Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2494

Search results for: medical disenfranchisement

2494 Moving beyond Medical Tourism: An Analysis of Intra-Regional Medical Mobility in the Global South

Authors: Tyler D. Cesarone, Tatiana M. Wugalter

Abstract:

The movement of patients from the Global North to the Global South in pursuit of inexpensive healthcare and touristic experiences dominates the academic discourse on international medical travel (IMT). However, medical travel exists in higher numbers between Global South countries as patients who lack trust in, and feel disenfranchised by, their national healthcare systems seek treatment in nearby countries. Through a review of the existing literature, this paper examines patterns of IMT in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Southern Africa, distinguishing North-South medical tourism from South-South intra-regional medical mobility (IRMM). Evidence from these case studies demonstrates that notions of medical distrust and disenfranchisement, rooted in low-resourced and poor quality healthcare systems, are key drivers of IRMM in the Global South. The movement of patients from lower income to proximate higher income countries not only reveals tensions between patients and their healthcare systems but widens gaps in the quality of healthcare between departing and destination countries. In analyzing these cross-regional similarities, the paper moves beyond the current literature’s focus on singular case studies to expose global patterns of South-South IRMM. This presents a shift from the traditional focus on North-South medical tourism, demonstrating how disparities in healthcare systems both influence and are influenced by IRMM.

Keywords: global South, healthcare quality, international medical travel (IMT), intra-regional medical mobility (IRMM), medical disenfranchisement, medical distrust, medical tourism

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2493 Medical Images Enhancement Using New Dynamic Band Pass Filter

Authors: Abdellatif Baba

Abstract:

In order to facilitate medical images analysis by improving their quality and readability, we present in this paper a new dynamic band pass filter as a general and suitable operator for different types of medical images. Our objective is to enrich the details of any treated medical image to make it sufficiently clear enough to give an understood and simplified meaning even for unspecialized people in the medical domain.

Keywords: medical image enhancement, dynamic band pass filter, analysis improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2492 Interpretation of Medical Negligence under Consumer Laws

Authors: Ashfaq M. Naikwadi

Abstract:

Decided cases of medical negligence, mostly are not settled in the lower courts. Majority of them reach up to the apex courts. This is mostly due to different interpretations of the term medical negligence. After studying various cases of medical negligence it is found that in most of the cases the doctors/hospitals are not held liable. There are different interpretations of law concerning medical services. Globally the principles deciding medical negligence are same, viz. Legal duty of care - breach of that duty - direct causation resulting in damages. Since ordinary negligence is not punishable by law, doctors/hospitals have defenses to save themselves from liability. Complaints of negligence come to the courts whose judges mostly are not oriented with medical services or health sciences. Matters of medical negligence are decided on the basic principles of reasonableness and prudence or by relying on the expert’s opinion. Deciding reasonableness or prudence is a complex issue in case of medical services. Again expert opinion is also questionable as an expert in case of medical negligence is appointed from the same field and same faculty. There is a chance of favoritism to the doctor/hospital. The concept of vicarious liability is not widely applied to in many of the medical negligence cases. Established cases used as precedents were studied to understand the basic principles in deciding medical negligence. This paper evaluates the present criteria in interpreting medical negligence and concludes with suggesting reforms required to be made in deciding matters of medical negligence under the consumer laws.

Keywords: consumer, doctors, laws, medical negligence

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2491 Research on Adaptable Development Strategy of Medical Architecture Based on the Background of Current Era

Authors: Jiani Gao, Qingping Luo, Xinlei Fang

Abstract:

In order to try to achieve better rights and interests for both doctors and patients in the new medical environment, the paper will focus on the renewal and development of medical buildings. In today's highly developed society, many factors have a profound guiding significance for the development of medical buildings. By doing social research, the paper has found that these factors come from all aspects. These factors include the optimization of traditional medical model, rapid alternation of medical technology and equipment, the reform of the social, medical security system, changes in the age structure of the population, the birth of intelligent medical care under the Internet, and the deepening of the concept of green sustainable building development, etc. The purpose of this paper is to capture sensitively these various factors that may affect the evolution of medical buildings in the context of the current era, and to put forward, by using an adaptable development strategy, some feasible suggestions on the design of medical buildings when facing these changes and challenges. Specifically speaking, the adaptable development strategy includes some basic principles and methods, such as using modular design, adopting scalable streamline, selecting a long-span structural system and using replaceable materials and components, etc.

Keywords: medical architecture, adaptable development, medical model, space design

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
2490 The Threat of International Terrorism and Its Impact on UK Migration Policy and Practice

Authors: Baljit Soroya

Abstract:

Transnational communities are as a consequence of greater mobility of people, globalization and digitization have had a major impact on international relations and diasporas in the context of external conflicts. To a significant extent conflicts are becoming deterritorialised and informed by both internal (state politics) and external (foreign policy) players such as in Iraq and Syria leading to forced migration of unprecedented levels within the last two decades. The situation of forced migrants has, it is suggested, worsened as a consequence of the neo-liberal policies and requirements of organizations such as the European Bank. A case example of this being that of Greece, and the exacerbation of insecurity for Greek nationals and the demonization of refugees seeking sanctuary. This has been as a consequence, in part, of the neoliberal dogma of the European Bank. The article analyses the complex intersection of the real and perceived threats of international terrorism and the manner in which UK migration policy and Practice is unfolding. The policy and practice developments are explored in the context of the shift in politics in both the UK and wider Europe to the far right and the drift of main stream political parties to the right. In many cases, the mainstream political groupings, have co-opted the fears as presented by far right organization for political their own political gains, such as in the UK and France In its analysis it will be argued that, whilst international terrorism is an issue of concern, however in the context of the UK it is not of the same scale as the effects of climate change or indeed domestic violence. Given that, the question has to be asked why the threat of international terrorism is having such an impact on UK migration policy and practice and, specifically refugees. Furthermore, it is argued that this policy and practice are being formulated within a narrative that portrays migrants as the problem both in relation to terrorism and the disenfranchisement of ‘ordinary white communities’. The intersectionality of social, economic inequalities, fear of international terrorism, increase in conflicts and the political climate have contributed to a lack of trust of political establishments that have in turn sought to impress the public with their anti-immigrant rhetoric and policy agendas. The article ends by suggesting that whilst politics and political affiliations have become fractured there are nevertheless spaces for collective action, particularly in relation to issues of refugees.

Keywords: international terrorism, migration policy, conflict, media, community, politics

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2489 A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices

Authors: Lucas B. Naves, Maria José Abreu

Abstract:

Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Keywords: reusing, reprocessing, single-use medical device, HIV, hepatitis B and C

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2488 The Efficiency of the Use of Medical Bilingual Dictionary in English Language Teaching in Vocational College

Authors: Zorana Jurinjak, Christos Alexopoulos

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The aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of using a medical bilingual dictionary in teaching English in a vocational college. More precisely, to what extent the use of bilingual medical dictionary in relation to the use of Standard English bilingual dictionaries influences the results on tests, and thus the acquisition of better competence of students mastering the subject terminology. Secondary interest in this paper would be to raise awareness among students and teachers about the advantages of dictionary use. The experiment was conducted at College of Applied Health Sciences in Ćuprija on a sample of 90 students. The respondents translated three medical texts with 42 target terms. Statistical analyses of the data obtained show that the differences in average time and correct answers favor the students who used medical dictionary.

Keywords: bilingual medical dictionary, standard english bilingual dictionary, medical terminology, EOS, ESP

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2487 Enhanced Visual Sharing Method for Medical Image Security

Authors: Kalaivani Pachiappan, Sabari Annaji, Nithya Jayakumar

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In recent years, Information security has emerged as foremost challenges in many fields. Especially in medical information systems security is a major issue, in handling reports such as patients’ diagnosis and medical images. These sensitive data require confidentiality for transmission purposes. Image sharing is a secure and fault-tolerant method for protecting digital images, which can use the cryptography techniques to reduce the information loss. In this paper, visual sharing method is proposed which embeds the patient’s details into a medical image. Then the medical image can be divided into numerous shared images and protected by various users. The original patient details and medical image can be retrieved by gathering the shared images.

Keywords: information security, medical images, cryptography, visual sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2486 A Review on Applications of Experts Systems in Medical Sciences

Authors: D. K. Sreekantha, T. M. Girish, R. H. Fattepur

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In this article, we have given an overview of medical expert systems, which can be used for the developed of physicians in making decisions such as appropriate, prognostic, and therapeutic decisions which help to organize, store, and gives appropriate medical knowledge needed by physicians and practitioners during medical operations or further treatment. If they support the studies by using these systems, advanced tools in medicine will be developed in the future. New trends in the methodology of development of medical expert systems have also been discussed in this paper. So Authors would like to develop an innovative IT based solution to help doctors in rural areas to gain expertise in Medical Science for treating patients. This paper aims to survey the Soft Computing techniques in treating patient’s problems used throughout the world.

Keywords: expert system, fuzzy logic, knowledge base, soft computing, epilepsy

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2485 Producer’s Liability for Defective Medical Devices in Light of Council Directive 85/374/EEC

Authors: Vera Lúcia Raposo

Abstract:

Medical devices are products used for medical purposes and aimed to operate in the human body, sometimes even inside the human body. Therefore, they can become particularly risky products, and some of the injuries caused by medical devices can have serious effects on the person’s health or body, even leading to death. Because they fit in the category of 'products' as described in Article 2 of Council Directive 85/374/EEC of 25 July 1985, concerning liability for defective products, the liability of the manufacturer of medical devices follows the rules of strict liability as long as one of the defects covered by the directive is at stake. The directive is not concerned with the product’s efficiency, but instead with the product’s safety, although in what regards medical devices (the same being valid for drugs) the two concepts frequently go together, and a lack of efficiency can result in a lack of safety. In the particular case of medical devices, the most debatable defects are the ones related with erroneous or non-existing information and the so-called development defects. This paper analyses how directive 85/374/EEC applies to medical devices, which defects are covered by its regulation, and which criteria can be used to evaluate the product’s safety. Some issues are still to be clarified, even though the decisions from the European Court of Justice and from national courts are valuable tools to understand the scope of directive 85/374/EEC in what regards medical devices.

Keywords: medical devices, producer’s liability, product safety, strict liability

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
2484 Proposition of an Ontology of Diseases and Their Signs from Medical Ontologies Integration

Authors: Adama Sow, Abdoulaye Guiss´e, Oumar Niang

Abstract:

To assist medical diagnosis, we propose a federation of several existing and open medical ontologies and terminologies. The goal is to merge the strengths of all these resources to provide clinicians the access to a variety of shared knowledges that can facilitate identification and association of human diseases and all of their available characteristic signs such as symptoms and clinical signs. This work results to an integration model loaded from target known ontologies of the bioportal platform such as DOID, MESH, and SNOMED for diseases selection, SYMP, and CSSO for all existing signs.

Keywords: medical decision, medical ontologies, ontologies integration, linked data, knowledge engineering, e-health system

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2483 Importance of Knowledge in the Interdisciplinary Production Processes of Innovative Medical Tools

Authors: Katarzyna Mleczko

Abstract:

Processes of production of innovative medical tools have interdisciplinary character. They consist of direct and indirect close cooperation of specialists of different scientific branches. The Knowledge they have seems to be important for undertaken design, construction and manufacturing processes. The Knowledge exchange between participants of these processes is therefore crucial for the final result, which are innovative medical products. The paper draws attention to the necessity of feedback from the end user to the designer / manufacturer of medical tools which will allow for more accurate understanding of user needs. The study describes prerequisites of production processes of innovative medical (surgical) tools including participants and category of knowledge resources occurring in these processes. They are the result of research in selected Polish organizations involved in the production of medical instruments and are the basis for further work on the development of knowledge sharing model in interdisciplinary teams geographically dispersed.

Keywords: interdisciplinary production processes, knowledge exchange, knowledge sharing, medical tools

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2482 Economic Policy of Tourism and the Development Tendencies of Medical Wellness Resorts in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, N. Sagareishvili

Abstract:

This paper discusses the current condition of tourism and its economic policy in Georgia. It analyzes and studies wellness tourism, as one of the directions of tourism; the newest niche in the wellness industry – triggering wellness resorts with medical ideology. The paper discusses the development tendencies of medical wellness resorts in Georgia and its main economic preferences. The main finding of the research is that Georgia is a unique place in the world according to the variety of medical recourses. This makes the opportunity to create and successfully operate medical wellness resorts, as well as develop it as a brand for Georgia in the world. The research represents the development strategies of tourism and its medical wellness resorts in Georgia, and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.

Keywords: tourism, economic policy of tourism, wellness industry, medical wellness resorts

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2481 Improving Research Collaborations in Medical Device Development in Korea from an SMEs’ Perspective

Authors: Yoon Chung Kim

Abstract:

In this coming aging society, medical device industry is expected to become one of the major industries. Since developing medical devices usually requires technology convergence, research collaboration is important, especially for some small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that do not have enough R&D resources in each related field. Collaboration in medical device development has some unique properties. Since it requires convergence technology, collaboration with different fields, and different types of people are often required. Since it requires clinical test, the development process usually takes longer and collaboration with hospitals is also required. However, despite these importance and uniqueness, collaboration in medical device development has not yet been widely studied. Thus, our research focuses on investigating collaborations in medical device development. For our research, we conducted surveys and interviews, especially with SMEs’ perspective in Korea. The result and discussion will be presented with a major impact factors for collaboration result, as well as future strategies that will improve and strengthen collaboration process in medical devices.

Keywords: medical device, SME, research collaboration, development, clinical

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2480 Management of Medical Equipment Maintenance

Authors: Gholamreza Madad

Abstract:

The role of medical equipment in modern advanced hospitals is irrefutable. Despite limited financial resources, developing countries have taken an uncontrollable manner to the purchase of complex and expensive equipment, although they have not taken good maintenance to keep these huge capitals. In our country, limited studies have indicated that the irregularities exist in the management of medical equipment maintenance. Research method: The research was done as a cross-sectional one, and in this study, a questionnaire was used to collect data in 10 hospitals. After distributing and collecting questionnaires in person, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and SPSS software. Research findings: According to the obtained results from the four dimensions of the management of medical equipment maintenance, only (maintenance planning) was in a moderate position and other components with a score of less than 50% were at a low level. There was a direct relationship between the total score of maintenance management and guidance points and coordination of medical equipment maintenance, and as well as the age of hospital managers. Discussion and conclusion: In sum, we can say that problems such as lack of skilled staff in medical engineering departments of hospitals, lack of funds and unaware of the authorities of medical engineering units to their duties have caused that the maintenance situation of medical equipment maintenance is in poor condition (near average). The low inexperience of the authorities of the unit has also contributed to this problem.

Keywords: equipment, maintenance, medical equipment, hospitals

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2479 Medical Social Work: Connotation, Prospects, and Challenges in Pakistan

Authors: Syeda Mahnaz Hassan

Abstract:

Social work as a specialized field, grounded in scientific knowledge and skills, is more inclined towards problem-solving process rather than charity focused approach. Medical social work, as a primary method, deals with the bio-psychosocial-spiritual elements of an individual with a problem and assesses the pliability and strength of the patients, social support systems, and their families, to assist the patients to resolve their problems independently. The medical social worker, also known as case-worker or care-worker, has to play a substantial role in the rehabilitation and retrieval of an affected person. This paper examines the roles played and responsibilities discharged by the Medical Social Workers internationally and specifically concerning Pakistan. The capacity constraints and challenges confronted by Medical Social Workers in hospitals have also been highlighted, and some policy implications have been suggested to enhance the capabilities of Medical Social Workers for serving the patients in a befitting manner.

Keywords: medical social work, Pakistan, patients, rehabilitation

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2478 Infertility Awareness: Knowledge and Attitude of Medical & Non-Medical Moroccan Young People

Authors: Sana El Adlani, Yassir Ait Ben Kaddour, Abdelhafid Benksim, Abderraouf Soummani, Mohamed Cherkaoui

Abstract:

Background: Infertility in all countries of the word is on an increase, it’s why the World Health Organization included an investigation into young people's fertility. In this sense, it’s important to increase efforts to improve the knowledge about fertility for the young population. The aim of this study is to describe the difference between knowledge and attitude of medical and non-medical Moroccan young people. Materials and Methods: 100 medical Moroccan students (group 1) participated in the study, between 18 and 30 years, by a simple random sampling method, during 2020 and using a previously validated questionnaire. The answers were confronted to the result of our same study among 355 non-medical Moroccan young people (group 2) in 2019. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 10). Result: Medical students had a significantly higher level of knowledge about infertility than non-medical young people. However, both groups were aware of the impact of lifestyle on infertility. The knowledge state of the first group about infertility management was higher than the second group. Moreover, all non-medical Moroccan young people believed that it is easier to conceive if the couples had already their first baby, whereas, among medical students, only 53% had confirmed this belief. The results showed that 65% of medical students had proposed to try fertility treatments more than one time if treatment fails. Besides, the first advice of the second group was polygamy and adoption. Conclusion: Following the result of our study, the investigation of young people is the measure to optimize reproductive health. So, it’s crucial that the government increase efforts to improve the knowledge about infertility not only for medical universities but for all scholar programs.

Keywords: attitude, infertility, knowledge, medical, non-medical, young people

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2477 Comparative Analysis of Medical Tourism Industry among Key Nations in Southeast Asia

Authors: Nur A. Azmi, Suseela D. Chandran, Fadilah Puteh, Azizan Zainuddin

Abstract:

Medical tourism has been associated as a global phenomenon in developed and developing countries in the 21st century. Medical tourism is defined as an activity in which individuals who travel from one country to another country to seek or receive medical healthcare. Based on the global trend, the number of medical tourists is increasing annually, especially in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. Since the establishment of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967, the SEA nations have worked towards regional integration in medical tourism. The medical tourism in the SEA has become the third-largest sector that contributes towards economic development. Previous research has demonstrated several factors that affect the development of medical tourism. However, despite the already published literature on SEA's medical tourism in the last ten years there continues to be a scarcity of research on niche areas each of the SEA countries. Hence, this paper is significant in enriching the literature in the field of medical tourism particularly in showcasing the niche market of medical tourism among the SEA best players namely Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. This paper also contributes in offering a comparative analysis between the said nations whether they are complementing or competing with each other in the medical tourism sector. This then, will increase the availability of information in SEA region on medical tourism. The data was collected through an in-depth interview with various stakeholders and private hospitals. The data was then analyzed using two approaches namely thematic analysis (interview data) and document analysis (secondary data). The paper concludes by arguing that the ASEAN countries have specific niche market to promote their medical tourism industry. This paper also concludes that these key nations complement each other in the industry. In addition, the medical tourism sector in SEA region offers greater prospects for market development and expansion that witnessed the emerging of new key players from other nations.

Keywords: healthcare services, medical tourism, medical tourists, SEA region, comparative analysis

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2476 Poor Medical Waste Management (MWM) Practices and Its Risks to Human Health and the Environment

Authors: Babanyara Y. Y., Ibrahim D. B., Garba T., Bogoro A. G., Abubakar, M. Y.

Abstract:

Medical care is vital for our life, health, and well-being. However, the waste generated from medical activities can be hazardous, toxic, and even lethal because of their high potential for diseases transmission. The hazardous and toxic parts of waste from healthcare establishments comprising infectious, medical, and radioactive material as well as sharps constitute a grave risks to mankind and the environment, if these are not properly treated/disposed or are allowed to be mixed with other municipal waste. In Nigeria, practical information on this aspect is inadequate and research on the public health implications of poor management of medical wastes is few and limited in scope. Findings drawn from Literature particularly in the third world countries highlights financial problems, lack of awareness of risks involved in MWM, lack of appropriate legislation and lack of specialized MWM staff. The paper recommends how MWM practices can be improved in medical facilities.

Keywords: environmental pollution, infectious, management, medical waste, public health

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2475 Information Literacy Among Faculty Members in the Medical Colleges of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Authors: Saeed Ullah Jan, Waheed Ullah Kha

Abstract:

Purpose of the study: This study aims to assess faculty members' information literacy skills in public sector medical colleges in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Design/Methodology/approach: The descriptive research design was used to conduct and accomplish the study's objectives. The research population consisted of faculty members at public sector medical colleges in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa southern region. Professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors, Lecturers, and demonstrators comprise the faculty. The adapted questionnaires were modified and used as data collection instruments. Key findings: The majority of the public sector medical college faculty recognizes the various sources of information, and they use both printed and online materials to identify needed information. The majority of faculty at these medical colleges consults monographs/textbooks regularly, preceded by online journals/medical databases. A good number of medical faculty members opted to use the HEC digital library to locate and access their contents. Delimitations of the study: This study is delimited to three public sector medical colleges operate in southern districts: Khyber Medical University Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS) in Kohat, the Gomal Medical College (GMC) in Dera Ismail Khan, and the Bannu Medical College (BMC) in Bannu. Practical implication(s): The findings of the study will motivate the policymakers and authorities of these three medical colleges in the southern region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to enhance the information literacy skills of medical faculty. This practice will result in an effective medical education in the province. Contribution to the knowledge: No significant work has been done on the Faculty's Information literacy skills at public sector medical colleges in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This study will add valuable literature to the literary world.

Keywords: information literacy skills-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, information literacy skills-medical faculty-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, medical sciences, information literacy, information-literacy-Pakistan

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2474 Islamic Extremist Groups' Usage of Populism in Social Media to Radicalize Muslim Migrants in Europe

Authors: Muhammad Irfan

Abstract:

The rise of radicalization within Islam has spawned a new era of global terror. The battlefield Successes of ISIS and the Taliban are fuelled by an ideological war waged, largely and successfully, in the media arena. This research will examine how Islamic extremist groups are using media modalities and populist narratives to influence migrant Muslim populations in Europe towards extremism. In 2014, ISIS shocked the world in exporting horrifically graphic forms of violence on social media. Their Muslim support base was largely disgusted and reviled. In response, they reconfigured their narrative by introducing populist 'hooks', astutely portraying the Muslim populous as oppressed and exploited by unjust, corrupt autocratic regimes and Western power structures. Within this crucible of real and perceived oppression, hundreds of thousands of the most desperate, vulnerable and abused migrants left their homelands, risking their lives in the hope of finding peace, justice, and prosperity in Europe. Instead, many encountered social stigmatization, detention and/or discrimination for being illegal migrants, for lacking resources and for simply being Muslim. This research will examine how Islamic extremist groups are exploiting the disenfranchisement of these migrant populations and using populist messaging on social media to influence them towards violent extremism. ISIS, in particular, formulates specific encoded messages for newly-arriving Muslims in Europe, preying upon their vulnerability. Violence is posited, as a populist response, to the tyranny of European oppression. This research will analyze the factors and indicators which propel Muslim migrants along the spectrum from resilience to violence extremism. Expected outcomes are identification of factors which influence vulnerability towards violent extremism; an early-warning detection framework; predictive analysis models; and de-radicalization frameworks. This research will provide valuable tools (practical and policy level) for European governments, security stakeholders, communities, policy-makers, and educators; it is anticipated to contribute to a de-escalation of Islamic extremism globally.

Keywords: populism, radicalization, de-radicalization, social media, ISIS, Taliban, shariah, jihad, Islam, Europe, political communication, terrorism, migrants, refugees, extremism, global terror, predictive analysis, early warning detection, models, strategic communication, populist narratives, Islamic extremism

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2473 Genetic Variations of CYP2C9 in Thai Patients Taking Medical Cannabis

Authors: Naso Isaiah Thanavisuth

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Medical cannabis can be used for treatment including pain, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and cancer. However, medical cannabis leads to adverse effects (AEs), which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In previous studies, the major of THC metabolism enzymes are CYP2C9. Especially, the variation of CYP2C9 gene consist of CYP2C9*2 on exon 3 and CYP2C9*3 on exon 7 to decrease enzyme activity. Notwithstanding, there is no data describing whether the variant of CYP2C9 genes are apharmacogenetics marker for the prediction of THC-induced AEs in Thai patients. We want to investigate the association between CYP2C9 gene and THC-induced AEs in Thai patients. We enrolled 39 Thai patients with medical cannabis treatment who were classified by clinical data. The CYP2C9*2 and *3 genotyping were conducted using the TaqMan real time PCR assay. All Thai patients who received the medical cannabis consist of twenty-four (61.54%) patients were female, and fifteen (38.46%) were male, with age range 27- 87 years. Moreover, the most AEs in Thai patients who were treated with medical cannabis between cases and controls were tachycardia, arrhythmia, dry mouth, and nausea. Particularly, thirteen (72.22%) medical cannabis-induced AEs were female and age range 33 – 69 years. In this study, none of the medical cannabis groups carried CYP2C9*2 variants in Thai patients. The CYP2C9*3 variants (*1/*3, intermediate metabolizer, IM) and (*3/*3, poor metabolizer, PM) were found, three of thirty-nine (7.69%) and one of thirty-nine (2.56%), respectively. Although, our results indicate that there is no found the CYP2C9*2. However, the variation of CYP2C9 allele might serve as a pharmacogenetics marker for screening before initiating the therapy with medical cannabis for the prevention of medical cannabis-induced AEs.

Keywords: CYP2C9, medical cannabis, adverse effects, THC, P450

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2472 Availability Strategy of Medical Information for Telemedicine Services

Authors: Rozo D. Juan Felipe, Ramírez L. Leonardo Juan, Puerta A. Gabriel Alberto

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The telemedicine services require correct computing resource management to guarantee productivity and efficiency for medical and non-medical staff. The aim of this study was to examine web management strategies to ensure the availability of resources and services in telemedicine so as to provide medical information management with an accessible strategy. In addition, to evaluate the quality-of-service parameters, the followings were measured: delays, throughput, jitter, latency, available bandwidth, percent of access and denial of services based of web management performance map with profiles permissions and database management. Through 24 different test scenarios, the results show 100% in availability of medical information, in relation to access of medical staff to web services, and quality of service (QoS) of 99% because of network delay and performance of computer network. The findings of this study suggest that the proposed strategy of web management is an ideal solution to guarantee the availability, reliability, and accessibility of medical information. Finally, this strategy offers seven user profile used at telemedicine center of Bogota-Colombia keeping QoS parameters suitable to telemedicine services.

Keywords: availability, medical information, QoS, strategy, telemedicine

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2471 Evaluation of JCI Accreditation for Medical Technology in Saudi Arabian Hospitals: A Study Case of PSMMC

Authors: Hamad Albadr

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Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation process intent to improve the safety and quality of care in the international community through the provision of education, publications, consultation, and evaluation services. These standards apply to the entire organization as well as to each department, unit, or service within the organization. Medical Technology that contains both medical equipment and devices, is an essential part of health care. Appropriate management of equipment maintenance for ensuring medical technology safe, the equipment life is maximized, and the total costs are minimized. JCI medical technology evaluation and accreditation use standards, intents, and measurable elements. The paper focuses on evaluation of JCI standards for medical technology in Saudi Arabian hospitals: a Study Case of PSMMC that define the performance expectation, structures, or functions that must be in place for a hospital to be accredited by JCI through measurable elements that indicate a score during the survey process that identify the requirements for full compliance with the standard specially through Facility Management and Safety (FMS) section that require the hospital establishes and implements a program for inspecting, testing, and maintaining medical technology and documenting the results, to ensure that medical technology is available for use and functioning properly, the hospital performs and documents; an inventory of medical technology; regular inspections of medical technology; testing of medical technology according to its use and manufacturers’ requirements; and performance of preventive maintenance.

Keywords: joint commission international (JCI) accreditation, medical technology, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian hospitals

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2470 Dialogues of Medical Places and Health Care in Oporto City (20th Century)

Authors: Monique Palma, Isabel Amaral

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This paper aims at mapping medical places in Oporto in the twentieth century in order to bring the urban history of medicine and healthcare in Portugal to a large audience, using Oporto as a case study. This analysis is consistent with the SDS's 2030 goals for policy guidance for heritage and development actors. As a result, it is critical to begin this research in order to place on the political agenda the preservation of Portuguese culture's history, memory, and heritage, particularly the medical culture, which is one of the most important drivers of civilizational development. To understand the evolution of medical care in urban history, we will conduct archive research (manuals, treatises, reports, periodic journals, newspapers, etc.) and interviews with key actors from medical institutions and medical museums. The findings of this study will be used to develop medical itineraries for inclusion in touristic agendas in Portugal and abroad, to include Portuguese medicine in global roadmaps, and to promote the preservation of the most iconic places of health care and medical heritage, as well as tools to promote social cohesion, dialogue among people, and "sense of place" globally.

Keywords: medical itineraries, history of medicine, urban history, Oporto

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2469 Medical Error: Concept and Description According to Brazilian Physicians

Authors: Vitor S. Mendonca, Maria Luisa S. Schmidt

Abstract:

The Brazilian medical profession is viewed as being error-free, so healthcare professionals who commit an error are condemned there. Medical errors occur frequently in the Brazilian healthcare system, so identifying better options for handling this issue has become of interest primarily for physicians. The purpose of this study is to better understand the tensions involved in the fear of making an error due to the harm and risk this would represent for those involved. A qualitative study was performed by means of the narratives of the lived experiences of ten acting physicians in the State of Sao Paulo. The concept and characterization of errors were discussed, together with the fear of making an error, the near misses or error in itself, how to deal with errors and what to do to avoid them. The analysis indicates an excessive pressure in the medical profession for error-free practices, with a well-established physician-patient relationship to facilitate the management of medical errors. The error occurs, but a lack of information and discussion often leads to its concealment due to fear or possible judgment by society or peers. The establishment of programs that encourage appropriate medical conduct in the event of an error requires coherent answers for humanization in Brazilian medical science. It is necessary to improve the discussion about medical errors and disseminate models of communication and notification of errors in Brazil.

Keywords: medical error, narrative, physician-patient relationship, qualitative research

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
2468 Supporting Embedded Medical Software Development with MDevSPICE® and Agile Practices

Authors: Surafel Demissie, Frank Keenan, Fergal McCaffery

Abstract:

Emerging medical devices are highly relying on embedded software that runs on the specific platform in real time. The development of embedded software is different from ordinary software development due to the hardware-software dependency. MDevSPICE® has been developed to provide guidance to support such development. To increase the flexibility of this framework agile practices have been introduced. This paper outlines the challenges for embedded medical device software development and the structure of MDevSPICE® and suggests a suitable combination of agile practices that will help to add flexibility and address corresponding challenges of embedded medical device software development.

Keywords: agile practices, challenges, embedded software, MDevSPICE®, medical device

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
2467 A Multicenter Assessment on Psychological Well-Being Status among Medical Residents in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Mahera Abdulrahman

Abstract:

Objective: Healthcare transformation from traditional to modern in the country recently prompted the need to address career choices, accreditation perception and satisfaction among medical residents. However, a concerted nationwide study to understand and address burnout in the medical residency program has not been conducted in the UAE and the region. Methods: A nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate professional burnout and depression among medical residents in order to address the gap. Results: Our results indicate that 75.5% (216/286) of UAE medical residents had moderate to high emotional exhaustion, 84% (249/298) had high depersonalization, and 74% (216/291) had a low sense of personal accomplishment. In aggregate, 70% (212/302) of medical residents were considered to be experiencing at least one symptom of burnout based on a high emotional exhaustion score or a high depersonalization score. Depression ranging from 6-22%, depending on the specialty was also striking given the fact the Arab culture lays high emphasis on family bonding. Interestingly 83% (40/48) of medical residents who had high scores for depression also reported burnout. Conclusion: Our data indicate that burnout and depression among medical residents is epidemic. There is an immediate need to address burnout through effective interventions at both the individual and institutional levels. It is imperative to reconfigure the approach to medical training for the well-being of the next generation of physicians in the Arab world.

Keywords: mental health, Gulf, Arab, residency training, burnout, depression

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2466 Development of a Secured Telemedical System Using Biometric Feature

Authors: O. Iyare, A. H. Afolayan, O. T. Oluwadare, B. K. Alese

Abstract:

Access to advanced medical services has been one of the medical challenges faced by our present society especially in distant geographical locations which may be inaccessible. Then the need for telemedicine arises through which live videos of a doctor can be streamed to a patient located anywhere in the world at any time. Patients’ medical records contain very sensitive information which should not be made accessible to unauthorized people in order to protect privacy, integrity and confidentiality. This research work focuses on a more robust security measure which is biometric (fingerprint) as a form of access control to data of patients by the medical specialist/practitioner.

Keywords: biometrics, telemedicine, privacy, patient information

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
2465 Hospital Evacuation: Best Practice Recommendations

Authors: Ronald Blough

Abstract:

Hospitals, clinics, and medical facilities are the core of the Health Services sector providing 24/7 medical care to those in need. Any disruption of these important medical services highlights the vulnerabilities in the medical system. An internal or external event can create a catastrophic incident paralyzing the medical services causing the facility to shift into emergency operations with the possibility of evacuation. The hospital administrator and government officials must decide in a very short amount of time whether to shelter in place or evacuate. This presentation will identify best practice recommendations regarding the hospital evacuation decision and response analyzing previous hospital evacuations to encourage hospitals in the region to review or develop their own emergency evacuation plans.

Keywords: disaster preparedness, hospital evacuation, shelter-in-place, incident containment, health services vulnerability, hospital resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 292