Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: ijtihad

4 Rethinking Riba in an Agency Theoretic Framework: Islamic Banking and Finance beyond Sophistry

Authors: Muhammad Arsalan

Abstract:

The efficiency of a financial intermediation system is assessed by its ability to achieve allocative efficiency, asset transformation, and the subsequent economic development. Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF) was conceived to serve as an alternate financial intermediation system adherent to the injunctions of Islam. A critical appraisal of the state of contemporary IBF reveals that it neither fulfills the aspirations of Islamic rhetoric nor is efficient in terms of asset transformation and economic development. This paper is an intuitive pursuit to explore the economic rationale of established principles of IBF, and the reasons of the persistent divergence of IBF being accused of ruses and sophistry. Disentangling the varying viewpoints, the underdevelopment of IBF has been attributed to misinterpretation of Riba, which has been explicated through a narrow fiqhi and legally deterministic approach. It presents a critical account of how incorrect conceptualization of the key injunction on Riba, steered flawed institutionalization of an Islamic Financial intermediation system. It also emphasizes on the wrong interpretation of the ontological and epistemological sources of Islamic Law (primarily Riba), that explains the perennial economic underdevelopment of the Muslim world. Deeming ‘a collaborative and dynamic Ijtihad’ as the elixir, this paper insists on the exigency of redefining Riba, i.e., a definition that incorporates the modern modes of economic cooperation and the contemporary financial intermediation ecosystem. Finally, Riba has been articulated in an agency theoretic framework to eschew expropriation of wealth, and assure protection of property rights, aimed at realizing the twin goals of a) Shari’ah adherence in true spirit, b) financial and economic development of the Muslim world.

Keywords: agency theory, financial intermediation, Islamic banking and finance, ijtihad, economic development, Riba, information asymmetry

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3 Foreign Elements In The Methodologies of USUL Fiqh: Analysing The Orientalist Thought

Authors: Ariyanti Mustapha

Abstract:

The development of Islamic jurisprudence since the first century of hijra has fascinated many orientalists to explore the historiography of Islamic legislation. The practice of uÎËl fiqh began during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad and was continued by the companions as the legal reasoning due to the absence of the legal injunction in the QurÉn and Sunnah. The orientalists propagated that the Roman and Jewish legislation were transplanted in Islamic jurisprudence and it was the primary reason for its progression. This article focuses on the analysis of foreign elements transplanted in the uÎËl fiqh as mentioned by Ignaz Goldziher and Joseph Schacht. They insisted the methodology of Sunna and IjtihÉd were authentically from Roman and Jewish legislation, known as Mishnah and Ha-Kol were invented and transplanted as the principles in uÎËl fiqh. The author used qualitative and comparative methods to analyze the orientalists’ views. The result showed that many erroneous facts were propagated by Goldziher and Schacht by claiming the parallels between the principles, methodologies, and fundamental concepts in uÎËl fiqh and Roman Provincial law. They insisted Sunna and IjtihÉd as an invention from the corpus of Jewish Mishnah and Ha-kol and further affirmed by Schacht that Islamic jurisprudence began in the second century of hijra. These judgments are used by the orientalists to prove the inferiority of Islamic jurisprudence. Nevertheless, many evidences has proven that Islamic legislation is capable of developing independently without any foreign transplant.

Keywords: foreign transplant, ijtihad, orientalist, USUL Fiqh

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2 Need for Shariah Screening of Companies in Nigeria: Lessons from Other Jurisdictions

Authors: Aishat Abdul-Qadir Zubair

Abstract:

Background: The absence of Shari’ah screening methodology for companies in Nigeria has further engineered the uncertainty surrounding the acceptability of investing in certain companies by people professing the religion of Islam due to the nature of the activities carried out by these companies. There are some existing shariah screening indices in other jurisdictions whose criteria can be used to check if a company or business is shariah-compliant or not. Examples such as FTSE, DJIM, Standard and Poor to mention just a few. What these indices have tried to do is to ensure that there are benchmarks to check with before investing in companies that carry out mixed activities in their business, wherein some are halal and others may be haram. Purpose: There have been numerous studies on the need to adopt certain screening methodologies as well as call for new methods in screening companies for shariah compliance in order to suit the investments needs of Muslims in other jurisdictions. It is, however, unclear how suitable these methodologies will be to Nigeria. This paper, therefore, seeks to address this gap to consider an appropriate screening methodology to be employed in Nigeria, drawing from the experience of other jurisdictions. Methods: This study employs a triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze the need for Shari’ah screening of companies in Nigeria. The qualitative method is used by way of ijtihad, and this study tries to apply some Islamic Principles of Maqasid al-shari’ah as well as Qawaid al-Fiqiyyah to analyze activities of companies in order to ensure that they are indeed Shari’ah compliant. In addition, using the quantitative data gathered from the interview survey, the perspective of the investors with regards to the need for Shari’ah screening of companies in Nigeria is further analyzed. Results: The result of the study shows that there is a lack of awareness from the teeming Muslim population in Nigeria on the need for Shari’ah screening of companies in Nigeria. The result further shows that there is the need to take into cognizance the peculiar nature of company activities in Nigeria before any particular Shari’ah screening methodology is adopted and setting the necessary benchmarks. Conclusion and Implications: The study concludes that there is the need to ensure that the conscious Muslims in Nigeria screen companies for Shari’ah compliance so that they can easily identify the companies to invest in. The paper, therefore, recommends that the Nigerian government need to come up with a screening methodology that will suit the peculiar nature of companies in Nigeria. The study thus has a direct implication on the Investment regulatory bodies in Nigeria such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) as well as the investor Muslims.

Keywords: Shari'ah screening, Muslims, investors, companies

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1 The Connection between Qom Seminaries and Interpretation of Sacred Sources in Ja‘farī Jurisprudence

Authors: Sumeyra Yakar, Emine Enise Yakar

Abstract:

Iran presents itself as Islamic, first and foremost, and thus, it can be said that sharī’a is the political and social centre of the states. However, actual practice reveals distinct interpretations and understandings of the sharī’a. The research can be categorised inside the framework of logic in Islamic law and theology. The first task of this paper will be to identify how the sharī’a is understood in Iran by mapping out how the judges apply the law in their respective jurisdictions. The attention will then move from a simple description of the diversity of sharī’a understandings to the question of how that diversity relates to social concepts and cultures. This, of course, necessitates a brief exploration of Iran’s historical background which will also allow for an understanding of sectarian influences and the significance of certain events. The main purpose is to reach an understanding of the process of applying sources to formulate solutions which are in accordance with sharī’a and how religious education is pursued in order to become official judges. Ultimately, this essay will explore the attempts to gain an understanding by linking the practices to the secondary sources of Islamic law. It is important to emphasise that these cultural components of Islamic law must be compatible with the aims of Islamic law and their fundamental sources. The sharī’a consists of more than just legal doctrines (fiqh) and interpretive activities (ijtihād). Its contextual and theoretical framework reveals a close relationship with cultural and historical elements of society. This has meant that its traditional reproduction over time has relied on being embedded into a highly particular form of life. Thus, as acknowledged by pre-modern jurists, the sharī’a encompasses a comprehensive approach to the requirements of justice in legal, historical and political contexts. In theological and legal areas that have the specific authority of tradition, Iran adheres to Shīa’ doctrine, and this explains why the Shīa’ religious establishment maintains a dominant position in matters relating to law and the interpretation of sharī’a. The statements and interpretations of the tradition are distinctly different from sunnī interpretations, and so the use of different sources could be understood as the main reason for the discrepancies in the application of sharī’a between Iran and other Muslim countries. The sharī’a has often accommodated prevailing customs; moreover, it has developed legal mechanisms to all for its adaptation to particular needs and circumstances in society. While jurists may operate within the realm of governance and politics, the moral authority of the sharī’a ensures that these actors legitimate their actions with reference to God’s commands. The Iranian regime enshrines the principle of vilāyāt-i faqīh (guardianship of the jurist) which enables jurists to solve the conflict between law as an ideal system, in theory, and law in practice. The paper aims to show how the religious, educational system works in harmony with the governmental authorities with the concept of vilāyāt-i faqīh in Iran and contributes to the creation of religious custom in the society.

Keywords: guardianship of the jurist (vilāyāt-i faqīh), imitation (taqlīd), seminaries (hawza), Shi’i jurisprudence

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