Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: Yusuke Morita

38 Development of Three-Dimensional Bio-Reactor Using Magnetic Field Stimulation to Enhance PC12 Cell Axonal Extension

Authors: Eiji Nakamachi, Ryota Sakiyama, Koji Yamamoto, Yusuke Morita, Hidetoshi Sakamoto


The regeneration of injured central nerve network caused by the cerebrovascular accidents is difficult, because of poor regeneration capability of central nerve system composed of the brain and the spinal cord. Recently, new regeneration methods such as transplant of nerve cells and supply of nerve nutritional factor were proposed and examined. However, there still remain many problems with the canceration of engrafted cells and so on and it is strongly required to establish an efficacious treating method of a central nerve system. Blackman proposed the electromagnetic stimulation method to enhance the axonal nerve extension. In this study, we try to design and fabricate a new three-dimensional (3D) bio-reactor, which can load a uniform AC magnetic field stimulation on PC12 cells in the extracellular environment for enhancement of an axonal nerve extension and 3D nerve network generation. Simultaneously, we measure the morphology of PC12 cell bodies, axons, and dendrites by the multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscope (MPM) and evaluate the effectiveness of the uniform AC magnetic stimulation to enhance the axonal nerve extension. Firstly, we designed and fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation bio-reactor. For the AC magnetic stimulation system, we used the laminated silicon steel sheets for a yoke structure of 3D chamber, which had a high magnetic permeability. Next, we adopted the pole piece structure and installed similar specification coils on both sides of the yoke. We searched an optimum pole piece structure using the magnetic field finite element (FE) analyses and the response surface methodology. We confirmed that the optimum 3D chamber structure showed a uniform magnetic flux density in the PC12 cell culture area by using FE analysis. Then, we fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation bio-reactor by adopting analytically determined specifications, such as the size of chamber and electromagnetic conditions. We confirmed that measurement results of magnetic field in the chamber showed a good agreement with FE results. Secondly, we fabricated a dish, which set inside the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation of bio-reactor. PC12 cells were disseminated with collagen gel and could be 3D cultured in the dish. The collagen gel were poured in the dish. The collagen gel, which had a disk shape of 6 mm diameter and 3mm height, was set on the membrane filter, which was located at 4 mm height from the bottom of dish. The disk was full filled with the culture medium inside the dish. Finally, we evaluated the effectiveness of the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation to enhance the nurve axonal extension. We confirmed that a 6.8 increase in the average axonal extension length of PC12 under the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation at 7 days culture in our bio-reactor, and a 24.7 increase in the maximum axonal extension length. Further, we confirmed that a 60 increase in the number of dendrites of PC12 under the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation. Finally, we confirm the availability of our uniform AC magnetic stimulation bio-reactor for the nerve axonal extension and the nerve network generation.

Keywords: nerve regeneration, axonal extension , PC12 cell, magnetic field, three-dimensional bio-reactor

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37 Visco-Hyperelastic Finite Element Analysis for Diagnosis of Knee Joint Injury Caused by Meniscal Tearing

Authors: Eiji Nakamachi, Tsuyoshi Eguchi, Sayo Yamamoto, Yusuke Morita, H. Sakamoto


In this study, we aim to reveal the relationship between the meniscal tearing and the articular cartilage injury of knee joint by using the dynamic explicit finite element (FE) method. Meniscal injuries reduce its functional ability and consequently increase the load on the articular cartilage of knee joint. In order to prevent the induction of osteoarthritis (OA) caused by meniscal injuries, many medical treatment techniques, such as artificial meniscus replacement and meniscal regeneration, have been developed. However, it is reported that these treatments are not the comprehensive methods. In order to reveal the fundamental mechanism of OA induction, the mechanical characterization of meniscus under the condition of normal and injured states is carried out by using FE analyses. At first, a FE model of the human knee joint in the case of normal state – ‘intact’ - was constructed by using the magnetron resonance (MR) tomography images and the image construction code, Materialize Mimics. Next, two types of meniscal injury models with the radial tears of medial and lateral menisci were constructed. In FE analyses, the linear elastic constitutive law was adopted for the femur and tibia bones, the visco-hyperelastic constitutive law for the articular cartilage, and the visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive law for the meniscus, respectively. Material properties of articular cartilage and meniscus were identified using the stress-strain curves obtained by our compressive and the tensile tests. The numerical results under the normal walking condition revealed how and where the maximum compressive stress occurred on the articular cartilage. The maximum compressive stress and its occurrence point were varied in the intact and two meniscal tear models. These compressive stress values can be used to establish the threshold value to cause the pathological change for the diagnosis. In this study, FE analyses of knee joint were carried out to reveal the influence of meniscal injuries on the cartilage injury. The following conclusions are obtained. 1. 3D FE model, which consists femur, tibia, articular cartilage and meniscus was constructed based on MR images of human knee joint. The image processing code, Materialize Mimics was used by using the tetrahedral FE elements. 2. Visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive equation was formulated by adopting the generalized Kelvin model. The material properties of meniscus and articular cartilage were determined by curve fitting with experimental results. 3. Stresses on the articular cartilage and menisci were obtained in cases of the intact and two radial tears of medial and lateral menisci. Through comparison with the case of intact knee joint, two tear models show almost same stress value and higher value than the intact one. It was shown that both meniscal tears induce the stress localization in both medial and lateral regions. It is confirmed that our newly developed FE analysis code has a potential to be a new diagnostic system to evaluate the meniscal damage on the articular cartilage through the mechanical functional assessment.

Keywords: finite element analysis, hyperelastic constitutive law, knee joint injury, meniscal tear, stress concentration

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36 Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with an Interval of 40 Years. Report of an Autopsy Case

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi


A 75-year-old woman took thyroidectomy forty years previously. Enlarged masses were seen at autopsy just above and below the left clavicle. We proved the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and lung metastasis by histological examinations. The prognosis of PTC is excellent; the 10-year survival rate ranges between 85 and 99%. Lung metastases may be found in 10% of the patients with PTC. We report an unusual case of recurrence of PTC with metastasis to the lung.

Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer, lung metastasis, autopsy, histopathological findings

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35 Mathematics Vision of the Companies' Growth with Educational Technologies

Authors: Valencia P. L. Rodrigo, Morita A. Adelina, Vargas V. Martin


This proposal consists of an analysis of macro concepts involved within an organization growth using educational technologies, which will relate each concept, in a mathematical way with a vision of harmonic work. Working collaboratively, competitively and cooperatively so that this growth is harmonious and homogenous, coining a new term, Harmonic Work. The Harmonic Work ensures that the organization grows in all business directions, allowing managers to project a much more accurate growth, making clear the contribution of each department, resulting in an algorithm that analyzes each of the variables both endogenous and exogenous, establishing different performance indicators in its process of growth.

Keywords: business projection, collaboration, competitiveness, educational technology, harmonious growth

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34 Winged Test Rocket with Fully Autonomous Guidance and Control for Realizing Reusable Suborbital Vehicle

Authors: Koichi Yonemoto, Hiroshi Yamasaki, Masatomo Ichige, Yusuke Ura, Guna S. Gossamsetti, Takumi Ohki, Kento Shirakata, Ahsan R. Choudhuri, Shinji Ishimoto, Takashi Mugitani, Hiroya Asakawa, Hideaki Nanri


This paper presents the strategic development plan of winged rockets WIRES (WInged REusable Sounding rocket) aiming at unmanned suborbital winged rocket for demonstrating future fully reusable space transportation technologies, such as aerodynamics, Navigation, Guidance and Control (NGC), composite structure, propulsion system, and cryogenic tanks etc., by universities in collaboration with government and industries, as well as the past and current flight test results.

Keywords: autonomous guidance and control, reusable rocket, space transportation system, suborbital vehicle, winged rocket

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33 Tamper Resistance Evaluation Tests with Noise Resources

Authors: Masaya Yoshikawa, Toshiya Asai, Ryoma Matsuhisa, Yusuke Nozaki, Kensaku Asahi


Recently, side-channel attacks, which estimate secret keys using side-channel information such as power consumption and compromising emanations of cryptography circuits embedded in hardware, have become a serious problem. In particular, electromagnetic analysis attacks against cryptographic circuits between information processing and electromagnetic fields, which are related to secret keys in cryptography circuits, are the most threatening side-channel attacks. Therefore, it is important to evaluate tamper resistance against electromagnetic analysis attacks for cryptography circuits. The present study performs basic examination of the tamper resistance of cryptography circuits using electromagnetic analysis attacks with noise resources.

Keywords: tamper resistance, cryptographic circuit, hardware security evaluation, noise resources

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32 Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Spacecrafts Using Quantized Two Torque Inputs Based on Random Dither

Authors: Yusuke Kuramitsu, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Hirokazu Tahara


The control problem of underactuated spacecrafts has attracted a considerable amount of interest. The control method for a spacecraft equipped with less than three control torques is useful when one of the three control torques had failed. On the other hand, the quantized control of systems is one of the important research topics in recent years. The random dither quantization method that transforms a given continuous signal to a discrete signal by adding artificial random noise to the continuous signal before quantization has also attracted a considerable amount of interest. The objective of this study is to develop the control method based on random dither quantization method for stabilizing the rotational motion of a rigid spacecraft with two control inputs. In this paper, the effectiveness of random dither quantization control method for the stabilization of rotational motion of spacecrafts with two torque inputs is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: spacecraft control, quantized control, nonlinear control, random dither method

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31 Trait of Sales Professionals

Authors: Yuichi Morita, Yoshiteru Nakamori


In car dealer business of Japan, a sale professional is a key factor of company’s success. We hypothesize that, if a corporation knows what is the sales professionals’ trait of its corporation’s business field, it will be easier for a corporation to secure and nurture sales persons effectively. The lean human resources management will ensure business success and good performance of corporations, especially small and medium ones. The goal of the paper is to determine the traits of sales professionals for small-and medium-size car dealers, using chi-square test and the variable rough set model. As a result, the results illustrate that experience of job change, learning ability and product knowledge are important, and an academic background, building a career with internal transfer, experience of the leader and self-development are not important to be a sale professional. Also, we illustrate sales professionals’ traits are persistence, humility, improvisation and passion at business.

Keywords: traits of sales professionals, variable precision rough sets theory, sales professional, sales professionals

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30 Co-Liquefaction of Cellulosic Biomass and Waste Plastics

Authors: Katsumi Hirano, Yusuke Kakuta, Koji Yoshida, Shozo Itagaki, Masahiko Kajioka, Toshihiko Okada


A conversion technology of cellulosic biomass and waste plastics to liquid fuel at low pressure and low temperature has been investigated. This study aims at the production of the liquefied fuel (CPLF) of substituting diesel oil by mixing cellulosic biomass and waste plastics in the presence of solvent. Co-liquefaction of cellulosic biomass (Japan cedar) and polypropylene (PP) using wood tar or mineral oil as solvent at 673K with an autoclave was carried out. It was confirmed that the co-liquefaction gave CPLF in a high yield among the cases of wood or of polypropylene Which was ascribed the acceleration of decomposition of plastics by radicals derived from the decomposition of wood. The co-liquefaction was also conducted by a small twin screw extruder. It was found that CPLF was obtained in the co-liquefaction, And the acceleration of decomposition of plastics in the presence of cellulosic biomass. The engine test of CPLF showed that the engine performances, Compression ignition and combustion characteristics were almost similar to those of diesel fuel at any mixing ratio of CPLF and any load, Therefore, CPLF could be practically used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

Keywords: Cellulosic Biomass, Co-liquefaction, Solvent, Waste Plastics

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29 Difference in the Expression of CIRBP, RBM3 and HSP70 in the Myocardium and Cerebellum after Death by Hypothermi a and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Lisa Wingenfeld, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi


We studied the expression of hypoxia-related antigens (e.g., cold-inducible antigens and apoptotic antigens) in the myocardium and the cerebellumthat were obtained from individuals after death by carbon monoxide or hypothermia. The immunohistochemistry results revealed that expression of cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRBP) and RNA-binding protein 3 (RBM3) may be associated with hpyothermic and the hypoxic conditions. The expression of CIRBP and RBM3 in the myocardium was different from their expression in the cerebellum, especially in the Purkinje cells. The results indicate that agonal duration influences antigen expression. In the hypothermic condition, the myocardium uses more ATP since the force of the excitation-contraction coupling of the myocardium increases by more than 400% when the experimental temperature is reduced from 35°C to 25°C. The results obtained in this study indicate that physicians should pay attention to the myocardium when cooling the patient’s body to protect the brain.

Keywords: carbon monoxide death, cerebellum, CIRBP, hypothermic death, myocardium, RBM3

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28 Learning through Gaming with Mobile Devices

Authors: Luis Rodrigo Valencia Pérez, Juan Manuel Peña Aguilar, Adelina Morita Alexander, Alberto Lamadrid Alvarez, Héctor Fernando Valencia Pérez


Financial education is among the areas of opportunity in the Spanish-speaking from an early age to high school, through mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets using ludic and fun applications like interactive games, children can learn money management and investment through time, thereby fostering the habit of saving and/or sound management of cash and family business resources, having interaction with an uncontrolled environment such as the involvement of other players in the external decisions of the environment in which the game is play. The application proposed in Phase 1 (design and development) was designed in multi-user environments, under methodologies of hybrid programming for any platform on the market and designed under CMMI standards that allow for quality production over time, following up on these improvements counting with continuous user feedback and usage statistics.

Keywords: mobile educational games, ludic games, children, multiuser, design and software development

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27 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi


Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

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26 Linkage between Trace Element Distribution and Growth Ring Formation in Japanese Red Coral (Paracorallium japonicum)

Authors: Luan Trong Nguyen, M. Azizur Rahman, Yusuke Tamenori, Toshihiro Yoshimura, Nozomu Iwasaki, Hiroshi Hasegawa


This study investigated the distribution of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and strontium (Sr) using micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) along the annual growth rings in the skeleton of Japanese red coral Paracorallium japonicum. The Mg, P and S distribution in µ-XRF mapping images correspond to the dark and light bands along the annual growth rings observed in microscopic images of the coral skeleton. The µ-XRF mapping data showed a positive correlation (r = 0.6) between P and S distribution in the coral skeleton. A contrasting distribution pattern of S and Mg along the axial skeleton of P. japonicum indicates a weak negative correlation (r = -0.2) between these two trace elements. The distribution pattern of S, P and Mg reveals linkage between their distributions and the formation of dark/light bands along the annual growth rings in the axial skeleton of P. japonicum. Sulfur and P were distributed in the organic matrix rich dark bands, while Mg was distributed in the light bands of the annual growth rings.

Keywords: µ-XRF, trace element, precious coral, Paracorallium japonicum

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25 A Non-Destructive Estimation Method for Internal Time in Perilla Leaf Using Hyperspectral Data

Authors: Shogo Nagano, Yusuke Tanigaki, Hirokazu Fukuda


Vegetables harvested early in the morning or late in the afternoon are valued in plant production, and so the time of harvest is important. The biological functions known as circadian clocks have a significant effect on this harvest timing. The purpose of this study was to non-destructively estimate the circadian clock and so construct a method for determining a suitable harvest time. We took eight samples of green busil (Perilla frutescens var. crispa) every 4 hours, six times for 1 day and analyzed all samples at the same time. A hyperspectral camera was used to collect spectrum intensities at 141 different wavelengths (350–1050 nm). Calculation of correlations between spectrum intensity of each wavelength and harvest time suggested the suitability of the hyperspectral camera for non-destructive estimation. However, even the highest correlated wavelength had a weak correlation, so we used machine learning to raise the accuracy of estimation and constructed a machine learning model to estimate the internal time of the circadian clock. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for machine learning because this is an effective analysis method for large amounts of data. Using the estimation model resulted in an error between estimated and real times of 3 min. The estimations were made in less than 2 hours. Thus, we successfully demonstrated this method of non-destructively estimating internal time.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), circadian clock, green busil, hyperspectral camera, non-destructive evaluation

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24 An Experimental Investigation into Fluid Forces on Road Vehicles in Unsteady Flows

Authors: M. Sumida, S. Morita


In this research, the effect of unsteady flows acting on road vehicles was experimentally investigated, using an advanced and recently introduced wind tunnel. The aims of this study were to extract the characteristics of fluid forces acting on road vehicles under unsteady wind conditions and obtain new information on drag forces in a practical on-road test. We applied pulsating wind as a representative example of the atmospheric fluctuations that vehicles encounter on the road. That is, we considered the case where the vehicles are moving at constant speed in the air, with large wind oscillations. The experimental tests were performed on the Ahmed-type test model, which is a simplified vehicle model. This model was chosen because of its simplicity and the data accumulated under steady wind conditions. The experiments were carried out with a time-averaged Reynolds number of Re = 4.16x10⁵ and a pulsation period of T = 1.5 s, with amplitude of η = 0.235. Unsteady fluid forces of drag and lift were obtained utilizing a multi-component load cell. It was observed that the unsteady aerodynamic forces differ significantly from those under steady wind conditions. They exhibit a phase shift and an enhanced response to the wind oscillations. Furthermore, their behavior depends on the slant angle of the rear shape of the model.

Keywords: Ahmed body, automotive aerodynamics, unsteady wind, wind tunnel test

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23 Influence of Different Light Levels in Amaryllis (Hippeastrum X hybridum Hort.) Development and Flowering

Authors: Regina Maria M. Castilho, Isabela M. Morita, Ana Carolina T. Malavolta, Maximiliano K. Pagliarini


An essential factor for flower production is solar radiation, which is part of plant vital processes. As excess as shortage of light can harm the development of the culture leading to loss in product quality, Unfeasible or decreasing their commercial value. The objective of this research was to evaluate different light levels and their influence on Amaryllis (Hippeastrum X hybridum Hort.) development and flowering. The experiment was conducted at UNESP, São Paulo State, Brazil from August to October 2014. The bulbs were placed in black vases of 1.2 L filled with commercial substrate and divided into 4 different lighting environments (treatments): T1–greenhouse, T2–greenhouse with shade cloth (50%), T3–low lights indoor (until 500 lx) and T4–medium lights indoor (between 500–1000 lx). The used design was completely randomized with ten repetitions and three vessels (bulbs), totalling 30 vessels (bulbs) per treatment. The evaluated characteristics were: Chlorophyll content, number of leaves, length of leaf, number of simultaneous rods, rod length, rod diameter, number of flowers, flowers diameter, beginning of flowering and flowering duration. The results showed that in greenhouse provided Amaryllis better quality plants.

Keywords: açucena, bulbs, light, ornamental plants

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22 Sex-Dependent Fitness Improvement of Hercules Beetle Larvae by Amendement of Thermophile-Fermented Compost to Humus

Authors: Futo Asano, Yusuke Yatsushiro, Hirokuni Miyamoto, Hiroaki Kodama


A thermophile-fermented compost is produced using small fishes, crabs and shrimps under the high temperature (approximately 75℃) by fermentation-associated self heating. This compost has been used as a feed additive for pigs and hens in Japan, and fecundity of these livestocks are enhanced. Firmicutes is a dominant phylum in the microbial composition of the compost. Here we first report that improvement of female larval fitness of Hercules beetle can be achieved by control of gut microbiota. When the 90-d-old larvae were reared for subsequent 72 days in the humus with this compost, the growth of female larvae was significantly enhanced when compared with the growth of female larvae in the humus without the compost. In contrast, the growth of male larvae was the same in the humus with or without the compost. The bacterial composition of feces of larvae was determined at 0 day and 46 days after transfer to the humus with or without the compost. The dominant bacterium was Xylanimonas. Interestingly, the growth improvement of female larvae was associated with increased abundance of Mollicutes. These results indicate that the compost act as a probiotic material for enhancing the female larvae growth by supporting Mollicutes. Next, we tried to isolate Mollicutes from the contens of midgut and hindgut of 3rd instar female larvae of Hercules beetle. These gut contents were spread onto a selective agar medium for Mollicutes (PPLO agar broth, BD Difco, NJ, USA). Although we cannot isolate Mollicutes until now, several bacteria that are closely related to Xylanimonas and Luteimicrobium were isolated. These isolates have the xylanase and glucanase (CMCase) activities. We will show the gut bacterial profiles of larvae and discuss how the fitness of female larvae of Hercules beetle is improved.

Keywords: compost, beetle, mollicutes, woody biomass

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21 Autopsy-Based Study of Abdominal Traffic Trauma Death after Emergency Room Arrival

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi


We experience the autopsy cases that the deceased was alive in emergency room on arrival. Bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death after injury. This retrospective study aimed to characterize opportunities for performance improvement identified in patients who died from traffic trauma and were considered by the quality improvement of education system. The Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) education program was introduced in 2002. We focused the abdominal traffic trauma injury. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 41 post-mortems of road traffic accident between April 1999 and March 2014 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science. 16 patients (39.0%) were abdominal trauma injury. The mean period of survival after meet with accident was 13.5 hours, compared abdominal trauma death was 27.4 hours longer. In road traffic accidents, the most injured abdominal organs were liver followed by mesentery. We thought delayed treatment was associated with immediate diagnostic imaging, and so expected to expand trauma management examination.

Keywords: abdominal traffic trauma, preventable death, autopsy, emergency medicine

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20 Diagnosis, Development, and Adoption of Technology Packages for Innovation in Precision Agriculture in the Wine Sector in Mexico

Authors: Nivon P. Alejandra, Valencia P. L. Rodrigo, Vivanco V. Martin, Morita A. Adelina


Technological innovation is fundamental to reach and maintain the levels of competitiveness of agricultural producers, the detection of actors, their activities, resources and capacities of an innovation system is needed for the development of technological packages that adapt to each type of crops, local circumstances and characteristics of the producer. The growing development of the viticulture and wine sector in Mexico prospects an increase in its national market participation for 2020, this is the reason to consider it a fertile field for the technological packages adoption that promote Precision Agriculture (PA) in a harmonic and sustainable development. A viability inspection of technological packages adoption by viticulture and wine sector is made following the methodology proposed by SAGARPA in 2015 and the World Bank in 2008: the history, actors, strengths and opportunities are analyzed in this particular agroindustrial sector, also its technological innovation system is inspected in order to improve technological capacities and innovation networks taking into account local and regional resources. PA and technological packages adoption can help improving the conditions and quality of the grape for winemaking: increasing the wine's storage potential and its nutraceutical nature. The assertive diagnosis in vineyard opportunity areas will help the management of the crop by applying natural treatments at the right time in the right place.

Keywords: technological packages, precision farming, sustainable development, innovation

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19 Use of Plant Growth Regulators in the Amaryllis Production (Hippeastrum X Hybridum Hort. CV Orange Souvereign)

Authors: Maximiliano K. Pagliarini, Ana Carolina T. Malavolta, Isabela M. Morita, Regina Maria M. Castilho


Among the ornamental plants, the Amaryllis (Hippeastrum X hybridum Hort.) is one of the most cultivated plants in Brazil because of their large and showy flowers. Thus, the consumer market wants better quality plants or to flourish more in less time. One of the devices that can make such improvements or accelerate the flowering process is the use of growth regulators. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of different Stimulate® growth regulator doses and its constituents separately in the development and flowering of Hippeastrum X hybridum Hort. Cv Orange Souvereign. The experiment was conducted in a Pad & Fan greenhouse at UNESP, São Paulo State, Brazil from August to October 2014. The bulbs were placed in black vases of 1.2 L filled with commercial substrate and divided into 9 treatments: T1 – 10 mL L-1 of Stimulate®, T2 – 5 mL L-1 of Stimulate®, T3 – 0.5 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid (GA), T4 – 0.25 mg L-1 of GA, T5 – 0.45 mg L-1 of kinetin, T6 – 0.9 mg L-1 of kinetin, T7 – 0.5 mg L-1 of indolbutiric acid (IBA), T8 – 0.25 mg L-1 of IBA and T9 – distilled water (control). All treatments were diluted in water. The used design was completely randomized with six repetitions and two vessels, totalling 12 vessels per treatment. The evaluated characteristics were: number of leaves, length of leaf, number of rods, maximum height of rods, maximum diameter of rods, maximum number of flowers, beginning of flowering, flowering duration, and weight of bulbs. The results showed that the Stimulate® was not efficient in the conducted experiment conditions. However, the best treatment was 0.5 mg L-1 of IBA.

Keywords: bulbs, gibberellic acid, indolbutiric acid, kinetin, ornamental plants

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18 Path-Tracking Controller for Tracked Mobile Robot on Rough Terrain

Authors: Toshifumi Hiramatsu, Satoshi Morita, Manuel Pencelli, Marta Niccolini, Matteo Ragaglia, Alfredo Argiolas


Automation technologies for agriculture field are needed to promote labor-saving. One of the most relevant problems in automated agriculture is represented by controlling the robot along a predetermined path in presence of rough terrain or incline ground. Unfortunately, disturbances originating from interaction with the ground, such as slipping, make it quite difficult to achieve the required accuracy. In general, it is required to move within 5-10 cm accuracy with respect to the predetermined path. Moreover, lateral velocity caused by gravity on the incline field also affects slipping. In this paper, a path-tracking controller for tracked mobile robots moving on rough terrains of incline field such as vineyard is presented. The controller is composed of a disturbance observer and an adaptive controller based on the kinematic model of the robot. The disturbance observer measures the difference between the measured and the reference yaw rate and linear velocity in order to estimate slip. Then, the adaptive controller adapts “virtual” parameter of the kinematics model: Instantaneous Centers of Rotation (ICRs). Finally, target angular velocity reference is computed according to the adapted parameter. This solution allows estimating the effects of slip without making the model too complex. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed solution is tested in a simulation environment.

Keywords: the agricultural robot, autonomous control, path-tracking control, tracked mobile robot

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17 Knowledge Transfer among Cross-Functional Teams as a Continual Improvement Process

Authors: Sergio Mauricio Pérez López, Luis Rodrigo Valencia Pérez, Juan Manuel Peña Aguilar, Adelina Morita Alexander


The culture of continuous improvement in organizations is very important as it represents a source of competitive advantage. This article discusses the transfer of knowledge between companies which formed cross-functional teams and used a dynamic model for knowledge creation as a framework. In addition, the article discusses the structure of cognitive assets in companies and the concept of "stickiness" (which is defined as an obstacle to the transfer of knowledge). The purpose of this analysis is to show that an improvement in the attitude of individual members of an organization creates opportunities, and that an exchange of information and knowledge leads to generating continuous improvements in the company as a whole. This article also discusses the importance of creating the proper conditions for sharing tacit knowledge. By narrowing gaps between people, mutual trust can be created and thus contribute to an increase in sharing. The concept of adapting knowledge to new environments will be highlighted, as it is essential for companies to translate and modify information so that such information can fit the context of receiving organizations. Adaptation will ensure that the transfer process is carried out smoothly by preventing "stickiness". When developing the transfer process on cross-functional teams (as opposed to working groups), the team acquires the flexibility and responsiveness necessary to meet objectives. These types of cross-functional teams also generate synergy due to the array of different work backgrounds of their individuals. When synergy is established, a culture of continuous improvement is created.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, continuous improvement, teamwork, cognitive assets

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16 Mapping a Data Governance Framework to the Continuum of Care in the Active Assisted Living Context

Authors: Gaya Bin Noon, Thoko Hanjahanja-Phiri, Laura Xavier Fadrique, Plinio Pelegrini Morita, Hélène Vaillancourt, Jennifer Teague, Tania Donovska


Active Assisted Living (AAL) refers to systems designed to improve the quality of life, aid in independence, and create healthier lifestyles for care recipients. As the population ages, there is a pressing need for non-intrusive, continuous, adaptable, and reliable health monitoring tools to support aging in place. AAL has great potential to support these efforts with the wide variety of solutions currently available, but insufficient efforts have been made to address concerns arising from the integration of AAL into care. The purpose of this research was to (1) explore the integration of AAL technologies and data into the clinical pathway, and (2) map data access and governance for AAL technology in order to develop standards for use by policy-makers, technology manufacturers, and developers of smart communities for seniors. This was done through four successive research phases: (1) literature search to explore existing work in this area and identify lessons learned; (2) modeling of the continuum of care; (3) adapting a framework for data governance into the AAL context; and (4) interviews with stakeholders to explore the applicability of previous work. Opportunities for standards found in these research phases included a need for greater consistency in language and technology requirements, better role definition regarding who can access and who is responsible for taking action based on the gathered data, and understanding of the privacy-utility tradeoff inherent in using AAL technologies in care settings.

Keywords: active assisted living, aging in place, internet of things, standards

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15 Improvements of the Difficulty in Hospital Acceptance at the Scene by the Introduction of Smartphone Application for Emergency-Medical-Service System: A Population-Based Before-And-After Observation Study in Osaka City, Japan

Authors: Yusuke Katayama, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Kosuke Kiyohara, Sumito Hayashida, Taku Iwami, Takashi Kawamura, Takeshi Shimazu


Background: Recently, the number of ambulance dispatches has been increasing in Japan and it is, therefore, difficult to accept emergency patients to hospitals smoothly and appropriately because of the limited hospital capacity. To facilitate the request for patient transport by ambulances and hospital acceptance, the emergency information system using information technology has been built up and introduced in various communities. However, its effectiveness has not been insufficiently revealed in Japan. In 2013, we developed a smartphone application system that enables the emergency-medical-service (EMS) personnel to share information about on-scene ambulance and hospital situation. The aim of this study was to assess the introduction effect of this application for EMS system in Osaka City, Japan. Methods: This study was a retrospective study with population-based ambulance records of Osaka Municipal Fire Department. This study period was six years from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. In this study, we enrolled emergency patients that on-scene EMS personnel conducted the hospital selection for them. The main endpoint was difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. The definition of difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene was to make >=5 phone calls by EMS personnel at the scene to each hospital until a decision to transport was determined. The definition of the smartphone application group was emergency patients transported in the period of 2013-2015 after the introduction of this application, and we assessed the introduction effect of smartphone application with multivariable logistic regression model. Results: A total of 600,526 emergency patients for whom EMS personnel selected hospitals were eligible for our analysis. There were 300,131 smartphone application group (50.0%) in 2010-2012 and 300,395 non-smartphone application group (50.0%) in 2013-2015. The proportion of the difficulty in hospital acceptance was 14.2% (42,585/300,131) in the smartphone application group and 10.9% (32,819/300,395) in the non-smartphone application group, and the difficulty in hospital acceptance significantly decreased by the introduction of the smartphone application (adjusted odds ration; 0.730, 95% confidence interval; 0.718-0.741, P<0.001). Conclusions: Sharing information between ambulance and hospital by introducing smartphone application at the scene was associated with decreasing the difficulty in hospital acceptance. Our findings may be considerable useful for developing emergency medical information system with using IT in other areas of the world.

Keywords: difficulty in hospital acceptance, emergency medical service, infomation technology, smartphone application

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14 Childhood Obesity in Japan: Trends in Obesity Prevalence among Japanese Kids under 17 Years Old from 2007 to 2016

Authors: Houda Mnif Sellami, Toshi Umehara, Yuriko Yamazaki, Reie Matoba, Anna Sakashita, Yoshimi Abe, Hiroyuki Otake, Satoko Morita, Yoshitaka Akiyama, Chieko Morisawa, Eiji Omura, Masako Yazawa, Yoshie Koike, Mitsugu Tokunaga, Seiki Wada, Shinya Minagawa, Masafumi Matsuda


Childhood obesity has been, for decades, a very serious public health problem worldwide. Some Asian countries have already reached alarming rates, as lifestyle changed dramatically in this part of the world. In many concerned countries, strategies including educational, promotional and awareness-raising activities have been established to combat obesity within kids. Objective: To estimate the obesity and also the underweight trends of Japanese kids from 5 to 17 years, by single year of age and by gender, over the last decade. Methods We used the data from the cross-sectional annual Nationwide surveys (National Nutrition Survey, Japan, Ministry of education, culture, sports, science and technology) conducted from 2007 to 2016. We compared trajectories of obesity prevalence, with the data on sex and age groups. We also analyzed energy and macronutrients intakes of Japanese kids using Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare-Japan annual data, from 2007 to 2014. Results: From 2007 to 2016, Boys obesity was higher than Girls obesity for the over 6 YO participants. Both Boys and Girls obesity trends had 2 peaks of prevalence at (11-13 YO) and then at (15-16 YO). From 2007 to 2012, Kids obesity decreased considerably in both sex and all year of age; then obesity decline was more modest till 2016.On the other side, Kids underweight prevalence increased in both sexes. The macronutrients analyze couldn’t show an evident association between obesity trends and foods intake. Conclusion: Japanese kids’ obesity has been decreased since 2007, in opposition to some other countries reports. We didn’t find an observed association with food intake using Health Ministry data; we need further investigation to estimate energy intake, lifestyle and physical activity by year of age to know whether there is any possible relation.

Keywords: childhood, Japan, obesity, underweight

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13 Maresin Like 1 Treatment: Curbing the Pathogenesis of Behavioral Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model

Authors: Yan Lu, Song Hong, Janakiraman Udaiyappan, Aarti Nagayach, Quoc-Viet A. Duong, Masao Morita, Shun Saito, Yuichi Kobayashi, Yuhai, Zhao, Hongying Peng, Nicholas B. Pham, Walter J Lukiw, Christopher A. Vuong, Nicolas G. Bazan


Aims: Neurodegeneration and behavior dysfunction occurs in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and as the disease progresses many patients develop cognitive impairment. 5XFAD mouse model of AD is widely used to study AD pathogenesis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maresin like 1 (MaR-L1) treatment in AD pathology using 5XFAD mice. Methods: We tested 12-month-old male 5XFAD mice and wild type control mice treated with MaR-L1 in a battery of behavioral tasks. We performed open field test, beam walking test, clasping test, inverted grid test, acetone test, marble burring test, elevated plus maze test, cross maze test and novel object recognition test. We also studied neuronal loss, amyloid β burden, and inflammation in the brains of 5XFAD mice using immunohistology and Western blotting. Results: MaR-L1 treatment to the 5XFAD mice showed improved cognitive function of 5XFAD mice. MaR-L1 showed decreased anxiety behavior in open field test and marble burring test, increased muscular strength in the beam walking test, clasping test and inverted grid test. Cognitive function was improved in MaR-L1 treated 5XFAD mice in the novel object recognition test. MaR-L1 prevented neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that behavioral abnormalities were normalized by the administration of MaR-L1 and the neuroprotective role of MaR-L1 in the AD. It also indicates that MaR-L1 treatment is able to prevent and or ameliorate neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Further experiments to validate the results are warranted using other AD models in the future.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, motor and cognitive behavior, 5XFAD mice, Maresin Like 1, microglial cell, astrocyte, neurodegeneration, inflammation, resolution of inflammation

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12 Inhibitory Action of Fatty Acid Salts against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Dermatophagoides farinae

Authors: Yui Okuno, Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita


Introduction: Fungus and mite are known as allergens that cause an allergic disease for example asthma bronchiale and allergic rhinitis. Cladosporium cladosporioides is one of the most often detected fungi in the indoor environment and causes pollution and deterioration. Dermatophagoides farinae is major mite allergens indoors. Therefore, the creation of antifungal agents with high safety and the antifungal effect is required. Fatty acid salts are known that have antibacterial activities. This report describes the effects of fatty acid salts against Cladosporium cladosporioides NBRC 30314 and Dermatophagoides farinae. Methods: Potassium salts of 9 fatty acids (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with the appropriate amount of KOH solution to a concentration of 175 mM and pH 10.5. The antifungal method, the spore suspension (3.0×104 spores/mL) was mixed with a sample of fatty acid potassium (final concentration of 175 mM). Samples were counted at 0, 10, 60, 180 min by plating (100 µL) on PDA. Fungal colonies were counted after incubation for 3 days at 30 °C. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) against the fungi was determined by the two-fold dilution method. Each fatty acid salts were inoculated separately with 400 µL of C. cladosporioides at 3.0 × 104 spores/mL. The mixtures were incubated at the respective temperature for each organism for 10 min. The tubes were then contacted with the fungi incubated at 30 °C for 7 days and examined for growth of spores on PDA. The acaricidal method, twenty D. farinae adult females were used and each adult was covered completely with 2 µL fatty acid potassium for 1 min. The adults were then dried with filter paper. The filter paper was folded and fixed by two clips and kept at 25 °C and 64 % RH. Mortalities were determained 48 h after treatment under the microscope. D. farina was considered to be dead if appendages did not move when prodded with a pin. Results and Conclusions: The results show that C8K, C10K, C12K, C14K was effective to decrease survival rate (4 log unit) of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 10 min against C. cladosporioides. C18:3K was effective to decrease 4 log unit of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 60 min. Especially, C12K was the highest antifungal activity and the MIC of C12K was 0.7 mM. On the other hand, the fatty acids potassium showed no acaricidal effects against D. farinae. The activity of D. farinae was not adversely affected after 48 hours. These results indicate that C12K has high antifungal activity against C. cladosporioides and suggest the fatty acid potassium will be used as an antifungal agent.

Keywords: fatty acid salts, antifungal effects, acaricidal effects, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Dermatophagoides farinae

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11 Relationship of Macro-Concepts in Educational Technologies

Authors: L. R. Valencia Pérez, A. Morita Alexander, Peña A. Juan Manuel, A. Lamadrid Álvarez


This research shows the reflection and identification of explanatory variables and their relationships between different variables that are involved with educational technology, all of them encompassed in macro-concepts which are: cognitive inequality, economy, food and language; These will give the guideline to have a more detailed knowledge of educational systems, the communication and equipment, the physical space and the teachers; All of them interacting with each other give rise to what is called educational technology management. These elements contribute to have a very specific knowledge of the equipment of communications, networks and computer equipment, systems and content repositories. This is intended to establish the importance of knowing a global environment in the transfer of knowledge in poor countries, so that it does not diminish the capacity to be authentic and preserve their cultures, their languages or dialects, their hierarchies and real needs; In short, to respect the customs of different towns, villages or cities that are intended to be reached through the use of internationally agreed professional educational technologies. The methodology used in this research is the analytical - descriptive, which allows to explain each of the variables, which in our opinion must be taken into account, in order to achieve an optimal incorporation of the educational technology in a model that gives results in a medium term. The idea is that in an encompassing way the concepts will be integrated to others with greater coverage until reaching macro concepts that are of national coverage in the countries and that are elements of conciliation in the different federal and international reforms. At the center of the model is the educational technology which is directly related to the concepts that are contained in factors such as the educational system, communication and equipment, spaces and teachers, which are globally immersed in macro concepts Cognitive inequality, economics, food and language. One of the major contributions of this article is to leave this idea under an algorithm that allows to be as unbiased as possible when evaluating this indicator, since other indicators that are to be taken from international preference entities like the OECD in the area of education systems studied, so that they are not influenced by particular political or interest pressures. This work opens the way for a relationship between involved entities, both conceptual, procedural and human activity, to clearly identify the convergence of their impact on the problem of education and how the relationship can contribute to an improvement, but also shows possibilities of being able to reach a comprehensive education reform for all.

Keywords: relationships macro-concepts, cognitive inequality, economics, alimentation and language

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10 Anti-Acanthamoeba Activities of Fatty Acid Salts and Fatty Acids

Authors: Manami Masuda, Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita


Objectives: Fatty acid salts are a type of anionic surfactant and are produced from fatty acids and alkali. Moreover, fatty acid salts are known to have potent antibacterial activities. Acanthamoeba is ubiquitously distributed in the environment including sea water, fresh water, soil and even from the air. Although generally free-living, Acanthamoeba can be an opportunistic pathogen, which could cause a potentially blinding corneal infection known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. So, in this study, we evaluated the anti-amoeba activity of fatty acid salts and fatty acids to Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30010. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of 9 fatty acid salts (potassium butyrate (C4K), caproate (C6K), caprylate (C8K), caprate (C10K), laurate (C12K), myristate (C14K), oleate (C18:1K), linoleate (C18:2K), linolenate (C18:3K)) tested on cells of Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30010. Fatty acid salts (concentration of 175 mM and pH 10.5) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with the appropriate amount of KOH. The amoeba suspension mixed with KOH with a pH adjusted solution was used as the control. Fatty acids (concentration of 175 mM) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with Tween 80 (20 %). The amoeba suspension mixed with Tween 80 (20 %) was used as the control. The anti-amoeba method, the amoeba suspension (3.0 × 104 cells/ml trophozoites) was mixed with the sample of fatty acid potassium (final concentration of 175 mM). Samples were incubated at 30°C, for 10 min, 60 min, and 180 min and then the viability of A. castellanii was evaluated using plankton counting chamber and trypan blue stainings. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Acanthamoeba was determined using the two-fold dilution method. The MIC was defined as the minimal anti-amoeba concentration that inhibited visible amoeba growth following incubation (180 min). Results: C8K, C10K, and C12K were the anti-amoeba effect of 4 log-unit (99.99 % growth suppression of A. castellanii) incubated time for 180 min against A. castellanii at 175mM. After the amoeba, the suspension was mixed with C10K or C12K, destroying the cell membrane had been observed. Whereas, the pH adjusted control solution did not exhibit any effect even after 180 min of incubation with A. castellanii. Moreover, C6, C8, and C18:3 were the anti-amoeba effect of 4 log-unit incubated time for 60 min. C4 and C18:2 exhibited a 4-log reduction after 180 min incubation. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The MIC of C10K, C12K and C4 were 2.7 mM. These results indicate that C10K, C12K and C4 have high anti-amoeba activity against A. castellanii and suggest C10K, C12K and C4 have great potential for antimi-amoeba agents.

Keywords: Fatty acid salts, anti-amoeba activities, Acanthamoeba, fatty acids

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9 Effects of Fatty Acid Salts and Spices on Dermatophagoides farinae

Authors: Yumeho Obata, Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita


Dermatophagoides farinae is major mite allergens in indoors. D. farinae is often swarm over powder products (e.g. wheat flour), because it feeds on starch or protein that are included in them. Eating powder products which are mixed D.farinae causes various allergic symptoms. Therefore, the creation of food additive agents with high safety and control of mite effect is required. Fatty acid salts and spices are known that have pesticidal activities. This study describes the effects of fatty acid salts and spices against Dermatophagoides farinae. Materials and Methods: Potassium salts of 9 fatty acids (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with the appropriate amount of KOH solution to a concentration of 175 mM and pH 10.5. C12Cu and C12Zn were selected as other fatty acid salts. Cayenne pepper, habanero, Japanese pepper, mustard, jalapeno pepper, curry aroma and cinnamon were selected as spices. D. farina, have been cultured in laboratory. To rear the mites, double-soled dishes containing of sterilized food were put on the big plastic container (30.0 × 20.0 × 20.0cm) which had 100% ammonium nitrate solution in the bottom. Plastic container was placed on incubator at 25 °C and 64 % relative humidity (RH) under dark condition. Sterilized food composed of dried bonito flakes and dried yeast (Ebios), 1:1 by weight. The antiproliferative method, sample and medium culture were mixed in double-soled dish and kept at 25 °C and 64 % RH. Decrease rates were determined 1 week and 4 week after treatment under microscope. D. farina was considered to be dead if appendages did not move when prodded with a pin. Results and Conclusions: The results show that the fatty acids potassium showed no antiproliferative effects against D. farinae. On the other hand, Japanese pepper, mustard, curry aroma and cinnamon were effective to decrease propagative rate (over 80 %) after treatment for 1 week against D. farina. Japanese pepper, curry aroma and cinnamon were effective to decrease propagative rate (approximately 100 %) after treatment for 4 weeks against D. farina. Especially, Japanese pepper and cinnamon showed the fasted and the most consecutive antiproliferative effects. These results indicate that Japanese pepper and cinnamon have high antiproliferative effects against D. farina and suggest spices will be used as a food additive agent.

Keywords: fatty acid salts, spices, antiproliferative effects, dermatophagoides farinae

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