Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5888

Search results for: local sense of belonging

5888 How Do Undergraduates of Ethnic Minorities Perceive Their Sense of Belonging to School? A Mixed Study in China

Authors: Xiao-Fang Wang

Abstract:

Researchers of educational psychology have proved that students' sense of belonging to school is conducive to their academic achievement, social relations and mental health. However, little attention is paid to undergraduates' sense of belonging, especially, the distinctive student group, i.e., undergraduate students of ethnic minorities. This article utilized a mixed study approach to investigate the perceptions of undergraduates of ethnic minority toward their sense of belonging to school. The findings from qualitative and quantitative data indicate: 1) generally, the sense of belonging to school of ethnic minority undergraduate students was at the middle level. 2) Gender had an important impact on the sense of belonging, and the sense of girls was much larger than boys’. 3) The sense of belonging to school of students who come from city and town was much larger than the one of students who come from the countryside. 4) The category of subjects had significantly effected on the sense of belonging to school, and, the students from social and art science was larger than those from engineer science. The article is concluded with some valuable and relevant suggestions for university' student management activities and teachers' teaching practice.

Keywords: ethnic minority, undergraduate students, sense of belonging, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
5887 Excluded: The Sense of Non-Belonging and Violent Radicalisation in the Case of the United Kingdom

Authors: Lorand Bodo

Abstract:

There are many stories of young British citizens who have left their country and families to join Islamist militant groups. So, what drives these young people to abandon their families and countries to join terrorist groups such as the so-called Islamic State? Much has been written to explain the phenomenon of violent radicalisation, whereby the concepts of identity and belonging are identified as one of the most significant drivers for violent radicalisation. In this respect, this paper explores the connection between the sense of belonging and violent radicalisation. That is necessary to gain a more nuanced understanding of the process of violent radicalisation in order to create and implement more effective counter-measures for tackling violent radicalisation. By using an inductive approach, this dissertation attempts to answer the question to what extent does the sense of non-belonging lead to the violent radicalisation of a few individuals. Therefore, alongside an expert interview, a survey, and qualitative content analysis of secondary sources, an exclusive semi-structured interview was conducted with a former violently radicalised Jihadi and recruiter. Overall, the sense of non-belonging significantly affects the process of violent radicalisation of a few individuals. Nevertheless, being religiously fundamental is not the problem of becoming violently radicalised in the first place, but belonging to the wrong group that is strongly determined by ideology, constitutes the main problem.

Keywords: identity, sense of non-belonging, social identity theory, violent radicalisation

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5886 Factors Affecting Sense of Community in Residential Communities Case Study: Residential Communities in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Parvin Foroughifar

Abstract:

The concept of sense of community refers to residents’ sense of attachment and commitment to the other residents in a residential community. It is implicitly indicative of the mental image of a physical environment in which the residents enjoy strong social ties. Sense of community, a crucial factor in improving quality of life and social welfare, leads to life satisfaction in a residential community. Despite the important functions of such a notion, few empirical studies, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have been so far carried out in Iran to investigate the effective factors in sharpening the sense of community in residential communities. This survey research examined sense of community in 360 above 20-year old residents of three residential communities in Tehran, Iran using cluster sampling and questionnaire. The study yielded the result that variables of local social ties, social control and trust, sense of security, length of residence, use of public spaces, and mixed land use have a significant relationship with sense of community.

Keywords: sense of community, local social ties, sense of security, public space, residential community, Tehran

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
5885 Student Authenticity: A Foundation for First-Year Experience Courses

Authors: Amy L. Smith

Abstract:

This study investigates the impact of student authenticity while engaging in academic exploration of students' sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence. Research questions include: How does incorporating authenticity in first-year academic exploration courses impact; 1) first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence? 2) first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence during the first and last halves of the fall semester? 3) first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence among various student demographics? First-year students completed a Likert-like survey at the conclusion of eight weeks (first and last eight weeks/fall semester) academic exploration courses. Course redesign included grounding the curriculum and instruction with student authenticity and creating opportunities for students to explore, define, and reflect upon their authenticity during academic exploration. Surveys were administered at the conclusion of these eight week courses (first and last eight weeks/fall semester). Data analysis included an entropy balancing matching method and t-tests. Research findings indicate integrating authenticity into academic exploration courses for first-year students has a positive impact on students' autonomy and persistence. There is a significant difference between authenticity and first-year students' autonomy (p = 0.00) and persistence (p = 0.01). Academic exploration courses with the underpinnings of authenticity are more effective in the second half of the fall semester. There is a significant difference between an academic exploration course grounding the curriculum and instruction in authenticity offered M8A (first half, fall semester) and M8B (second half, fall semester) (p = 0); M8B courses illustrate an increase of students' sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence. Integrating authenticity into academic exploration courses for first-year students has a positive impact on varying student demographics (p = 0.00). There is a significant difference between authenticity and low-income (p = 0.04), first-generation (p = 0.00), Caucasian (p = 0.02), and American Indian/Alaskan Native (p = 0.05) first-year students' sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence. Academic exploration courses embedded in authenticity helps develop first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence, which are effective traits of college students. As first-year students engage in content courses, professors can empower students to have greater engagement in their learning process by relating content to students' authenticity and helping students think critically about how content is authentic to them — how students' authenticity relates to the content, how students can take their content expertise into the future in ways that, to the student, authentically contribute to the greater good. A broader conversation within higher education needs to include 1) designing courses that allow students to develop and reflect upon their authenticity/to formulate answers to the questions: who am I, who am I becoming, and how will I move my authentic self forward; and 2) a discussion of how to shift from the university shaping students to the university facilitating the process of students shaping themselves.

Keywords: authenticity, first-year experience, sense of belonging, autonomy, persistence

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5884 The Impact of Citizens’ Involvement on Their Perception of the Brand’s Image: The Case of the City of Casablanca

Authors: Abderrahmane Mousstain, Ez-Zohra Belkadi

Abstract:

Many authors support more participatory and inclusive place branding practices that empower stakeholders’ participation. According to this participatory point of view, the effectiveness of place branding strategies cannot be achieved without citizen involvement. However, the role of all residents as key participants in the city branding process has not been widely discussed. The aim of this paper was to determine how citizens’ involvement impacts their perceptions of the city's image, using a multivariate model. To test our hypotheses hypothetical-deductive reasoning by the quantitative method was chosen. Our investigation is based on data collected through a survey among 200 citizens of Casablanca. Results show that the more citizens are involved, the more they tend to evaluate the image of the brand positively. Additionally, the degree of involvement seems to impact satisfaction and a sense of belonging. As well, the more citizen develops a sense of belonging to the city, the more favorable his or her perception of the brand image is. Ultimately, the role of citizens shouldn’t be limited to reception. They are also Co-creators of the brand, who ensure the correlation of the brand with authentic place roots.

Keywords: citybranding, sense of belonging, satisfaction, impact, brand’s image

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5883 Study of Human Position in Architecture with Contextual Approach

Authors: E. Zarei, M. Bazaei, A. seifi, A. Keshavarzi

Abstract:

Contextuallism has been always the main component of urban science. It not only has great direct and indirect impact on behaviors, events and interactions, but also is one of the basic factors of an urban values and identity. Nowadays there might be some deficiencies in the cities. In the theories of environment designing, humanistic orientations with the focus on culture and cultural variables would enable us to transfer information. To communicate with the context in which human lives, he needs some common memories, understandable symbols and daily activities in that context. The configuration of a place can impact on human’s behaviors. The goal of this research is to review 7 projects in different parts of the world with various usages and some factors such as ‘sense of place’, ‘sense of belonging’ and ‘social and cultural relations’ will be discussed in these projects. The method used for research in this project is descriptive- analytic. Library information and Internet are the main sources of gathering information and the method of reasoning used in this project is inductive. The consequence of this research will be some data in the form of tables that has been extracted from mentioned projects.

Keywords: contextuallism with humanistic approach, sense of place, sense of belonging, social and cultural relations

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5882 A Qualitative Exploration into Australian Muslims Emerging into Adulthood

Authors: Nuray Okcum, Jenny Sharples

Abstract:

While the scrutinization towards marginalized groups throughout the globe has been existent for decades, prejudice towards Muslims in Western countries has been increasing dramatically. The vicious attacks across the globe by perpetrators who identify with Islam as well as popular political discourse by politicians in Western countries claiming and portraying Muslims as being dangerous, oppressed, or lacking the ability to assimilate into the community, adds to the exclusion and lack of belonging Muslims living in Western countries experience. The early stages of adulthood which have recently been conceptualized as emerging adulthood is a critical and socially ambiguous transition. For a young Muslim emerging into adulthood in a Western country, a variety of different challenges and demands that can exceed their coping abilities can arise. While in search for their identity and in a bid to structure themselves with their past childhood experiences together with their newly forming values, the emerging adult may attempt to direct or change the way in which they are viewed by others. This can be done to gain approval from others and to feel a sense of belonging. A change in the emerging adult’s interpersonal interactions and relationships, the way in which they view themselves and others, their sense of belonging, and their identity, also occurs during this developmental stage. To explore the manner in which Muslims emerging into adulthood carve their identity, their experiences, and representation of their Muslim identity, social identification, and their sense of belonging in Australia, an interpretative phenomenological methodology was utilized. This allowed participants to offer their own subjective experiences. A total of eight emerging adults took part in the study whilst four adults who work with emerging adults took part. Adult participants who work with emerging adults took part in the study to bring forth their insight and experiences. Common experiences were organized into themes. Themes included identifying as a Muslim, social identification, and belonging. Identification included visual identification and name, discrimination and resilience. Findings clearly indicated that Muslims emerging into adulthood in Australia do face various hurdles while they try to retain and represent their religious identity. Despite the unique challenges that they face, they still feel a sense of belonging and identity as being Australian.

Keywords: Muslim, Islam, emerging adulthood, Australia

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5881 Water's Role in Creating a Sense of Belonging

Authors: Narges Nejati

Abstract:

Nowadays as science hasten toward technology, only quantity of construction noticed and there is a little attention toward quality of construction and there is no usage for element which was prevalent in traditional architecture. This is the cause of this issue that nowadays we see building that most of them just keep you from heat and cold of outside environment and there is no trace of any culture of their country or nation in it. And although we know that man is a creature that adores beauty by his nature, but this spiritual need of him is ignored. And designers by taking an enormous price instead of planning (spiritual designing) to release peace, they attend to planning which make a human soul bothered and ill. The present research is trying to illustrate price of concepts and principles of water usage as one of the elements of nature and also shows the water application in some of the Iranian constructions and the results show the motif of using water in constructions and also some benefits of using it in constructions. And also this matter can causes a reconnection between nature and constructing of a beautiful environment which is consonant and proportional with man’ physical, spiritual and cultural needs. And causes peace and comfort of men. A construction which man feels a friendly atmosphere in them which he has a sense of belonging to them not a construction which arouses feeling of weariness and fatigue.

Keywords: water usage, belonging, sustainable architecture, urban design

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5880 Second Generation Mozambican Migrant Youth’s Identity and Sense of Belonging: The Case of Hluvukani Village in Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga

Authors: Betty Chiyangwa

Abstract:

This is a work in progress project focused on exploring the complexities surrounding the second generation Mozambican migrant youth’s experiences to construct their identity and develop a sense of belonging in post-apartheid, Bushbuckridge in South Africa. Established in 1884, Bushbuckridge is one of the earliest districts to accommodate Mozambicans who migrated to South Africa in the 1970s. Bushbuckridge as a destination for Mozambican migrants is crucial to their search for social freedom and space to “belong to.” The action of deliberately seeking freedom is known as an act of agency. Four major objectives govern the paper. The first objective observes how second-generation Mozambican migrant youth living in South Africa negotiate and construct their own identities. Secondly, it explores second-generation Mozambican migrant youth narratives regarding their sense of belonging in South Africa. Thirdly, the study intends to understand how social processes of identity and belonging influence second-generation Mozambican migrant youth experiences and future aspirations in South Africa. The last objective examines how Sen’s Capability approach is relevant in understanding second-generation Mozambican migrant youth identity and belonging in South Africa. This is a single case study informed by data from semi-structured interviews and narratives with youth between the ages of 18 and 34 who are born and raised in South Africa to at least one former Mozambican refugee parent living in Bushbuckridge. Drawing from Crenshaw’s Intersectionality and Sen’s Capability approaches, this study significantly contributes to the existing body of knowledge on South to South migration by demonstrating how both approaches can be operationalized towards understanding complex experiences and capabilities of the disadvantaged group simultaneously. The subject of second-generation migrants is often under-researched in South African migration; thus, their perspectives have been marginalized in Social Science research.

Keywords: second-generation, Mozambican, migrant, youth, bushbuckridge

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5879 Globally Attractive Mild Solutions for Non-Local in Time Subdiffusion Equations of Neutral Type

Authors: Jorge Gonzalez Camus, Carlos Lizama

Abstract:

In this work is proved the existence of at least one globally attractive mild solution to the Cauchy problem, for fractional evolution equation of neutral type, involving the fractional derivate in Caputo sense. An almost sectorial operator on a Banach space X and a kernel belonging to a large class appears in the equation, which covers many relevant cases from physics applications, in particular, the important case of time - fractional evolution equations of neutral type. The main tool used in this work was the Hausdorff measure of noncompactness and fixed point theorems, specifically Darbo-type. Initially, the equation is a Cauchy problem, involving a fractional derivate in Caputo sense. Then, is formulated the equivalent integral version, and defining a convenient functional, using the analytic integral resolvent operator, and verifying the hypothesis of the fixed point theorem of Darbo type, give us the existence of mild solution for the initial problem. Furthermore, each mild solution is globally attractive, a property that is desired in asymptotic behavior for that solution.

Keywords: attractive mild solutions, integral Volterra equations, neutral type equations, non-local in time equations

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5878 The Concept of Birthday: A Theoretical, Historical, and Social Overview, in Judaism and Other Cultures

Authors: Orly Redlich

Abstract:

In the age of social distance, which has been added to an individual and competitive worldview, it has become important to find a way to promote closeness and personal touch. The sense of social belonging and the existence of positive interaction with others have recently become a considerable necessity. Therefore, this theoretical paper will review one of the familiar and common concepts among different cultures around the world – birthday. This paper has a theoretical contribution that deepens the understanding of the birthday concept. Birthday rituals are historical and universal events, which noted since the prehistoric eras. In ancient history, birthday rituals were solely reserved for kings and nobility members, but over the years, birthday celebrations have evolved into a worldwide tradition. Some of the familiar birthday customs and symbols are currently common among most cultures, while some cultures have adopted for themselves unique birthday customs, which characterized their values and traditions. The birthday concept has a unique significance in Judaism as well, historically, religiously, and socially: It is considered as a lucky day and a private holiday for the celebrant. Therefore, the present paper reviews diverse birthday customs around the world in different cultures, including Judaism, and marks important birthdays throughout history. The paper also describes how the concept of birthday appears over the years in songs, novels, and art, and presents quotes from distinguished sages. The theoretical review suggests that birthday has a special meaning as a time-mark in the cycle of life, and as a socialization means in human development. Moreover, the birthday serves as a symbol of belonging and group cohesiveness, a day in which the celebrant's sense of belonging and sense of importance are strengthened and nurtured. Thus, the reappearance of these elements in a family or group interaction during the birthday ceremony allows the celebrant to absorb positive impressions about himself. In view of the extensive theoretical review, it seems that the unique importance of birthdays can serve as the foundation for intervention programs that may affect the participants’ sense of belonging and empowerment. In the group aspect, perhaps it can also yield therapeutic factors within a group. Concrete recommendations are presented at the end of the paper.

Keywords: birthday, universal events, positive interaction, group cohesiveness, rituals

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
5877 Second-Generation Mozambican Migrant Youth’s Identity and Sense of Belonging in South Africa: The Case of Rural Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga

Authors: Betty Chiyangwa

Abstract:

This paper explores the complexities surrounding second-generation Mozambican migrant youth’s identity and sense of belonging in post-apartheid South Africa, Bushbuckridge. Established in 1884, Bushbuckridge is one of the earliest districts to accommodate first-generation Mozambicans who migrated to South Africa in the 1970s. This is a single case study informed by data from 24 semi-structured interviews and narratives with migrant youth (18-34 years) born and raised in South Africa to Mozambican parent(s) living in Bushbuckridge. Drawing from Sen’s Capability and Crenshaw’s Intersectionality approaches, this paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge on South to South migration by demonstrating how the role of participants’ identity status influences their agency and capability. The subject of youth migrants is often under-researched in the context of migration in South African thus, their opinions and views have often been marginalized in sociology. Through exploring participants’ experiences, this paper reveals that lack of identity status was described to be a huge hindrance to participants to identify as South Africans and they explained that is a constant distortion of their sense of belonging. Un-documentation status restricts participants and threatens their mobility and hinders their agency to access human rights and perpetuates social inequalities as well as hampering future aspirations. This paper concludes there is a strong association between identity status and levels of social integration. The development of a multi-layered comprehensive model in enhancing participants’ identity is recommended. This model encourages a collaborative effort from multiple stakeholders in enhancing and harnessing migrant youth capabilities in host societies.

Keywords: migrant youth, mozambique, second-generation, south africa

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5876 Reimagining the Learning Management System as a “Third” Space

Authors: Christina Van Wingerden

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a sense of belonging, isolation, and the use of a learning management system as a “third space” for connection and community. Given student use of learning management systems (LMS) for courses on campuses, moderate to high use of social media and hand-held devices, the author explores the possibilities of LMS as a third space. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated student experiences of isolation, and research indicates that students who experience a sense of belonging have a greater likelihood for academic retention and success. The impacts on students of an LMS designed for student employee orientation and training were examined through a mixed methods approach, including a survey, individual interviews, and focus groups. The sample involved 250-450 undergraduate student employees at a US northwestern university. The goal of the study was to find out the efficiency and effectiveness of the orientation information for a wide range of student employees from multiple student affairs departments. And unexpected finding emerged within the study in 2015 and was noted again as a finding in the 2017 study. Students reported feeling like they individually connected to the department, and further to the university because of the LMS orientation. They stated they could see themselves as part of the university community and like they belonged. The orientation, through the LMS, was designed for and occurred online (asynchronous), prior to students traveling and beginning university life for the academic year. The students indicated connection and belonging resulting from some of the design features. With the onset of COVID-19 and prolonged sheltering in place in North America, as well as other parts of the world, students have been precluded from physically gathering to educate and learn. COVID-19 essentially paused face-to-face education in 2020. Media, governments, and higher education outlets have been reporting on widespread college student stress, isolation, loneliness, and sadness. In this context, the author conducted a current mixed methods study (online survey, online interviews) of students in advanced degree programs, like Ph.D. and Ed.D. specifically investigating isolation and sense of belonging. As a part of the study a prototype of a Canvas site was experienced by student interviewees for their reaction of this Canvas site prototype as a “third” space. Some preliminary findings of this study are presented. Doctoral students in the study affirmed the potential of LMS as a third space for community and social academic connection.

Keywords: COVID-19, isolation, learning management system, sense of belonging

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5875 The Relationship between School Belonging, Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Tabriz High School Students

Authors: F. Pari, E. Fathiazar, T. Hashemi, M. Pari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to examine the role of self-efficacy and school belonging in the academic achievement of Tabriz high school students in grade 11. Therefore, using a random cluster method, 377 subjects were selected from the whole students of Tabriz high schools. They filled in the School Belonging Questionnaire (SBQ) and General Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were analyzed using correlational as well as multiple regression methods. Findings demonstrate self-efficacy and school belonging have significant roles in the prediction of academic achievement. On the other hand, the results suggest that considering the gender variable there is no significant difference between self-efficacy and school belonging. On the whole, cognitive approaches could be effective in the explanation of academic achievement.

Keywords: school belonging, self-efficacy, academic achievement, high school

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5874 The Impact of Leadership Style and Sense of Competence on the Performance of Post-Primary School Teachers in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Babajide S. Adeokin, Oguntoyinbo O. Kazeem

Abstract:

The not so pleasing state of the nation's quality of education has been a major area of research. Many researchers have looked into various aspects of the educational system and organizational structure in relation to the quality of service delivery of the staff members. However, there is paucity of research in areas relating to the sense of competence and commitment in relation to leadership styles. Against this backdrop, this study investigated the impact of leadership style and sense of competence on the performance of post-primary school teachers in Oyo state Nigeria. Data were generated across public secondary schools in the city using survey design method. Ibadan as a metropolis has eleven local government areas contained in it. A systematic random sampling technique of the eleven local government areas in Ibadan was done and five local government areas were selected. The selected local government areas are Akinyele, Ibadan North, Ibadan North-East, Ibadan South and Ibadan South-West. Data were obtained from a range of two – three public secondary schools selected in each of the local government areas mentioned above. Also, these secondary schools are a representation of the variations in the constructs under consideration across the Ibadan metropolis. Categorically, all secondary school teachers in Ibadan were clustered into selected schools in those found across the five local government areas. In all, a total of 272 questionnaires were administered to public secondary school teachers, while 241 were returned. Findings revealed that transformational leadership style makes room for job commitment when compared with transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles. Teachers with a high sense of competence are more likely to demonstrate more commitment to their job than others with low sense of competence. We recommend that, it is important an assessment is made of the leadership styles employed by principals and school administrators. This guides administrators and principals in to having a clear, comprehensive knowledge of the style they currently adopt in the management of the staff and the school as a whole; and know where to begin the adjustment process from. Also to make an impact on student achievement, being attentive to teachers’ levels of commitment may be an important aspect of leadership for school principals.

Keywords: Ibadan, leadership style, sense of competence, teachers, public secondary schools

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5873 The Academic Importance of the Arts in Fostering Belonging

Authors: Ana Handel, Jamal Ellerbe, Sarah Kanzaki, Natalie White, Nathan Ousey, Sean Gallagher

Abstract:

A sense of belonging is the ability for individuals to feel they are a necessary part of whatever organization or community they find themselves in. In an academic setting, a sense of belonging is key to a student’s success. The collected research points to this sense of belonging in academic settings as a significant contributor of students’ levels of engagement and trust. When universities leverage the arts, students are provided with more opportunities to engage and feel confident in their surroundings. This allows for greater potential to develop within academic and social settings. The arts also call for the promotion of diversity, equity, and inclusion by showcasing works of artists from all different backgrounds, thus allowing students to gain cultural knowledge and be able to embrace differences. Equity, diversity, and inclusion are all emotional facets of belonging. Equity relates to the concept of making the conscious choice to recognize opportunities to incorporate inclusive and diverse ideals into different thought processes and collaboration. Inclusion involves providing equal access to opportunities and resources for people of all ‘ingroups. In an inclusive culture, individuals are able to maximize their potential with the confidence they have gained through an accepting environment. A variety of members in academic communities have noted it may be beneficial to make certain events surrounding the arts to be built into course requirements in order to ensure students are expanding their horizons and exposing themselves to the arts. These academics also recommend incorporating the arts into extracurricular activities, such as Greek life, in order to appeal to large groups of students. Once students have an understanding of the rich knowledge cultivated through exploring the arts, they will feel more comfortable in their surroundings and thus more confident to become involved in other areas of their university. A number of universities, including West Chester and Carnegie Mellon, have instituted programs aiming to provide students with the necessary tools and resources to feel comfortable in their educational settings. Different programs include references to hotlines for discrimination and office for diversity, equity, and inclusion. Staff members have also been provided with means of combating biases and increasing feelings of belongingness in order to properly support and communicate with students. These tools have successfully allowed universities to foster inviting environments for students of all backgrounds to feel belong as well as strengthening the community’s diversity, equity, and inclusion. Through demonstrating concepts of diversity, equity, and inclusion by introducing the arts into learning spaces, students can find a sense of belonging within their academic environments. It is essential to understand these topics and how they work together to achieve a common goal. The efforts of universities have made much progress in shedding light on different cultures and ideas to show students their full potential and opportunities. Once students feel more comfortable within their organizations, engagement will increase substantially.

Keywords: arts, belonging, engagement, inclusion

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5872 The Connection of the Nibbāna with the Six Sense Bases

Authors: Wattegama Subhavi

Abstract:

A being is the working of the six sense bases. The sense bases are the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body and the mind. Buddhism describes what these sense bases are and how they work. These sense bases can be related to many of the philosophical and psychological teachings of the Buddha. One of the most important teachings of the Buddha is the Four Noble Truths. Buddhism explains that one who needs to attain Nibbāna must understand and realize these Four Noble Truths. These noble truths have a direct connection with the sense bases. The ultimate goal of Buddhism is Nibbāna. But there is no place or a special world called the “Nibbāna”. This paper describes that the noble truths can be identified within one’s own sense bases. The noble truth of suffering occurs within the functioning of the sense bases and the cause of suffering, “craving” operates inside the senses bases and the cessation of suffering, or Nibbāna is also experienced in the Sense Bases. Relevant material will be drawn for this paper directly from the Pāli canonical sources. The major finding is that the first three noble truths can be experienced through the six sense bases. The conclusion derived from the study is that the sense bases have direct relevance to Nibbāna, which is not to be conceived as another place or another dimension, but phenomena that can be experienced through one’s own sense bases, and that the other noble truths are also to be experienced in relation to one’s own sense bases.

Keywords: Buddhism, Four Noble Truths, sense bases, Nibbāna

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5871 The Effects of Social Capital and Empowering Leadership on Team Cohesion

Authors: Y. R. Lai, J. C. Jehng, T. T. Chang

Abstract:

Team is a popular job design in the management settings. Because people on a team need to work together to complete a lot of tasks, the interaction between team members strongly influences team effectiveness. The study examines the effect of social capital and empowering leadership on team cohesion. There are three facets of social capital: structural facet, relational facet, and cognitive facet. Empowering leadership includes enhancing the meaningfulness of work, fostering participation in decision making, expressing confidence in high performance, and providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints. Data were collected from 181 team members of 47 teams in the real estate agency industry. The results show that the relational social capital, enhancing the meaningfulness of work, and providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints are positively related to two dimensions of team cohesion: sense of belonging and feelings of moral. Additionally, expressing confidence in high performance is negatively related to sense of belonging.

Keywords: social capital, empowering leadership, team cohesion, team effectiveness

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5870 Formalizing the Sense Relation of Hyponymy from Logical Point of View: A Study of Mathematical Linguistics in Farsi

Authors: Maryam Ramezankhani

Abstract:

The present research tries to study the possibility of formalizing the sense relation of hyponymy. It applied mathematical tools and also uses mathematical logic concepts especially those from propositional logic. In order to do so, firstly, it goes over the definitions of hyponymy presented in linguistic dictionaries and semantic textbooks. Then, it introduces a formal translation of the sense relation of hyponymy. Lastly, it examines the efficiency of the suggested formula by some examples of natural language.

Keywords: sense relations, hyponymy, formalizing, words’ sense relation, formalizing sense relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
5869 Existence of Minimal and Maximal Mild Solutions for Non-Local in Time Subdiffusion Equations of Neutral Type

Authors: Jorge Gonzalez-Camus

Abstract:

In this work is proved the existence of at least one minimal and maximal mild solutions to the Cauchy problem, for fractional evolution equation of neutral type, involving a general kernel. An operator A generating a resolvent family and integral resolvent family on a Banach space X and a kernel belonging to a large class appears in the equation, which covers many relevant cases from physics applications, in particular, the important case of time - fractional evolution equations of neutral type. The main tool used in this work was the Kuratowski measure of noncompactness and fixed point theorems, specifically Darbo-type, and an iterative method of lower and upper solutions, based in an order in X induced by a normal cone P. Initially, the equation is a Cauchy problem, involving a fractional derivate in Caputo sense. Then, is formulated the equivalent integral version, and defining a convenient functional, using the theory of resolvent families, and verifying the hypothesis of the fixed point theorem of Darbo type, give us the existence of mild solution for the initial problem. Furthermore, the existence of minimal and maximal mild solutions was proved through in an iterative method of lower and upper solutions, using the Azcoli-Arzela Theorem, and the Gronwall’s inequality. Finally, we recovered the case derivate in Caputo sense.

Keywords: fractional evolution equations, Volterra integral equations, minimal and maximal mild solutions, neutral type equations, non-local in time equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
5868 The Family Sense of Coherence of Early Childhood Education Students

Authors: M. Demir, A. Demir

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students. The Family Sense of Coherence Inventory has applied to 233 (108 girls and 125 boys) early childhood education students in Turkey. At the stage of data collection, with the aim of determining the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students, Family Sense of Coherence Inventory which was developed by Çeçen (2007) was used. In the process of the analysis of data, independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used. According to the results of the study, there were significant differences between some demographic variables in terms of the family sense of coherence.

Keywords: family sense of coherence, early childhood education students

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5867 The Territorial Expression of Religious Identity: A Case Study of Catholic Communities

Authors: Margarida Franca

Abstract:

The influence of the ‘cultural turn’ movement and the consequent deconstruction of scientific thought allowed geography and other social sciences to open or deepen their studies based on the analysis of multiple identities, on singularities, on what is particular or what marks the difference between individuals. In the context of postmodernity, the geography of religion has gained a favorable scientific, thematic and methodological focus for the qualitative and subjective interpretation of various religious identities, sacred places, territories of belonging, religious communities, among others. In the context of ‘late modernity’ or ‘net modernity’, sacred places and the definition of a network of sacred territories allow believers to attain the ‘ontological security’. The integration on a religious group or a local community, particularly a religious community, allows human beings to achieve a sense of belonging, familiarity or solidarity and to overcome, in part, some of the risks or fears that society has discovered. The importance of sacred places comes not only from their inherent characteristics (eg transcendent, mystical and mythical, respect, intimacy and abnegation), but also from the possibility of adding and integrating members of the same community, creating bonds of belonging, reference and individual and collective memory. In addition, the formation of different networks of sacred places, with multiple scales and dimensions, allows the human being to identify and structure his times and spaces of daily life. Thus, each individual, due to his unique identity and life and religious paths, creates his own network of sacred places. The territorial expression of religious identity allows to draw a variable and unique geography of sacred places. Through the case study of the practicing Catholic population in the diocese of Coimbra (Portugal), the aim is to study the territorial expression of the religious identity of the different local communities of this city. Through a survey of six parishes in the city, we sought to identify which factors, qualitative or not, define the different territorial expressions on a local, national and international scale, with emphasis on the socioeconomic profile of the population, the religious path of the believers, the religious group they belong to and the external interferences, religious or not. The analysis of these factors allows us to categorize the communities of the city of Coimbra and, for each typology or category, to identify the specific elements that unite the believers to the sacred places, the networks and religious territories that structure the religious practice and experience and also the non-representational landscape that unifies and creates memory. We conclude that an apparently homogeneous group, the Catholic community, incorporates multitemporalities and multiterritorialities that are necessary to understand the history and geography of a whole country and of the Catholic communities in particular.

Keywords: geography of religion, sacred places, territoriality, Catholic Church

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5866 Ethnopharmacology of Urinary Deseases in Algerian Sahara

Authors: Khaled Sekkoum

Abstract:

The traditional pharmacopoeia of Algerian Sahara is very rich on vegetable drugs. The great resources and biodiversity of Algerian Sahara flora seem responsible. A survey of medicinal plants used by the local population of the south west of Algeria for the urinary disorders is reported. Sixty-three plant species belonging to thirty-three families were identified. Their botanical and local names, plant part used, mode of use and ailment treated are given.

Keywords: medicinal plants, urinary diseases, Sahara, Algeria

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5865 Local and Global Sustainability: the Case-Study of Beja Municipality Local Agenda 21 Operationalization Challenges

Authors: Maria Inês Faria, João Miguel Simão

Abstract:

Frequently, the Sustainable Development paradigm is considered the contemporary societies flag and is has been assuming different nuances on local and global dialogues. This reveals the ambivalent character associated to its implementation due, namely, to the kind of synergies that political institutions, social organizations and citizenry can actually create. The Sustainable Development concept needs further discussion so that it can be useful in decision-making processes. In fact, the polysemic nature of this concept has consistently undermined its credibility leading, among other factors, to the talk and action gap, as well as to misappropriations of this notion. The present study focuses on the importance in questioning the sustainable development operationalization, "To walk the talk", and intends, in a broad sense, identify prospects and the elements of sustainability that are included in strategic plans (global, national and local) and, in the strict sense, confront discourse and practice in the context of local public policies for sustainable development, in particular with regard to the implementation of Local Agenda 21 in the municipality of Beja (Portugal) in order to analyze at what extent the strategies adopted and implemented are aligned with the paradigm of sustainable development. The method is based on critical analysis of literature and official documentation, using three complementary approaches: a) exploratory review of literature in order to identify publications on sustainability and sustainable development; b) this second approach complements the first, focused on the official documentation for the adoption and implementation of sustainable development, which is produced in the global plan, regional, national and local levels; c) and the approach which is focused on official documentation that expresses the policy options, the strategic lines and actions for sustainable development implementation Beja´s Municipality. The main results of this study highlight the type of alignment of the Beja´s Municipality sustainable policies, concerning the officially stipulated for the promotion of sustainable development on the international agenda, stressing the potentialities, constraints and challenges of Agenda 21 Local implementation.

Keywords: sustainable development, Local Agenda 21, sustainable local public policies, Beja

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5864 Number Sense Proficiency and Problem Solving Performance of Grade Seven Students

Authors: Laissa Mae Francisco, John Rolex Ingreso, Anna Krizel Menguito, Criselda Robrigado, Rej Maegan Tuazon

Abstract:

This study aims to determine and describe the existing relationship between number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance of grade seven students from Victorino Mapa High School, Manila. A paper pencil exam containing of 50-item number sense test and 5-item problem-solving test which measures their number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance adapted from McIntosh, Reys, and Bana were used as the research instruments. The data obtained from this study were interpreted and analyzed using the Pearson – Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation to determine the relationship between the two variables. It was found out that students who were low in number sense proficiency tend to be the students with poor problem-solving performance and students with medium number sense proficiency are most likely to have an average problem-solving performance. Likewise, students with high number sense proficiency are those who do excellently in problem-solving performance.

Keywords: number sense, performance, problem solving, proficiency

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5863 Middle School as a Developmental Context for Emergent Citizenship

Authors: Casta Guillaume, Robert Jagers, Deborah Rivas-Drake

Abstract:

Civically engaged youth are critical to maintaining and/or improving the functioning of local, national and global communities and their institutions. The present study investigated how school climate and academic beliefs (academic self-efficacy and school belonging) may inform emergent civic behaviors (emergent citizenship) among self-identified middle school youth of color (African American, Multiracial or Mixed, Latino, Asian American or Pacific Islander, Native American, and other). Study aims: 1) Understand whether and how school climate is associated with civic engagement behaviors, directly and indirectly, by fostering a positive sense of connection to the school and/or engendering feelings of self-efficacy in the academic domain. Accordingly, we examined 2) The association of youths’ sense of school connection and academic self-efficacy with their personally responsible and participatory civic behaviors in school and community contexts—both concurrently and longitudinally. Data from two subsamples of a larger study of social/emotional development among middle school students were used for longitudinal and cross sectional analysis. The cross-sectional sample included 324 6th-8th grade students, of which 43% identified as African American, 20% identified as Multiracial or Mixed, 18% identified as Latino, 12% identified as Asian American or Pacific Islander, 6% identified as Other, and 1% identified as Native American. The age of the sample ranged from 11 – 15 (M = 12.33, SD = .97). For the longitudinal test of our mediation model, we drew on data from the 6th and 7th grade cohorts only (n =232); the ethnic and racial diversity of this longitudinal subsample was virtually identical to that of the cross-sectional sample. For both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, full information maximum likelihood was used to deal with missing data. Fit indices were inspected to determine if they met the recommended thresholds of RMSEA below .05 and CFI and TLI values of at least .90. To determine if particular mediation pathways were significant, the bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for each indirect pathway were inspected. Fit indices for the latent variable mediation model using the cross-sectional data suggest that the hypothesized model fit the observed data well (CFI = .93; TLI =. 92; RMSEA = .05, 90% CI = [.04, .06]). In the model, students’ perceptions of school climate were significantly and positively associated with greater feelings of school connectedness, which were in turn significantly and positively associated with civic engagement. In addition, school climate was significantly and positively associated with greater academic self-efficacy, but academic self-efficacy was not significantly associated with civic engagement. Tests of mediation indicated there was one significant indirect pathway between school climate and civic engagement behavior. There was an indirect association between school climate and civic engagement via its association with sense of school connectedness, indirect association estimate = .17 [95% CI: .08, .32]. The aforementioned indirect association via school connectedness accounted for 50% (.17/.34) of the total effect. Partial support was found for the prediction that students’ perceptions of a positive school climate are linked to civic engagement in part through their role in students’ sense of connection to school.

Keywords: civic engagement, early adolescence, school climate, school belonging, developmental niche

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5862 Approximation of Periodic Functions Belonging to Lipschitz Classes by Product Matrix Means of Fourier Series

Authors: Smita Sonker, Uaday Singh

Abstract:

Various investigators have determined the degree of approximation of functions belonging to the classes W(L r , ξ(t)), Lip(ξ(t), r), Lip(α, r), and Lipα using different summability methods with monotonocity conditions. Recently, Lal has determined the degree of approximation of the functions belonging to Lipα and W(L r , ξ(t)) classes by using Ces`aro-N¨orlund (C 1 .Np)- summability with non-increasing weights {pn}. In this paper, we shall determine the degree of approximation of 2π - periodic functions f belonging to the function classes Lipα and W(L r , ξ(t)) by C 1 .T - means of Fourier series of f. Our theorems generalize the results of Lal and we also improve these results in the light off. From our results, we also derive some corollaries.

Keywords: Lipschitz classes, product matrix operator, signals, trigonometric Fourier approximation

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5861 Pre-Service Teachers’ Reasoning and Sense Making of Variables

Authors: Olteanu Constanta, Olteanu Lucian

Abstract:

Researchers note that algebraic reasoning and sense making is essential for building conceptual knowledge in school mathematics. Consequently, pre-service teachers’ own reasoning and sense making are useful in fostering and developing students’ algebraic reasoning and sense making. This article explores the forms of reasoning and sense making that pre-service mathematics teachers exhibit and use in the process of analysing problem-posing tasks with a focus on first-degree equations. Our research question concerns the characteristics of the problem-posing tasks used for reasoning and sense making of first-degree equations as well as the characteristics of pre-service teachers’ reasoning and sense making in problem-posing tasks. The analyses are grounded in a post-structuralist philosophical perspective and variation theory. Sixty-six pre-service primary teachers participated in the study. The results show that the characteristics of reasoning in problem-posing tasks and of pre-service teachers are selecting, exploring, reconfiguring, encoding, abstracting and connecting. The characteristics of sense making in problem-posing tasks and of pre-service teachers are recognition, relationships, profiling, comparing, laddering and verifying. Beside this, the connection between reasoning and sense making is rich in line of flight in problem-posing tasks, while the connection is rich in line of rupture for pre-service teachers.

Keywords: first-degree equations, problem posing, reasoning, rhizomatic assemblage, sense-making, variation theory

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5860 Intended and Unintended Outcomes of Partnerships at the Local Level in Slovakia

Authors: Daniel Klimovský

Abstract:

Slovakia belongs to the most fragmented countries if one looks at its local government structure. The Slovak central governments implemented both broad devolution and fiscal decentralization some decades ago. However, neither territorial consolidation nor size categorization of local competences and powers has been implemented yet. Taking this fact into account, it is clear that the local governments are challenged not only by their citizens as customers but also by effectiveness as well as efficiency of delivered services. The paper is focused on behavior of the local governments in Slovakia and their approaches towards other local partners, including other local governments. Analysis of set of interviews shows that inter-municipal cooperation is the most common local partnership in Slovakia, but due to diversity of the local governments, this kind of cooperation leads to both intended and unintended outcomes. While in many cases the local governments are more efficient as well as effective in delivery of local services thanks to inter-municipal cooperation, there are many cases where inter-municipal cooperation fails, and it brings rather questionable or even negative outcomes.

Keywords: local governments, local partnerships, inter-municipal cooperation, delivery of local services

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5859 Assessing Mobile Robotic Telepresence Based On Measures of Social Telepresence

Authors: A. Bagherzadhalimi, E. Di Maria

Abstract:

The feedbacks obtained regarding the sense of presence from pilot users operating a Mobile Robotic presence (MRP) system to visit a simulated museum are reported in this paper. The aim is to investigate how much the perception of system’s usefulness and ease of use is affected by operators’ sense of social telepresence (presence) in the remote location. Therefore, scenarios of visiting a museum are simulated and the user operators are supposed to perform some regular tasks inside the remote environment including interaction with local users, navigation and visiting the artworks. Participants were divided into two groups, those who had previous experience of operation and interaction with a MRP system and those who never had experience. Based on the results, both groups provided different feedbacks. Moreover, there was a significant association between user’s sense of presence and their perception of system usefulness and ease of use.

Keywords: mobile robotic telepresence, museum, social telepresence, usability test

Procedia PDF Downloads 328