Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2884

Search results for: medical tourists

2884 Antecedent of Loyalty: A Case of Inbound Tourists in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Natnicha Hasoontree

Abstract:

This purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence of loyalty of inbound tourists towards tourist destinations in Bangkok, Thailand. The antecedents of loyalty in this study included tourists’ satisfaction towards tourist destinations, perceived value of tourist destinations, feelings of engagement with tourist destinations, acquaintance with tourist destinations, and seeking novelty. By using multi-stage sampling technique, 400 tourists were sampled: 200 male and 200 female inbound tourists. The findings revealed that inbound tourists’ satisfaction was the most important factor that could influence the factor of loyalty. The findings indicated that the overall antecedents had a mean of 4.416 with the overall standard deviation of 0.808.

Keywords: antecedents, loyalty, inbound tourists, tourist destinations

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
2883 The Consumer Behavior and Tourism Marketing of International Tourists Visiting Phuket in Thailand

Authors: Wipanee Maen-In

Abstract:

This research aims to study the tourism marketing and the trip behaviors profile of international tourists who visited Phuket in Thailand and study the influence of their selected demographic characters on their selected trip behaviors. The study was conducted through survey by using questionnaires asking 400 sample respondents from international tourists who visited Phuket. The result found out that type of group travel is the key variable that indicates higher and lower daily spending tourists, tourists spend more when they visit with their family. Trip arrangement is the key variables that indicate shorter and longer stay tourists. From these findings, it is recommended that both private and public sectors should make marketing to potential tourists in order to increase tourism revenue and to be a sustainable tourism, all of agencies that involves in Phuket tourism industry should coordinate to satisfy tourists to revisit and recommend Phuket to friends and relatives.

Keywords: consumer behavior, international tourists, Phuket province, tourism marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2882 An Examination of Thai Tourists' Motivation Behavior and Perception of Cultural Heritage in Chiang Mai Province

Authors: Sujui Yang, Peeraya Somsak, Markus Blut

Abstract:

This research examines the international tourists in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It aims to study non-Thai tourists’ of this region to better understand their behavior and motives influencing the choice of cultural heritage tourists in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The data includes questionnaires of 250 tourists in the study area. The most important motives influencing decisions choices are several concerning customers’ perspectives on tourist destinations in cultural heritage in Chiang Mai province. Thai tourists in Chiang Mai are single, 72.5 percent are in the age of 21-40 years old and 50% of sample group are from central and northern of Thailand. Tourists’ motives capture the factor loading as well as the corresponding show 5 components: relaxation motives, place/ physical motives, learning motives, image motives, and achievement motives.

Keywords: tourists motives, cultural heritage, Chiang Mai, customers’ perspectives

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2881 Tourists' Percepion of Osun Osogbo Festival in Osogbo, Osun State Nigeria

Authors: Yina Donald Orga

Abstract:

Osun Osogbo festival is one of the biggest art festivals in Nigeria with over 235, 518 tourist visits in 2014. The purpose of this study is to generate data on the tourists’ perception of Osun Osogbo Festival in Osogbo, Osun State Nigeria. Based on the population of 199, 860 tourist visits at Osun Osogbo festival in 2013, Krejcie and Morgan sample size table was used to select 768 tourists/respondents. Likert questionnaire were used to elicit data from the respondents. Descriptive statistic was used to describe the characteristics of respondents and analyse the tourists’ perception of the festival. The findings from data analysed suggest that the trend of domestic and international tourist visits in the past ten years for the festival had shown a consistent increase since 2004 except in 2007 and 2008 and continue to increase up to 2013. This is an indication that the tourists are satisfied with traditional, historical and authenticity features of the festival. Also, findings from the study revealed that the tourists are not satisfied with the number of toilets at Osun Sacred Grove, crowd control of visitors during the festival, medical personnel to cater for visitors during the festival, etc. In view of the findings of the study, the following recommendations are suggested; provision of more toilets at Osun Sacred grove, Osogbo Heritage Council to recruit festival guides to help control the huge crowd at the festival, the Government of State of Osun in conjunction with Red Cross Society should engage adequate medical personnel to cater for medical needs of visitors at the festival, etc.

Keywords: festival, perception, positive, tourists

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2880 Evaluating Thailand’s Cosmetic Surgery Tourism by Taiwanese Female Tourists

Authors: Wen-Yu Chen, Chia-Yuan Hsu, Sasinee Vongsrikul

Abstract:

The present study is to explore the perception of Taiwanese females towards medical tourism in Thailand for the development of applicable marketing strategy, integrating travel motivation and cosmetic surgery trend to attract potential medical tourists from Taiwan. Since previous studies relevant to this research issue are limited, qualitative study is firstly employed by using one focus group interview and in-depth interviews with Taiwanese females. Moreover, the present research collected questionnaires from 290 Taiwanese females to provide greater understanding of research results. The top three factors that affect Taiwanese females’ decision for not going to Thailand for medical tourism are “physicians and nurses cannot speak Chinese”, “low quality of the cosmetic surgery product that I want to do”, and “the county does not have laws to protect medical tourists’ right”. The finding of the empirical part would suggest the area in medical tourism industry which Thailand should promote and emphasizes in order to increase its presence as a hub for cosmetic surgery and attract Taiwanese female market. Therefore, the study contributes to the potential development of marketing strategy for medical tourism, specifically in the area of cosmetic surgery in Thailand while targeting Taiwan market.

Keywords: Thailand, Taiwanese female tourists, medical tourism, cosmetic surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
2879 Typology of Gaming Tourists Based on the Perception of Destination Image

Authors: Mi Ju Choi

Abstract:

This study investigated the perception of gaming tourists toward Macau and developed a typology of gaming tourists. The 1,497 responses from tourists in Macau were collected through convenience sampling method. The dimensions of multi-culture, convenience, economy, gaming, and unsafety, were subsequently extracted as the factors of perception of gaming tourists in Macau. Cluster analysis was performed using the delineated factors (perception of tourists on Macau). Four heterogonous groups were generated, namely, gaming lovers (n = 467, 31.2%), exotic lovers (n = 509, 34.0%), reasonable budget seekers (n = 269, 18.0%), and convenience seekers (n = 252, 16.8%). Further analysis was performed to investigate any difference in gaming behavior and tourist activities. The findings are expected to contribute to the efforts of destination marketing organizations (DMOs) in establishing effective business strategies, provide a profile of gaming tourists in certain market segments, and assist DMOs and casino managers in establishing more effective marketing strategies for target markets.

Keywords: destination image, gaming tourists, Macau, segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
2878 An Investigation of Food Quality and Risks in Thailand: A Case of Inbound Senior Tourists

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

Food quality and risks are major concerns for inbound senior tourists when visiting tourist destinations in Thailand. The purposes of this study were to investigate food quality and risks perceived by inbound senior tourists. This paper drew upon data collection from an inbound senior tourist survey conducted in Thailand during summer 2013. Summer time in Thailand is a high season for inbound tourists. It is also a high risk period in which a variety food safety issues and incidents have often occurred. The survey was structured primarily to obtain inbound senior tourists’ concerns toward a variety of food quality and risks they encountered during their trip in Thailand. A total of 400 inbound senior tourists were elicited as data input for mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that inbound tourists rated the overall food quality at a high level and the three most important perceived food risks were 1) unclean physical cooking facility, 2) toxic chemical handling, and 3) unclean water.

Keywords: food quality, inbound senior tourists, risks, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
2877 A Study of Tourists Satisfaction and Behavior Strategies Case Study: International Tourists in Chatuchak Weekend Market

Authors: Weera Weerasophon

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study Tourists’s satisfaction strategies case of Tourists who attended and shopped in Chatuchak weekend market (Bangkok) in order to improve service operation of Chatuchak weekend market to serve tourists’ need to impress them. The researcher used the marketing mix as a main factor that affect to tourist satisfaction. This research was emphasized as quantitative research as 400 of questionnaires were used for collecting the data from international tourists around Chatuchak weekend market that questionnaires divided in to 3 parts as a personal information part, satisfaction of marketing/services and facilities and suggestion part. After collecting all the data that would be processed in statistic program of SPSS to use for analyze the data later on. The result is described that most of international tourists satisfied Chatuchak weekend market in the level of 4 as more satisfaction for example friendly staff, Chatuchak information, price of product, facilities and service by the way, the environment of Chatuchak weekend market is the most satisfaction level.

Keywords: Chatuchak, satisfaction, Thailand tourism, marketing mix, tourists

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
2876 Chinese Tourists's Behaviors towards Travel and Shopping in Bangkok

Authors: Sasitorn Chetanont

Abstract:

The objectives of this study are to study Chinese tourist’s Behaviors towards travel and shopping in Bangkok. The research methodology was a quantitative research. The sample of this research was 400 Chinese tourists in Bangkok chosen by the accidental sampling and the purposive sampling. Inferential Statistics Analysis by using the Chi-square statistics. As for the results of this study the researcher found that differences between personal, social and cultural information, i.e., gender, age, place of residence, educational level, occupation, income, family, and main objectives of tourism with behaviors of Chinese tourists in Bangkok towards travel and shopping in Bangkok.

Keywords: tourists’ behavior, Chinese tourists, travelling, expenses in travels

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
2875 A Study of the Assistant Application for Tourists Taking Metros

Authors: Anqi Wang, Linye Zhang

Abstract:

With the proliferation and development of mobile devices, various mobile apps have appeared to satisfy people’s needs. Metro, with the feature of convenient, punctuality and economic, is one of the most popular modes of transportation in cities. Yet, there are still some inconveniences brought by various factors, impacting tourists’ riding experience. The aim of this study is to help tourists to shorten the time of purchasing tickets, to provide them clear metro information and direct navigation, detailed schedule as well as a way to collect metro cards as souvenir. The study collects data through three phases, including observation, survey and test. Data collected from 106 tourists totally in Wuhan metro stations are discussed in the study. The result reflects tourists’ demand when they take the metro. It also indicates the feasibility of using mobile technology to improve passenger’s experience.

Keywords: mobile app, metro, public transportation, ticket, mobile payment, indoors positioning, tourists

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2874 Factors That Influence Decision Making of Foreign Volunteer Tourists in Thailand

Authors: Paramet Damchoo

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to study the factors that influence the decision making of foreign volunteer tourists in Thailand. A sample size was 400 drawn from 10 provinces of Thailand using cluster sampling method. The factor analysis was used to analysis the data. The findings indicate that volunteer tourism which was based in Thailand contained a total of 45 activities which could be divided into 4 categories. The most of these tourists were from Europe including UK and Scandinavia which was 54.50 percent. Moreover, the tourists were male rather than female and 63.50 Percent of them ware younger than 20 years old. It is also found that there are 67.00 percent of the tourists used website to find where the volunteer tourism was based. Finally, the factors that influence the decision making of foreign volunteer tourists in Thailand consist of a wide variety of activities together with a flexibility in their activities and also low prices.

Keywords: decision making, volunteer tourism, special interest tourism, GAP year

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
2873 The International Tourists' Perception towards Satisfactions Factor and Thai Economy

Authors: Supaporn Prajongjai, Pannarungsri Inpayoung

Abstract:

This research attempts to explore the perception and satisfaction of international tourists toward Thai economy, politics and Bangkok attributes. Due to tourism industry provides a high rate of revenue for Thailand, and the outcome from this business drives every section of Thailand such as business, residents’ living level. Unfortunately, some incidents in the country, such as some turmoil, have ruined the city’s image which obviously impacts to the tourism industry, the major source of revenue. The size of this research was 400 international tourists who visit Bangkok, Thailand during the 1st – 20th March 2009 and age between 20 – 65 years. The results reveal that tourists satisfy with all of Bangkok’s attributes including general attractions, heritage attraction, maintenance factors and cultural attraction. Also, tourists’ perception toward Thai politics is significantly related to their satisfaction of Bangkok’s attributes, but their perception toward Thai economy is not significantly correlated to their satisfaction of Bangkok’s attributes.

Keywords: international tourists' perception, tourists' satisfactions, Thai economy, tourism destination

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
2872 A Case Study on the Tourists' Satisfaction: Local Gastronomy in Pagudpud, Ilocos Norte

Authors: Reysand Mae A. Abapial, Christine Claire Z. Agra, Quenna Lyn V. De Guzman, Marielle Arianne Joyce Q. Hojilla, John Joseph A. Tiangco

Abstract:

The study focused on the assessment of the tourists’ satisfaction on the local gastronomy in Pagudpud, Ilocos Norte as a tourist destination as perceived by 100 tourists visiting the tourist destination, which is determined through convenient random sampling. Mean, percentage frequency and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used in the collection of data. The results revealed that the tourists agree that the local establishments offering local cuisines are accessible in terms of the location, internet visibility and facilities for persons-with-disabilities. The tourist are also willing to pay for the local food because it is attainable, budget-friendly, worthy for an expensive price, satisfies the cravings, reflects the physical appearance of the establishment and its quantity is reasonable based on the price. However, the tourists disagree that the local food completes their overall experience as tourists and it does not have the potential to satisfy all types of tourists. Recommendations for the enhancement of the local cuisine and implications for future research are discussed.

Keywords: gastronomy, local gastronomy, tourist satisfaction, Pagudpud

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2871 Satisfaction of International Tourists during Their Visit to Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Bovornluck Kuosuwan, Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

The purposes of this research was to study the level of satisfaction of international tourists in five important areas: satisfaction on visiting tourist destinations, satisfaction on tourist images, satisfaction on value for money, satisfaction on service quality, and satisfaction when compared with their expectation. A probability random sampling of 200 inbound tourists was utilized. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and small in-depth interviews were also used to get their opinions about their positive and negative evaluations of their experience travelling in Thailand. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents had a medium level of satisfaction. When examined in detail, the level of satisfaction can be ranked from highest to lowest according to the mean average as follows: visiting tourist destinations, expectations, service quality, tourist image, and value for money.

Keywords: inbound tourists, satisfaction, Thailand, international tourists

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2870 A Study of the Travel Motivations of International Tourists in Visiting Thailand: A Case Study of Phuket

Authors: Suphaporn Rattanaphinanchai

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to 1) describe and analyze the travel motivations of tourists visiting Phi Phi Islands after the Tsunami in 2004 and 2) to better understand whether there are significant differences in the tourists’ motivations in visiting Phi Phi Island after the Tsunami hit across tourists with different demographic profile. This study used Phi Phi Islands, which was damaged by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami as a case study. The instrument used in the present study is a self-administered questionnaire. A survey with 200 questionnaires was collected in May - December, 2015. Descriptive statistics, Independent Sample Mean T-tests, and Analysis of Variances was used to analyze the data. The result of the study showed that beauty of nature, good climate, and relaxing atmosphere motivated tourists in visiting Phi Phi Islands after the tsunami.

Keywords: motivation, Thailand, Thai tourism, Thai beaches

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2869 The Effect of Religious Tourist Motivation and Satisfaction on Behavioral Intention

Authors: Tao Zhang, Nan Yan

Abstract:

In recent years, the Chaoshan area, a special place located in the southeast of Guangdong province in China, actively protects religious heritage and is developing religious tourism, which is attracting many expatriate Chinese who are coming back for travel and to worship. This paper discussed three questions. Firstly, what is the current situation about the different social background of tourists’ motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention? Secondly, is there a relationship between the motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention and the different social backgrounds of tourists? Thirdly, what is the relationship between religious tourists’ motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention? The research methods use a combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis uses the method of observation and interviews. Convenient sampling technique was used for quantitative analysis. The study showed that the different social backgrounds of tourists’ forms diverse cognition and experiences about religious tourism, and their motivations, satisfaction and behavioral intention as tourists vary. Tourists’ motivation and satisfaction has a positive phase relation. Tourists’ motivation with satisfaction as the intervening variable also has a positive phase effect on tourists’ behavior intention. The result shows that religious tourists’ motivations include experiencing a religious atmosphere, and having a rest and recreation. The result also shows that religious tourists want to travel with their family members and friends. While traveling, religious tourists like to talk with Buddhist monks or nuns. Compared to other tourism types, religious tourists have higher expectations about temple environment, traveling experience, peripheral service and temple management.

Keywords: behavioral intension, motivation, religious tourism, satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2868 The Satisfaction of International Tourists toward Thai Economy and Bangkok's Attributes

Authors: Ladaporn Pithuk

Abstract:

This research attempts to explore the satisfaction of international tourists toward Thai economy and Bangkok attributes. Due to tourism industry provides high rate of revenue for Thailand, and the outcome from this business drives every sections of Thailand. Unfortunately, some incidents in the country, such as some turmoil, have ruined the city’s image which obviously impacts to tourism industry. Hence, this survey was established to better understand the tourist’s satisfaction in these matters. The size of this research was 400 international tourists who visit Bangkok, Thailand during the 1st – 20th March 2009 and age between 20 – 65 years. The results reveal that tourists satisfy with all of Bangkok’s attributes including general attractions, heritage attraction, maintenance factors and cultural attraction. Also, tourists’ perception toward Thai politics is significantly related to their satisfaction of Bangkok’s attributes but their perception toward Thai economy is not significantly correlated to their satisfaction of Bangkok’s attributes.

Keywords: Bangkok’s attributes, satisfaction of international tourists, Thai economy, and tourism industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
2867 An Investigation of Tourists’ Destination Loyalty: A Case Study of Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Sukritta Larsen, Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to study tourists’ destination loyalty from the perspective of international tourists in Bangkok and to study the level of interest to revisit Bangkok in the near future. A probability random sampling of 200 international tourists was utilized. Half of the sample group was male and the other half was female. A Likert-five-scale questionnaire was designed to collect the data and small in-depth interviews were also used to obtain their opinions. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents had a medium level of loyalty. When examined in detail, the destination loyalty indicators can be ranked according to the mean average from high to low as follows: to recommend the visit, to say positive things, to revisit in the next three years, to refer the information, and to plan to visit regularly. Finally, the findings from the in-depth interviews with small group of international tourists revealed that the major obstacles that prevented many international tourists who may interested in revisiting Thailand included traffic congestions, high crime rate, and political instability.

Keywords: destination loyalty, international tourists, revisit, Bangkok

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2866 The Study of Information Uses Behaviour of Tourists in Songkhla Province, Thailand

Authors: Patraporn Kaewkhanitarak, Suchada Srichuar, Narawat Kanjanapan

Abstract:

This research is the survey research. The purpose of this research is to study information uses behavior and problem of tourists in Songkhla Province. The tool used in this study include structure questioner standardize in 5 levels rating scale. The 400 participants selected by convenience sampling (allowable error 5%) by Taro Yamane method. The collecting data period is 6 months from January-June 2014. The result of this study found that the type of information that the tourists often use to plan their trip is internet (x̅ = 3.81) and the most popular text is restaurant (x̅ = 3.77). The tourists found that booking or buying service from internet provided more affordable price and they could select appropriate plan by themselves. The most convenience source of information that the tourists often use is internet and website (x̅ = 3.69). Nevertheless, they explained that most of tourist information source in Songkhla province are lack and insufficient of tourist organization that provide information and service related to tourism.

Keywords: information, behavior, tourists, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2865 Window Display Design of Thai Craft Product Affecting Perceptions of Thai and Foreign Tourists

Authors: Kanokwan Somoon, Chumporn Moorapun

Abstract:

A product’s perceived value may increase purchase intention. Value perceptions may differ among cultures. Window displays can be used to increase products’ information and value. This study aims to investigate the relationship between window display design elements and value perceptions of local products between two different cultures. The research methodology is based on survey research. Several window displays in favorite of tourist spots were selected as a unit of study. Also, 100 tourists (56 Thai tourists and 44 foreign tourists) were asked to complete a questionnaire. T-Tests were used to analyze the comparison. Then, the results were compared to Thai and foreign tourists. Finally, the results find that Thai and foreign tourists have different perception towards three design elements that are size of the window, props and colour lighting. The differences of their perceptions signify the different cultural values they adhere to.

Keywords: cross-culture, window display, Thai craft product, environmental perception

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2864 Behavior of Foreign Tourists Visited Wat Phrachetuponwimolmangkalaram

Authors: Pranee Pathomchaiwat

Abstract:

This research aims to study tourism data and behavior of foreign tourists visited Wat Phrachetuponwimolmangkalaram (Wat Po) Sample groups are tourists who visited inside the temple, during February, March, April and May 2013. Tools used in the research are questionnaires constructed by the researcher, and samples are dawn by Convenience sampling. There are 207 foreign tourists who are willing to be respondents. Statistics used are percentage, average mean and standard deviation. The results of the research reveal that: A. General Data of Respondents: The foreign tourists who visited the temple are mostly female (57.5 %), most respondents are aged between 20-29 years (37.2%). Most respondents live in Europe (62.3%), most of them got the Bachelor’s degree (40.1%), British are mostly found (16.4%), respondents who are students are also found (23.2%), and Christian are mostly found (60.9%). B. Tourists’ Behavior While Visiting the Temple Compound: The result shows that the respondents came with family (46.4%), have never visited the temples (40.6%), and visited once (42 %). It is found that the foreign tourists’ inappropriate behavior are wearing revealing attires (58.9%), touching or getting closed to the monks (55.1%), and speaking loudly (46.9%) respectively. The respondents’ outstanding objectives are to visit inside the temple (57.5%), to pay respect to the Reclining Buddha Image in the Viharn (44.4%) and to worship the Buddha image in the Phra Ubosod (37.7%) respectively. C. The Respondents’ Self-evaluation of Performance: It is found that over all tourists evaluated themselves in the highest level averaged 4.40. When focusing on each item, it is shown that they evaluated themselves in the highest level on obeying the temple staff averaged 4.57, and cleanness concern of the temple averaged 4.52, well-behaved performance during the temple visit averaged 4.47 respectively.

Keywords: deportment, traveler, foreign tourists, temple

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2863 South Korean Tourists' Expectation, Satisfaction and Loyalty Relationship

Authors: Tolga Gok, Kursad Sayin

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between expectation, satisfaction and loyalty of South Korean tourists visiting Turkey. In the research, a questionnaire was used as a data collecting tool. The questionnaires are filled by South Korean tourists coming to Turkey through package tours and individual. The survey was conducted in 2014 in Nevsehir (Cappadocia Region) and Istanbul. Tourist guides and agency staff have helped the implementation of surveys. The survey questions are composed of 4 parts, which are “demographic characteristics of tourists”, “travel behavior characteristics”, “perception of expectations on destination attributes” and “perception of destination loyalty”. 5-point Likert type scale including 28 destination attributes was used to measure the expectations of South Korean tourists coming to Turkey. Questions were directed to the tourists to measure the destination loyalty. The questions relating to destination loyalty are “Talking about Turkey to others”, “Recommendation Turkey to others” and “Tourists’ intentions to revisit Turkey”. The basic hypothesis of the research is that there is a statistically significant relationship among expectations, satisfactions and destination loyalty of South Korean tourists coming to Turkey. The results indicated that the expectation had a significant effect on overall satisfaction. In addition, it was seen that between overall satisfaction of tourists and destination loyalty had a significant relationship. Based on findings, some suggestions for tour operators and travel agencies were made.

Keywords: tourist expectation, tourist satisfaction, destination loyalty, destination attributes

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2862 An Importance of Tourists’ Destination Loyalty: A Case Study of Inbound Tourists Visiting Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Niyom Suwandej, Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to study an importance of tourists’ destination loyalty from the perspective of inbound tourists visiting Bangkok and to study their level of interest to recommend as a tourist destination to others. A probability random sampling of 200 inbound tourists was utilized. The design of sampling was to collect half male and half female sample. A Likert-five-scale questionnaire was developed to collect the data. In addition, in-depth interviews were also used to obtain their perspective and experience of visiting Thailand. The findings disclosed that positive tourist perception influenced destination loyalty. Also, the majority of respondents had a high level of loyalty. When examined in detail, the destination loyalty indicators can be ranked according to the mean average from high to low as follows: to recommend the destination, to say positive thing about the destination, to plan to visit the destination in the near future, to acquire more information about the destination, and to spend more money at the destination.

Keywords: destination loyalty, inbound tourists, impact, Thailand

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2861 Antecedents and Loyalty of Foreign Tourists towards Attractions in Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Thailand

Authors: Arunroong Wongkungwan

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the influence of selected antecedents, which were tourists’ satisfaction towards attractions in Bangkok, perceived value of the attractions, feelings of engagement with the attractions, acquaintance with the attractions, push factors, pull factors and motivation to seek novelty, on foreign tourist’s loyalty towards tourist attractions in Bangkok. By using multi stage sampling technique, 400 international tourists were sampled. After that, Semi Structural Equation Model was utilized in the analysis stage by LISREL. The Semi Structural Equation Model of the selected antecedents of tourist’s loyalty attractions had a correlation with the empirical data through the following statistical descriptions: Chi- square = 3.43, df = 4, P- value = 0.48893; RMSEA = 0.000; CFI = 1.00; CN = 1539.75; RMR = 0.0022; GFI = 1.00 and AGFI = 0.98. The findings indicated that all antecedents were able together to predict the loyalty of the foreign tourists who visited Bangkok at 73 percent.

Keywords: antecedent, Bangkok, foreign tourists, loyalty, tourist attractions

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2860 Evaluating the Probability of Foreign Tourists' Return to the City of Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahnama, Amir Ali Kharazmi, Safiye Rokni

Abstract:

The tourism industry will be the most important unlimited, sustainable source of income after the oil and automotive industries by 2020 and not only countries, but cities are striving to apprehend its various facets. In line with this objective, the present descriptive-analytical study, through survey and using a questionnaire, seeks to evaluate the probability of tourists’ return and their recommendation to their countrymen to travel to Mashhad, Iran. The population under study is a sample of 384 foreign tourists who, in 2016, arrived at Mashhad, the second metropolis in Iran and its biggest religious city. The Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to analyze the data. Twenty-six percent of the tourists are female and 74% are male. On average, each tourist has had 3.02 trips abroad and 2.1 trips to Mashhad. Tourists from 14 different countries have arrived at Mashhad. Kuwait (15.9%), Armenia (15.6%), and Iraq (10.9%) were the countries where most tourists originated. Seventy-six percent of the tourists traveled with family and 90% of the tourists arrived at Mashhad via airplane. Major purposes of tourists’ trip include pilgrimage (27.9%), treatment (22.1%) followed by pilgrimage and treatment combined (35.4%). Major issues for tourists, in the order of priority, include quality of goods and services (30.2%), shopping (18%), and inhabitants’ treatment of foreigners (15.9%). Main tourist attractions, in addition to the Holy Shrine of Imam Reza, include Torqabeh and Shandiz (Torqabeh 40.9% and Shandiz 29.9%), Neyshabour (18.2%) followed by Kalat, 4.4%. The average willingness to return among tourists is 3.13, which is higher than the mean 3, indicating satisfaction with the stay in Mashhad. Similarly, the average for tourists’ recommending to their countrymen to visit Mashhad is 3.42, which is also an indicator of tourists’ satisfaction with their presence in Mashhad. According to the findings of the Kaplan-Meier estimator, an increase in the number of tourists’ trips to Mashhad, and an increase in the number of tourists’ foreign trips, reduces the probability of recommending a trip to Mashhad by tourists. Similarly, willingness to return is higher among those who stayed at a relatives’ home compared with other patterns of residence (hotels, self-catering accommodation, and pilgrim houses). Therefore, addressing the issues raised by tourists is essential for their return and their recommendation to others to travel to Mashhad.

Keywords: international tourist, probability of return, satisfaction, Mashhad

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2859 Analyzing the Perceived Relationship between Motivation and Satisfaction for Rural Tourists in a Digital World

Authors: N. P. Tsephe, S. D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

Rural tourism is usually associated with rural development because it has strong linkages to rural resources; but it remains underdeveloped compared to urban tourism. This underdevelopment of rural tourism serves as a motivation for this study whose aim is to examine the factors affecting the perceived satisfaction of rural tourists. The objectives of this study are: to identify and design theories and models on rural tourism satisfaction, and to empirically validate these models and theories through a survey of tourists from the Malealea Lodge which is located in the Mafeteng District, in the Mountain Kingdom of Lesotho. Data generated by the collection of questionnaires used by this survey was analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics and correlations in SPSS after checking the validity and the reliability of the questionnaire. The main hypothesis behind this study is the relationship between the demographics of rural tourists, the motivation, and their satisfaction of tourists, as supported by existing literature; except that motivation is measured in this study according to three dimensions: push factors, pull factors, and perceived usefulness of ICT's in the rural tourism experience. Findings from this study indicate that among the demographics factors, continent of origin and marital status influence the satisfaction of rural tourists; and their occupation affects their perceptions on the use of ICT's in rural tourism. Moreover, only pull factors were found to influence the satisfaction of rural tourists.

Keywords: digital world, motivation, rural tourism, satisfaction

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2858 European and Scandinavian Tourists' Perceptions and Desire to Travel in Ranong Province

Authors: Wipanee Maen-In

Abstract:

The objectives of the research are i) to study the motivations of european and scandinavian tourists who select Ranong province as their destinations ii) to study their perception towards the Ranong Province and iii) to study the visitors’ decision making while visiting Ranong Province. The samples of the study are 220 European and Scandinavian tourists’ visitors at the Ranong by accidental sampling and in clouding online questionnaires for 53 sampling. The data analysis includes Percentage, Frequency and One-way ANOVA. The findings from the research are the motivation level of the visitors is considered prominent, the average score of the motivational factors ranks higher than the average of the pull factors to visit the Ranong province when considering the factors analysis, the research shows that the reason that most tourists visit the Ranong is for relaxation while the purity of the natural mineral hot springs is the most important pull factor.

Keywords: European and Scandinavian, Ranong province, tourists’ perceptions, visitors’ decision making

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2857 The Hotel Logging Behavior and Factors of Tourists in Bankontee District, Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand

Authors: Aticha Kwaengsopha

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the behaviour and related factors that tourists utilized for making decisions to choose their accommodations at a tourist destination, Bangkontee district, Samut Songkhran Province, Thailand. The independent variables included gender, age, income, occupation, and region, while the three important dependent variables included selection behaviour, factors related selection process, and satisfaction of the accommodation service. A total of 400 Thai and international tourists were interviewed at tourist destination of Bangkontee. A questionnaire was used as the tool for collecting data. Descriptive statistics in this research included percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents were single, female, and with the age between 23-30 years old. Most of the international tourists were from Asia and planned to stay in Thailand about 1-6 days. In addition, the majority of tourists preferred to travel in small groups of 3 persons. The majority of respondents used internet and word of mouth as the main tool to search for information. The majority of respondents spent most of their budget on food & drink, accommodation, and travelling. Even though the majority of tourists were satisfied with the quality of accommodation, the price range of accommodation, and the image of accommodation and the facilities of the accommodation, they indicated that they were not likely to re-visit Thailand in the near future.

Keywords: behaviour, decision factors, tourists, media engineering

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2856 Perceived and Projected Images of Algeria: A Comparison Study

Authors: Nour-Elhouda Lecheheb

Abstract:

Destination image is one of the main factors that influence potential visitors' decision choice. This study aims to explore the pre-visit perception of prior British tourists and compare them to the actual projected images of the Algerian tourism suppliers. Semi-structured interviews are conducted with both prior British tourists to Algeria and the Algerian tourism suppliers in 2019. The findings of this study suggest how the Algerian tourism suppliers might benefit from understanding the perceived image of prior tourists to match tourists' expectations and better plan their projected images.

Keywords: Algeria, destination choice, destination image, perceived image, projected image

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2855 Companies and Transplant Tourists to China

Authors: Pavel Porubiak, Lukas Kudlacek

Abstract:

Introduction Transplant tourism is a controversial method of obtaining an organ, and that goes all the more for a country such as China, where sources of evidence point out to the possibility of organs being harvested illegally. This research aimed at listing the individual countries these tourists come from, or which medical companies sell transplant related products in there, with China being used as an example. Materials and methods The methodology of scoping study was used for both parts of the research. The countries from which transplant tourists come to China were identified by a search through existing medical studies in the NCBI PubMed database, listed under the keyword ‘transplantation in China’. The search was not limited by any other criteria, but only the studies available for free – directly on PubMed or a linked source – were used. Other research studies on this topic were considered as well. The companies were identified through multiple methods. The first was an online search focused on medical companies and their products. The Bloomberg Service, used by stock brokers worldwide, was then used to identify the revenue of these companies in individual countries – if data were available – as well as their business presence in China. A search through the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission was done in the same way. Also a search on the Chinese internet was done, and to obtain more results, a second online search was done as well. The results and discussion The extensive search has identified 14 countries with transplant tourists to China. The search for a similar studies or reports resulted in finding additional six countries. The companies identified by our research also amounted to 20. Eight of them are sourcing China with organ preservation products – of which one is just trying to enter the Chinese market, six with immunosuppressive drugs, four with transplant diagnostics, one with medical robots which Chinese doctors use for transplantation as well, and another one trying to enter the Chinese market with a consumable-type product also related to transplantation. The conclusion The question of the ethicality of transplant tourism may be very pressing, since as the research shows, just the sheer amount of participating countries, sourcing transplant tourists to another one, amounts to 20. The identified companies are facing risks due to the nature of transplantation business in China, as officially executed prisoners are used as sources, and widely cited pieces of evidence point out to illegal organ harvesting. Similar risks and ethical questions are also relevant to the countries sourcing the transplant tourists to China.

Keywords: China, illegal organ harvesting, transplant tourism, organ harvesting technology

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