South Africa.

Keywords: cointegration, economic growth, Kaldor’s law, manufacturing growth

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5546 Modelling Kinetics of Colour Degradation in American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) Extract Concentration

Authors: Seyed-Ahmad Shahidi, Salemeh Kazemzadeh, Mehdi Sharifi Soltani, Azade Ghorbani-HasanSaraei


The kinetics of colour changes of American Pokeweed extract, due to concentration by various heating methods was studied. Three different heating/evaporation processes were employed for production of American Pokeweed extract concentrate. The American Pokeweed extract was concentrated to a final 40 °Brix from an initial °Brix of 4 by microwave heating, rotary vacuum evaporator and evaporating at atmospheric pressure. The final American Pokeweed extract concentration of 40 °Brix was achieved in 188, 216 and 320 min by using microwave, rotary vacuum and atmospheric heating processes, respectively. The colour change during concentration processes was investigated. Total colour differences, Hunter L, a and b parameters were used to estimate the extent of colour loss. All Hunter colour parameters decreased with time. The zero-order, first-order and a combined kinetics model were applied to the changes in colour parameters. All models were found to describe the L, a and b-data adequately. Results indicated that variation in TCD followed both first-order and combined kinetics models. This model implied that the colour formation and pigment destruction occurred during concentration processes of American Pokeweed extract.

Keywords: American pokeweed, colour, concentration, kinetics

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5545 Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material

Authors: Yong Ren, Yaping Zhang


A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.

Keywords: phase change material, drug release kinetics, double emulsion, microfluidics

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5544 Multi-Faceted Growth in Creative Industries

Authors: Sanja Pfeifer, Nataša Šarlija, Marina Jeger, Ana Bilandžić


The purpose of this study is to explore the different facets of growth among micro, small and medium-sized firms in Croatia and to analyze the differences between models designed for all micro, small and medium-sized firms and those in creative industries. Three growth prediction models were designed and tested using the growth of sales, employment and assets of the company as dependent variables. The key drivers of sales growth are: prudent use of cash, industry affiliation and higher share of intangible assets. Growth of assets depends on retained profits, internal and external sources of financing, as well as industry affiliation. Growth in employment is closely related to sources of financing, in particular, debt and it occurs less frequently than growth in sales and assets. The findings confirm the assumption that growth strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in creative industries have specific differences in comparison to SMEs in general. Interestingly, only 2.2% of growing enterprises achieve growth in employment, assets and sales simultaneously.

Keywords: creative industries, growth prediction model, growth determinants, growth measures

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5543 Biosurfactants Production by Bacillus Strain from an Environmental Sample in Egypt

Authors: Mervat Kassem, Nourhan Fanaki, F. Dabbous, Hamida Abou-Shleib, Y. R. Abdel-Fattah


With increasing environmental awareness and emphasis on a sustainable society in harmony with the global environment, biosurfactants are gaining prominence and have already taken over for a number of important industrial uses. They are produced by living organisms, for examples Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. The main goal of this work was to optimize biosurfactants production by an environmental Gram positive isolate for large scale production with maximum yield and low cost. After molecular characterization, phylogenetic tree was constructed where it was found to be B. subtilis, which close matches to B. subtilis subsp. subtilis strain CICC 10260. For optimizing its biosurfactants production, sequential statistical design using Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology, was applied where 11 variables were screened. When analyzing the regression coefficients for the 11 variables, pH, glucose, glycerol, yeast extract, ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate were found to have a positive effect on the biosurfactants production. Ammonium nitrate, pH and glucose were further studied as significant independent variables for Box-Behnken design and their optimal levels were estimated and were found to be 7.328 pH value, 3 g% glucose and 0.21g % ammonium nitrate yielding high biosurfactants concentration that reduced the surface tension of the culture medium from 72 to 18.16 mN/m. Next, kinetics of cell growth and biosurfactants production by the tested B. subtilis isolate, in bioreactor was compared with that of shake flask where the maximum growth and specific growth (µ) in the bioreactor was higher by about 25 and 53%, respectively, than in shake flask experiment, while the biosurfactants production kinetics was almost the same in both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

Keywords: biosurfactants, B. subtilis, molecular identification, phylogenetic trees, Plackett-Burman design, Box-Behnken design, 16S rRNA

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5542 Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico

Authors: Mario Gómez, José Carlos Rodríguez


The causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has been an important issue in the economic literature. This paper studies the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Mexico for the period of 1971-2011. In so doing, unit root tests and causality test are applied. The results show that the series are stationary in levels and that there is causality running from economic growth to energy consumption. The energy conservation policies have little or no impact on economic growth in México.

Keywords: causality, economic growth, energy consumption, Mexico

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5541 The Synthesis, Structure and Catalytic Activity of Iron(II) Complex with New N2O2 Donor Schiff Base Ligand

Authors: Neslihan Beyazit, Sahin Bayraktar, Cahit Demetgul


Transition metal ions have an important role in biochemistry and biomimetic systems and may provide the basis of models for active sites of biological targets. The presence of copper(II), iron(II) and zinc(II) is crucial in many biological processes. Tetradentate N2O2 donor Schiff base ligands are well known to form stable transition metal complexes and these complexes have also applications in clinical and analytical fields. In this study, we present salient structural features and the details of cathecholase activity of Fe(II) complex of a new Schiff Base ligand. A new asymmetrical N2O2 donor Schiff base ligand and its Fe(II) complex were synthesized by condensation of 4-nitro-1,2 phenylenediamine with 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one and by using an appropriate Fe(II) salt, respectively. Schiff base ligand and its metal complex were characterized by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis and magnetic susceptibility. In order to determine the kinetics parameters of catechol oxidase-like activity of Schiff base Fe(II) complex, the oxidation of the 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) was measured at 25°C by monitoring the increase of the absorption band at 390-400 nm of the product 3,5-di-tert-butylcatequinone (3,5-DTBQ). The compatibility of catalytic reaction with Michaelis-Menten kinetics also investigated by the method of initial rates by monitoring the growth of the 390–400 nm band of 3,5-DTBQ as a function of time. Kinetic studies showed that Fe(II) complex of the new N2O2 donor Schiff base ligand was capable of acting as a model compound for simulating the catecholase properties of type-3 copper proteins.

Keywords: catecholase activity, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Schiff base, transition metals

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5540 Precipitation Kinetics of Al-7%Mg Alloy Studied by DSC and XRD

Authors: M. Fatmi, T. Chihi, M. A. Ghebouli, B. Ghebouli


This work presents the experimental results of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hardness measurements (Hv) and XRD analysis, for order to investigate the kinetics of precipitation phenomena in Al-7%wt. Mg alloy. In the XRD and DSC curves indicates the formation of the intermediate precipitation of β-(Al3Mg2) phase respectively. The activation energies associated with the processes have been determined according to the three models proposed by Kissinger, Ozawa, and Boswell. Consequently, the nucleation mechanism of the precipitates can be explained. These phases are confirmed by XRD analysis.

Keywords: discontinuous precipitation, hardening, Al–Mg alloys, mechanical and mechatronics engineering

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5539 Effect of Blanching and Drying Methods on the Degradation Kinetics and Color Stability of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Leaves

Authors: K. Radha Krishnan, Mirajul Alom


Dehydrated powder prepared from fresh radish (Raphanus sativus) leaves were investigated for the color stability by different drying methods (tray, sun and solar). The effect of blanching conditions, drying methods as well as drying temperatures (50 – 90°C) were considered for studying the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll in the dehydrated powder. The hunter color parameters (L*, a*, b*) and total color difference (TCD) were determined in order to investigate the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll. Blanching conditions, drying method and drying temperature influenced the changes in L*, a*, b* and TCD values. The changes in color values during processing were described by a first order kinetic model. The temperature dependence of chlorophyll degradation was adequately modeled by Arrhenius equation. To predict the losses in green color, a mathematical model was developed from the steady state kinetic parameters. The results from this study indicated the protective effect of blanching conditions on the color stability of dehydrated radish powder.

Keywords: chlorophyll, color stability, degradation kinetics, drying

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5538 Mathematics Vision of the Companies' Growth with Educational Technologies

Authors: Valencia P. L. Rodrigo, Morita A. Adelina, Vargas V. Martin


This proposal consists of an analysis of macro concepts involved within an organization growth using educational technologies, which will relate each concept, in a mathematical way with a vision of harmonic work. Working collaboratively, competitively and cooperatively so that this growth is harmonious and homogenous, coining a new term, Harmonic Work. The Harmonic Work ensures that the organization grows in all business directions, allowing managers to project a much more accurate growth, making clear the contribution of each department, resulting in an algorithm that analyzes each of the variables both endogenous and exogenous, establishing different performance indicators in its process of growth.

Keywords: business projection, collaboration, competitiveness, educational technology, harmonious growth

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