Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5764

Search results for: international medical travel (IMT)

5764 Moving beyond Medical Tourism: An Analysis of Intra-Regional Medical Mobility in the Global South

Authors: Tyler D. Cesarone, Tatiana M. Wugalter

Abstract:

The movement of patients from the Global North to the Global South in pursuit of inexpensive healthcare and touristic experiences dominates the academic discourse on international medical travel (IMT). However, medical travel exists in higher numbers between Global South countries as patients who lack trust in, and feel disenfranchised by, their national healthcare systems seek treatment in nearby countries. Through a review of the existing literature, this paper examines patterns of IMT in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Southern Africa, distinguishing North-South medical tourism from South-South intra-regional medical mobility (IRMM). Evidence from these case studies demonstrates that notions of medical distrust and disenfranchisement, rooted in low-resourced and poor quality healthcare systems, are key drivers of IRMM in the Global South. The movement of patients from lower income to proximate higher income countries not only reveals tensions between patients and their healthcare systems but widens gaps in the quality of healthcare between departing and destination countries. In analyzing these cross-regional similarities, the paper moves beyond the current literature’s focus on singular case studies to expose global patterns of South-South IRMM. This presents a shift from the traditional focus on North-South medical tourism, demonstrating how disparities in healthcare systems both influence and are influenced by IRMM.

Keywords: global South, healthcare quality, international medical travel (IMT), intra-regional medical mobility (IRMM), medical disenfranchisement, medical distrust, medical tourism

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5763 International Tourists’ Travel Motivation by Push-Pull Factors and Decision Making for Selecting Thailand as Destination Choice

Authors: Siripen Yiamjanya, Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

This research paper aims to identify travel motivation by push and pull factors that affected decision making of international tourists in selecting Thailand as their destination choice. A total of 200 international tourists who traveled to Thailand during January and February, 2014 were used as the sample in this study. A questionnaire was employed as a tool in collecting the data, conducted in Bangkok. The list consisted of 30 attributes representing both psychological factors as “push- based factors” and destination factors as “pull-based factors”. Mean and standard deviation were used in order to find the top ten travel motives that were important determinants in the respondents’ decision making process to select Thailand as their destination choice. The finding revealed the top ten travel motivations influencing international tourists to select Thailand as their destination choice included [i] getting experience in foreign land; [ii] Thai food; [iii] learning new culture; [iv] relaxing in foreign land; [v] wanting to learn new things; [vi] being interested in Thai culture, and traditional markets; [vii] escaping from same daily life; [viii] enjoying activities; [ix] adventure; and [x] good weather. Classification of push- based and pull- based motives suggested that getting experience in foreign land was the most important push motive for international tourists to travel, while Thai food portrayed its highest significance as pull motive. Discussion and suggestions were also made for tourism industry of Thailand.

Keywords: decision making, destination choice, international tourist, pull factor, push factor, Thailand, travel motivation

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5762 Determinants of Travel to Western Countries by Kuwaiti Nationals

Authors: Yvette Reisinger

Abstract:

Relatively little is known about the Arab travel market, especially the outbound travel market from Arab countries in the Middle East. The Kuwaiti travel market is the smallest yet fastest growing in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. The Kuwaiti travel market represents a great potential for the international tourism industry. Kuwaiti nationals have a very high spending power due to the Kuwaiti dinar being the highest-valued currency unit in the world. Although Europe, North America, and Asia/Pacific try to attract the Arab tourist market the number of Kuwaiti travellers attracted to these destinations is very low. The success in attracting the Kuwaiti travel market to Western countries must be guided by an analysis of the factors that affect its travel decisions. The objective of the study is to identify major factors that influence Kuwaiti nationals’ intentions to travel to Western countries. A model is developed and empirically tested on a sample of 343 Kuwaiti nationals. A series of regression analyses are run to determine the effects of different factors on Kuwaiti’s travel decisions. A Herman’s single factor test and Durbin-Watson test are used to assess the validity of the regression model. Analysis is controlled for socio-demographics. The results show that the Muslim friendly amenities and destination cognitive image exert significant effects on Kuwaiti nationals’ intentions to travel to Western countries. The study provides a better understanding of the factors that attract Kuwaiti tourists to Western countries. By knowing what encourages Kuwaitis to travel to Western countries marketers can plan and promote these countries accordingly. The study provides a foundation of future empirical research into the Kuwaiti/Arab travel market.

Keywords: Kuwaiti travel market, travel decisions, Western countries

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5761 Japanese English in Travel Brochures

Authors: Premvadee Na Nakornpanom

Abstract:

This study investigates the role and impact of English loan words on Japanese language in travel brochures. The issues arising from a potential switch to English as a tool to absorb the West’s advanced knowledge and technology in the modernization of Japan to a means of linking Japan with the rest of the world and enhancing the country’s international presence. Sociolinguistic contexts were used to analyze data collected from the Nippon Travel agency "HIS"’s brochures in Thailand, revealing that English plays the most important role as lexical gap fillers and special effect givers. An increasing mixer of English to Japanese affects how English is misused, the way the Japanese see the world and the present generation’s communication gap.

Keywords: English, Japanese, loan words, travel brochure

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5760 An Empirical Study on the Impact of Peace in Tourists' Country of Origin on Their Travel Behavior

Authors: Claudia Seabra, Elisabeth Kastenholz, José Luís Abrantes, Manuel Reis

Abstract:

In a world of increasing mobility and global risks, terrorism has, in a perverse way, capitalized on contemporaneous society’s growing interest in travel to explore a world whose national boundaries and distances have decreased. Terrorists have identified the modern tourist flows originated from the economically more developed countries as new appealing targets so as to: i) call attention to the causes they defend and ii) destroy a country’s foundations of tourism, with the final aim of disrupting the economic and consequently social fabric of the affected countries. The present study analyses sensitivity towards risk and travel behaviors in international travel amongst a sample of 600 international tourists from 49 countries travelling by air. Specifically, the sample was segmented according to the Global Peace Index. This index defines country profiles regarding the levels of peace. The indicators used are established over three broad themes: i) ongoing domestic and international conflict; ii) societal safety and security; and iii) militarisation. Tourists were segmented, according to their country of origin, in different levels of peacefulness. Several facets of travel behavior were evaluated, namely motivations, attitude towards trip planning, quality perception and perceived value of the trip. Also factors related with risk perception were evaluated, specifically terrorism risk perception during the trip, unsafety sensation as well as importance attributed to safety in travel. Results contribute to our understanding of the role of previous exposure to the lack of peace and safety at home in the international tourists behaviors, which is further discussed in terms of tourism management and marketing implications which should particularly interest tourism services and destinations more affected by terrorism, war, political turmoil, crime and other safety risks.

Keywords: terrorism, tourism, safety, risk perception

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5759 Issues in Travel Demand Forecasting

Authors: Huey-Kuo Chen

Abstract:

Travel demand forecasting including four travel choices, i.e., trip generation, trip distribution, modal split and traffic assignment constructs the core of transportation planning. In its current application, travel demand forecasting has associated with three important issues, i.e., interface inconsistencies among four travel choices, inefficiency of commonly used solution algorithms, and undesirable multiple path solutions. In this paper, each of the three issues is extensively elaborated. An ideal unified framework for the combined model consisting of the four travel choices and variable demand functions is also suggested. Then, a few remarks are provided in the end of the paper.

Keywords: travel choices, B algorithm, entropy maximization, dynamic traffic assignment

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5758 Providing Health Promotion Information by Digital Animation to International Visitors in Japan: A Factorial Design View of Nurses

Authors: Mariko Nishikawa, Masaaki Yamanaka, Ayami Kondo

Abstract:

Background: International visitors to Japan are at a risk of travel-related illnesses or injury that could result in hospitalization in a country where the language and customs are unique. Over twelve million international visitors came to Japan in 2015, and more are expected leading up to the Tokyo Olympics. One aspect of this is the potentially greater demand on healthcare services by foreign visitors. Nurses who take care of them have anxieties and concerns of their knowledge of the Japanese health system. Objectives: An effective distribution of travel-health information is vital for facilitating care for international visitors. Our research investigates whether a four-minute digital animation (Mari Info Japan), designed and developed by the authors and applied to a survey of 513 nurses who take care of foreigners daily, could clarify travel health procedures, reduce anxieties, while making it enjoyable to learn. Methodology: Respondents to a survey were divided into two groups. The intervention group watched Mari Info Japan. The control group read a standard guidebook. The participants were requested to fill a two-page questionnaire called Mari Meter-X, STAI-Y in English and mark a face scale, before and after the interventions. The questions dealt with knowledge of health promotion, the Japanese healthcare system, cultural concerns, anxieties, and attitudes in Japan. Data were collected from an intervention group (n=83) and control group (n=83) of nurses in a hospital, Japan for foreigners from February to March, 2016. We analyzed the data using Text Mining Studio for open-ended questions and JMP for statistical significance. Results: We found that the intervention group displayed more confidence and less anxiety to take care of foreign patients compared to the control group. The intervention group indicated a greater comfort after watching the animation. However, both groups were most likely to be concerned about language, the cost of medical expenses, informed consent, and choice of hospital. Conclusions: From the viewpoint of nurses, the provision of travel-health information by digital animation to international visitors to Japan was more effective than traditional methods as it helped them be better prepared to treat travel-related diseases and injury among international visitors. This study was registered number UMIN000020867. Funding: Grant–in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research 2010-2012 & 2014-16, Japanese Government.

Keywords: digital animation, health promotion, international visitor, Japan, nurse

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5757 Examining the Challenges Faced by Passengers Using Arik Air for International and Domestic Travel

Authors: Mahmud Hafsat Hussaini, Eldah Ephraim Eldah, Bata Zoakah Amina

Abstract:

This research work was aimed at examining the challenges faced by passengers using Arik air for domestic and international travels. Passengers do complain of delay flights, theft and rude behavior by Arik staff while on transit or in the process of travelling using the aircraft. Being the national carrier in Nigeria these behaviors have tarnished the image of the airline and makes travel experience to be challenging. Hundred survey questionnaires were administered to travellers who have used the airline for domestic and international flights. Findings show that the staff of the airline do lack customer care skills and are sometimes rude to customers. The airline does have different agents that book for international flights who delays confirming bookings even after payment. The website of the airline is mostly down and makes bookings difficult. Other findings related to the study are a delay of domestic flights within Nigeria. Passengers are sometimes kept for 8 hours in the airport due to delay of flights. The study, therefore, recommends that flight schedule should be adhered to and staff should be trained to meet of with passengers demand. The security of guest luggage at the airport should be put in place to avoid theft. An effective booking platform should be accessible to passengers for easy booking.

Keywords: examining, challenges, domestic, international, travels

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5756 Outbound Tourism in Developed Countries: Analysis of the Trends, Behavior and the Transformation of the Moroccan Demand for International Travels

Authors: M. Boukhrouk, R. Ed-Dali

Abstract:

Outbound tourism in Morocco, as in the majority of developing countries, reveals some of the aspects of inequality between the north and the south. Considered by some researchers as one of the facets of the development crisis, access to tourism and especially international tourism is a chance for a small minority with financial means, while the vast portions of the population dream rather of immigrating to a developed country for the sake of improving their standard of living. The right to travel is also limited by visa requirements, procedures in host countries, security and technical measures and creates discrimination in the practice of tourism. These conditions do not seem to be favorable to the democratization of the practice of international tourism for the populations of the southern countries. This paper is a contribution to the reading of the trends of outbound tourism in developing countries through the example of Morocco. It highlights the different aspects of Moroccan outbound tourism, destinations and the behavior of tourists through an analysis of the offer of a sample of 50 travel agencies. In the same vein, it offers a reading grid of the possibilities offered for the development of outbound tourism and the various existing obstacles to the democratization of international outbound tourism in the southern countries. This reading reveals the transformation in the behavior of Moroccan international tourists as well as the profound changes in Moroccan society, through a model of statistical analysis.

Keywords: demand, Hajj, Morocco, outbound tourism, tendency, Umrah

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5755 Thai Travel Agencies, English Communication and AEC: A Case Study

Authors: Nalin Simasathiansophon

Abstract:

This research aims to study English communication of Thai travel agencies and the impact of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) on Thai travel industry. A questionnaire was used in this research. The multi-stage sampling method was also utilized with 474 respondents from 79 Thai travel agencies. Descriptive statistics included percentage, average, and standard deviation. The findings revealed that English communication for most travel agencies was between the poor and intermediate level and therefore improvement is needed, especially the listening and speaking skills. In other words, the majority of respondents needed more training in terms of communicating in English. Since the age average of travel agencies was around 30-39 years, the training technique should integrate communicating skills together, such as stimulating technique or cooperating technique that could encourage travel agencies to use English in communicating with foreigners.

Keywords: travel agencies, English communication, AEC, Thai

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5754 talk2all: A Revolutionary Tool for International Medical Tourism

Authors: Madhukar Kasarla, Sumit Fogla, Kiran Panuganti, Gaurav Jain, Abhijit Ramanujam, Astha Jain, Shashank Kraleti, Sharat Musham, Arun Chaudhury

Abstract:

Patients have often chosen to travel for care — making pilgrimages to academic meccas and state-of-the-art hospitals for sophisticated surgery. This culture is still persistent in the landscape of US healthcare, with hundred thousand of visitors coming to the shores of United States to seek the high quality of medical care. One of the major challenges in this form of medical tourism has been the language barrier. Thus, an Iraqi patient, with immediate needs of communicating the healthcare needs to the treating team in the hospital, may face huge barrier in effective patient-doctor communication, delaying care and even at times reducing the quality. To circumvent these challenges, we are proposing the use of a state-of-the-art tool, Talk2All, which can translate nearly one hundred international languages (and even sign language) in real time. The tool is an easy to download app and highly user friendly. It builds on machine learning principles to decode different languages in real time. We suggest that the use of Talk2All will tremendously enhance communication in the hospital setting, effectively breaking the language barrier. We propose that vigorous incorporation of Talk2All shall overcome practical challenges in international medical and surgical tourism.

Keywords: language translation, communication, machine learning, medical tourism

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5753 The Traveling Business Websites Quality that Effect to Overall Impression of the Tourist in Thailand

Authors: Preecha Phongpeng

Abstract:

The objectives of this research are to assess the prevalence of travel businesses websites in Thailand, investigate and evaluate the quality of travel business websites in Thailand. The sample size includes 323 websites from the population of 1,458 websites. The study covers 4 types of travel business websites including: 78 general travel agents, 30 online reservation travel agents, 205 hotels, 7 airlines, and 3 car-rental companies with nation-wide operation. The findings indicated that e-tourism in Thailand is at its growth stage, with only 13% of travel businesses having websites, 28% of them providing e-mail and the quality of travel business websites in Thailand was at the average level. Seven common problems were found in websites: lack of travel essential information, insufficient transportation information, lack of navigation tools, lack of link pages to other organizations, lack of safety features, unclear online booking functions, and lack of special features also as well.

Keywords: traveling business, website evaluation, e-commerce, e-tourism

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5752 Cultural Tourism in Mexico as a Strategy to Attract Chinese Tourists

Authors: Ruben Molina, Melissa Ochoa

Abstract:

The rapid expansion and facilities that the Chinese government has granted to its inhabitants to travel abroad has brought benefits to the economies of the countries where these tourists travel. Due to the great economic spill that these tourists make in their travels and the great potential they possess, they become one of the most attractive segments in the world, causing countries to seek to attract them for the profits. The Chinese tourist is a tourist who seeks to know the culture, culinary experiences, traditions and folklore of the place where they travel, more than seeking sun and beach. Mexico is a country that has a great mix of tourist products and services, which favors that the tourism offer focuses on the satisfaction of the needs and preferences of the different segments of international tourists who arrive in Mexico: sun and beach tourism and also cultural tourism. Mexico has 51 sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, of which 12 are natural, 37 are cultural and 2 are mixed. Despite the great tourist attraction of the country and the strategic importance of the sector for the economy, Mexico has not managed to have a large number of tourists or income from international tourism for 15 years. One way to increase the travel industry is to attract the Chinese tourist to Mexico, which is considered a priority by countries like the United States, France and Spain due to the advantages they entail. Therefore, this article will describe the tastes, preferences and habits of Chinese tourists coming to the most popular destinations in Mexico through a Likert scale and it will be described which are the most attractive cultural factors in Mexico for the Chinese tourists and will be proposing strategies of attraction for Mexico and its destinations.

Keywords: attraction, Chinese tourist, cultural tourism, strategic, Mexico

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5751 Antecedents and Consequences of Social Media Adoption in Travel and Tourism: Evidence from Customers and Industry

Authors: Mohamed A. Abou-Shouk, Mahamoud M. Hewedi

Abstract:

This study extends technology acceptance model (TAM) to investigate the antecedents and consequences of social media adoption by tourists and travel agents. It compares their perceptions on social media adoption and its consequences. Online survey was addressed to tourists and travel agents for data collection purposes. Structural equation modelling was employed for analysis purposes. The findings revealed that the majority of tourists and travel agents involved in the study believe in the usefulness of social media adoption for travel planning and marketing purposes. They agree that adopting social media could change the attitude of tourists towards specific destination or attraction and influence their purchasing decisions. This study contributes to knowledge by extending TAM and provides some managerial implication to marketers.

Keywords: TAM, social media, travel and tourism, travel agents

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5750 Demand for Domestic Marine and Coastal Tourism and Day Trips on an Island Nation

Authors: John Deely, Stephen Hynes, Mary Cawley, Sarah Hogan

Abstract:

Domestic marine and coastal tourism have increased in importance over the last number of years due to the impacts of international travel, environmental concerns, associated health benefits and COVID-19 related travel restrictions. Consequently, this paper conceptualizes domestic marine and coastal tourism within an economic framework. Two logit models examine the factors that influence participation in the coastal day trips and overnight stays markets, respectively. Two truncated travel cost models are employed to explore trip duration, one analyzing the number of day trips taken and the other examining the number of nights spent in marine and coastal areas. Although a range of variables predicts participation, no one variable had a significant and consistent effect on every model. A division in access to domestic marine and coastal tourism is also observed based on variation in household income. The results also indicate a vibrant day trip market and large consumer surpluses.

Keywords: domestic marine and coastal tourism, day tripper, participation models, truncated travel cost model

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5749 Regression Analysis of Travel Indicators and Public Transport Usage in Urban Areas

Authors: Mehdi Moeinaddini, Zohreh Asadi-Shekari, Muhammad Zaly Shah, Amran Hamzah

Abstract:

Currently, planners try to have more green travel options to decrease economic, social and environmental problems. Therefore, this study tries to find significant urban travel factors to be used to increase the usage of alternative urban travel modes. This paper attempts to identify the relationship between prominent urban mobility indicators and daily trips by public transport in 30 cities from various parts of the world. Different travel modes, infrastructures and cost indicators were evaluated in this research as mobility indicators. The results of multi-linear regression analysis indicate that there is a significant relationship between mobility indicators and the daily usage of public transport.

Keywords: green travel modes, urban travel indicators, daily trips by public transport, multi-linear regression analysis

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5748 Knowledge Management and Tourism: An Exploratory Study Applied to Travel Agents in Egypt

Authors: Mohammad Soliman, Mohamed A. Abou-Shouk

Abstract:

Knowledge management focuses on the development, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information and expertise. It has become an important tool to improve performance in tourism enterprises. This includes improving decision-making, developing customer services, and increasing sales and profits. Knowledge management adoption depends on human, organizational and technological factors. This study aims to explore the concept of knowledge management in travel agents in Egypt. It explores the requirements of adoption and its impact on performance in these agencies. The study targets Category A travel agents in Egypt. The population of the study encompasses Category A travel agents having online presence. An online questionnaire is used to collect data from managers of travel agents. This study is useful for travel agents who are in urgent need to restructure their intermediary role and support their survival in the global travel market. The study sheds light on the requirements of adoption and the expected impact on performance. This could help travel agents identify their situation and the determine the extent to which they are ready to adopt knowledge management. This study is contributing to knowledge by providing insights from the tourism sector in a developing country where the concept of knowledge management is still in its infancy stages.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge management adoption, performance, travel agents

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5747 The Consumer Behavior and Tourism Marketing of International Tourists Visiting Phuket in Thailand

Authors: Wipanee Maen-In

Abstract:

This research aims to study the tourism marketing and the trip behaviors profile of international tourists who visited Phuket in Thailand and study the influence of their selected demographic characters on their selected trip behaviors. The study was conducted through survey by using questionnaires asking 400 sample respondents from international tourists who visited Phuket. The result found out that type of group travel is the key variable that indicates higher and lower daily spending tourists, tourists spend more when they visit with their family. Trip arrangement is the key variables that indicate shorter and longer stay tourists. From these findings, it is recommended that both private and public sectors should make marketing to potential tourists in order to increase tourism revenue and to be a sustainable tourism, all of agencies that involves in Phuket tourism industry should coordinate to satisfy tourists to revisit and recommend Phuket to friends and relatives.

Keywords: consumer behavior, international tourists, Phuket province, tourism marketing

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5746 Travel Time Estimation of Public Transport Networks Based on Commercial Incidence Areas in Quito Historic Center

Authors: M. Fernanda Salgado, Alfonso Tierra, David S. Sandoval, Wilbert G. Aguilar

Abstract:

Public transportation buses usually vary the speed depending on the places with the number of passengers. They require having efficient travel planning, a plan that will help them choose the fast route. Initially, an estimation tool is necessary to determine the travel time of each route, clearly establishing the possibilities. In this work, we give a practical solution that makes use of a concept that defines as areas of commercial incidence. These areas are based on the hypothesis that in the commercial places there is a greater flow of people and therefore the buses remain more time in the stops. The areas have one or more segments of routes, which have an incidence factor that allows to estimate the times. In addition, initial results are presented that verify the hypotheses and that promise adequately the travel times. In a future work, we take this approach to make an efficient travel planning system.

Keywords: commercial incidence, planning, public transport, speed travel, travel time

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5745 An Investigation of Service Quality in Tourism: An Experience of International Tourists in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Sakul Jaariyachamsit, Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to study five perceptions of service quality from international tourists who visited Bangkok, Thailand. The independent variables included gender, age, levels of education, occupation, and income while the dependent variables included their opinion on the service provided by employees in Thai tourism. An accidental random sampling method was utilized to get 215 respondents. The respondents were both male and female in the same proportion and most were between 21-40 years old. Most were married and had a graduate degree. The average income of the respondents was between $20,000-40,000. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents came to Thailand for the first time and spent about 6-8 days in Thailand and preferred to travel in small groups with no children. The five service perceptions of employees in tourism by the international tourists in descending order according to mean were reliable employees, neat and clean employees, polite employees, timely employees, and competent employees.

Keywords: experience, international tourists, service quality, Thailand

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5744 Digital Environment as a Factor of the City's Competitiveness in Attracting Tourists: The Case of Yekaterinburg

Authors: Alexander S. Burnasov, Anatoly V. Stepanov, Maria Y. Ilyushkina

Abstract:

In the conditions of transition to the digital economy, the digital environment of the city becomes one of the key factors of its tourism attractiveness. Modern digital environment makes travelling more accessible, improves the quality of travel services and the attractiveness of many tourist destinations. The digitalization of the industry allows to use resources more efficiently, to simplify business processes, to minimize risks, and to improve travel safety. The city promotion as a tourist destination in the foreign market becomes decisive in the digital environment. Information technologies are extremely important for the functioning of not only any tourist enterprise but also the city as a whole. In addition to solving traditional problems, it is also possible to implement some innovations from the tourism industry, such as the availability of city services in international systems of booking tickets and booking rooms in hotels, the possibility of early booking of theater and museum tickets, the possibility of non-cash payment by cards of international payment systems, Internet access in the urban environment for travelers. The availability of the city's digital services makes it possible to reduce ordering costs, contributes to the optimal selection of tourist products that meet the requirements of the tourist, provides increased transparency of transactions. The users can compare prices, features, services, and reviews of the travel service. The ability to share impressions with friends thousands of miles away directly affects the image of the city. It is possible to promote the image of the city in the digital environment not only through world-scale events (such as World Cup 2018, international summits, etc.) but also through the creation and management of services in the digital environment aimed at supporting tourism services, which will help to improve the positioning of the city in the global tourism market.

Keywords: competitiveness, digital environment, travelling, Yekaterinburg

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5743 Dissecting Big Trajectory Data to Analyse Road Network Travel Efficiency

Authors: Rania Alshikhe, Vinita Jindal

Abstract:

Digital innovation has played a crucial role in managing smart transportation. For this, big trajectory data collected from traveling vehicles, such as taxis through installed global positioning system (GPS)-enabled devices can be utilized. It offers an unprecedented opportunity to trace the movements of vehicles in fine spatiotemporal granularity. This paper aims to explore big trajectory data to measure the travel efficiency of road networks using the proposed statistical travel efficiency measure (STEM) across an entire city. Further, it identifies the cause of low travel efficiency by proposed least square approximation network-based causality exploration (LANCE). Finally, the resulting data analysis reveals the causes of low travel efficiency, along with the road segments that need to be optimized to improve the traffic conditions and thus minimize the average travel time from given point A to point B in the road network. Obtained results show that our proposed approach outperforms the baseline algorithms for measuring the travel efficiency of the road network.

Keywords: GPS trajectory, road network, taxi trips, digital map, big data, STEM, LANCE

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5742 The Effects of Distribution Channels on the Selling Prices of Hotels in Time of Crisis

Authors: Y. Yılmaz, C. Ünal, A. Dursun

Abstract:

Distribution channels play significant role for hotels. Direct and indirect selling options of hotel rooms have been increased especially with the help of new technologies, i.e. hotel’s own web sites and online booking sites. Although these options emerged as tools for diversifying the distribution channels, vast number of hotels -mostly resort hotels- is still heavily dependent upon international tour operators when selling their products. On the other hand, hotel sector is so vulnerable against crises. Economic, political or any other crisis can affect hotels very badly and so it is critical to have the right balance of distribution channel to avoid the adverse impacts of a crisis. In this study, it is aimed to search the impacts of a general crisis on the selling prices of hotels which have different weights of distribution channels. The study was done in Turkey where various crises occurred in 2015 and 2016 which had great negative impacts on Turkish tourism and led enormous occupancy rate and selling price reductions. 112 upscale resort hotel in Antalya, which is the most popular tourism destination of Turkey, joined to the research. According to the results, hotels with high dependency to international tour operators are more forced to reduce their room prices in crisis time compared to the ones which use their own web sites more. It was also found that the decline in room prices is limited for hotels which are working with national tour operators and travel agencies in crisis time.

Keywords: marketing channels, crisis, hotel, international tour operators, online travel agencies

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5741 Demystifying the Legitimacy of the International Court of Justice

Authors: Roger-Claude Liwanga

Abstract:

Over the last seven decades, there has been a proliferation of international tribunals. Yet, they have not received unanimous approval, raising a question about their legitimacy. A legitimate international tribunal is one whose authority to adjudicate international disputes is perceived as justified. Using the case study of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), this article highlights the three criteria that should be considered in assessing the legitimacy of an international tribunal, which include legal, sociological, and moral elements. It also contends that the ICJ cannot claim 'full' legitimacy if any of these components of legitimacy is missing in its decisions. The article further suggests that the legitimacy of the ICJ has a dynamic nature, as litigating parties may constantly change their perception of the court’s authority at any time before, during, or after the judicial process. The article equally describes other factors that can contribute to maintaining the international court’s legitimacy, including fairness and unbiasedness, sound interpretation of international legal norms, and transparency.

Keywords: international tribunals, legitimacy, human rights, international law

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5740 Filipino And Malaysian Travel Bloggers: Adverbial Intensifiers Used in Blog Description

Authors: Arvin Ludovice

Abstract:

The modern way of communicating and connecting people has been in its easiest forms nowadays, one of it is blog. Blogs, nowadays, are truly relevant in informing people of different as aspects, interests, and fields through these blogs. The evidentiality and testimony of collective people are easily been accessed. However, the description of blog in the making is persuading people, choice of language is one—adverbial intensifiers. Measuring the language on a scale of its intensity subdue the intensity per se. The present study determines, scrutinizes and analyses the adverbial intensifiers used in Filipino and Malaysian. The corpus consists of 30 top travel blogs written by Filipinos and 30 top travel blogs written by Malaysian for a total of 60 travel blogs. The application AntConc was utilized to tag the necessary intensifiers. A frequency distribution of the scores is used to identify the most common intensifiers used by travel bloggers from the Philippines and Malaysia. The scale or degree of intensifier is taken from Quirk Degree of Intensifiers as the basis for the functions of intensifiers. The result found that Malaysian travel blogs are more expressive with the use of the adverbial intensifiers vis-à-vis Filipino travel bloggers, consequently, ranking of the intensifiers, boosters are most used one in expressing and utilizing the language choice a more. The conclusion states that Malaysian travel bloggers are of using the functionality of the adverbial intensifiers. The distinction on the pedagogical implications are hereunto stated as well to deepen and give its significant and importance in language teaching.

Keywords: adverbial intensifiers, blogs, Filipino and Malaysian blogs, AntConc

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5739 Early Modern Controversies of Mobility within the Spanish Empire: Francisco De Vitoria and the Peaceful Right to Travel

Authors: Beatriz Salamanca

Abstract:

In his public lecture ‘On the American Indians’ given at the University of Salamanca in 1538-39, Francisco de Vitoria presented an unsettling defense of freedom of movement, arguing that the Spanish had the right to travel and dwell in the New World, since it was considered part of the law of nations [ius gentium] that men enjoyed free mutual intercourse anywhere they went. The principle of freedom of movement brought hopeful expectations, promising to bring mankind together and strengthen the ties of fraternity. However, it led to polemical situations when those whose mobility was in question represented a harmful threat or was for some reason undesired. In this context, Vitoria’s argument has been seen on multiple occasions as a justification of the expansion of the Spanish empire. In order to examine the meaning of Vitoria’s defense of free mobility, a more detailed look at Vitoria’s text is required, together with the study of some of his earliest works, among them, his commentaries on Thomas Aquinas’s Summa Theologiae, where he presented relevant insights on the idea of the law of nations. In addition, it is necessary to place Vitoria’s work in the context of the intellectual tradition he belonged to and the responses he obtained from some of his contemporaries who were concerned with similar issues. The claim of this research is that the Spanish right to travel advocated by Vitoria was not intended to be interpreted in absolute terms, for it had to serve the purpose of bringing peace and unity among men, and could not contradict natural law. In addition, Vitoria explicitly observed that the right to travel was only valid if the Spaniards caused no harm, a condition that has been underestimated by his critics. Therefore, Vitoria’s legacy is of enormous value as it initiated a long lasting discussion regarding the question of the grounds under which human mobility could be restricted. Again, under Vitoria’s argument it was clear that this freedom was not absolute, but the controversial nature of his defense of Spanish mobility demonstrates how difficult it was and still is to address the issue of the circulation of peoples across frontiers, and shows the significance of this discussion in today’s globalized world, where the rights and wrongs of notions like immigration, international trade or foreign intervention still lack sufficient consensus. This inquiry about Vitoria’s defense of the principle of freedom of movement is being placed here against the background of the history of political thought, political theory, international law, and international relations, following the methodological framework of contextual history of the ‘Cambridge School’.

Keywords: Francisco de Vitoria, freedom of movement, law of nations, ius gentium, Spanish empire

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5738 Research Progress of the Relationship between Urban Rail Transit and Residents' Travel Behavior during 1999-2019: A Scientific Knowledge Mapping Based on Citespace and Vosviewer

Authors: Zheng Yi

Abstract:

Among the attempts made worldwide to foster urban and transport sustainability, transit-oriented development certainly is one of the most successful. Residents' travel behavior is a concern in the researches about the impacts of transit-oriented development. The study takes 620 English journal papers in the core collection database of Web of Science as the study objects; the paper tries to map out the scientific knowledge mapping in the field and draw the basic conditions by co-citation analysis, co-word analysis, a total of citation network analysis and visualization techniques. This study teases out the research hotspots and evolution of the relationship between urban rail transit and resident's travel behavior from 1999 to 2019. According to the results of the analysis of the time-zone view and burst-detection, the paper discusses the trend of the next stage of international study. The results show that in the past 20 years, the research focuses on these keywords: land use, behavior, model, built environment, impact, travel behavior, walking, physical activity, smart card, big data, simulation, perception. According to different research contents, the key literature is further divided into these topics: the attributes of the built environment, land use, transportation network, transportation policies. The results of this paper can help to understand the related researches and achievements systematically. These results can also provide a reference for identifying the main challenges that relevant researches need to address in the future.

Keywords: urban rail transit, travel behavior, knowledge map, evolution of researches

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5737 A Documentary Review of Theoretical and Practical Elements for a Genre Analysis of Thailand Travel Listicles

Authors: Pinyada Santisarun, Yaowaret Tharawoot, Songyut Akkakoson

Abstract:

This paper reports on a literature review sub-study of a larger research project which has been designed to identify the rhetorical organization of a travel writing genre, together with the use of lexical choices, syntactical structures, and graphological features, based on a randomly-selected corpus of Thailand travel listicles. Conducted as a library-based overview, this study aims to specify theoretical and practical elements for the said larger study. The materials for the review have been retrieved from various Internet sources, covering both public search engines and library databases. Generally, the article focuses on answering questions about the ‘what’ and the ‘how’ of such background elements widely discussed in the literature as the meaning of listicles, how the travel listicles’ patterns and regularities can be categorized to form a new genre, the effect of computer-mediated communication on the travel world, the travel language, and the current situation concerning the importance of travel listicles. The theoretical and practical data derived from this study provide valuable insights into the way in which the genre analysis and lexico-syntactical examination of Thailand travel listicles in the present authors’ larger research project can be properly conducted. The data gained can be added to the expanding body of knowledge in the field of the ESP genre.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication, digital writing, genre-based analysis, online travel writing, tourism language

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5736 A Study of the Travel Motivations of International Tourists in Visiting Thailand: A Case Study of Phuket

Authors: Suphaporn Rattanaphinanchai

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to 1) describe and analyze the travel motivations of tourists visiting Phi Phi Islands after the Tsunami in 2004 and 2) to better understand whether there are significant differences in the tourists’ motivations in visiting Phi Phi Island after the Tsunami hit across tourists with different demographic profile. This study used Phi Phi Islands, which was damaged by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami as a case study. The instrument used in the present study is a self-administered questionnaire. A survey with 200 questionnaires was collected in May - December, 2015. Descriptive statistics, Independent Sample Mean T-tests, and Analysis of Variances was used to analyze the data. The result of the study showed that beauty of nature, good climate, and relaxing atmosphere motivated tourists in visiting Phi Phi Islands after the tsunami.

Keywords: motivation, Thailand, Thai tourism, Thai beaches

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5735 The Notion of International Criminal Law: Between Criminal Aspects of International Law and International Aspects of Criminal Law

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

Abstract:

Although international criminal law has grown significantly in the last decades, it still remains fragmented and lacks doctrinal cohesiveness. Its concept is described in the doctrine as highly disputable. There is no concrete definition of the term. In the domestic doctrine, the problem of criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise within the national criminal law, is underdeveloped both theoretically and practically. To the best of author’s knowledge, there are no studies describing international aspects of criminal law in a comprehensive manner, taking a more expansive view of the subject. This paper presents results of a part of the doctoral research, undertaking a theoretical framework of the international criminal law. It aims at sorting out the existing terminology on international aspects of criminal law. It demonstrates differences between the notions of international criminal law, criminal law international and law international criminal. It confronts the notion of criminal law with related disciplines and shows their interplay. It specifies the scope of international criminal law. It diagnoses the current legal framework of international aspects of criminal law, referring to both criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise in the context of national criminal law. Finally, de lege lata postulates were formulated and direction of changes in international criminal law was proposed. The adopted research hypothesis assumed that the notion of international criminal law was inconsistent, not understood uniformly, and there was no conformity as to its place within the system of law, objective and subjective scopes, while the domestic doctrine did not correspond with international standards and differed from the worldwide doctrine. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method, a comparative method, as well as desk research.

Keywords: criminal law, international crimes, international criminal law, international law

Procedia PDF Downloads 135