Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: customary law

54 The Impact of Customary Law on Children's Rights in Botswana

Authors: Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema

Abstract:

Botswana has a dual legal system, one based on customary law and the other on the received law. This appears clearly from the Constitution that ring-fenced customary law from any constitutional scrutiny. A customary practice may continue even if it discriminates against women and children. As a result of this, numerous human rights of children are infringed. Firstly, if parents are married under customary law and separated, the custody is granted to the father and the mother merely having the right to visit. Secondly, female children are not entitled to inherit property. Thirdly, there is no age for marriage under customary law and even a child at the age of 10 years can get married. Lastly, marital power of a husband still continues under customary law and therefore females are still treated as perpetual minors. The latter infringement of rights is not in the best interests of children and conflicts with Botswana’s international obligations. Botswana is a signatory of various international and regional human rights instruments and it is suggested that it has to accelerate the incorporation of human rights instruments into domestic law in order to safeguard the best interest of children.

Keywords: custody, marital power, children's best interest, customary law

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53 Using Kalosara Tradition for Conflict Resolution in Tolaki's People, Southeast Sulawesi

Authors: S. S. Ramis Rauf

Abstract:

This study will be explained the role of local wisdom in Tolakinese customary law on customs offense. The scope of this study was the informants who have a conflict located in Southeast Sulawesi. Then, their conflicts were resolved by using Kalosara tradition. The method of this study was a qualitative research by applying the techniques of deep interviews, revealing experiences and stories from informants, interviews customary leaders who are skilled and experienced in the customary settlement process of Kalosara tradition. Kalosara, as Tolakinese local wisdom, has contained in Tolakinese customary law. Kalosara was the application of customary law which was guided by Tolaki’s people when there was a problem. Knowledge and understanding of the customs have been conceived as something that comes from the ancestors. They created custom rules based on the law of Allah SWT for the elderly to do with full of awareness. Then, it was hereditary obeying by their children from generation to generation. The conflict occurred because of several things, namely bad words, aspersion, and other violations (such as harassment and affair). In custom settlement process, kalosara was done by using the enforcement of Tolakinese customary law that managed within an institution. It was called as Sara Wonua. It led by someone who was called as Pu'utobu that serves as a customary leader.

Keywords: kalosara, conflict resolution, tradition, unity, diversity

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52 The Role of State Practices and Custom in Outer Space Law

Authors: Biswanath Gupta, Raju Kd

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Space law is the new entry in the basket of international law in the latter half of the 20th Century. In the last hundred and fifty years, courts and scholars developed a consensus that, the custom is an important source of international law. Article 38(1) (b) of the statute of the International Court of Justice recognized international custom as a source of international law. State practices and usages have a greater role to play in formulating customary international law. This paper examines those state practices which can be qualified to become international customary law. Since, 1979 (after Moon Treaty) no hard law have been developed in the area of space exploration. It tries to link between state practices and custom in space exploration and development of customary international law in space activities. The paper uses doctrinal method of legal research for examining the current questions of international law. The paper explores different international legal documents such as General Assembly Resolutions, Treaty principles, working papers of UN, cases relating to customary international law and writing of jurists relating to space law and customary international law. It is argued that, principles such as common heritage of mankind, non-military zone, sovereign equality, nuclear weapon free zone and protection of outer space environment, etc. developed state practices among the international community which can be qualified to become international customary law.

Keywords: customary international law, state practice, space law, treaty

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51 Development of Regional Cooperation to Sustainable Implementation of Customary Refugee Solutions in International Arena

Authors: Md. Reduanul Haque

Abstract:

In recent time, more and more refugees are emerging in the international arena than the times ever that has come into the notice of world scholars. The prevailing customary solutions such as voluntary repatriation, local integration, and resettlement of refugee problem have been reflected unsustainable one for the lack of regional cooperation. In the international arena, the protraction of refugee problems is seen, and refugees are suffering due to the outrageous process of customary refugee solutions. If the regional cooperation can be developed, then the suffering of the refugees can be mitigated by the contribution of neighboring country and international and regional organizations. Data collected from the various secondary sources have been used throughout the research. It has been discussing in the refugee academia for a long time to develop regional cooperation mechanisms to ensure the sustainability of this solution and to make the environment of the country of origin for suitable voluntary repatriation as well as a durable solution. It is mainly qualitative research based on primary and secondary data will be studied on library-based project. Data collected by such methodology on this study indicates to make a bridge between the gaps of the cooperation mechanism and to make a more regional approach to share the burden and to strengthen the customary refugee solution. Hence, the importance of questing for a regional mechanism is to ensure the responsible countries to be more responsible towards refugees, their human rights, and durable solution under the mandate of the UNHCR. To implement effectively all the customary durable solutions, country to country or regional organization to organization based regional cooperation can be developed where the countries and regional organizations will work together to draw a sustainable solution to this problem in international context.

Keywords: refugee, regional cooperation, sustainable implementation, customary solutions, international arena

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
50 Power Relation, Symbolic Rules and the Position of Belis in the Habitus of the East Nusa Tenggara Society’s Customary Marriage

Authors: Siti Rodliyah, Andrik Purwasito, Bani Sudardi, Abdullah Wakit

Abstract:

This study employs sociological-ethnographic basic method and the cultural studies paradigm as the approach in understanding the habitus within the customary marriage of the East Nusa Tenggara society who require belis as a bride-price. The conceptual basis underlying the application of habitus theory and symbolic power in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) society refers to the Bourdieu’s framework. This study is a result of participatory observation on habitus of a marital system using belis observed by the NTT society as a cognitive structure which connects individuals to the social activities of the customary marriage and makes it unquestionable habits. Knowledge of the social world under the pretext of prosperity for the recipients (family) of a bride-price can be a political instrument for the sustainability of power relations. The ritual-mythical system in the society has never been fully present as a neutral habit. The habitus reflected in the marital relationship among the NTT society enables the men to obtain and exercise their power relations. The sustainability of power relations can be seen from the representation of the social status of a girl and the properties attached to her. This is what gave birth to a symbolic rule, in which the social rules about bride-price or belis eventually will serve the interests of those who occupy a dominant position in the social structure, namely the rich men.

Keywords: belis, habitus, East Nusa Tenggara, marital system, power, symbolic

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49 The Doctrine of Military Necessity under Customary International Law: A Breach of International Humanitarian Law

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

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This paper examines an essential and complex part of International humanitarian law standards of military necessity. Military necessity is an unpredictable phenomenon. The unpredictability of this regulation likewise originates from the fact that is one of the most fundamental, yet most misjudged and distorted standards of international law of armed conflict. This rule has been censured as essentially wrong in light of its non-compliance with the principles of international humanitarian law in recent past. The author noted in this study that military necessity runs counter to humanitarian exigencies. These have generated debate among researchers for them to propose that for international law to be considered more important, it is indispensable that the procedures and substance of custom be illuminated and made accessible to every one of the individuals who may utilize it or be influenced by it. However, a significant number of analysts have attributed particular weaknesses to this doctrine. This study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Significantly, the recommendation made in this paper, if completely adopted, shall go a long way in guaranteeing a better application of the principles of international humanitarian law.

Keywords: military necessity, international law, international humanitarian law, customary law

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48 Analysis of the Best Interest of the Child Principle within a Marriage Law Framework: A Study of South Africa

Authors: Lizelle Ramaccio Calvino

Abstract:

Article 3 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Child states that 'The best interests of the child must be a top priority in all decisions and actions that affect children.' This stance is also echoed in terms of article 20 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. South Africa, as a signatory of the aforesaid international and national conventions, constitutionalised the best interest of the child in terms of section 28(2) of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. Section 28(2) provides that '[A] child’s best interests are of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child.' The application of 'the best interests of the child' principle is consequently applicable in all fields of South African law, including matrimonial law. Two separate but equal Acts regulate civil marriages in South Africa, namely the Marriage Act 25 of 1961 and the Civil Union Act 17 of 2006. Customary marriages are regulated by the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act 120 of 1998. In terms of the Marriage Act and the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act, a minor may (provided he/she obtains the required consent) enter into a marriage. Despite the aforesaid, section 1 of the Civil Union Act categorically prohibits a minor from entering into a civil union. The article will first determine whether the ban of minors from entering into a civil union undermines the 'the best interests of the child' principle, and if so, whether it is in violation of the Constitution as well as international and national conventions. In addition, the article will critically analyse whether the application of the Marriage Act and the Civil Union Act (dual Acts) result in disparity within the South African marriage law framework, and if so, whether such discrepancy violates same-sex couples’ right (in particular a same-sex minor) to equality before the law and to have their dignity protected. The article intends, through the application of a qualitative research methodology and by way of a comparative analyses of international and domestic laws, consider whether a single well-defined structure such as the Dutch marriage law system would not be an improved alternative to address the existing paradox resulting from the application of an Act that undermines 'the best interest of the child' principle. Ultimately the article proposes recommendations for matrimonial law reform.

Keywords: best interests of the child, civil marriage, civil union, minor

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47 Impact of Endogenous Risk Factors on Risk Cost in KSA PPP Projects

Authors: Saleh Alzahrani, Halim Boussabaine

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The Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts are produced taking into account the reason that the configuration, development, operation, and financing of an open undertaking is to be recompensed to a private gathering inside a solitary contractual structure. PPP venture dangers are ordinarily connected with the improvement and development of another resource and in addition its operation for a considerable length of time. Without a doubt, the most genuine outcomes of dangers amid the development period are value and time overwhelms. These occasions are amongst the most extensively utilized situations as a part of worth for cash investigation dangers. The wellsprings of danger change over the life cycle of a PPP venture. In customary acquirement, the general population segment ordinarily needs to cover all value trouble from these dangers. At any rate there is bounty confirmation to recommend that cost pain is a standard in a percentage of the tasks that are conveyed under customary obtainment. This paper means to research the effect of endogenous dangers on expense overwhelm in KSA PPP ventures. The paper displays a brief writing survey on PPP danger evaluating systems, and after that presents an affiliation model between danger occasions and expense invade in KSA. The paper finishes up with considerations for future examination.

Keywords: PPP, risk pricing, impact of risk, Endogenous risks

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46 Conflict, Confusion or Compromise: Violence against Women, A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Farhat Jabeen, Syed Asfaq Hussain Bukhari

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In the wake of the contemporary period the basic objective of the research paper points out that socio-cultural scenario of Pakistan reveals that gender-based violence is deep rooted in the society irrespective of language and ethnicity. This paper would reconnaissance the possibility reforms in Pakistan for diminishing of violence. Women are not given their due role, rights, and respect. Furthermore, they are treated as chattels. This presentation will cover the socio-customary practices in the context of discrimination, stigmatization, and violence against women. This paper envisages justice in a broader sense of recognition of rights for women, and masculine structure of society, socio-customary practices and discrimination against women are a very serious concern which needs to be understood as a multidimensional problem. The paper will specially focus on understanding the existing obstacles of women in Pakistan in the constitutional scenario. Women stumble across discrimination and human rights manipulations, voluptuous violation and manipulation including domestic viciousness and are disadvantaged by laws, strategies, and programming that do not take their concerns into considerations. This presentation examines the role of honour killings among Pakistani community. This affects their self-assurance and capability to elevation integrity campaign where gender inequalities and discrimination in social, legal domain are to be put right. This paper brings to light the range of practices, laws and legal justice regarding the status of women and also covers attitude towards compensations for murders/killings, domestic violence, rape, adultery, social behavior and recourse to justice.

Keywords: discrimination, cultural, women, violence

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45 Recognition and Protection of Indigenous Society in Indonesia

Authors: Triyanto, Rima Vien Permata Hartanto

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Indonesia is a legal state. The consequence of this status is the recognition and protection of the existence of indigenous peoples. This paper aims to describe the dynamics of legal recognition and protection for indigenous peoples within the framework of Indonesian law. This paper is library research based on literature. The result states that although the constitution has normatively recognized the existence of indigenous peoples and their traditional rights, in reality, not all rights were recognized and protected. The protection and recognition for indigenous people need to be strengthened.

Keywords: indigenous peoples, customary law, state law, state of law

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44 Polygamy versus Equality Rights: Polyandry as a Solution

Authors: Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema

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The right to equality has been accepted as one of the principles of jus cogens since the Second World War and it is protected in numerous international and regional human rights instruments. The convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW) is a comprehensive document that serves as the international Bill of Rights for women and it prohibits polygamy. This paper examines whether the most unusual customary practice of polyandry would serve as a solution in elevating the status of women to be on par with that of man that are polygamists or not. This paper concludes by arguing that polyandry cannot solve the problem of inequalities that are confronted by women because even in polyandrous societies there is male domination that is detrimental to the equality rights of women.

Keywords: human rights, polygamy, polyandry, polygyny

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43 State Forest Management Practices by Indigenous Peoples in Dharmasraya District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia

Authors: Abdul Mutolib, Yonariza Mahdi, Hanung Ismono

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The existence of forests is essential to human lives on earth, but its existence is threatened by forest deforestations and degradations. Forest deforestations and degradations in Indonesia is not only caused by the illegal activity by the company or the like, even today many cases in Indonesia forest damage caused by human activities, one of which cut down forests for agriculture and plantations. In West Sumatra, community forest management are the result supported the enactment of customary land tenure, including ownership of land within the forest. Indigenous forest management have a positive benefit, which gives the community an opportunity to get livelihood and income, but if forest management practices by indigenous peoples is not done wisely, then there is the destruction of forests and cause adverse effects on the environment. Based on intensive field works in Dhamasraya District employing some data collection techniques such as key informant interviews, household surveys, secondary data analysis, and satellite image interpretation. This paper answers the following questions; how the impact of forest management by local communities on forest conditions (foccus in Forest Production and Limited Production Forest) and knowledge of the local community on the benefits of forests. The site is a Nagari Bonjol, Dharmasraya District, because most of the forest in Dharmasraya located and owned by Nagari Bonjol community. The result shows that there is damage to forests in Dharmasraya because of forest management activities by local communities. Damage to the forest area of 33,500 ha in Dharmasraya because forests are converted into oil palm and rubber plantations with monocultures. As a result of the destruction of forests, water resources are also diminishing, and the community has experienced a drought in the dry season due to forest cut down and replaced by oil palm plantations. Knowledge of the local community on the benefits of low forest, the people considered that the forest does not have better benefits and cut down and converted into oil palm or rubber plantations. Local people do not understand the benefits of ecological and environmental services that forests. From the phenomena in Dharmasraya on land ownership, need to educate the local community about the importance of protecting the forest, and need a strategy to integrate forests management to keep the ecological functions that resemble the woods and counts the economic benefits for the welfare of local communities. One alternative that can be taken is to use forest management models agroforestry smallholders in accordance with the characteristics of the local community who still consider the economic, social and environmental.

Keywords: community, customary land, farmer plantations, and forests

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42 A Comparison between Empirical and Theoretical OC Curves Related to Acceptance Sampling for Attributes

Authors: Encarnacion Alvarez, Noemı Hidalgo-Rebollo, Juan F. Munoz, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

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Many companies use the technique named as acceptance sampling which consists on the inspection and decision making regarding products. According to the results derived from this method, the company takes the decision of acceptance or rejection of a product. The acceptance sampling can be applied to the technology management, since the acceptance sampling can be seen as a tool to improve the design planning, operation and control of technological products. The theoretical operating characteristic (OC) curves are widely used when dealing with acceptance sampling. In this paper, we carry out Monte Carlo simulation studies to compare numerically the empirical OC curves derived from the empirical results to the customary theoretical OC curves. We analyze various possible scenarios in such a way that the differences between the empirical and theoretical curves can be observed under different situations.

Keywords: single-sampling plan, lot, Monte Carlo simulation, quality control

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41 The Duty of State to Punish Gross Violations of Human Rights

Authors: Yustina Trihoni Nalesti Dewi

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Gross violations of human rights consisting of crime against humanity, genocide and war crime, are serious international crimes. Prohibition such crimes have obtain to the level of international norms of jus cogens based on conventions and customary international law. Therefore, the duty of the state to punish the crimes is obligatory. The legal consequence of jus cogens is obligation erga omnes which are a matter of state responsibility. When a state is not willing or neglects to do so in its national law, it results in state responsibility to be imposed by international human rights and humanitarian law. This article reviews the concept of jus cogens and obligatio erga omnes that appear as two sides of the same coin. It also explains how international human rights and humanitarian law set down the duty of the state to punish gross violations of human rights.

Keywords: duty of states, gross violations of human rights, jus cogens, obligatio erga omnes

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40 Harmonization of State Law and Local Laws in Coastal and Marine Areas Management

Authors: N. S. B. Ambarini, Tito Sofyan, Edra Satmaidi

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Coastal and marine are two potential natural resource one of the pillars of the national economy. The Indonesian archipelago has marine and coastal which is quite spacious. Various important natural resources such as fisheries, mining and so on are in coastal areas and the sea, so that this region is a unique area with a variety of interests to exploit it. Therefore, to preserve a sustainable manner need good management and comprehensive. To the national and local level legal regulations have been published relating to the management of coastal and marine areas. However, in practice it has not been able to function optimally. Substantially has not touched the problems of the region, especially concerning the interests of local communities (local). This study is a legal non-doctrinal approach to socio-legal studies. Based on the results of research in some coastal and marine areas in Bengkulu province - Indonesia, there is a fact that the system of customary law and local wisdom began to weaken implementation. Therefore harmonization needs to be done in implementing laws and regulations that apply to the values of indigenous and local knowledge that exists in the community.

Keywords: coastal and marine, harmonization, law, local

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39 The Impact of a Weak Constitutional Review of Executive Actions in Implementing Women Rights in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aysha Alshehri

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This paper provides a literature review of the sources of women’s rights under the Saudi legal framework, taking account of the constitutional primacy of Sharia under the Saudi legal system as well as the state’s obligations under international law. Building on one of the central aims of the paper, it conducts an exploration of how Saudi Arabia already has or might be further able to more clearly delineate its position and reservations in the adoptions of international human rights agreements while preserving its core religious beliefs and societal practices in regard to women’s rights at the domestic level. In this regard, the paper will consider the apparent tension between certain jurisprudential and customary aspects on gender equality and contemporary discourses of women’s rights from within and outside the Muslim world. Particular attention will be devoted to the question of the causes behind the lack of direct application of women’s rights mentioned by international reports and any challenges this may bring in the contexts of Saudi Arabia’s evolving gender equality policies.

Keywords: Islamic Constitution, executive actions, gender equality, judicial review

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
38 A New Method to Estimate the Low Income Proportion: Monte Carlo Simulations

Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz

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Estimation of a proportion has many applications in economics and social studies. A common application is the estimation of the low income proportion, which gives the proportion of people classified as poor into a population. In this paper, we present this poverty indicator and propose to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the low income proportion. Various sampling designs are presented. Assuming a real data set obtained from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions, Monte Carlo simulation studies are carried out to analyze the empirical performance of the logistic regression estimator under the various sampling designs considered in this paper. Results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the customary estimator under the various sampling designs considered in this paper. The stratified sampling design can also provide more accurate results.

Keywords: poverty line, risk of poverty, auxiliary variable, ratio method

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37 Desktop High-Speed Aerodynamics by Shallow Water Analogy in a Tin Box for Engineering Students

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

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In this paper, we show shallow water in a tin box as an analogous simulation tool for high-speed aerodynamics education and research. It is customary that we use a water tank to create shallow water flow. While a flow in a water tank is not necessarily uniform and is sometimes wavy, we can visualize a clear supercritical flow even when we move a body manually in stationary water in a simple shallow tin box. We can visualize a blunt shock wave around a moving circular cylinder together with a shock pattern around a diamond airfoil. Another interesting analogous experiment is a hydrodynamic shock tube with water and tea. We observe the contact surface clearly due to color difference of the two liquids those are invisible in the real gas dynamics experiment. We first revisit the similarities between high-speed aerodynamics and shallow water hydraulics. Several educational and research experiments are then introduced for engineering students. Shallow water experiments in a tin box simulate properly the high-speed flows.

Keywords: aerodynamics compressible flow, gas dynamics, hydraulics, shock wave

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36 Peace Pact System in Bontoc, Mountain Province

Authors: Claire Kaplaan P. Lafadchan

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The study looked into the peace pact system as a customary way of solving cases in Bontoc, Mountain Province. To study the importance of the peace pact system, the study focused on the extent of attainment of the objectives of peace pact system in Bontoc, Mountain Province; the extent of attainment of the procedure; level of satisfaction on the peace pact system; and, the degree of the seriousness of the problems encountered. The study aimed to see the importance of peace pact system as a means of amicable settlement in Bontoc, Mountain Province as the researcher is concerned on the conflicts evolving between natives of Bontoc and people from other municipalities. Questionnaire-checklist was used as the main data-gathering tool. It was found out in the study that the goals and objectives of peace pact is much attained; the procedures is much attained; the level of satisfaction is much satisfied; and the problems encountered is moderately serious. Despite the fact that peace pact participants are all doing their part in the process, still, there are problems they encountered.

Keywords: peace pact, amicable settlement, bontoc, pagta, pechen

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35 The Influence of Ice Topography on Sliding over Ice

Authors: Ernests Jansons, Karlis Agris Gross

Abstract:

Winter brings snow and ice in the Northern Europe and with it the need to move safely over ice. It has been customary to select an appropriate material surface for movement over ice, but another way to influence the interaction with ice is to modify the ice surface. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of ice topography on initiating movement over ice and on sliding velocity over ice in the laboratory and real-life conditions. The ice was prepared smooth, scratched or with solidified ice-droplets to represent the surface of ice after ice rain. In the laboratory, the coefficient of friction and the sliding velocity were measured, but the sliding velocity measured at the skeleton push-start facility. The scratched ice surface increased the resistance to movement and also showed the slowest sliding speed. Sliding was easier on the smooth ice and ice covered with frozen droplets. The contact surface was measured to determine the effect of contact area with sliding. Results from laboratory tests will be compared to loading under heavier loads to show the influence of load on sliding over different ice surfaces. This outcome provides a useful indicator for pedestrians and road traffic on the safety of movement over different ice surfaces as well as a reference for those involved with winter sports.

Keywords: contact area, friction, ice topography, sliding velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
34 Gendered Narratives of ‘Respectability’: Migrant Garo Women and Their Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

Authors: A. Drong, K. S. Kerkhoff

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Migration affects women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper reports on the social constructs of gender, and livelihood pursuits as beauty parlours workers amongst the young Garo women in Bangladesh, and studies changes in their accessibility to the healthcare services due to migration and livelihood. The paper is based on in-depth interviews and participant-led group discussions with 30 women working in various beauty parlours across the city. The data indicate that social perceptions of ‘good’, ‘bad’ and ‘respectable’ determine the expression of sexuality, and often dictates sexual and reproductive practices for these women. This study also reveals that unregulated work conditions, and the current cost of local healthcare services, have a strong impact on the women’s accessibility to the healthcare services; thus often limiting their choices to only customary and/or unqualified practitioners for abortions and child-births. Development programmes on migrant indigenous women’s health must, therefore, take the contextual gender norms and livelihood choices into account.

Keywords: gender, indigenous women, reproductive rights, sexual rights, Garo, migration, livelihood, healthcare

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
33 Application of Natural Language Processing in Education

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

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Reading capability is a major segment of language competency. On the other hand, discovering topical writings at a fitting level for outside and second language learners is a test for educators. We address this issue utilizing natural language preparing innovation to survey reading level and streamline content. In the connection of outside and second-language learning, existing measures of reading level are not appropriate to this errand. Related work has demonstrated the profit of utilizing measurable language preparing procedures; we expand these thoughts and incorporate other potential peculiarities to measure intelligibility. In the first piece of this examination, we join characteristics from measurable language models, customary reading level measures and other language preparing apparatuses to deliver a finer technique for recognizing reading level. We examine the execution of human annotators and assess results for our finders concerning human appraisals. A key commitment is that our identifiers are trainable; with preparing and test information from the same space, our finders beat more general reading level instruments (Flesch-Kincaid and Lexile). Trainability will permit execution to be tuned to address the needs of specific gatherings or understudies.

Keywords: natural language processing, trainability, syntactic simplification tools, education

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32 Speed Control of DC Motor Using Optimization Techniques Based PID Controller

Authors: Santosh Kumar Suman, Vinod Kumar Giri

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The goal of this paper is to outline a speed controller of a DC motor by choice of a PID parameters utilizing genetic algorithms (GAs), the DC motor is extensively utilized as a part of numerous applications such as steel plants, electric trains, cranes and a great deal more. DC motor could be represented by a nonlinear model when nonlinearities such as attractive dissemination are considered. To provide effective control, nonlinearities and uncertainties in the model must be taken into account in the control design. The DC motor is considered as third order system. Objective of this paper three type of tuning techniques for PID parameter. In this paper, an independently energized DC motor utilizing MATLAB displaying, has been outlined whose velocity might be examined utilizing the Proportional, Integral, Derivative (KP, KI , KD) addition of the PID controller. Since, established controllers PID are neglecting to control the drive when weight parameters be likewise changed. The principle point of this paper is to dissect the execution of optimization techniques viz. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) for improve PID controllers parameters for velocity control of DC motor and list their points of interest over the traditional tuning strategies. The outcomes got from GA calculations were contrasted and that got from traditional technique. It was found that the optimization techniques beat customary tuning practices of ordinary PID controllers.

Keywords: DC motor, PID controller, optimization techniques, genetic algorithm (GA), objective function, IAE

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31 Reinforcement of Local Law into Government Policy to Address Conflict of Utilization of Sea among Small Fishermen

Authors: Ema Septaria, Muhammad Yamani, N. S. B. Ambarini

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The problem begins with the imposition of fine penalties by Ipuh small fishermen for customary fishing vessels encroaching catchment area in the Ipuh, a village in Muko-Muko, Bengkulu, Indonesia. Two main reasons for that are fishermen from out of Ipuh came and fished in Ipuh water using trawl as the gear and the number of fish decrease time by time as a result of irresponsible fishing practice. Such conflict has lasted since long ago. Indonesia Governing laws do not rule the utilization of sea territory by small fishermen that when the conflict appears there is a rechtvacuum on how to solve the conflict and this leads to a chaos in society. In Ipuh itself, there has been a local law in fisheries which they still adhere up to present because they believe holding to the law will keep the fish sustain. This is an empirical legal research with socio legal approach. The results of this study show even though laws do not regulate in detail about the utilization of sea territory by small fishermen, there is an article in Fisheries Act stating fisheries activity has to put attention to local law and community participation. Furthermore, constitution governs that the land, the waters and the natural resources within shall be under the powers of the State and shall be used to the greatest benefit of the people. With the power, Government has to make a policy that reinforces what has been ruled in Ipuh local law. Besides, Bengkulu Governor has to involve Ipuh community directly in managing their fisheries to ensure the fisheries sustainability therein.

Keywords: local law, reinforcement, conflict, sea utilization, small fishermen

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30 The Last of Centuries Old Cardamom Farming in Eastern Nepal: Crop Disease, Coping Strategies and Institutional Innovation

Authors: K. C. Sony

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This paper investigates the coping strategies of households confronting disease in large cardamom (Amomum Subulatum Roxb.) in eastern Nepal. Cardamom farmers draw on various coping strategies to reduce the impact of crop disease in their livelihoods. Yet farmers face tremendous decline in production with a constant effort for revival. Past evidences provides dearth of information about coping strategies employed by farmers and institutional intervention to combat disease. Using factual data from Ilam district, and conducting a political economic analysis, this research addresses the gap by 1) understanding the impact of crop disease in farmers’ livelihoods, 2) identifying the coping strategies adopted by farmers and, 3) examining the existing institutional arrangements to address the disease. Coping strategies vary by household’s status defined by size of land, alternative income, and access to supporting institutions. Measures adopted are burning the cardamom field, changing land use pattern, diversifying crops, and visiting institutions for support. The local government’s support is limited to providing trainings and producing new varieties of cardamom. During crisis, farmers expect institutions to help revive the cardamom production, despite customary practice to combat disease. To retain and improve the livelihoods of farmers, there needs to be institutional innovation at the community level and policies that endorse immediate and sustainable support during hazards.

Keywords: cardamom, coping strategy, disease, institutions, Nepal

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29 Biobased Facade: Illuminated Natural Fibre Polymer with Cardboard Core

Authors: Ralf Gliniorz, Carolin Petzoldt, Andreas Ehrlich, Sandra Gelbrich, Lothar Kroll

Abstract:

The building envelope is integral part of buildings, and renewable resources have a key role in energy consumption. So our aim was the development and implementation of a free forming facade system, consisting of fibre-reinforced polymer, which is built up of commercial biobased resin systems and natural fibre reinforcement. The field of application is aimed in modern architecture, like the office block 'Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V.' with its oak wood recyclate facade. The build-up of our elements is a classically sandwich-structured composite: face sheets as fibre-reinforced composite using polymer matrix, here a biobased epoxy, and natural fibres. The biobased core consists of stuck cardboard structure (BC-flute). Each element is manufactured from two shells in a counterpart, via hand lay-up laminate. These natural fibre skins and cardboard core have adhered 'wet-on-wet'. As a result, you get the effect of translucent face sheets with matrix illumination. Each created pixel can be controlled in RGB-colours and form together a screen at buildings. A 10 x 5 m² area 'NFP-BIO' with 25 elements is planned as a reference object in Chemnitz. The resolution is about 100 x 50 pixels. Specials are also the efficient technology of production and the possibility to extensively 3D-formed elements for buildings, replacing customary facade systems, which can give out information or advertising.

Keywords: biobased facade, cardboard core, natural fibre skins, sandwich element

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28 An Activity Based Trajectory Search Approach

Authors: Mohamed Mahmoud Hasan, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar

Abstract:

With the gigantic increment in portable applications use and the spread of positioning and location-aware technologies that we are seeing today, new procedures and methodologies for location-based strategies are required. Location recommendation is one of the highly demanded location-aware applications uniquely with the wide accessibility of social network applications that are location-aware including Facebook check-ins, Foursquare, and others. In this paper, we aim to present a new methodology for location recommendation. The proposed approach coordinates customary spatial traits alongside other essential components including shortest distance, and user interests. We also present another idea namely, "activity trajectory" that represents trajectory that fulfills the set of activities that the user is intrigued to do. The approach dispatched acquaints the related distance value to select trajectory(ies) with minimum cost value (distance) and spatial-area to prune unneeded directions. The proposed calculation utilizes the idea of movement direction to prescribe most comparable N-trajectory(ies) that matches the client's required action design with least voyaging separation. To upgrade the execution of the proposed approach, parallel handling is applied through the employment of a MapReduce based approach. Experiments taking into account genuine information sets were built up and tested for assessing the proposed approach. The exhibited tests indicate how the proposed approach beets different strategies giving better precision and run time.

Keywords: location based recommendation, map-reduce, recommendation system, trajectory search

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
27 Gender Specific Nature of the Fiction Conflict in Modern Feminine Prose

Authors: Baglan Bazylova

Abstract:

The purpose of our article is to consider the social and psychological conflicts in Lyudmila Petrushevskaya’s stories as an artistic presentation of gender structure of modern society; to reveal originality of the characters’ inner world, the models of their behavior expressing the gender specific nature of modern feminine prose. Gender conflicts have taken the leading place in the modern prose. L. Petrushevskaya represents different types of conflicts including those which are shown in the images of real contradictions in the stories "Narratrix", "Thanks to Life”, "Virgin's Case", "Father and Mother". In the prose of Petrushevskaya the gender conflicts come out in two dimensions: The first one is love relations between a man and a woman. Because of the financial indigence, neediness a woman can’t afford herself even to fall in love and arrange her family happiness. The second dimension is the family conflict because of the male adultery. Petrushevskaya fixed on the unmanifistated conflict in detail. In the real life such gender conflict can appear in different forms but for the writer is important to show it as a life basis, hidden behind the externally safe facade of “the family happiness”. In the stories of L. Petrushevskaya the conflicts reflect the common character of the social and historical situations in which her heroines find themselves, in situations where a woman feels her opposition to the customary mode of life. The types of gender conflicts of these stories differ in character of verbal images. They are presented by the verbal and event ranks creating the conflicts just in operation.

Keywords: gender behavior of heroes, gender conflict, gender picture of the world, gender structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
26 Impacts of COVID-19 on Communal Based Natural Resources Management in Newtown, Bekezela Village, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: James Donald Nyamahono, Kelvin Tinashe Pikirai

Abstract:

Communal based natural resource management (CBNRM) is regarded as one of the most significant methods for sustainable natural resource conservation. This is due to the fact that it entails the engagement of local communities as well as the use of indigenous knowledge and customary conservation. The emergence of COVID-19 had a devastating impact on this sector since it has resulted in the disbandment of all collective activities, such as group gatherings, including those with a good cause. This is supported by research, which demonstrates that throughout the era of full lockdowns, the coordination of diverse activities and the sustainability of various working groups were severely harmed. This study was undertaken in the CBNRM niche to examine how COVID-19 affected this sector. Data were gathered through focus group discussions with youths, women, and the elderly active in CBNRM in Newtown, Bekezela Village, Eastern Cape. The study concluded that the sustainability of indigenous knowledge in natural resource management was endangered due to the restricted movements and community participation in developmental initiatives. The study also revealed a 'environment-community divide,' since COVID-19 hindered local communities from holding their regular conservation meetings. The research, on the other hand, discovered that there were 'secret' gatherings in which local communities attempted to adopt Afrocentric ways in which the available natural resources would provide a remedy for COVID-19.

Keywords: CBNRM, COVID-19, indigenous knowledge, South Africa

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25 Performances and Activities of Urban Communities Leader Based on Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in Dusit District, Bangkok Metropolitan

Authors: Phusit Phukamchanoad

Abstract:

The research studies the behaviors based on sufficiency economy philosophy at individual and community levels as well as the satisfaction of the urban community leaders by collecting data with purposive sampling technique. For in-depth interviews with 26 urban community leaders, the result shows that the urban community leaders have good knowledge and understanding about sufficiency economy philosophy. Especially in terms of money spending, they must consider the need for living and be economical. The activities in the community or society should not take advantage of the others as well as colleagues. At present, most of the urban community leaders live in a sufficient way. They often spend time with public service, but many families are dealing with debt. Many communities have some political conflict and high family allowances because of living in the urban communities with rapid social and economic changes. However, there are many communities that leaders have applied their wisdom in development for their people by gathering and grouping the professionals to form activities such as making chili sauce, textile organization, making artificial flowers worshipping the sanctity. The most prominent group is the foot massage business in Wat Pracha Rabue Tham. This professional group is supported continuously by the government. One of the factors in terms of satisfaction used for evaluating community leaders is the customary administration in brotherly, interdependent way rather than using the absolute power or controlling power, but using the roles of leader to perform the activities with their people intently, determinedly and having a public mind for people.

Keywords: performance and activities, sufficiency economy, urban communities leader, Dusit district

Procedia PDF Downloads 299