Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 452

Search results for: leakage pipeline

452 Water Leakage Detection System of Pipe Line using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: A. Ejah Umraeni Salam, M. Tola, M. Selintung, F. Maricar

Abstract:

Clean water is an essential and fundamental human need. Therefore, its supply must be assured by maintaining the quality, quantity and water pressure. However the fact is, on its distribution system, leakage happens and becomes a common world issue. One of the technical causes of the leakage is a leaking pipe. The purpose of the research is how to use the Radial Basis Function Neural (RBFNN) model to detect the location and the magnitude of the pipeline leakage rapidly and efficiently. In this study the RBFNN are trained and tested on data from EPANET hydraulic modeling system. Method of Radial Basis Function Neural Network is proved capable to detect location and magnitude of pipeline leakage with of the accuracy of the prediction results based on the value of RMSE (Root Meant Square Error), comparison prediction and actual measurement approaches 0.000049 for the whole pipeline system.

Keywords: radial basis function neural network, leakage pipeline, EPANET, RMSE

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
451 Modeling of Leaks Effects on Transient Dispersed Bubbly Flow

Authors: Mohand Kessal, Rachid Boucetta, Mourad Tikobaini, Mohammed Zamoum

Abstract:

Leakage problem of two-component fluids flow is modeled for a transient one-dimensional homogeneous bubbly flow and developed by taking into account the effect of a leak located at the middle point of the pipeline. The corresponding three conservation equations are numerically resolved by an improved characteristic method. The obtained results are explained and commented in terms of physical impact on the flow parameters.

Keywords: fluid transients, pipelines leaks, method of characteristics, leakage problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
450 Simulation and Analysis of Different Parameters in Hydraulic Circuit Due to Leakage

Authors: J.Das, Gyan Wrat

Abstract:

Leakage is the main gradual failure in the fluid power system, which is usually caused by the impurity in the oil and wear of matching surfaces between parts and lead to the change of the gap value. When leakage occurs in the system, the oil will flow from the high pressure chamber into the low pressure chamber through the gap, causing the reduction of system flow as well as the loss of system pressure, resulting in the decreasing of system efficiency. In the fluid power system, internal leakage may occur in various components such as gear pump, reversing valve and hydraulic cylinder, and affect the system work performance. Therefore, component leakage in the fluid power system is selected as the study to characterize the leakage and the effect of leakage on the system. Effect of leakage on system pressure and cylinder displacement can be obtained using pressure sensors and the displacement sensor. The leakage can be varied by changing the orifice using a flow control valve. Hydraulic circuit for leakage will be developed in Matlab/Simulink environment and simulations will be done by changing different parameters.

Keywords: leakage causes, effect, analysis, MATLAB simulation, hydraulic circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
449 Effects of Turbulence Penetration on Valve Leakage in Nuclear Reactor Coolant System

Authors: Gupta Rajesh, Paudel Sagar, Sharma Utkarsh, Singh Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Thermal stratification has drawn much attention because of the malfunctions at various nuclear plants in U.S.A that raised significant safety concerns. The concerns due to this phenomenon relate to thermal stresses in branch pipes connected to the reactor coolant system piping. This stress limits the lifetime of the piping system, and even leading to penetrating cracks. To assess origin of valve damage in the pipeline, it is essential to determine the effect of turbulence penetration on valve leakage; since stratified flow is generally generated by turbulent penetration or valve leakage. As a result, we concluded with the help of coupled fluent-structural analysis that the pipe with less turbulence has less chance of failure there by requiring less maintenance.

Keywords: nuclear reactor coolant system, thermal stratification, turbulent penetration, coupled fluent-structural analysis, Von-Misses stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
448 3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline

Authors: Zuodong Liang, Dong-Sheng Jeng

Abstract:

Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.

Keywords: pore pressure, 3D wave model, seabed liquefaction, pipeline

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
447 Predicting Loss of Containment in Surface Pipeline using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Supervised Machine Learning Model to Improve Process Safety in Oil and Gas Operations

Authors: Muhammmad Riandhy Anindika Yudhy, Harry Patria, Ramadhani Santoso

Abstract:

Loss of containment is the primary hazard that process safety management is concerned within the oil and gas industry. Escalation to more serious consequences all begins with the loss of containment, starting with oil and gas release from leakage or spillage from primary containment resulting in pool fire, jet fire and even explosion when reacted with various ignition sources in the operations. Therefore, the heart of process safety management is avoiding loss of containment and mitigating its impact through the implementation of safeguards. The most effective safeguard for the case is an early detection system to alert Operations to take action prior to a potential case of loss of containment. The detection system value increases when applied to a long surface pipeline that is naturally difficult to monitor at all times and is exposed to multiple causes of loss of containment, from natural corrosion to illegal tapping. Based on prior researches and studies, detecting loss of containment accurately in the surface pipeline is difficult. The trade-off between cost-effectiveness and high accuracy has been the main issue when selecting the traditional detection method. The current best-performing method, Real-Time Transient Model (RTTM), requires analysis of closely positioned pressure, flow and temperature (PVT) points in the pipeline to be accurate. Having multiple adjacent PVT sensors along the pipeline is expensive, hence generally not a viable alternative from an economic standpoint.A conceptual approach to combine mathematical modeling using computational fluid dynamics and a supervised machine learning model has shown promising results to predict leakage in the pipeline. Mathematical modeling is used to generate simulation data where this data is used to train the leak detection and localization models. Mathematical models and simulation software have also been shown to provide comparable results with experimental data with very high levels of accuracy. While the supervised machine learning model requires a large training dataset for the development of accurate models, mathematical modeling has been shown to be able to generate the required datasets to justify the application of data analytics for the development of model-based leak detection systems for petroleum pipelines. This paper presents a review of key leak detection strategies for oil and gas pipelines, with a specific focus on crude oil applications, and presents the opportunities for the use of data analytics tools and mathematical modeling for the development of robust real-time leak detection and localization system for surface pipelines. A case study is also presented.

Keywords: pipeline, leakage, detection, AI

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
446 An Embedded System for Early Detection of Gas Leakage in Hospitals and Industries

Authors: Sehreen Moorat, Hiba, Maham Mahnoor, Faryal Soomro

Abstract:

Leakage of gases in a system makes infrastructures and users vulnerable; it can occur due to its environmental conditions or old groundwork. In hospitals and industries, it is very important to detect any small level of gas leakage because of their sensitivity. In this research, a portable detection system for the small leakage of gases has been developed, gas sensor (MQ-2) is used to find leakage when it’s at its initial phase. The sensor and transmitting module senses the change in level of gas by using a sensing circuit. When a concentration of gas reach at a specified threshold level, it will activate an alarm and send the alarming situation notification to receiver through GSM module. The proposed system works well in hospitals, home, and industries.

Keywords: gases, detection, Arduino, MQ-2, alarm

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
445 Research on Placement Method of the Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensor Based on Online Detection of the Transformer Winding Deformation

Authors: Wei Zheng, Mao Ji, Zhe Hou, Meng Huang, Bo Qi

Abstract:

The transformer is the key equipment of the power system. Winding deformation is one of the main transformer defects, and timely and effective detection of the transformer winding deformation can ensure the safe and stable operation of the transformer to the maximum extent. When winding deformation occurs, the size, shape and spatial position of the winding will change, which directly leads to the change of magnetic flux leakage distribution. Therefore, it is promising to study the online detection method of the transformer winding deformation based on magnetic flux leakage characteristics, in which the key step is to study the optimal placement method of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer. In this paper, a simulation model of the transformer winding deformation is established to obtain the internal magnetic flux leakage distribution of the transformer under normal operation and different winding deformation conditions, and the law of change of magnetic flux leakage distribution due to winding deformation is analyzed. The results show that different winding deformation leads to different characteristics of the magnetic flux leakage distribution. On this basis, an optimized placement of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer is proposed to provide a basis for the online detection method of transformer winding deformation based on the magnetic flux leakage characteristics.

Keywords: magnetic flux leakage, sensor placement method, transformer, winding deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
444 Study of Aerosol Deposition and Shielding Effects on Fluorescent Imaging Quantitative Evaluation in Protective Equipment Validation

Authors: Shinhao Yang, Hsiao-Chien Huang, Chin-Hsiang Luo

Abstract:

The leakage of protective clothing is an important issue in the occupational health field. There is no quantitative method for measuring the leakage of personal protective equipment. This work aims to measure the quantitative leakage of the personal protective equipment by using the fluorochrome aerosol tracer. The fluorescent aerosols were employed as airborne particulates in a controlled chamber with ultraviolet (UV) light-detectable stickers. After an exposure-and-leakage test, the protective equipment was removed and photographed with UV-scanning to evaluate areas, color depth ratio, and aerosol deposition and shielding effects of the areas where fluorescent aerosols had adhered to the body through the protective equipment. Thus, this work built a calculation software for quantitative leakage ratio of protective clothing based on fluorescent illumination depth/aerosol concentration ratio, illumination/Fa ratio, aerosol deposition and shielding effects, and the leakage area ratio on the segmentation. The results indicated that the two-repetition total leakage rate of the X, Y, and Z type protective clothing for subject T were about 3.05, 4.21, and 3.52 (mg/m2). For five-repetition, the leakage rate of T were about 4.12, 4.52, and 5.11 (mg/m2).

Keywords: fluorochrome, deposition, shielding effects, digital image processing, leakage ratio, personal protective equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
443 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang

Abstract:

According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
442 Behavioral Study Circumferential and Longitudinal Cracks in a Steel Pipeline X65 and Repair Patch

Authors: Sadok Aboubakr

Abstract:

The mechanical behavior of cracks from several manufacturing defect in an oil pipeline, is characterized by the fact that defects'm taking several forms: circumferential, longitudinal and inclined crack that evolve over time. Increased lifetime of the constructions and in particular cylindrical tubes under internal pressure requires knowledge improving these defects during loading. From this study we simulated various forms of cracking and also their pipeline repair patch.

Keywords: stress intensity factor, pressure, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Shear modulus, Longueur du pipeline, the angle of crack, crack length

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
441 Stress Corrosion Crack Identification with Direct Assessment Method in Pipeline Downstream from a Compressor Station

Authors: H. Gholami, M. Jalali Azizpour

Abstract:

Stress Corrosion Crack (SCC) in pipeline is a type of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC), since its discovery in 1965 as a possible cause of failure in pipeline, SCC has caused, on average, one of two failures per year in the U.S, According to the NACE SCC DA a pipe line segment is considered susceptible to SCC if all of the following factors are met: The operating stress exceeds 60% of specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), the operating temperature exceeds 38°C, the segment is less than 32 km downstream from a compressor station, the age of the pipeline is greater than 10 years and the coating type is other than Fusion Bonded Epoxy(FBE). In this paper as a practical experience in NISOC, Direct Assessment (DA) Method is used for identification SCC defect in unpiggable pipeline located downstream of compressor station.

Keywords: stress corrosion crack, direct assessment, disbondment, transgranular SCC, compressor station

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
440 Prison Pipeline or College Pathways: Transforming the Urban Classroom

Authors: Marcia J. Watson

Abstract:

The “school-to-prison pipeline” is a widely known phenomenon within education. Although data surrounding this epidemic is daunting, we coin the term “school-to-postsecondary pipeline” to explore proactive strategies that are currently working in K-12 education for African American students. The assumption that high school graduation, postsecondary matriculation, and social success are not the assumed norms for African American youth, positions the term “school-to-postsecondary pipeline” as the newly casted advocacy term for African American educational success. Using secondary data from the Children’s Defense Fund and the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights, we examine current conditions of educational accessibility and attainment for African American students, and provide effective strategies for classroom teachers, administrators, and parents to use for the immediate implementation in schools. These strategies include: (a) engaging instruction, (b) relevant curriculum, and (c) utilizing useful enrichment and community resources. By providing proactive steps towards the school-to-postsecondary pipeline, we hope to counter the docility of the school-to-prison pipeline as the assumed reality for African American youth.

Keywords: college access, higher education, school-to-prison pipeline, urban education reform

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
439 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
438 A CFD Analysis of Flow through a High-Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline with an Undeformed and Deformed Orifice Plate

Authors: R. Kiš, M. Malcho, M. Janovcová

Abstract:

This work aims to present a numerical analysis of the natural gas which flows through a high-pressure pipeline and an orifice plate, through the use of CFD methods. The paper contains CFD calculations for the flow of natural gas in a pipe with different geometry used for the orifice plates. One of them has a standard geometry and a shape without any deformation and the other is deformed by the action of the pressure differential. It shows the behaviour of natural gas in a pipeline using the velocity profiles and pressure fields of the gas in both models with their differences. The entire research is based on the elimination of any inaccuracy which should appear in the flow of the natural gas measured in the high-pressure pipelines of the gas industry and which is currently not given in the relevant standard.

Keywords: orifice plate, high-pressure pipeline, natural gas, CFD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
437 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: Md.Noman Habib Khan, M. S. Tajul Islam, T. S. Gunawan, M. Hasanuzzaman

Abstract:

The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well-known technique in the world which is effective and deliver power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results that are demonstrated in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) panel, duty cycle, pulse duration modulation (PDM), leakage current

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
436 Using Pump as Turbine in Drinking Water Networks to Monitor and Control Water Processes Remotely

Authors: Sara Bahariderakhshan, Morteza Ahmadifar

Abstract:

Leakage is one of the most important problems that water distribution networks face which first reason is high-pressure existence. There are many approaches to control this excess pressure, which using pressure reducing valves (PRVs) or reducing pipe diameter are ones. In the other hand, Pumps are using electricity or fossil fuels to supply needed pressure in distribution networks but excess pressure are made in some branches due to topology problems and water networks’ variables therefore using pressure valves will be inevitable. Although using PRVs is inevitable but it leads to waste electricity or fuels used by pumps because PRVs just waste excess hydraulic pressure to lower it. Pumps working in reverse or Pumps as Turbine (called PaT in this article) are easily available and also effective sources of reducing the equipment cost in small hydropower plants. Urban areas of developing countries are facing increasing in area and maybe water scarcity in near future. These cities need wider water networks which make it hard to predict, control and have a better operation in the urban water cycle. Using more energy and, therefore, more pollution, slower repairing services, more user dissatisfaction and more leakage are these networks’ serious problems. Therefore, more effective systems are needed to monitor and act in these complicated networks than what is used now. In this article a new approach is proposed and evaluated: Using PAT to produce enough energy for remote valves and sensors in the water network. These sensors can be used to determine the discharge, pressure, water quality and other important network characteristics. With the help of remote valves pipeline discharge can be controlled so Instead of wasting excess hydraulic pressure which may be destructive in some cases, obtaining extra pressure from pipeline and producing clean electricity used by remote instruments is this articles’ goal. Furthermore due to increasing the area of the network there is unwanted high pressure in some critical points which is not destructive but lowering the pressure results to longer lifetime for pipeline networks without users’ dissatisfaction. This strategy proposed in this article, leads to use PaT widely for pressure containment and producing energy needed for remote valves and sensors like what happens in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems which make it easy for us to monitor, receive data from urban water cycle and make any needed changes in discharge and pressure of pipelines easily and remotely. This is a clean project of energy production without significant environmental impacts and can be used in urban drinking water networks, without any problem for consumers which leads to a stable and dynamic network which lowers leakage and pollution.

Keywords: new energies, pump as turbine, drinking water, distribution network, remote control equipments

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
435 Using Pump as Turbine in Urban Water Networks to Control, Monitor, and Simulate Water Processes Remotely

Authors: Morteza Ahmadifar, Sarah Bahari Derakhshan

Abstract:

Leakage is one of the most important problems that water distribution networks face which first reason is high-pressure existence. There are many approaches to control this excess pressure, which using pressure reducing valves (PRVs) or reducing pipe diameter are ones. On the other hand, Pumps are using electricity or fossil fuels to supply needed pressure in distribution networks but excess pressure are made in some branches due to topology problems and water networks’ variables, therefore using pressure valves will be inevitable. Although using PRVs is inevitable but it leads to waste electricity or fuels used by pumps because PRVs just waste excess hydraulic pressure to lower it. Pumps working in reverse or Pumps as Turbine (called PAT in this article) are easily available and also effective sources of reducing the equipment cost in small hydropower plants. Urban areas of developing countries are facing increasing in area and maybe water scarcity in near future. These cities need wider water networks which make it hard to predict, control and have a better operation in the urban water cycle. Using more energy and therefore more pollution, slower repairing services, more user dissatisfaction and more leakage are these networks’ serious problems. Therefore, more effective systems are needed to monitor and act in these complicated networks than what is used now. In this article a new approach is proposed and evaluated: Using PAT to produce enough energy for remote valves and sensors in the water network. These sensors can be used to determine the discharge, pressure, water quality and other important network characteristics. With the help of remote valves pipeline discharge can be controlled so Instead of wasting excess hydraulic pressure which may be destructive in some cases, obtaining extra pressure from pipeline and producing clean electricity used by remote instruments is this articles’ goal. Furthermore, due to increasing the area of network there is unwanted high pressure in some critical points which is not destructive but lowering the pressure results to longer lifetime for pipeline networks without users’ dissatisfaction. This strategy proposed in this article, leads to use PAT widely for pressure containment and producing energy needed for remote valves and sensors like what happens in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems which make it easy for us to monitor, receive data from urban water cycle and make any needed changes in discharge and pressure of pipelines easily and remotely. This is a clean project of energy production without significant environmental impacts and can be used in urban drinking water networks, without any problem for consumers which leads to a stable and dynamic network which lowers leakage and pollution.

Keywords: clean energies, pump as turbine, remote control, urban water distribution network

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
434 Ternary Content Addressable Memory Cell with a Leakage Reduction Technique

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Nitin Gupta

Abstract:

Ternary Content Addressable Memory cells are mainly popular in network routers for packet forwarding and packet classification, but they are also useful in a variety of other applications that require high-speed table look-up. The main TCAM-design challenge is to decrease the power consumption associated with the large amount of parallel active circuitry, without compromising with speed or memory density. Furthermore, when the channel length decreases, leakage power becomes more significant, and it can even dominate dynamic power at lower technologies. In this paper, we propose a TCAM-design technique, called Virtual Power Supply technique that reduces the leakage by a substantial amount.

Keywords: match line (ML), search line (SL), ternary content addressable memory (TCAM), Leakage power (LP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
433 Unsteady Numerical Analysis of Sediment Erosion Affected High Head Francis Turbine

Authors: Saroj Gautam, Ram Lama, Hari Prasad Neopane, Sailesh Chitrakar, Biraj Singh Thapa, Baoshan Zhu

Abstract:

Sediment flowing along with the water in rivers flowing in South Asia erodes the turbine components. The erosion of turbine components is influenced by the nature of fluid flow along with components of typical turbine types. This paper examines two cases of high head Francis turbines with the same speed number numerically. The numerical investigation involves both steady-state and transient analysis of the numerical model developed for both cases. Furthermore, the influence of leakage flow from the clearance gap of guide vanes is also examined and compared with no leakage flow. It presents the added pressure pulsation to rotor-stator-interaction in the turbine runner for both cases due to leakage flow. It was also found that leakage flow was a major contributor to the sediment erosion in those turbines.

Keywords: sediment erosion, Francis turbine, leakage flow, rotor stator interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
432 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh

Abstract:

Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: surfactant, natural, crude oil, rheology, CFD, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
431 Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak

Abstract:

Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation, gas-phase plasma treatment, cellular leakage

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
430 Leakage Current Analysis of FinFET Based 7T SRAM at 32nm Technology

Authors: Chhavi Saxena

Abstract:

FinFETs can be a replacement for bulk-CMOS transistors in many different designs. Its low leakage/standby power property makes FinFETs a desirable option for memory sub-systems. Memory modules are widely used in most digital and computer systems. Leakage power is very important in memory cells since most memory applications access only one or very few memory rows at a given time. As technology scales down, the importance of leakage current and power analysis for memory design is increasing. In this paper, we discover an option for low power interconnect synthesis at the 32nm node and beyond, using Fin-type Field-Effect Transistors (FinFETs) which are a promising substitute for bulk CMOS at the considered gate lengths. We consider a mechanism for improving FinFETs efficiency, called variable supply voltage schemes. In this paper, we’ve illustrated the design and implementation of FinFET based 4x4 SRAM cell array by means of one bit 7T SRAM. FinFET based 7T SRAM has been designed and analysis have been carried out for leakage current, dynamic power and delay. For the validation of our design approach, the output of FinFET SRAM array have been compared with standard CMOS SRAM and significant improvements are obtained in proposed model.

Keywords: FinFET, 7T SRAM cell, leakage current, delay

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
429 Studying Roughness Effects on Flow Regimes in Offshore Pipelines

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Narges, Zahra Ghadampour

Abstract:

Due to the specific condition, offshore pipelines are given careful consideration and care in both design and operation. Most of the offshore pipeline flows are multi-phase. Multi-phase flows construct different pattern or flow regimes (in simultaneous gas-liquid flow, flow regimes like slug flow, wave and …) under different circumstances. One of the influencing factors on the flow regime is the pipeline roughness value. So far, roughness value influences and the sensitivity of the present models to this parameter have not been taken into consideration. Therefore, roughness value influences on the flow regimes in offshore pipelines are discussed in this paper. Results showed that geometry, absolute pipeline roughness value (materials that the pipeline is made of) and flow phases prevailing the system are of the influential parameters on the flow regimes prevailing multi-phase pipelines in a way that a change in any of these parameters results in a change in flow regimes in all or part of the pipeline system.

Keywords: absolute roughness, flow regime, multi-phase flow, offshore pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
428 Inactivation of Listeria innocua ATCC 33092 by Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak

Abstract:

High voltage electrical discharge plasmas are new nonthermal developing techniques used for water decontamination. To the full understanding of cell inactivation mechanisms, this study brings inactivation, recovery and cellular leakage of L. innocua cells before and after the treatment. Bacterial solution (200 mL) of L. innocua was treated in a glass reactor with a point-to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire, was in the gas phase and grounded electrode was in the liquid phase). Argon was injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min, positive polarity and conductivity of media of 100 µS/cm were chosen to define listed parameters. With a longer treatment time inactivation was higher as well as the increase in cellular leakage. Despite total inactivation recovery of cells occurred probably because of a high leakage of proteins, compared to lower leakage of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). In order to define mechanisms of inactivation further research is needed.

Keywords: Listeria innocua ATCC 33092, inactivation, gas phase plasma, cellular leakage, recovery of cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
427 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon

Abstract:

The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: end effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
426 Optimizing Power in Sequential Circuits by Reducing Leakage Current Using Enhanced Multi Threshold CMOS

Authors: Patikineti Sreenivasulu, K. srinivasa Rao, A. Vinaya Babu

Abstract:

The demand for portability, performance and high functional integration density of digital devices leads to the scaling of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices inevitable. The increase in power consumption, coupled with the increasing demand for portable/hand-held electronics, has made power consumption a dominant concern in the design of VLSI circuits today. MTCMOS technology provides low leakage and high performance operation by utilizing high speed, low Vt (LVT) transistors for logic cells and low leakage, high Vt (HVT) devices as sleep transistors. Sleep transistors disconnect logic cells from the supply and/or ground to reduce the leakage in the sleep mode. In this technology, energy consumption while doing the mode transition and minimum time required to turn ON the circuit upon receiving the wake up signal are issues to be considered because these can adversely impact the performance of VLSI circuit. In this paper we are introducing an enhancing method of MTCMOS technology to optimize the power in MTCMOS sequential circuits.

Keywords: power consumption, ultra-low power, leakage, sub threshold, MTCMOS

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425 Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Soil Surrounding Buried Pipeline Using Multi-Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Won Mog Choi, Seong Kyeong Hong, Seok Young Jeong

Abstract:

The stress on the buried pipeline under pavement is significantly affected by vehicle loads and elastic modulus of the soil surrounding the pipeline. The correct elastic modulus of soil has to be applied to the finite element model to investigate the effect of the vehicle loads on the buried pipeline using finite element analysis. The purpose of this study is to establish the approach to calculating the correct elastic modulus of soil using the optimization process. The optimal elastic modulus of soil, which minimizes the difference between the strain measured from vehicle driving test at the velocity of 35km/h and the strain calculated from finite element analyses, was calculated through the optimization process using multi-response surface methodology. Three elastic moduli of soil (road layer, original soil, dense sand) surrounding the pipeline were defined as the variables for the optimization. Further analyses with the optimal elastic modulus at the velocities of 4.27km/h, 15.47km/h, 24.18km/h were performed and compared to the test results to verify the applicability of multi-response surface methodology. The results indicated that the strain of the buried pipeline was mostly affected by the elastic modulus of original soil, followed by the dense sand and the load layer, as well as the results of further analyses with optimal elastic modulus of soil show good agreement with the test.

Keywords: pipeline, optimization, elastic modulus of soil, response surface methodology

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424 Third Super-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong

Abstract:

The third super-harmonic resonance of a pipeline close to the seabed is investigated in this paper. To analyse the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of the pipeline close to the seabed, the classic Van der Pol equation is extended with a nonlinear item. Then, on the base of the multi-scale method, the frequency-response curves of the pipeline with regard to the third super-harmonic resonance are studied with a series of parameters, such as the mass ratio, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio. On the whole, the numerical results show that the characters of third super-harmonic resonance are quite from that of primary resonance, though with the same trend that the larger is the mass ratio, the smaller impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the third super-harmonic resonance.

Keywords: the third super-harmonic resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

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423 Study of Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer to Detect Flaw in Pipeline

Authors: Yu-Lin Shen, Ming-Kuen Chang

Abstract:

In addition to a considerable amount of machinery and equipment, intricacies of the transmission pipeline exist in Petrochemical plants. Long term corrosion may lead to pipeline thinning and rupture, causing serious safety concerns. With the advances in non-destructive testing technology, more rapid and long-range ultrasonic detection techniques are often used for pipeline inspection, EMAT without coupling to detect, it is a non-contact ultrasonic, suitable for detecting elevated temperature or roughened e surface of line. In this study, we prepared artificial defects in pipeline for Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer Testing (EMAT) to survey the relationship between the defect location, sizing and the EMAT signal. It was found that the signal amplitude of EMAT exhibited greater signal attenuation with larger defect depth and length.. In addition, with bigger flat hole diameter, greater amplitude attenuation was obtained. In summary, signal amplitude attenuation of EMAT was affected by the defect depth, defect length and the hole diameter and size.

Keywords: EMAT, NDT, artificial defect, ultrasonic testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 395