Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6115

Search results for: phase formation

6115 Damage in Cementitious Materials Exposed to Sodium Chloride Solution and Thermal Cycling: The Effect of Using Supplementary Cementitious Materials

Authors: Fadi Althoey, Yaghoob Farnam


Sodium chloride (NaCl) can interact with the tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and its hydrates in concrete matrix. This interaction can result in formation of a harmful chemical phase as the temperature changes. It is thought that this chemical phase is embroiled in the premature concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This work examines the potential formation of the harmful chemical phase in various pastes prepared by using different types of ordinary portland cement (OPC) and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The quantification of the chemical phase was done by using a low temperature differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that the chemical phase formation can be reduced by using Type V cement (low content of C3A). The use of SCMs showed different behaviors on the formation of the chemical phase. Slag and Class F fly ash can reduce the chemical phase by the dilution of cement whereas silica fume can reduce the amount of the chemical phase by dilution and pozzolanic activates. Interestingly, the use of Class C fly ash has a negative effect on concrete exposed to NaCl through increasing the formation of the chemical phase.

Keywords: concrete, damage, chemcial phase, NaCl, SCMs

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
6114 Effect of Heating Rate on Microstructural Developments in Cold Heading Quality Steel Used for Automotive Applications

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, F. Mufadi, A. Boodi


Microstructural study and phase transformation in steels is a basic and important step during the design of structural steel. There are huge efforts and study has been done so far on phase transformations, due to so many steel grades available commercially the phase development in steel has different consequences. In the present work an effort has been made to study the effect of heating rate on microstructural features of cold heading quality steel. The SEM, optical microscopy, and heat treatment techniques have been applied to observe the microstructural features in the experimental steel. It was observed that heating rate has the strong influence on phase transformation of CHQ steel under investigation. Heating rate increases the austenite formation kinetics with respect to holding time, and this austenite has been transformed to martensite upon cooling. Heating rate also plays a vital role on nucleation sites of austenite formation in the experimental steel.

Keywords: CHQ steel, austenite formation, heating rate, nucleation

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6113 Enthalpies of Formation of Equiatomic Binary Hafnium Transition Metal Compounds HfM (M=Co, Ir, Os, Pt, Rh, Ru)

Authors: Hadda Krarcha, S. Messaasdi


In order to investigate Hafnium transition metal alloys HfM (M= Co, Ir, Os,Pt, Rh, Ru) phase diagrams in the region of 50/50% atomic ratio, we performed ab initio Full-Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves calculations of the enthalpies of formation of HfM compounds at B2 (CsCl) structure type. The obtained enthalpies of formation are discussed and compared to some of the existing models and available experimental data.

Keywords: enthalpy of formation, transition metal, binarry compunds, hafnium

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6112 Wet Chemical Synthesis for Fe-Ni Alloy Nanocrystalline Powder

Authors: Neera Singh, Devendra Kumar, Om Parkash


We have synthesized nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloy powders where Ni varies as 10, 30 and 50 mole% by a wet chemical route (sol-gel auto-combustion) followed by reduction in hydrogen atmosphere. The ratio of citrate to nitrate was maintained at 0.3 where citric acid has worked as a fuel during combustion. The reduction of combusted powders was done at 700°C/1h in hydrogen atmosphere using an atmosphere controlled quartz tube furnace. Phase and microstructure analysis has shown the formation of α-(Fe,Ni) and γ-(Fe,Ni) phases after reduction. An increase in Ni concentration resulted in more γ-(Fe,Ni) formation where complete γ-(Fe,Ni) formation was achieved at 50 mole% Ni concentration. Formation of particles below 50 nm size range was confirmed using Scherrer’s formula and Transmission Electron Microscope. The work is aimed at the effect of Ni concentration on phase, microstructure and magnetic properties of synthesized alloy powders.

Keywords: combustion, microstructure, nanocrystalline, reduction

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6111 Phase Segregating and Complex Forming Pb Based (=X-Pb) Liquid Alloys

Authors: Indra Bahadur Bhandari, Narayan Panthi, Ishwar Koirala, Devendra Adhikari


We have used a theoretical model based on the assumption of compound formation in binary alloys to study the thermodynamic, microscopic, and surface properties of Bi-Pb and In-Pb liquid alloys. A review of the phase diagrams for these alloys shows that one of the stable complexes for Bi-Pb liquid alloy is BiPb3; also, that InPb is a stable phase in liquid In-Pb alloys. Using the same interaction parameters that are fitted for the free energy of mixing, we have been able to compute the bulk and thermodynamic properties of the alloys. From our observations, we are able to show that the Bi-Pb liquid alloy exhibits compound formation over the whole concentration range and the In-Pb alloys undergo phase separation. With regards to surface properties, Pb segregates more to the surface in In-Pb alloys than in Bi-Pb alloys. The viscosity isotherms have a positive deviation from ideality for both Bi-Pb and In-Pb alloys.

Keywords: asymmetry, Bi-Pb, deviation, In-Pb, interaction parameters

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6110 Influence of Sr(BO2)2 Doping on Superconducting Properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 Phase

Authors: N. G. Margiani, I. G. Kvartskhava, G. A. Mumladze, Z. A. Adamia


Chemical doping with different elements and compounds at various amounts represents the most suitable approach to improve the superconducting properties of bismuth-based superconductors for technological applications. In this paper, the influence of partial substitution of Sr(BO2)2 for SrO on the phase formation kinetics and transport properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS has been studied for the first time. Samples with nominal composition Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2-xCa2Cu3Oy[Sr(BO2)2]x, x=0, 0.0375, 0.075, 0.15, 0.25, were prepared by the standard solid state processing. The appropriate mixtures were calcined at 845 oC for 40 h. The resulting materials were pressed into pellets and annealed at 837 oC for 30 h in air. Superconducting properties of undoped (reference) and Sr(BO2)2-doped (Bi,Pb)-2223 compounds were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistivity (ρ) and transport critical current density (Jc) measurements. The surface morphology changes in the prepared samples were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and Jc studies have shown that the low level Sr(BO2)2 doping (x=0.0375-0.075) to the Sr-site promotes the formation of high-Tc phase and leads to the enhancement of current carrying capacity in (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS. The doped sample with x=0.0375 has the best performance compared to other prepared samples. The estimated volume fraction of (Bi,Pb)-2223 phase increases from ~25 % for reference specimen to ~70 % for x=0.0375. Moreover, strong increase in the self-field Jc value was observed for this dopant amount (Jc=340 A/cm2), compared to an undoped sample (Jc=110 A/cm2). Pronounced enhancement of superconducting properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 superconductor can be attributed to the acceleration of high-Tc phase formation as well as the improvement of inter-grain connectivity by small amounts of Sr(BO2)2 dopant.

Keywords: bismuth-based superconductor, critical current density, phase formation, Sr(BO₂)₂ doping

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6109 Effect of Milling Parameters on the Characteristics of Nanocrystalline TiAl Alloys Synthesized by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: Jinan B. Al-Dabbagh, Rozman Mohd Tahar, Mahadzir Ishak


TiAl alloy nano-powder was successfully produced by a mechanical alloying (MA) technique in a planetary ball mill. The influence of milling parameters, such as the milling duration, rotation speed, and balls-to-powder mass ratio, on the characteristics of the Ti50%Al powder, including the microstructure, crystallite size refinement, and phase formation, were investigated. It was found that MA of elemental Ti and Al powders promotes the formation of TiAl alloys, as Ti (Al) solid solution was formed after 5h of milling. Milling without the addition of process control agents led to a dramatic decrease in the crystallite size to 17.8 nm after 2h of milling. Higher rotation energy and a higher ball-to-powder weight ratio also accelerated the reduction in crystallite size. Subsequent heating up to 850°C resulted in the formation of a new intermetallic phase with a dominant TiAl3 phase plus minor γ-TiAl or α2-Ti3Al phase or both. A longer milling duration also exhibited a better effect on the micro-hardness of Ti50%Al powders.

Keywords: TiAl alloys, nanocrystalline materials, mechanical alloying, materials science

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6108 Effect of Iron Oxide Addition on the Solid-State Synthesis of Ye’Elimite

Authors: F. Z. Abir, M. Mesnaoui, Y. Abouliatim, L. Nibou, Y. El Hafiane, A. Smith


The cement industry has been taking significant steps for years to reduce its carbon footprint by opting for an eco-friendly alternative such as Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cements (CSA). These binders, compared to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC), have two advantages: reduction of the CO2 emissions and energy-saving because the sintering temperature of CSA cements is between 1250 and 1350 °C, which means 100 to 200 °C less than OPC. The aim of this work is to study the impurities effect, such as iron oxide, on the formation of the ye'elimite phase, which represents the main phase of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cements and the consequence on its hydration. Several elaborations and characterization techniques were used to study the structure and microstructure of ye'elimite, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis, specific surface area measurement, and electrical conductivity of diluted solutions. This study details the protocol for the solid-state synthesis of ye'elimite containing increasing amounts of iron (general formula: Ca4Al(6-2x)Fe2xSO16 with x = 0.00 to 1.13). Ye'elimite is formed by solid-state reactions between Al2O3, CaO and CaSO4 and the maximum ye'elimite content is reached at a sintering temperature of 1300 °C. The presence of iron promotes the formation of cubic ye'elimite at the expense of the orthorhombic phase. The total incorporation of iron in ye'elimite structure is possible when x < 0.12. Beyond this content, the ferritic phase (CaO)2(Al2O3,Fe2O3) appears as a minor phase and develops two different morphologies during cooling: dendritic crystals and melt morphology. The formation of the ferrous liquid phase affects the evolution of grain size of the ye’elimite and calcium aluminates.

Keywords: calcium sulfoaluminate cement, ferritic phase, sintering, solid-state synthesis, ye’elimite

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6107 TiO2 Formation after Nanotubes Growth on Ti-15Mo Alloy Surface for Different Annealing Temperatures

Authors: A. L. R. Rangel, J. A. M. Chaves, A. P. R. Alves Claro


Surface modification of titanium and its alloys using TiO2 nanotube growth has been widely studied for biomedical field due to excellent interaction between implant and biological environment. The success of this treatment is directly related to anatase phase formation (TiO2 phase) which affects the cells growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phases formed in the nanotubes growth on the Ti-15Mo surface. Nanotubes were grown by electrochemical anodization of the alloy in ammonium fluoride based glycerol electrolyte for 24 hours at 20V. Then, the samples were annealed at 200°,400°, 450°, 500°, 600°, and 800° C for 1 hour. Contact angles measurements, scanning electron microscopy images and X rays diffraction analysis (XRD) were carried out for all samples. Raman Spectroscopy was used to evaluate TiO2 phases transformation in nanotubes samples as well. The results of XRD showed anatase formation for lower temperatures, while at 800 ° C the rutile phase was observed all over the surface. Raman spectra indicate that this phase transition occurs between 500 and 600 °C. The different phases formed have influenced the nanotubes morphologies, since higher annealing temperatures induced agglutination of the TiO2 layer, disrupting the tubular structure. On the other hand, the nanotubes drastically reduced the contact angle, regardless the annealing temperature.

Keywords: nanotubes, TiO2, titanium alloys, Ti-15Mo

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6106 Preparation and Fabrication of Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic as Dental Crowns via Hot Pressing Method

Authors: A. Srion, W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj


Two Lithium disilicate (LD) glass ceramics based on SiO2-Li2O-K2O-Al2O3 system were prepared through glass melting method and then fabricated into dental crowns via hot pressing at 850˚C and 900˚C in order to study the effect of the pressing temperatures on theirs phase formation and microstructure. The factor such as heat treatment temperature (as-cast glass, 600˚C and 700˚C) of the glass ceramics used to press was also investigated the effect of an initial microstructure before pressing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine phase formation and microstructure of the samples, respectively. X-ray diffraction result shows that the main crystalline structure was Li2Si2O5 by having Li3PO4, Li0.6Al0.6Si2O6, Li2SiO3, Ca5 (PO4)3F, SiO2 as minor phases. Glass compositions with different heat treatment temperatures exhibited a difference phase formation but have less effect during pressing. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed microstructure of lath-like of Li2Si2O5 in all glasses. With increasing the initial heat treatment temperature, the longer the lath-like crystals of lithium disilicate were increased especially when using glass heat treatment at 700˚C followed by pressing at 900˚C. This could be suggested that LD1 heat treatment at 700˚C which pressing at 900˚C presented the best formation by hot pressing and compiled microstructure.

Keywords: lithium disilicate, hot pressing, dental crown, microstructure

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6105 Analytical Description of Disordered Structures in Continuum Models of Pattern Formation

Authors: Gyula I. Tóth, Shaho Abdalla


Even though numerical simulations indeed have a significant precursory/supportive role in exploring the disordered phase displaying no long-range order in pattern formation models, studying the stability properties of this phase and determining the order of the ordered-disordered phase transition in these models necessitate an analytical description of the disordered phase. First, we will present the results of a comprehensive statistical analysis of a large number (1,000-10,000) of numerical simulations in the Swift-Hohenberg model, where the bulk disordered (or amorphous) phase is stable. We will show that the average free energy density (over configurations) converges, while the variance of the energy density vanishes with increasing system size in numerical simulations, which suggest that the disordered phase is a thermodynamic phase (i.e., its properties are independent of the configuration in the macroscopic limit). Furthermore, the structural analysis of this phase in the Fourier space suggests that the phase can be modeled by a colored isotropic Gaussian noise, where any instant of the noise describes a possible configuration. Based on these results, we developed the general mathematical framework of finding a pool of solutions to partial differential equations in the sense of continuous probability measure, which we will present briefly. Applying the general idea to the Swift-Hohenberg model we show, that the amorphous phase can be found, and its properties can be determined analytically. As the general mathematical framework is not restricted to continuum theories, we hope that the proposed methodology will open a new chapter in studying disordered phases.

Keywords: fundamental theory, mathematical physics, continuum models, analytical description

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6104 Nanoindentation Behaviour and Microstructural Evolution of Annealed Single-Crystal Silicon

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Shuo-Ling Chang


The nanoindentation behaviour and phase transformation of annealed single-crystal silicon wafers are examined. The silicon specimens are annealed at temperatures of 250, 350 and 450ºC, respectively, for 15 minutes and are then indented to maximum loads of 30, 50 and 70 mN. The phase changes induced in the indented specimens are observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS). For all annealing temperatures, an elbow feature is observed in the unloading curve following indentation to a maximum load of 30 mN. Under higher loads of 50 mN and 70 mN, respectively, the elbow feature is replaced by a pop-out event. The elbow feature reveals a complete amorphous phase transformation within the indented zone, whereas the pop-out event indicates the formation of Si XII and Si III phases. The experimental results show that the formation of these crystalline silicon phases increases with an increasing annealing temperature and indentation load. The hardness and Young’s modulus both decrease as the annealing temperature and indentation load are increased.

Keywords: nanoindentation, silicon, phase transformation, amorphous, annealing

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6103 Behavior of Droplets in Microfluidic System with T-Junction

Authors: A. Guellati, F-M Lounis, N. Guemras, K. Daoud


Micro droplet formation is considered as a growing emerging area of research due to its wide-range application in chemistry as well as biology. The mechanism of micro droplet formation using two immiscible liquids running through a T-junction has been widely studied. We believe that the flow of these two immiscible phases can be of greater important factor that could have an impact on out-flow hydrodynamic behavior, the droplets generated and the size of the droplets. In this study, the type of the capillary tubes used also represents another important factor that can have an impact on the generation of micro droplets. The tygon capillary tubing with hydrophilic inner surface doesn't allow regular out-flows due to the fact that the continuous phase doesn't adhere to the wall of the capillary inner surface. Teflon capillary tubing, presents better wettability than tygon tubing, and allows to obtain steady and regular regimes of out-flow, and the micro droplets are homogeneoussize. The size of the droplets is directly dependent on the flows of the continuous and dispersed phases. Thus, as increasing the flow of the continuous phase, to flow of the dispersed phase stationary, the size of the drops decreases. Inversely, while increasing the flow of the dispersed phase, to flow of the continuous phase stationary, the size of the droplet increases.

Keywords: microfluidic system, micro droplets generation, t-junction, fluids engineering

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6102 Influence of Fluorine Concentration and Sintering Temperature on the Bioactivity of Apatite-Wollastonite Glass-Ceramics

Authors: Andualem Belachew Workie


In a spray pyrolysis process, apatite-Wollastonite glass-ceramics (AW GC) were fabricated with the composition 8.29MgO_50.09-x CaO_34.46SiO2_7.16P2O5_xCaF₂, where x = 0, 0.54, and 5.24 (wt. %). Based on the results, it appears that the CaF2 addition lowers the glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization temperature (Tc) of the glasscomposition. In addition, AW GC's bioactivity increases as the soaking time in simulated body fluid (SBF) increases. Adding CaF₂ and varying sintering temperatures altered the density and linear shrinkage percentage of the samples. The formation of fluorapatite with needle-like microstructure and the formation of the wollastonite phase was enhanced with higher CaF2 content, while the growth of the whitlockite phase took place at a higher heat treatment temperature. Adding high CaF₂ content with high sintering temperatures to apatite Wollastonite glass-ceramic composition facilitates the formation of fluorapatite, which is crucial for denture glass-ceramics.

Keywords: apatite-wollastonite glass ceramics, bioactivity, hydroxyapatite, calcium fluoride

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6101 Dehydration of Glycerol to Acrolein with Solid Acid Catalysts

Authors: Lin Huang, Bo Wang, Armando Borgna


Dehydration of glycerol to acrolein was conducted with solid acid catalysts in liquid phase in a batch reactor and in gas phase in a fix-bed reactor, respectively. In the liquid-phase reaction, ZSM-5, H3PO4-modified ZSM-5 and heteropolyacids including H3PW12O40•xH2O (HPW) and Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 (CsPW) were studied as catalysts. High temperatures and high boiling point solvents such as sulfolane improved the selectivity to acrolein through suppressing the formation of polyglycerols and coke. Catalytic results and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia showed that the yield of acrolein increased with increasing catalyst acidity within the range of weak acid strength. Weak acid sites favored the selectivity to acrolein whereas strong acid sites promoted the formation of coke. ZSM-5 possessing only acid sites led to a high acrolein yield, while heteropolyacid catalysts with strong acid sites produced a low acrolein yield. In the gas-phase reaction, HPW and CsPW supported on metal oxides such as SiO2, γ-Al2O3, SiO2-Al2O3, ZrO2 and silicate TUD-1 were studied as catalysts. HPW/TUD-1 was most active for the production of acrolein, followed by HPW/SiO2. An acrolein yield of 61 % was obtained over HPW/TUD-1. X-ray diffraction study suggested that HPW and CsPW were stable and more dispersed on SiO2, silicate TUD-1 and SiO2-Al2O3. It was found that the structures of HPW and CsPW were destroyed by interaction with γ-Al2O3 and ZrO2. Compared to CsPW/TUD-1, the higher acrolein yield with HPW/TUD-1 may be attributed to more Brønsted acid sites on HPW/TUD-1, based on preliminary pyridine adsorption IR study.

Keywords: dehydration, glycerol, acrolein, solid acid catalysts, gas-phase, liquid-phase

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6100 Microstructural Origin of Morphotropic Phase Boundary and Magnetic Ordering in the Multiferroic BiFeO3-PbTiO3

Authors: Bastola Narayan, Rajeev Ranjan


The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in the magnetoelectric (1-x)BiFeO3-(x)PbTiO3 has remained a matter of controversy ever since its discovery in 1964. The nature of the phase stabilized (single phase tetragonal or coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedral phases) is very sensitive to the slight changes in the synthesis conditions. It thus remained an enigma as to what is the essential physical factor which is controlled by the slight difference in the synthesis conditions that finally determines, whether the phase formed will be single phase or coexistence of phases. In this paper, we demonstrate that the nature of the phase stabilized in this system is uniquely dependent on the crystallite size. The system is shown to exhibit features of abnormal grain growth (AGG) during sintering with abrupt increase in the grain size from ~ 1 micron to ~ 10 microns. The 10 micron grains exhibit pure tetragonal phase while the 1 micron grains exhibit coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal ferroelectric phases. The Rietveld analysis of powder neutron diffraction shows a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic order transition inducing with crystalline size reduction from 10 micron to 1 micron. Since tetragonal phase is known to have paramagnetic order and rhombohedral phase has antiferromagnetic order in room temperature, this further strengthens our argument of size induced structure transition.

Keywords: size driven MPB, size driven magnetic ordering, abnormal grain growth, phase formation in BF-PT system

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6099 Wet Polymeric Precipitation Synthesis for Monophasic Tricalcium Phosphate

Authors: I. Grigoraviciute-Puroniene, K. Tsuru, E. Garskaite, Z. Stankeviciute, A. Beganskiene, K. Ishikawa, A. Kareiva


Tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP) powders were synthesized using wet polymeric precipitation method for the first time to our best knowledge. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of almost single a Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) phase of a poor crystallinity already at room temperature. With continuously increasing the calcination temperature up to 800 °C, the crystalline β-TCP was obtained as the main phase. It was demonstrated that infrared spectroscopy is very effective method to characterize the formation of β-TCP. The SEM results showed that β-TCP solids were homogeneous having a small particle size distribution. The β-TCP powders consisted of spherical particles varying in size from 100 to 300 nm. Fabricated β-TCP specimens were placed to the bones of the rats and maintained for 1-2 months.

Keywords: Tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, bone regeneration, wet chemical processing, polymeric precipitation

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6098 The Effect of SIO2 Addition on the Formation and Superconducting Properties of BI2SR2CACU2O8+D System

Authors: N. Boussouf, M. F. Mosbah, M.Hamel, S. Menassel


SiO2 particles were inserted (added) into Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d precursor powders in various weight fractions. The influence of Si addition to the Bi2212 system on its phase formation, microstructure and transport properties is investigated. Samples are characterized by means of X ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), magnetic AC susceptibility and resistivity measurements. For 1% of added Si, the results showed an increase of the apparent superconducting volume fraction. All the samples doped with Si contained a majority fraction of the high TC superconducting Bi2212 phase. SEM observation showed that the average grain size of the Si added samples increased more than that of the sample without Si. From resistivity measurement the Tconset was found to be increased by 7 K for 1% and 5% of added Si compared to the pure sample.

Keywords: superconductors, Bi2212, doping, SiO2 particles

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6097 Microscopic and Mesoscopic Deformation Behaviors of Mg-2Gd Alloy with or without Li Addition

Authors: Jing Li, Li Jin, Fulin Wang, Jie Dong, Wenjiang Ding


Mg-Li dual-phase alloy exhibits better combination of yield strength and elongation than the Mg single-phase alloy. To exploit its deformation behavior, the deformation mechanisms of Mg-2Gd alloy with or without Li addition, i.e., Mg-6Li-2Gd and Mg-2Gd alloy, have been studied at both microscale and mesoscale. EBSD-assisted slip trace, twin trace, and texture evolution analysis show that the α-Mg phase of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy exhibits different microscopic deformation mechanisms with the Mg-2Gd alloy, i.e., mainly prismatic slip in the former one, while basal slip, prismatic slip and extension twin in the latter one. Further Schmid factor analysis results attribute this different intra-phase deformation mechanisms to the higher critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) value of extension twin and lower ratio of CRSSprismatic /CRSSbasal in the α-Mg phase of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy. Additionally, Li addition can induce dual-phase microstructure in the Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy, leading to the formation of hetero-deformation induced (HDI) stress at the mesoscale. This can be evidenced by the hysteresis loops appearing during the loading-unloading-reloading (LUR) tensile tests and the activation of multiple slip activity in the α-Mg phase neighboring β-Li phase. The Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows higher yield strength is due to the harder α-Mg phase arising from solid solution hardening of Li addition, as well asthe strengthening of soft β-Li phase by the HDI stress during yield stage. Since the strain hardening rate of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy is lower than that of Mg-2Gd alloy after ~2% strain, which is partly due to the weak contribution of HDI stress, Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows no obvious increase of uniform elongation than the Mg-2Gd alloy.But since the β-Li phase is effective in blunting the crack tips, the Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows ununiform elongation, which, thus, leads to the higher total elongation than the Mg-2Gd alloy.

Keywords: Mg-Li-Gd dual-phase alloy, phase boundary, HDI stress, dislocation slip activity, mechanical properties

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6096 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri


In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, high temperature oxidation, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure

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6095 Finite Element Modeling of Two-Phase Microstructure during Metal Cutting

Authors: Junior Nomani


This paper presents a novel approach to modelling the metal cutting of duplex stainless steels, a two-phase alloy regarded as a difficult-to-machine material. Calculation and control of shear strain and stresses during cutting are essential to achievement of ideal cutting conditions. Too low or too high leads to higher required cutting force or excessive heat generation causing premature tool wear failure. A 2D finite element cutting model was created based on electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data imagery of duplex microstructure. A mesh was generated using ‘object-oriented’ software OOF2 version V2.1.11, converting microstructural images to quadrilateral elements. A virtual workpiece was created on ABAQUS modelling software where a rigid body toolpiece advanced towards workpiece simulating chip formation, generating serrated edge chip formation cutting. Model results found calculated stress strain contour plots correlated well with similar finite element models tied with austenite stainless steel alloys. Virtual chip form profile is also similar compared experimental frozen machining chip samples. The output model data provides new insight description of strain behavior of two phase material on how it transitions from workpiece into the chip.

Keywords: Duplex stainless steel, ABAQUS, OOF2, Chip formation

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6094 Processing and Characterization of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced with Amorphous Zr₃₇.₅Cu₁₈.₆₇Al₄₃.₉₈ Phase

Authors: P. Abachi, S. Karami, K. Purazrang


The amorphous reinforcements (metallic glasses) can be considered as promising options for reinforcing light-weight aluminum and its alloys. By using the proper type of reinforcement, one can overcome to drawbacks such as interfacial de-cohesion and undesirable reactions which can be created at ceramic particle and metallic matrix interface. In this work, the Zr-based amorphous phase was produced via mechanical milling of elemental powders. Based on Miedema semi-empirical Model and diagrams for formation enthalpies and/or Gibbs free energies of Zr-Cu amorphous phase in comparison with the crystalline phase, the glass formability range was predicted. The composite was produced using the powder mixture of the aluminum and metallic glass and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at the temperature slightly above the glass transition Tg of the metallic glass particles. The selected temperature and rapid sintering route were suitable for consolidation of an aluminum matrix without crystallization of amorphous phase. To characterize amorphous phase formation, X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analyses were performed on powder mixture after specified intervals of milling. The microstructure of the composite was studied by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on composite specimens with the dimension of 4 mm long and a cross-section of 2 ˟ 2mm2. The micrographs indicated an appropriate reinforcement distribution in the metallic matrix. The comparison of stress–strain curves of the consolidated composite and the non-reinforced Al matrix alloy in compression showed that the enhancement of yield strength and mechanical strength are combined with an appreciable plastic strain at fracture. It can be concluded that metallic glasses (amorphous phases) are alternative reinforcement material for lightweight metal matrix composites capable of producing high strength and adequate ductility. However, this is in the expense of minor density increase.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composite, amorphous phase, mechanical alloying, spark plasma sintering

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6093 Mathematical Study of CO₂ Dispersion in Carbonated Water Injection Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Non-Equilibrium 2D Simulator

Authors: Ahmed Abdulrahman, Jalal Foroozesh


CO₂ based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques have gained massive attention from major oil firms since they resolve the industry's two main concerns of CO₂ contribution to the greenhouse effect and the declined oil production. Carbonated water injection (CWI) is a promising EOR technique that promotes safe and economic CO₂ storage; moreover, it mitigates the pitfalls of CO₂ injection, which include low sweep efficiency, early CO₂ breakthrough, and the risk of CO₂ leakage in fractured formations. One of the main challenges that hinder the wide adoption of this EOR technique is the complexity of accurate modeling of the kinetics of CO₂ mass transfer. The mechanisms of CO₂ mass transfer during CWI include the slow and gradual cross-phase CO₂ diffusion from carbonated water (CW) to the oil phase and the CO₂ dispersion (within phase diffusion and mechanical mixing), which affects the oil physical properties and the spatial spreading of CO₂ inside the reservoir. A 2D non-equilibrium compositional simulator has been developed using a fully implicit finite difference approximation. The material balance term (k) was added to the governing equation to account for the slow cross-phase diffusion of CO₂ from CW to the oil within the gird cell. Also, longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients have been added to account for CO₂ spatial distribution inside the oil phase. The CO₂-oil diffusion coefficient was calculated using the Sigmund correlation, while a scale-dependent dispersivity was used to calculate CO₂ mechanical mixing. It was found that the CO₂-oil diffusion mechanism has a minor impact on oil recovery, but it tends to increase the amount of CO₂ stored inside the formation and slightly alters the residual oil properties. On the other hand, the mechanical mixing mechanism has a huge impact on CO₂ spatial spreading (accurate prediction of CO₂ production) and the noticeable change in oil physical properties tends to increase the recovery factor. A sensitivity analysis has been done to investigate the effect of formation heterogeneity (porosity, permeability) and injection rate, it was found that the formation heterogeneity tends to increase CO₂ dispersion coefficients, and a low injection rate should be implemented during CWI.

Keywords: CO₂ mass transfer, carbonated water injection, CO₂ dispersion, CO₂ diffusion, cross phase CO₂ diffusion, within phase CO2 diffusion, CO₂ mechanical mixing, non-equilibrium simulation

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6092 Conflict Causes within Construction Projects; Conflict Interaction across Project Phases

Authors: Abdullah Mohammed Alshehri


The projects in the construction industry have significantly increased, given its contribution to the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the countries. Reflecting upon the complex nature and involvement of various agents, the study aims to analyze the conflicts cause within construction projects. Therefore, the study strived to come out with understanding the levels of conflict interaction across project phases. However, this conducted by investigating the association between antecedents and apparent conflicts inherent in. The study used a qualitative approach for collecting the data through a quantitative, semi-structured method. Formation of a questionnaire survey has been conducted for over 30 respondents. However, the survey came out with the identification of 25 conflict cause categories, which can take place in different construction project phases, including pre-design phase, pre-construction phase, construction phase, commissioning, and completion phase. For example, conflicts associated with inconsistencies or discrepancies within or between project documents, which took place at tendering time in the pre-construction phase were relatable with the selection of material specifications that should be supplied or used in the construction projects at the construction phase. Its analysis can provide comprehensive understanding, trace the root of the problem, which offers a roadmap to deepen the understanding of the conflict conditions and ‘course of action’ necessary for project management strategy actions toward avoiding or minimizing conflict causes at project life.

Keywords: construction, conflict causes, levels, interaction, phases

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6091 First-Principles Calculations and Thermo-Calc Study of the Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Ti-Nb-ZR-Ta Alloy for Biomedical Applications

Authors: M. Madigoe, R. Modiba


High alloyed beta (β) phase-stabilized titanium alloys are known to have a low elastic modulus comparable to that of the human bone (≈30 GPa). The β phase in titanium alloys exhibits an elastic Young’s modulus of about 60-80 GPa, which is nearly half that of α-phase (100-120 GPa). In this work, a theoretical investigation of structural stability and thermodynamic stability, as well as the elastic properties of a quaternary Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy, will be presented with an attempt to lower Young’s modulus. The structural stability and elastic properties of the alloy were evaluated using the first-principles approach within the density functional theory (DFT) framework implemented in the CASTEP code. The elastic properties include bulk modulus B, elastic Young’s modulus E, shear modulus cʹ and Poisson’s ratio v. Thermodynamic stability, as well as the fraction of β phase in the alloy, was evaluated using the Thermo-Calc software package. Thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy (Δ?⁰?) and enthalpy of formation will be presented in addition to phase proportion diagrams. The stoichiometric compositions of the alloy is Ti-Nbx-Ta5-Zr5 (x = 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 at.%). An optimum alloy composition must satisfy the Born stability criteria and also possess low elastic Young’s modulus. In addition, the alloy must be thermodynamically stable, i.e., Δ?⁰? < 0.

Keywords: elastic modulus, phase proportion diagram, thermo-calc, titanium alloys

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6090 Non-Singular Gravitational Collapse of a Homogeneous Scalar Field in Deformed Phase Space

Authors: Amir Hadi Ziaie


In the present work, we revisit the collapse process of a spherically symmetric homogeneous scalar field (in FRW background) minimally coupled to gravity, when the phase-space deformations are taken into account. Such a deformation is mathematically introduced as a particular type of noncommutativity between the canonical momenta of the scale factor and of the scalar field. In the absence of such deformation, the collapse culminates in a spacetime singularity. However, when the phase-space is deformed, we find that the singularity is removed by a non-singular bounce, beyond which the collapsing cloud re-expands to infinity. More precisely, for negative values of the deformation parameter, we identify the appearance of a negative pressure, which decelerates the collapse to finally avoid the singularity formation. While in the un-deformed case, the horizon curve monotonically decreases to finally cover the singularity, in the deformed case the horizon has a minimum value that this value depends on deformation parameter and initial configuration of the collapse. Such a setting predicts a threshold mass for black hole formation in stellar collapse and manifests the role of non-commutative geometry in physics and especially in stellar collapse and supernova explosion.

Keywords: gravitational collapse, non-commutative geometry, spacetime singularity, black hole physics

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6089 Effect of B2O3 Addition on Sol-gel Synthesized 45S5 Bioglass

Authors: P. Dey, S. K. Pal


Ceramics or glass ceramics with the property of bone bonding at the nearby tissues and producing possible bone in growth are known to be bioactive. The most extensively used glass in this context is 45S5 which is a silica based bioglass mostly explored in the field of tissue engineering as scaffolds for bone repair. Nowadays, the borate based bioglass are being utilized in orthopedic area largely due to its superior bioactivity with the formation of bone bonding. An attempt has been made, in the present study, to observe the effect of B2O3 addition in 45S5 glass and perceive its consequences on the thermal, mechanical and biological properties. The B2O3 was added in 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% with simultaneous reduction in the silica content of the 45S5 composition. The borate based bioglass has been synthesized by the means of sol-gel route. The synthesized powders were then thermally analyzed by DSC-TG. The as synthesized powders were then calcined at 600ºC for 2hrs. The calcined powders were then pressed into pellets followed by sintering at 850ºC with a holding time of 2hrs. The phase analysis and the microstructural analysis of the as synthesized and calcined powder glass samples and the sintered glass samples were being carried out using XRD and FESEM respectively. The formation of hydroxyapatite layer was performed by immersing the sintered samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and mechanical property has been tested for the sintered samples by universal testing machine (UTM). The sintered samples showed the presence of sodium calcium silicate phase while the formation of hydroxyapaptite takes place for SBF immersed samples. The formation of hydroxyapatite is more pronounced in case of borated based glass samples instead of 45S5.

Keywords: 45S5 bioglass, bioactive, borate, hydroxyapatite, sol-gel synthesis

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6088 The Influence of C Element on the Phase Transformation in Weldment of Complex Stainless Steels 2507/316/316L

Authors: LIN Dong-Yih, Yang S.-M., Huang B.-W., Lian J.-A.


Super duplex stainless steel has excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. It becomes important structural material as its application has been extended to the fields such as renewable energy and the chemical industry because of its excellent properties. As examples are offshore wind power, solar cell machinery, and pipes in the chemical industry. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel can be eliminated by welding due to the precipitation of the hard and brittle σ phase, which is rich of chromium, and molybdenum elements. This paper studies the influence of carbon element on the phase transformation of -ferrite and σ phase in 2507 super duplex stainless steel. The 2507 will be under argon gas protection welded with 316 and 316L extra low carbon stainless steel separately. The microstructural phases of stainless steels before and after welding, in fusion, heat affected zones, and base material will be studied via X-ray, OM, SEM, EPMA i.e. their quantity, size, distribution, and morphology. The influences of diffusion by carbon element will be compared according to the microstructures, hardness, and corrosion tests.

Keywords: complex stainless steel, welding, phase formation, carbon element, sigma phase, delta ferrite

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6087 Superconducting Properties of Fe Doped in Cu-Site of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3-xFexOy

Authors: M. A. Suazlina, H. Azhan, S. A. Syamsyir, S. Y. S. Yusainee


Fe2O3 was doped to Bi-2223 superconductor prepared in bulk form using high purity oxide powders via solid state reaction technique with intermediate grinding. A stiochiometric of x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 Fe are systematically added to the well balanced Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3-xFexOy in order to trace the effect of Fe doping to the system. Microstructure, resistive transitions, phase volume, and cell parameters were hence investigated. Substitution of Fe is found to slowly decrease the Bi-2223 phase volume and the resistive transitions for x=0.00 – 0.10 samples whereas accelerated formation of the Bi-2212 phase is detected for further substitutions. Changes in superconducting properties of Fe-doping Bi-2223 system were discussed and the findings were further compared with available literature.

Keywords: BSCCO, critical temperature, critical current density, XRD, flux pinning

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6086 Monitoring the Thin Film Formation of Carrageenan and PNIPAm Microgels

Authors: Selim Kara, Ertan Arda, Fahrettin Dolastir, Önder Pekcan


Biomaterials and thin film coatings play a fundamental role in medical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Carrageenan is a linear sulfated polysaccharide extracted from algae and seaweeds. To date, such biomaterials have been used in many smart drug delivery systems due to their biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity properties. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) gels and copolymers have also been used in medical applications. PNIPAm shows lower critical solution temperature (LCST) property at about 32-34 °C which is very close to the human body temperature. Below and above the LCST point, PNIPAm gels exhibit distinct phase transitions between swollen and collapsed states. A special class of gels are microgels which can react to environmental changes significantly faster than microgels due to their small sizes. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement technique is one of the attractive techniques which has been used for monitoring the thin-film formation process. A sensitive QCM system was designed as to detect 0.1 Hz difference in resonance frequency and 10-7 change in energy dissipation values, which are the measures of the deposited mass and the film rigidity, respectively. PNIPAm microgels with the diameter around few hundred nanometers in water were produced via precipitation polymerization process. 5 MHz quartz crystals with functionalized gold surfaces were used for the deposition of the carrageenan molecules and microgels in the solutions which were slowly pumped through a flow cell. Interactions between charged carrageenan and microgel particles were monitored during the formation of the film layers, and the Sauerbrey masses of the deposited films were calculated. The critical phase transition temperatures around the LCST were detected during the heating and cooling cycles. It was shown that it is possible to monitor the interactions between PNIPAm microgels and biopolymer molecules, and it is also possible to specify the critical phase transition temperatures by using a QCM system.

Keywords: carrageenan, phase transitions, PNIPAm microgels, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 161