Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2612

Search results for: compliant mechanism

2612 Design and Optimization for a Compliant Gripper with Force Regulation Mechanism

Authors: Nhat Linh Ho, Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang, Hieu Giang Le

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and optimization for a compliant gripper. The gripper is constructed based on the concept of compliant mechanism with flexure hinge. A passive force regulation mechanism is presented to control the grasping force a micro-sized object instead of using a sensor force. The force regulation mechanism is designed using the planar springs. The gripper is expected to obtain a large range of displacement to handle various sized objects. First of all, the statics and dynamics of the gripper are investigated by using the finite element analysis in ANSYS software. And then, the design parameters of the gripper are optimized via Taguchi method. An orthogonal array L9 is used to establish an experimental matrix. Subsequently, the signal to noise ratio is analyzed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the response surface methodology is employed to model the relationship between the design parameters and the output displacement of the gripper. The design of experiment method is then used to analyze the sensitivity so as to determine the effect of each parameter on the displacement. The results showed that the compliant gripper can move with a large displacement of 213.51 mm and the force regulation mechanism is expected to be used for high precision positioning systems.

Keywords: flexure hinge, compliant mechanism, compliant gripper, force regulation mechanism, Taguchi method, response surface methodology, design of experiment

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2611 Contact-Impact Analysis of Continuum Compliant Athletic Systems

Authors: Theddeus Tochukwu Akano, Omotayo Abayomi Fakinlede

Abstract:

Proper understanding of the behavior of compliant mechanisms use by athletes is important in order to avoid catastrophic failure. Such compliant mechanisms like the flex-run require the knowledge of their dynamic response and deformation behavior under quickly varying loads. The modeling of finite deformations of the compliant athletic system is described by Neo-Hookean model under contact-impact conditions. The dynamic impact-contact governing equations for both the target and impactor are derived based on the updated Lagrangian approach. A method where contactor and target are considered as a united body is applied in the formulation of the principle of virtual work for the bodies. In this paper, methods of continuum mechanics and nonlinear finite element method were deployed to develop a model that could capture the behavior of the compliant athletic system under quickly varying loads. A hybrid system of symbolic algebra (AceGEN) and a compiled back end (AceFEM) were employed, leveraging both ease of use and computational efficiency. The simulated results reveal the effect of the various contact-impact conditions on the deformation behavior of the impacting compliant mechanism.

Keywords: eigenvalue problems, finite element method, robin boundary condition, sturm-liouville problem

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2610 Design and Analysis of Flexible Slider Crank Mechanism

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents the optimal design and formulation of a kinematic model of a flexible slider crank mechanism. The objective of the proposed innovative design is to take extra advantage of the compliant mechanism and maximize the fatigue life by applying the Taguchi method. A formulated kinematic model is developed using a Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model (PRBM). By means of mathematic models, the kinematic behaviors of the flexible slider crank mechanism are captured using MATLAB software. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used to show the stress distribution. The results show that the optimal shape of the flexible hinge includes a force of 8.5N, a width of 9mm and a thickness of 1.1mm. Analysis of variance shows that the thickness of the proposed hinge is the most significant parameter, with an F test of 15.5. Finally, a prototype is manufactured to prepare for testing the kinematic and dynamic behaviors.

Keywords: kinematic behavior, fatigue life, pseudo-rigid-body model, flexible slider crank mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
2609 A Compact Quasi-Zero Stiffness Vibration Isolator Using Flexure-Based Spring Mechanisms Capable of Tunable Stiffness

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents a quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator using flexure-based spring mechanisms which afford both negative and positive stiffness elements, which enable self-adjustment. The QZS property of the isolator is achieved at the equilibrium position. A nonlinear mathematical model is then developed, based on the pre-compression of the flexure-based spring mechanisms. The dynamics are further analyzed using the Harmonic Balance method. The vibration attention efficiency is illustrated using displacement transmissibility, which is then compared with the corresponding linear isolator. The effects of parameters on performance are also investigated by numerical solutions. The flexure-based spring mechanisms are subsequently designed using the concept of compliant mechanisms, with evaluation by ANSYS software, and simulations of the QZS isolator.

Keywords: vibration isolator, quasi-zero stiffness, flexure-based spring mechanisms, compliant mechanism

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2608 Testing the Capital Structure Behavior of Malaysian Firms: Shariah vs. Non-Shariah Compliant

Authors: Asyraf Abdul Halim, Mohd Edil Abd Sukor, Obiyathulla Ismath Bacha

Abstract:

This paper attempts to investigate the capital structure behavior of Shariah compliant firms of various levels as well those firms who are consistently Shariah non-compliant in Malaysia. The paper utilizes a unique dataset of firms of the heterogeneous level of Shariah-compliancy status over a 20 year period from the year 1997 to 2016. The paper focuses on the effects of dynamic forces behind capital structure variation such as the optimal capital structure behavior based on the trade-off, pecking order, market timing and firmly fixed effect models of capital structure. This study documents significant evidence in support of the trade-off theory with a high speed of adjustment (SOA) as well as for the time-invariant firm fixed effects across all Shariah compliance group.

Keywords: capital structure, market timing, trade-off theory, equity risk premium, Shariah-compliant firms

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
2607 Sustainable Investing and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Shariah Compliant Companies in Southeast Asia

Authors: Norashikin Ismail, Nadia Anridho

Abstract:

Sustainable investing is a responsible investment that focuses on Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) elements. ESG integration is essential in the investment process as it provides a positive contribution to the corporate performance for stakeholders, specifically investors. Sustainable investing is in line with the objectives of Shariah (Maqasid of Shariah), such as social inclusion as well as environmental preservation. This study attempts to evaluate the impact of ESG elements to the corporate financial performance among Shariah compliant stocks listed in two countries, namely Malaysia and Indonesia. The motivation of this study is to provide a further understanding in corporate sustainability for two different Islamic capital markets. The existence of the FTSE4Good Asean Index has played a vital role for ESG practices and eventually encouraged specific index for ESG and Shariah Compliant stocks. Our sample consists of 60 companies over the period 2010-2020 from two Southeast countries. We employ System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to reduce bias and more specific parameter estimation. Shariah Compliant companies tend to have higher ESG scores and are positively correlated to corporate financial performance. ESG integration with Shariah based investing would provide higher returns and lower risks for Muslim investors. Essentially, integrating ESG and Shariah, compliant companies lead to better financial performance.

Keywords: shariah compliant, southeast asia, corporate performance, sustainable investing

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2606 Sharia Non-Compliant Transactions and Disclosure by Islamic Banks: Content Analysis of Annual Reports

Authors: Mehriban Ahmadova

Abstract:

Country of origin has been found to be an important determinant of the level of corporate social disclosure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences of corporate social disclosure, including sharia non-compliant information, by Islamic banks. The study applies content analysis approach of annual reports of fully-fledged Islamic banks from 24 countries. International differences are found in terms of level, methods and location of disclosure.

Keywords: Content analysis, Corporate social disclosure, Islamic banks, Sharia non-compliant disclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2605 Design and Analysis of Hybrid Morphing Smart Wing for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Chetan Gupta, Ramesh Gupta

Abstract:

Unmanned aerial vehicles, of all sizes, are prime targets of the wing morphing concept as their lightweight structures demand high aerodynamic stability while traversing unsteady atmospheric conditions. In this research study, a hybrid morphing technology is developed to aid the trailing edge of the aircraft wing to alter its camber as a monolithic element rather than functioning as conventional appendages like flaps. Kinematic tailoring, actuation techniques involving shape memory alloys (SMA), piezoelectrics – individually fall short of providing a simplistic solution to the conundrum of morphing aircraft wings. On the other hand, the feature of negligible hysteresis while actuating using compliant mechanisms has shown higher levels of applicability and deliverability in morphing wings of even large aircrafts. This research paper delves into designing a wing section model with a periodic, multi-stable compliant structure requiring lower orders of topological optimization. The design is sub-divided into three smaller domains with external hyperelastic connections to achieve deflections ranging from -15° to +15° at the trailing edge of the wing. To facilitate this functioning, a hybrid actuation system by combining the larger bandwidth feature of piezoelectric macro-fibre composites and relatively higher work densities of shape memory alloy wires are used. Finite element analysis is applied to optimize piezoelectric actuation of the internal compliant structure. A coupled fluid-surface interaction analysis is conducted on the wing section during morphing to study the development of the velocity boundary layer at low Reynold’s numbers of airflow.

Keywords: compliant mechanism, hybrid morphing, piezoelectrics, shape memory alloys

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2604 Reflections on Mechanism of Foreign Teachers’ Administration in Colleges and Universities in China

Authors: YangHui

Abstract:

Foreign teachers play an important role in the process of internationalization of higher education in China. Based on the method of literature analysis, firstly study the contents about the mechanism of the foreign teachers’ administration in our country, then secondly analyze the main barriers of the foreign teacher’s administration mechanism. Finally, it is suggested that the international exchange department in universities should constantly improve the employment mechanism, training mechanism, appraisal mechanism and incentive mechanism to promote the internationalization of higher education.

Keywords: internationalization of higher education, mechanism, administration of foreign teachers, colleges and universities, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
2603 Approach to Functional Safety-Compliant Design of Electric Power Steering Systems for Commercial Vehicles

Authors: Hyun Chul Koag, Hyun-Sik Ahn

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a design approach for the safety mechanism of an actuator used in a commercial vehicle’s EPS system. As the number of electric/electronic system in a vehicle increases, the importance of the functional safety has been receiving much attention. EPS(Electric Power Steering) systems for commercial vehicles require large power than passenger vehicles, and hence, dual motor can be applied to get more torque. We show how to formulate the development process for the design of hardware and software of an EPS system using dual motors. A lot of safety mechanisms for the processor, sensors, and memory have been suggested, however, those for actuators have not been fully researched. It is shown by metric analyses that the target ASIL(Automotive Safety Integrated Level) is satisfied in the point of view of hardware of EPS controller.

Keywords: safety mechanism, functional safety, commercial vehicles, electric power steering

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
2602 Dynamic Synthesis of a Flexible Multibody System

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ben Abdallah, Imed Khemili, Nizar Aifaoui

Abstract:

This work denotes an insight into dynamic synthesis of multibody systems. A set of mechanism parameters design variable are synthetized based on a desired mechanism response, such as, velocity, acceleration and bodies deformations. Moreover, knowing the work space, for a robot, and mechanism response allow defining optimal parameters mechanism handling with the desired target response. To this end, evolutionary genetic algorithm has been deployed. A demonstrative example for imperfect mechanism has been treated, mainly, a slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. The transversal deflection of the connecting rod has been chosen as response to identify the mechanism design parameters.

Keywords: dynamic response, evolutionary genetic algorithm, flexible bodies, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
2601 Analysis of a Single Motor Finger Mechanism for a Prosthetic Hand

Authors: Shaukat Ali, Kanber Sedef, Mustafa Yilmaz

Abstract:

This work analyzes a finger mechanism for a prosthetic hand that will help in improving the living standards of people who have lost their hands for a variety of reasons. The finger mechanism is single degree of freedom and hence has advantages such as compact size, reduced mass and less energy consumption. The proposed finger mechanism is a six bar linkage actuated by a single motor. The kinematic, static and dynamic analyses have been done by using the conventional methods of mechanism analysis. The kinematic results present the motion of the proposed finger mechanism and location of the fingertip. The static and dynamic analyses provide the useful information about the gripping force at the fingertip for various configurations and the selection of motor that will move the finger over its range of configuration. This single motor finger mechanism is simple and resembles the human finger’s motion suitable for grasping operation. This study can be used in the optimization of geometrical parameters of the proposed mechanism to obtain the desired configurations with minimum torque and enhanced griping.

Keywords: dynamics, finger mechanism, grasping, kinematics

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2600 Foil Bearing Stiffness Estimation with Pseudospectral Scheme

Authors: Balaji Sankar, Sadanand Kulkarni

Abstract:

Compliant foil gas lubricated bearings are used for the support of light loads in the order of few kilograms at high speeds, in the order of 50,000 RPM. The stiffness of the foil bearings depends both on the stiffness of the compliant foil and on the lubricating gas film. The stiffness of the bearings plays a crucial role in the stable operation of the supported rotor over a range of speeds. This paper describes a numerical approach to estimate the stiffness of the bearings using pseudo spectral scheme. Methodology to obtain the stiffness of the foil bearing as a function of weight of the shaft is given and the results are presented.

Keywords: foil bearing, simulation, numerical, stiffness estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
2599 Decomposition of Funds Transfer Pricing Components in Islamic Bank: The Exposure Effect of Shariah Non-Compliant Event Rectification Process

Authors: Azrul Azlan Iskandar Mirza

Abstract:

The purpose of Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) for Islamic Bank is to promote prudent liquidity risk-taking behavior of business units. The acquirer of stable deposits will be rewarded whilst a business unit that generates long-term assets will be charged for added liquidity funding risks. In the end, it promotes risk-adjusted pricing by incorporating profit rate risk and liquidity risk component in the product pricing. However, in the event of Shariah non-compliant (SNCE), FTP components will be examined in the rectification plan especially when Islamic banks need to purify the non-compliance income. The finding shows that the determination between actual and provision cost will defer the decision among Shariah committee in Islamic banks. This paper will review each of FTP components to ensure the classification of actual and provision costs reflect the decision on rectification process on SNCE. This will benefit future decision and its consistency of Islamic banks.

Keywords: fund transfer pricing, Islamic banking, Islamic finance, shariah non-compliant event

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
2598 Network Traffic Classification Scheme for Internet Network Based on Application Categorization for Ipv6

Authors: Yaser Miaji, Mohammed Aloryani

Abstract:

The rise of recent applications in everyday implementation like videoconferencing, online recreation and voice speech communication leads to pressing the need for novel mechanism and policy to serve this steep improvement within the application itself and users‟ wants. This diversity in web traffics needs some classification and prioritization of the traffics since some traffics merit abundant attention with less delay and loss, than others. This research is intended to reinforce the mechanism by analysing the performance in application according to the proposed mechanism implemented. The mechanism used is quite direct and analytical. The mechanism is implemented by modifying the queue limit in the algorithm.

Keywords: traffic classification, IPv6, internet, application categorization

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2597 Performance of Shariah-Based Investment: Evidence from Pakistani Listed Firms

Authors: Mohsin Sadaqat, Hilal Anwar Butt

Abstract:

Following the stock selection guidelines provided by the Sharia Board (SB), we segregate the firms listed at Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) into Sharia Compliant (SC) and Non-Sharia Compliant (NSC) stocks. Subsequently, we form portfolios within each group based on market capitalization and volatility. The purpose is to analyze and compare the performance of these two groups as the SC stocks have lesser diversification opportunities due to SB restrictions. Using data ranging from January 2004 until June 2016, our results indicate that in most of the cases the risk-adjusted returns (alphas) for the returns differential between SC and NCS firms are positive. In addition, the SC firms in comparison to their counterparts in PSX provides excess returns that are hedged against the market, size, and value-based systematic risks factors. Overall, these results reconcile with one prevailing notion that the SC stocks that have lower financial leverage and higher investment in real assets are lesser exposed to market-based risks. Further, the SC firms that are more capitalized and less volatile, perform better than lower capitalized and higher volatile SC and NSC firms. To sum up our results, we do not find any substantial evidence for opportunity loss due to limited diversification opportunities in case of SC firms. To optimally utilize scarce resources, investors should consider SC firms as a candidate in portfolio construction.

Keywords: diversification, performance, sharia compliant stocks, risk adjusted returns

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2596 Fast Authentication Using User Path Prediction in Wireless Broadband Networks

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Sathya Pavithra, Swaminathan Venkatraman

Abstract:

Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) utilizes the IEEE 802.1X mechanism for authentication. However, this mechanism incurs considerable delay during handoffs. This delay during handoffs results in service disruption which becomes a severe bottleneck. To overcome this delay, our article proposes a key caching mechanism based on user path prediction. If the user mobility follows that path, the user bypasses the normal IEEE 802.1X mechanism and establishes the necessary authentication keys directly. Through analytical and simulation modeling, we have proved that our mechanism effectively decreases the handoff delay thereby achieving fast authentication.

Keywords: authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA), handoff, mobile, user path prediction (UPP) and user pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2595 Lotus Mechanism: Validation of Deployment Mechanism Using Structural and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Parth Prajapati, A. R. Srinivas

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to validate the concept of the Lotus Mechanism using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools considering the statics and dynamics through actual time dependence involving inertial forces acting on the mechanism joints. For a 1.2 m mirror made of hexagonal segments, with simple harnesses and three-point supports, the maximum diameter is 400 mm, minimum segment base thickness is 1.5 mm, and maximum rib height is considered as 12 mm. Manufacturing challenges are explored for the segments using manufacturing research and development approaches to enable use of large lightweight mirrors required for the future space system.

Keywords: dynamics, manufacturing, reflectors, segmentation, statics

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2594 Design and Fabrication of Electricity Generating Speed Breaker

Authors: Haider Aamir, Muhammad Ali Khalid

Abstract:

Electricity harvesting speed bump (EHSB) is speed breaker of conventional shape, but the difference is that it is not fixed, rather it moves up and down, and electricity can be generated from its vibrating motion. This speed bump consists of an upper cover which will move up and down, a shaft mechanism which will be used to drive the generator and a rack and pinion mechanism which will connect the cover and shaft. There is a spring mechanism to return the cover to its initial state when a vehicle has passed over the bump. Produced energy in the past was up to 80 Watts. For this purpose, a clutch mechanism is used so that both the up-down movements of the cover can be used to drive the generator. Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) mechanism ensures the conversion of both the linear motions into rotational motion which is used to drive the generator.

Keywords: electricity harvesting, generator, rack and pinion, stainless steel shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
2593 Untapped Market of Islamic Pension Fund: Muslim Attitude and Expectation

Authors: Yunice Karina Tumewang

Abstract:

As we have seen, the number of Muslim and their awareness toward financial products and services that conform to Islamic principles are growing rapidly today. Thus, it makes the market environment potentially beneficial for Shari-compliant funds with the expanding prospective client base. However, over the last decade, only small portion of this huge potential market has been covered by the established Islamic asset management firms. This study aims to examine the factors of this untapped market particularly in the demand side. This study will use the qualitative method with primary data through a questionnaire distributed to 500 samples of Muslim population. It will shed light on Muslim attitudes and expectations toward Sharia-compliant retirement planning and pensions. It will also help to raise the awareness of market players to see Islamic pension fund as a promising industry in the foreseeable future.

Keywords: Islamic marketing, Islamic finance, Islamic asset management, Islamic pension fund

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2592 Two Degree of Freedom Spherical Mechanism Design for Exact Sun Tracking

Authors: Osman Acar

Abstract:

Sun tracking systems are the systems following the sun ray by a right angle or by predetermined certain angle. In this study, we used theoretical trajectory of sun for latitude of central Anatolia in Turkey. A two degree of freedom spherical mechanism was designed to have a large workspace able to follow the sun's theoretical motion by the right angle during the whole year. An inverse kinematic analysis was generated to find the positions of mechanism links for the predicted trajectory. Force and torque analysis were shown for the first day of the year.

Keywords: sun tracking, theoretical sun trajectory, spherical mechanism, inverse kinematic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2591 A Summary of the Research on the Driving Mechanism of Space Expansion in China's National New District

Authors: Qin Xia

Abstract:

’National New District’ as a regional overall promotion of strategic thinking has become increasingly mature, but its spatial expansion is still chaotic and disorderly, so it is urgent to summarize the complex and unique driving mechanism contained in its spatial expansion to formulate sustainable urban expansion plan. Under the understanding of the general laws of the driving mechanism of China's space expansion, it is found that the existing research on the driving mechanism of the space expansion of national new districts is insufficient. The research area focuses on the research of the driving mechanism of the space expansion of a single new area. In terms of research methods, qualitative description is the main focus. In terms of research content, it is limited to the expansion speed, intensity, and area of the new district itself and does not involve the expansion and utilization efficiency of space and the spillover efficiency to surrounding cities. The specific connotations of social, economic, political, and geographical categories are not thoroughly explored. It is often a general explanation that a certain factor has promoted it. The logic is not rigorous and convincing, and the description is relatively static, with different time and space. There is less literature on scale interaction. Through the reflection on the key and difficult points of the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area, it is clear that the existing research on the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area should be continued to drive the sustainable expansion of space.

Keywords: national new district, space expansion, driving mechanism, existing research

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2590 Modal Dynamic Analysis of a Mechanism with Deformable Elements from an Oil Pump Unit Structure

Authors: N. Dumitru, S. Dumitru, C. Copilusi, N. Ploscaru

Abstract:

On this research, experimental analyses have been performed in order to determine the oil pump mechanism dynamics and stability from an oil unit mechanical structure. The experimental tests were focused on the vibrations which occur inside of the rod element during functionality of the oil pump unit. The oil pump mechanism dynamic parameters were measured and also determined through numerical computations. Entire research is based on the oil pump unit mechanical system virtual prototyping. For a complete analysis of the mechanism, the frequency dynamic response was identified, mainly for the mechanism driven element, based on two methods: processing and virtual simulations with MSC Adams aid and experimental analysis. In fact, through this research, a complete methodology is presented where numerical simulations of a mechanism with deformed elements are developed on a dynamic mode and these can be correlated with experimental tests.

Keywords: modal dynamic analysis, oil pump, vibrations, flexible elements, frequency response

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2589 Research on Contract's Explicit Incentive and Reputation's Implicit Incentive Mechanism towards Construction Contractors

Authors: Li Ma, Meishuang Ma, Mengying Huang

Abstract:

The quality of construction projects reflects the credit and responsibilities of construction contractors for the owners and the whole society. Because the construction contractors master more relevant information about the entrusted engineering project under construction while the owners are in unfavorable position of gaining information, asymmetric information may lead the contractors act against the owners in order to pursue their own interests. Building a powerful motivation mechanism is the key to guarantee investor economic interests and the life and property of users in construction projects. Based on principal-agent theory and game theory, the authors develop relevant mathematical models to analyze and compare the contractor’s utility functions under different combinations of contracts’ explicit incentive mechanism and reputation’s implicit incentive mechanism aiming at finding out the conditions for incentive validity. The research concludes that the most rational motivation way is to combine the explicit and implicit incentive effects of both contracts and reputation mechanism, and puts forth some measures for problems on account of China’s current situation.

Keywords: construction contractors, contract, reputation, incentive mechanism

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2588 Analysis of Structure-Flow Interaction for Water Brake Mechanism

Authors: Murat Avci, Fatih Kosar, Ismail Yilmaz

Abstract:

In this study, structure-flow interaction for water brake mechanism is studied with Abaqus CEL approach. The water brake mechanism is used for dynamic systems such as sled system on rail. For the achievement of these system tests, structure-flow interaction should be investigated in detail. This study is about a sled test of an aircraft subsystem which rises to supersonic speeds thanks to rocket engines. To decrease or to stop the thrusting rocket sleds, water brake mechanisms are used. Water brake mechanism provides the deceleration of the structures that have supersonic speeds. Therefore, structure-flow interaction may cause damage to the water brake mechanism. To verify all design revisions with system tests are so costly so that some decisions are taken in accordance with numerical methods. In this study, structure-flow interaction that belongs to water brake mechanism is solved with Abaqus CEL approach. Fluid and deformation on the structure behaviors are modeled at the same time thanks to CEL approach. Provided analysis results are corrected with the dynamic tests. Deformation zones seen in numerical analysis are also observed in dynamic tests. Finally, Johnson-Cook material model parameters used for this analysis are proven, and it is understood that these parameters can be used for dynamic analysis like water brake mechanism.

Keywords: aircraft, rocket, structure-flow, supersonic

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2587 The Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Metabolic Control in Children

Authors: Areej Al-Khabbaz, Swapna Goerge, Majedah Abdul-Rasoul

Abstract:

Introduction: The most prevalent periodontal disease among children is gingivitis, and it usually becomes more severe in adolescence. A number of intervention studies suggested that resolution of periodontal inflammation can improve metabolic control in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Aim: to assess the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on glycemic control of children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Method: Twenty-eight children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were recruited with established diagnosis diabetes for at least 1 year. Informed consent and child assent form were obtained from children and parents prior to enrolment. The dental examination for the participants was performed on the same week directly following their annual medical assessment. All patients had their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) test one week prior to their annual medical and dental visit and 3 months following non-surgical periodontal therapy. All patients received a comprehensive periodontal examination The periodontal assessment included clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, plaque score, plaque index and gingival index. All patients were referred for non-surgical periodontal therapy, which included oral hygiene instruction and motivation followed by supra-gingival and subg-ingival scaling using ultrasonic and hand instruments. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science software (SPSS, Chicago, USA), version 18. Statistical analysis of clinical findings was performed to detect differences between the two groups in term of periodontal findings and HbA1c%. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed in order to examine which factors were significant in multivariate analysis after adjusting for confounding between effects. The regression model used the dependent variable ‘Improved glycemic control’, and the independent variables entered in the model were plaque index, gingival index, bleeding %, plaque Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Result: A total of 28 children. The mean age of the participants was 13.3±1.92 years. The study participants were divided into two groups; Compliant group (received dental scaling) and non-complaints group (received oral hygiene instructions only). No statistical difference was found between compliant and non-compliant group in age, gender distribution, oral hygiene practice and the level of diabetes control. There was a significant difference between compliant and non-compliant group in term of improvement of HBa1c before and after periodontal therapy. Mean gingival index was the only significant variable associated with improved glycemic control level. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that non-surgical mechanical periodontal therapy can improve HbA1c% control. The result of this study confirmed that children with diabetes mellitus who are compliant to dental care and have routine professional scaling may have better metabolic control compared to diabetic children who are erratic with dental care.

Keywords: children, diabetes, metabolic control, periodontal therapy

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2586 Prevalence of Anxiety among End Stage Renal Disease Patients and Its Association with Patient Compliance to Hemodialysis and Physician Instructions

Authors: Mohammed Asiri, Saleh Alsuwayt, Mohammed Bin Mugren, Abdulmalik Almufarrih, Tariq Alotaibi, Saad Almodameg

Abstract:

Background: End-stage renal disease is a major public health concern with high incidence and mortality rate. Most of ESRD patients are on hemodialysis therapy which is a long-term treatment that disturbs patients’ lifestyle. As a result, he will be susceptible to develop psychiatric disorders like anxiety that may direct him to non-compliance on physician instructions and hemodialysis therapy. Although there are studies conducted on psychiatric issues in hemodialysis patients, but few studies focused on the effect of anxiety disorder and the patient’s compliance. Hence, we are interested in determining the prevalence of anxiety disorder among hemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia, as well as in defining the correlation between anxiety disorder and compliance on physician instructions and hemodialysis therapy. We hypothesize that our study will show a higher prevalence of anxiety in hemodialysis patients than in general population. Also, we expect the anxiety to have a negative impact on their compliance. Methodology: We used a cross-sectional study design carried out at dialysis unit of four major hospitals in Riyadh, KSA. We interviewed 235 End Stage Renal Disease male and female patients who are on hemodialysis. We divided the patients into two categories according to their compliance. we used modified general questionnaire to get their demographic data, then we used a psychometric response scale called visual analog scale (VAS) to assess patient’s compliance to hemodialysis and physician’s instructions. Also, we used the Arabic validated version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD scale) used mainly for anxiety assessment. Results: The overall response rate was 54%. Respondents included 147 (62.6%) males and 88 (37.4%) females. The prevalence of anxiety among hemodialysis patients is 13.3%. According to visual analog scale, we found that 189 compliant patients and 45 non-compliant patients. For HAD scale, the mean ± standard deviation of the total score for females was (4.44 ± 4.7) and it’s higher than males which was 2.65 ± 3.08 (P-value= 0.002). The mean ± standard deviation of HAD score in the non-compliant group was (5.88  4.88) and it was higher than the compliant group (2.7  3.32) (P-value= 0.004). Among non-complaint group, 33.3% of anxious patients were males and 66.6% were females. There was a negative correlation between HAD score of anxiety and visual analog scale (R= - 0.285). Conclusion: We conclude that there is a high prevalence of anxiety among patients with End Stage Renal Disease that was higher in females with association of non-compliance to physician’s instructions and hemodialysis therapy.

Keywords: anxiety, end-stage renal disease, renal failure, anxiety disorder

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2585 Challenging Shariah-Compliant Contract: A Latest Insight into the Malaysian Court Cases

Authors: Noor Suhaida Kasri

Abstract:

In the last three decades, Malaysia has developed fundamental legal and regulatory structures that aim to accommodate and facilitate the growth of Islamic banking and finance industry. Important building blocks have been put in place, to cite a few, the elevation of the position of the Malaysian Central Bank Shariah Advisory Council (SAC) as the apex advisory body and the empowerment of their Shariah resolutions through the Central Bank Act 1958; the promulgation of the Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 that regulate and govern Islamic finance market with a robust statutory requirement of Shariah governance and Shariah compliance. Notwithstanding these achievements, enforceability of Shariah-compliant contract remains a contentious subject. The validity of Al Bai Bithaman Ajil concept that was commonly used by the Islamic financial institutions in their financing facilities structures and documentation has been unabatedly challenged by the customers in courts. The challenge was due to the manner in which the Al Bai Bithaman Ajil transactions were carried out. Due to this legal challenge, Al Bai Bithaman Ajil financing structure seems to no longer be the practitioners’ favourite in Malaysia, though its substitute tawarruq and commodity murabahah financing structure may potentially face similar legal challenges. This paper examines the legal challenges affecting the enforceability of these underlying Shariah contracts. The examination of these cases highlights the manner in which these contracts were being implemented and applied by the Malaysian Islamic financial institutions that triggered Shariah and legal concern. The analysis also highlights the approach adopted by the Malaysian courts in determining the Shariah issues as well as the SAC in ascertaining the rulings on the Shariah issues referred to it by the courts. The paper adopts a qualitative research methodology by using textual and documentary analysis approach. The outcome of this study underlines factors that require consideration by industry stakeholder in order to ameliorate the efficacy of the existing building blocks that would eventually strengthens the validity and enforceability of Shariah-compliant contracts. This, in the long run, will further reinforce financial stability and trust into the Islamic banking and finance industry in Malaysia.

Keywords: enforceability of Shariah compliant contract, legal challenge, legal and regulatory framework, Shariah Advisory Council

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2584 Institutional Repository ePrints at Indian Institute of Science: A Special Reference to JRD Tata Memorial Library, Bangalore, India

Authors: Nagarjuna Pitty

Abstract:

Over the past decade there has been substantial progress in the usage of ePrints resources national and international research community. JRD Tata Memorial Library has hosting for the web based ePrints services and maintenance to online user community. This paper provides an overview how to share JRDTML experiences in using GNU EPrints.org software to create and maintain the open-access institutional repository of IISc, [email protected] This paper states that the GNU EPrints.org is the first generic software for creating Open Access Initiative (OAI)-compliant repositories, which enables the researchers to self-archive their research publications thus facilitating open access to their publications. IISc has been using this software since early 2002. This paper tells that the GNU EPrints.org software is an excellent tool for creating and maintaining OAI-compliant repositories. It can be setup easily even by those who are not too much experts in computer. In this paper, author is sharing JRDTML experiences in using GNU ePrints.org software.

Keywords: digital library, open access initiative, scholarly publications, institutional repository, [email protected]

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2583 Unpowered Knee Exoskeleton with Compliant Joints for Stair Descent Assistance

Authors: Pengfan Wu, Xiaoan Chen, Ye He, Tianchi Chen

Abstract:

This paper introduces the design of an unpowered knee exoskeleton to assist human walking by redistributing the moment of the knee joint during stair descent (SD). Considering the knee moment varying with the knee joint angle and the work of the knee joint is all negative, the custom-built spring was used to convert negative work into the potential energy of the spring during flexion, and the obtained energy work as assistance during extension to reduce the consumption of lower limb muscles. The human-machine adaptability problem was left by traditional rigid wearable due to the knee involves sliding and rotating without a fixed-axis rotation, and this paper designed the two-direction grooves to follow the human-knee kinematics, and the wire spring provides a certain resistance to the pin in the groove to prevent extra degrees of freedom. The experiment was performed on a normal stair by healthy young wearing the device on both legs with the surface electromyography recorded. The results show that the quadriceps (knee extensor) were reduced significantly.

Keywords: unpowered exoskeleton, stair descent, knee compliant joint, energy redistribution

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