Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 916

Search results for: housing shortage

916 Housing Delivery in Nigeria: Repackaging for Sustainable Development

Authors: Funmilayo L. Amao, Amos O. Amao

Abstract:

It has been observed that majority of the people are living in poor housing quality or totally homeless in urban center despite all governmental policies to provide housing to the public. On the supply side, various government policies in the past have been formulated towards overcoming the huge shortage through several Housing Reform Programmes. Despite these past efforts, housing continues to be a mirage to ordinary Nigerian. Currently, there are various mass housing delivery programmes such as the affordable housing scheme that utilize the Public Private Partnership effort and several Private Finance Initiative models could only provide for about 3% of the required stock. This suggests the need for a holistic solution in approaching the problem. The aim of this research is to find out the problems hindering the delivery of housing in Nigeria and its effects on housing affordability. The specific objectives are to identify the causes of housing delivery problems, to examine different housing policies over years and to suggest a way out for sustainable housing delivery. This paper also reviews the past and current housing delivery programmes in Nigeria and analyses the demand and supply side issues. It identifies the various housing delivery mechanisms in current practice. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to give you an insight into the delivery option for the sustainability of housing in Nigeria, given the existing delivery structures and the framework specified in the New National Housing Policy. The secondary data were obtained from books, journals and seminar papers. The conclusion is that we cannot copy models from other nations, but should rather evolve workable models based on our socio-cultural background to address the huge housing shortage in Nigeria. Recommendations are made in this regard.

Keywords: housing, sustainability, housing delivery, housing policy, housing affordability

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915 Urban Poor: The Situations and Characteristics of the Problem and Social Welfare Service of Bangkok Metropolis

Authors: Sanchai Ratthanakwan

Abstract:

This research aims to study situations and characteristics of the problems facing the urban poor. The data and information are collected by focus group and in-depth interview leader and members of Four Regions Slum Network, community representatives and the social welfare officer. The research can be concluded that the problems of the urban poor faced with three major problems: Firstly, the shortage of housing and stability issues in housing; secondly, the problem of substandard quality of life; and thirdly, the debt problem. The study found that a solution will be found in two ways: First way is the creation of housing for the urban poor in slums or community intrusion by the state. Second way is the stability in the housing and subsistence provided by the community center called “housing stability”.

Keywords: urban poor, social welfare, Bangkok metropolis, housing stability

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914 Cost Reduction Techniques for Provision of Shelter to Homeless

Authors: Mukul Anand

Abstract:

Quality oriented affordable shelter for all has always been the key issue in the housing sector of our country. Homelessness is the acute form of housing need. It is a paradox that in spite of innumerable government initiated programmes for affordable housing, certain section of society is still devoid of shelter. About nineteen million (18.78 million) households grapple with housing shortage in Urban India in 2012. In Indian scenario there is major mismatch between the people for whom the houses are being built and those who need them. The prime force faced by public authorities in facilitation of quality housing for all is high cost of construction. The present paper will comprehend executable techniques for dilution of cost factor in housing the homeless. The key actors responsible for delivery of cheap housing stock such as capacity building, resource optimization, innovative low cost building material and indigenous skeleton housing system will also be incorporated in developing these techniques. Time performance, which is an important angle of above actors, will also be explored so as to increase the effectiveness of low cost housing. Along with this best practices will be taken up as case studies where both conventional techniques of housing and innovative low cost housing techniques would be cited. Transportation consists of approximately 30% of total construction budget. Thus use of alternative local solutions depending upon the region would be covered so as to highlight major components of low cost housing. Government is laid back regarding base line information on use of innovative low cost method and technique of resource optimization. Therefore, the paper would be an attempt to bring to light simpler solutions for achieving low cost housing.

Keywords: construction, cost, housing, optimization, shelter

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913 Research on Container Housing: A New Form of Informal Housing on Urban Temporary Land

Authors: Lufei Mao, Hongwei Chen, Zijiao Chai

Abstract:

Informal housing is a widespread phenomenon in developing countries. In many newly-emerging cities in China, rapid urbanization leads to an influx of population as well as a shortage of housing. Under this background, container housing, a new form of informal housing, gradually appears on a small scale on urban temporary land in recent years. Container housing, just as its name implies, transforms containers into small houses that allow migrant workers group to live in it. Scholars in other countries have established sound theoretical frameworks for informal housing study, but the research fruits seem rather limited on this small scale housing form. Unlike the cases in developed countries, these houses, which are outside urban planning, bring about various environmental, economic, social and governance issues. Aiming to figure out this new-born housing form, a survey mainly on two container housing settlements in Hangzhou, China was carried out to gather the information of them. Based on this thorough survey, the paper concludes the features and problems of infrastructure, environment and social communication of container housing settlements. The result shows that these containers were lacking of basic facilities and were restricted in a small mess temporary land. Moreover, because of the deficiency in management, the rental rights of these containers might not be guaranteed. Then the paper analyzes the factors affecting the formation and evolution of container housing settlements. It turns out that institutional and policy factors, market factors and social factors were the main three factors that affect the formation. At last, the paper proposes some suggestions for the governance of container housing and the utility pattern of urban temporary land.

Keywords: container housing, informal housing, urban temporary land, urban governance

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912 Impact of Lifestyle and User Expectations on the Demand of Compact Living Spaces in the Home Interiors in Indian Cities

Authors: Velly Kapadia, Reenu Singh

Abstract:

This report identifies the long-term driving forces behind urbanization and the impact of compact living on both society and the home and proposes a concept to create smarter and more sustainable homes. Compact living has been trending across India as a sustainable housing solution, and the reality is that India is currently facing a housing shortage in urban areas of around 10 million units. With the rising demand for housing, urban land prices have been rising and the cost of homes. The paper explores how and why the interior design of the homes can be improved to relieve the housing demand in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine living patterns, area requirements, ecological footprints, energy consumption, purchasing patterns, and various pro-environmental behaviors of people who downsize to compact homes. Quantitative research explores sustainable material choices, durability, functionality, cost, and reusability of furniture. Besides addressing the need for smart and sustainable designed compact homes, a conceptual model is proposed, including options of ideal schematic layouts for homes in urban areas. In the conclusions, suggestions to improve space planning and suitable interior entities have been made to support the fact that compact homes are an eminently practical and sensible solution for the urban citizen.

Keywords: compact living, housing shortage, lifestyle, sustainable interior design

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911 The Development of Private Housing Schemes to Address the Housing Problem: A Case Study of Islamabad

Authors: Zafar Iqbal Zafar, Abdul Waheed

Abstract:

The Capital Development Authority (CDA) Ordinance 1960 requires CDA to acquire land for the provision of housing in Islamabad. However, the pace of residential development was slow and the demand for housing was increasing rapidly. To resolve the growing housing problem, CDA involved the private sector in the development of housing schemes. Detailed bye-laws for regulation of private housing schemes were prepared and these bylaws were called “Modalities & Procedures”. This paper explains how the Modalities and Procedures of CDA have been successful in regulating the development of private housing schemes in Islamabad.

Keywords: housing schemes, master plan, development works, zoning regulations

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910 Quality of Life of Poor Residential Neighborhoods in Oshogbo, Nigeria

Authors: Funmilayo L. Amao

Abstract:

As a result of the high cost of housing, the increasing population is forced to live in substandard housing and unhealthy conditions giving rise to poor residential neighborhoods. The paper examines the causes and characteristics of poor residential neighborhood. The paper finds the problems that have influence poor neighborhoods to; poverty, growth of informal sector and housing shortage. The paper asserts that poor residential neighborhoods have adverse effects on the people. The secondary data was obtained from books, journals and seminar papers while primary data relating to building and environmental quality from structured questionnaire administered on sample of 500 household heads, from sampling frame of 5000 housing units. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are poor and employed in informal sector. The paper suggests urban renewal and slum upgrading programs as methods in dealing with the situation and an improvement in the socio-economic circumstances of the inhabitants.

Keywords: environmental degeneration, housing, poverty, quality of life, urban upgrading

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909 Measuring Housing Quality Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

Authors: Silvija ŠIljeg, Ante ŠIljeg, Ivan Marić

Abstract:

Measuring housing quality is being done on objective and subjective level using different indicators. During the research 5 urban and housing indicators formed according to 58 variables from different housing, domains were used. The aims of the research were to measure housing quality based on GIS approach and to detect critical points of housing in the example of Croatian coastal Town Zadar. The purposes of GIS in the research are to generate models of housing quality indexes by standardisation and aggregation of variables and to examine accuracy model of housing quality index. Analysis of accuracy has been done on the example of variable referring to educational objects availability. By defining weighted coefficients and using different GIS methods high, middle and low housing quality zones were determined. Obtained results can be of use to town planners, spatial planners and town authorities in the process of generating decisions, guidelines, and spatial interventions.

Keywords: housing quality, GIS, housing quality index, indicators, models of housing quality

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908 Preference for Housing Services and Rational House Price Bubbles

Authors: Stefanie Jeanette Huber

Abstract:

This paper explores the relevance and implications of preferences for housing services on house price fluctuations through the lens of an overlapping generation’s model. The model implies that an economy whose agents have lower preferences for housing services is characterized with lower expenditure shares on housing services and will tend to experience more frequent and more volatile housing bubbles. These model predictions are tested empirically in the companion paper Housing Booms and Busts - Convergences and Divergences across OECD countries. Between 1970 - 2013, countries who spend less on housing services as a share of total income experienced significantly more housing cycles and the associated housing boom-bust cycles were more violent. Finally, the model is used to study the impact of rental subsidies and help-to-buy schemes on rational housing bubbles. Rental subsidies are found to contribute to the control of housing bubbles, whereas help-to- buy scheme makes the economy more bubble-prone.

Keywords: housing bubbles, housing booms and busts, preference for housing services, expenditure shares for housing services, rental and purchase subsidies

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907 Partial Replacement of Lateritic Soil with Crushed Rock Sand (Stone Dust) in Compressed Earth Brick Production

Authors: A. M. Jungudo, M. A. Lasan

Abstract:

Affordable housing has long been one of the basic necessities of life to man. The ever rising prices of building materials are one of the major causes of housing shortage in many developing countries. Breaching the gap of housing needs in developing countries like Nigeria is an awaiting task longing for attention. This is due to lack of research in the development of local materials that will suit the troubled economies of these countries. The use of earth material to meet the housing needs is a sustainable option and its material is freely available universally. However, people are doubtful of using the earth material due to its modest outlook and uncertain durability. This research aims at enhancing the durability of Compressed Earth Bricks (CEBs) using stone dust as a stabilizer. The result indicates that partial replacement of lateritic soil with stone dust at 30% improves its compressive strength along with abrasive resistance.

Keywords: earth construction, durability, stone dust, sustainable

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906 Principles of Sustainable and Affordable Housing Policy for Afghan Refugees Returning to Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The overall goal of this paper is to examine the suitability and potential of the policies addressing the sustainability and affordability of housing for returnees, and to determine the impact of this policy on housing delivery for Afghan refugees. Housing is a central component of the settlement experience of refugees. A positive housing situation can facilitate many aspects of integration. Unaffordable, and unsafe housing, however, can cause disruptions in the entire settlement process. This paper aims to identify a suite of built forms for housing that is both affordable and environmentally sustainable for Afghan refugees. The result was the development of a framework that enables the assessment of the overall performance of various types of housing development in all zones of the country. There is very little evidence that the present approach of housing provision to the vagaries of market forces has provided affordable housing, especially for Afghan refugees. There is a need to incorporate social housing into the policy to assist people who cannot afford to have their own houses.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, housing policy, affordability, social housing, housing provision, environmental sustainability principles, resettlement

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905 Examination of State of Repair of Buildings in Private Housing Estates in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State Nigeria

Authors: Umeora Chukwunonso Obiefuna

Abstract:

The private sector in housing provision continually take steps towards addressing part of the problem of cushioning the effect of the housing shortage in Nigeria by establishing housing estates since the government alone cannot provide housing for everyone. This research examined and reported findings from research conducted on the state of repair of buildings in private housing estates in Enugu metropolis, Enugu state Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to examine the physical conditions of the building fabrics and appraise the performance of infrastructural services provided in the buildings. The questionnaire was used as a research instrument to elicit data from respondents. Stratified sampling of the estates based on building type was adopted as a sampling method for this study. Findings from the research show that the state of repair of most buildings require minor repairs to make them fit for habitation and sound to ensure the well-being of the residents. In addition, four independent variables from the nine independent variables investigated significantly explained residual variation in the dependent variable - state of repair of the buildings in the study area. These variables are: Average Monthly Income of Residents (AMIR), Length of Stay of the Residents in the estates (LSY), Type of Wall Finishes on the buildings (TWF), and Time Taken to Respond to Resident’s complaints by the estate managers (TTRC). With this, the linear model was established for predicting the state of repair of buildings in private housing estates in the study area. This would assist in identifying variables that are lucid in predicting the state of repair of the buildings.

Keywords: building, housing estate, private, repair

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904 Microeconomic Consequences of the Housing Market Deformation in the Selected Region of the Czech Republic

Authors: Hana Janáčková

Abstract:

Housing can be sorted as basic needs of households. Purchase of acceptable ownership housing is important investments for most them. For rental housing households must consider the part of rent expenditure paid in the total household income. For this reason, financial considerations of households in this area depend on the government innervations (public administration) in housing - on housing policy. Market system of housing allocation, whether ownership or tenancy, is based on the fact that housing is a scarce good. The allocation of housing is based on demand and supply. The market system of housing can sometimes have a negative impact on some households, the market is unable to satisfy certain groups of the population that are not able or willing to accept market price. For these reasons, there is a more or less regulation of the market. Regulation is both on the demand and supply side, and the state determines the rules of behaviour for all economic entities of the housing market. This article submits results of analysis of selected regulatory interference of the state in the housing market and assesses their implications deforming the market in the selected region of the Czech Republic. The first part describes tools of supports and the second part discusses deformations and analyses their consequences on the demand side of housing market and on supply side.

Keywords: housing, housing market, microeconomic consequences, deformation

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903 The Potential of Shifting Urban Village to Public Housing through Sharing Economy: Case Study of Shenzhen

Authors: Xinrui Gao

Abstract:

This research aims to explore the potential of shifting urban villages to public housing in China. In common practice, the central and local governments established two divided systems of urban redevelopment and public housing, including aims, design ideas, policy, headquarters, and branch offices. In most cases, the urban regeneration and public housing projects satisfy only the selected part of the society who can afford it (urban regeneration) or meet the requirements (public housing), which fail to cover the housing demand. However, there are many similarities between these two types of housing under the background of a shared economy, especially in target groups, affordable prices, and efficient use of spaces. Shenzhen always takes the lead in China’s urban regeneration and housing reformation. There are some top-down approaches to transforming housing in the urban village into public housing at present. These new approaches will provide a good chance to evaluate existing practices and explore the future development path of urban villages; while at the same time it could positively influence the housing problem in China.

Keywords: urban village, public housing, sharing economy, urban redevelopment

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902 Analysis of Urban Housing Quality and Conditions within Kano Metropolis

Authors: Abdurraheem A. Yakub

Abstract:

Housing is one of the needs of mankind and is one of the best indicators of a person’s standard of living. This research was set out to analyze the housing qualities and conditions in Kano. Primary data was collected through both Personal observations where the researcher carried out an inspection of the study area prior to interview/implementation of questionnaires and took into consideration the type of housing units, construction materials and services available as well as the environmental condition of the study area. This was followed by an interview which was done through personal contact with the various people related to the study. In the course of doing that, questions were asked orally and notes were taken to record the responses. Thereafter, the Questionnaire was implemented which was earlier designed to elicit information from households in the study area using well-structured questions related to the type of facilities provided in the housing unit, types of houses and response with regard to quality of their houses and neighborhoods, tenure of house. The research work looked at the prevailing housing qualities and conditions and the state of the existing facilities and amenities within the environment and offered recommendations on policies and measures that could help improve the situation.

Keywords: housing provision, housing quality, housing standard, housing condition, housing affordability and housing facilities

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901 Housing Harmony: Social Integration in Singapore Public Housing

Authors: Yingjie Feng, Lei Xu, Zhenyu Cao

Abstract:

In the process of urbanization, public housing is often a powerful means to deal with large floating population. In the developed countries like the U.S, France, Singapore, and Japan, the experience on how to make use of public housing to realize social integration in aspects of race, class, religion, income is gained through years of practice. Take the example of Singapore, the article first introduces the ethnic composition background and public housing development in Singapore, and then gives a detailed explanation and analysis on social integration in public housing from the views of Ethnic quotas policy, community organization construction and design of public space. Finally, combined with the Chinese situation, the article points out that the solution for social integration in China is the organic mix of different income groups in public housing.

Keywords: floating population, public housing, Singapore, social integration, urbanization

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900 A Comparative Analysis of Residential Quality of Public and Private Estates in Lagos

Authors: S. Akinde, Jubril Olatunbosun

Abstract:

In recent years, most of the urban centers in Nigeria are fast experiencing housing problems such as unaffordable housing and environmental challenges, all of which determine the nature of housing quality. The population continues to increase and the demand for quality housing increases probably at the same rate. Several kinds of houses serve various purposes; the objectives of the low cost housing schemes as the name suggests is to make houses quality to both the middle and lower classes of people in Lagos. A casual look into the study area of Iba Low Cost Housing Estate and the Unity Low Cost Housing Estate, Ojo and Alimosho respectively in Lagos State have shown a huge demands for houses. The study area boasts of a large population all engaged in various commercial activities with income at various levels. It would be fair to say that these people are mainly of the middle class and lower class. This means the low cost housing scheme truly serves these purposes. A Low Cost Housing Scheme of Iba which is publicly owned and Low Cost Housing Scheme of Unity Estate (UE) is privately owned.  

Keywords: housing, residential quality, low cost housing scheme, public, private estates

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899 Factors Influencing the Housing Price: Developers’ Perspective

Authors: Ernawati Mustafa Kamal, Hasnanywati Hassan, Atasya Osmadi

Abstract:

The housing industry is crucial for sustainable development of every country. Housing is a basic need that can enhance the quality of life. Owning a house is therefore the main aim of individuals. However, affordability has become a critical issue towards homeownership. In recent years, housing price in the main cities has increased tremendously to unaffordable level. This paper investigates factors influencing the housing price from developer’s perspective and provides recommendation on strategies to tackle this issue. Online and face-to-face survey was conducted on housing developers operating in Penang, Malaysia. The results indicate that (1) location; (2) macroeconomics factor; (3) demographic factors; (4) land/zoning and; (5) industry factors are the main factors influencing the housing price. This paper contributes towards better understanding on developers’ view on how the housing price is determined and form a basis for government to help tackle the housing affordability issue.

Keywords: factors influence, house price, housing developers, Malaysia

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898 Housing Provision for Low-Income Households: Strategies and Guidelines for the Housing Quality

Authors: Johanna Sadiki, Aylin Akyildiz

Abstract:

The housing includes a multitude of products and services and is a key factor in generating comfort of living and quality of life, which thus impacts sustainability. Sustainable housing is therefore essential in achieving global sustainable development, as highlighted by goal 11.1 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to ensure ‘‘safe and affordable housing”. While most of the published research is concerned with the affordability of housing schemes, only a few of them addresses the quality of the provided housing solutions. With this research, we contribute to the question of quality in lower-income housing and the corresponding strategies and guidelines. Housing quality is a product of objective and subjective judgement, and several studies have measured factors influencing housing quality from objective and subjective points of view. Moreover, a combination of socio-economic characteristics as well as individual preferences make up the main factors influencing views on housing quality. However, an empirical investigation of the differences in housing quality from a cross-country or comparative perspective considering different cultures is missing. So far, most studies focus on cross-country analysis within similar cultures. However, we see internationally operating investors (from the Global North) realizing projects in different parts of the world with sometimes very distinct living habits and housing traditions. Those projects oftentimes take no consideration of the cultural, natural, and climatic peculiarities of each location. To ensure the sustainability of these projects, an empirical and comparative analysis of international differences in housing is necessary. This paper aims to determine which factor housing quality plays in the provision of housing for low-income households through a cross-country comparison of the Global North and South. This research uses case studies involving three cities from the Global North and South - Berlin, Kinshasa, and Nairobi - to analyze the differences in housing provision and standards for low-income communities. The three cities are selected for their specific features with respect to housing provision. Each case represents an urban area with a tense housing market and is the capital city of its respective country. However, social housing provision is at different stages of development in each city/country. It is evident that the issue of adequate housing presents a far greater challenge in the Global South, where most countries are experiencing rapid urbanization, than in the Global North. For many households in the Global South, and particularly low-income households, housing standards remain very far behind the local and global expectations. Here access to decent homes is a major concern. In comparison, in the Global North, especially in Europe, a much smaller proportion of the population is affected by the housing shortage. Here too, it is predominantly low-income households that are being impacted. However, their needs are addressed through social housing provision, which has a long history in most Western European countries. In the Global South, social housing provision is a more recent phenomenon and has been limited to the implementation of occasional and restricted programs.

Keywords: housing quality, housing provision, low-income household, influence, strategies and guidelines

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897 Evaluation of Suitable Housing System for Adoption in Addis Ababa

Authors: Yidnekachew Daget, Hong Zhang

Abstract:

The decision-making process in order to select the suitable housing system for application in housing construction has been a challenge for many developing countries. This study evaluates the decision process to identify the suitable housing systems for adoption in Addis Ababa. Ten industrialized housing systems were considered as alternatives for comparison. These systems have been used in a housing development in different parts of the world. A relevant literature review and contextual analysis were conducted. An analytical hierarchy process and an Expert Choice Comparion platform were employed as a research technique and tool to evaluate the professionals’ level of preferences with regard to the housing systems. The findings revealed the priority rank and characteristics of the suitable housing systems to be adapted for application in housing development. The decision criteria and the analytical process used in this study can help the decision-makers and the housing developers in developing countries make effective evaluations and decisions.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, decision-making, expert choice comparion, industrialized housing systems

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896 How Do Housing Market and Mortgage Solve the Housing Problem in Russian Regions?

Authors: Liudmila A.Guzikova

Abstract:

Being federative state Russia includes more than 80 subjects which are widely diverse by climatic conditions, demographic characteristics, cultural traditions, intensity of migration, economic development and investment attraction and other parameters. Now, in the regions of the country all forms of housing problem are present - housing mismatch to sanitary and hygienic standards, overcrowding, forced residence in financially burdensome housing, homelessness, -although the extent of these symptoms varies widely. Heterogeneity of regional conditions in combination with specifics of regional housing situation requires to concentrate the study of housing problem on the regional level. Traditionally housing market and mortgage are considered as the instruments of housing problem solving. The question arises how the housing market and mortgage market contribute to solving the housing problem in the regions of Russia. Though the purchase of dwelling in ownership should not be regarded as a universal method of the housing problem solving, the purchase of dwelling both by own funds or by use of mortgage can reduce the problem and enhance public satisfaction of living conditions. The aim of the study is to identify differences and similarities in the development of regional housing markets and mortgage lending in the regions of Russia and to evaluate their impact on the status of the housing problem. To achieve the aim of the study the methods of correlation and regression analysis are used. The data of federal statistics constitutes the information base of research. The results of the study contribute to better understanding of the interrelations in housing sphere and can be used to work out social and economic development programs in the regions.

Keywords: housing market, housing problem, mortgage, regional economy

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895 Continuance Commitment of Retail Pharmacist in a Labor Shortage: Results from the Questionnaire Survey

Authors: Shigeaki Mishima

Abstract:

Pharmacist labor shortage has become a long-term problem in Japan. This paper discusses the relationship between organizational commitment and pharmacists' organizational behavior in the context of labor shortage. Based on a multidimensional view of organizational commitment, effective commitment and continuous commitment are measured. It is suggested that the continuous commitment has a unique impact on withholding information behavior. We also discuss the impact of labor supply and demand on continuous commitment of retail pharmacist.

Keywords: organizational commitment, pharmacist, labor shortage, professional

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894 Estimation of Break Points of Housing Price Growth Rate for Top MSAs in Texas Area

Authors: Hui Wu, Ye Li

Abstract:

Applying the structural break estimation method proposed by Perron and Bai (1998) to the housing price growth rate of top 5 MSAs in the Texas area, this paper estimated the structural break date for the growth rate of housing prices index. As shown in the estimation results, the break dates for each region are quite different, which indicates the heterogeneity of the housing market in response to macroeconomic conditions.

Keywords: structural break, housing prices index, ADF test, linear model

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893 Housing Loans Determinants before and during Financial Crisis

Authors: Josip Visković, Ana Rimac Smiljanić, Ines Ivić

Abstract:

Housing loans play an important role in CEE countries’ economies. This fact is based on their share in total loans to households and their importance for economic activity and growth in CEE countries. Therefore, it is important to find out key determinants of housing loans demand in these countries. The aim of this study is to research and analyze the determinants of the demand for housing loans in Croatia. In this regard, the effect of economic activity, loan terms and real estate prices were analyzed. Also, the aim of this study is to find out what motivates people to take housing loans. Therefore, primarily empirical study was conducted among the Croatian residents. The results show that demand for housing loans is positively affected by economic growth, higher personal income and flexible loan terms, while it is negatively affected by interest rate rise.

Keywords: CEE countries, Croatia, demand determinants, housing loans

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892 Research on the Development and Space Optimization of Rental-Type Public Housing in Hangzhou

Authors: Xuran Zhang, Huiru Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, China has made great efforts to cultivate and develop the housing rental market, especially the rental-type public housing, which has been paid attention to by all sectors of the society. This paper takes Hangzhou rental-type public housing as the research object, and divides it into three development stages according to the different supply modes of rental-type public housing. Through data collection and field research, the paper summarizes the spatial characteristics of rental-type public housing from the five perspectives of spatial planning, spatial layout, spatial integration, spatial organization and spatial configuration. On this basis, the paper proposes the optimization of the spatial layout. The study concludes that the spatial layout of rental-type public housing should be coordinated with the development of urban planning. When planning and constructing, it is necessary to select more mixed construction modes, to be properly centralized, and to improve the surrounding transportation service facilities.  It is hoped that the recommendations in this paper will provide a reference for the further development of rental-type public housing in Hangzhou.

Keywords: Hangzhou, rental-type public housing, spatial distribution, spatial optimization

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891 Overcrowding and Adequate Housing: The Potential of Adaptability

Authors: Inês Ramalhete, Hugo Farias, Rui da Silva Pinto

Abstract:

Adequate housing has been a widely discussed theme in academic circles related to low-cost housing, whereas its physical features are easy to deal with, overcrowding (related to social, cultural and economic aspects) is still ambiguous, particularly regarding the set of indicators that can accurately reflect and measure it. This paper develops research on low-cost housing models for developing countries and what is the best method to embed overcrowding as an important parameter for adaptability. A critical review of international overcrowding indicators and their application in two developing countries, Cape Verde and Angola, is presented. The several rationales and the constraints for an accurate assessment of overcrowding are considered, namely baseline data (statistics), which can induce misjudgments, as well as social and cultural factors (such as personal choices of residents). This paper proposes a way to tackle overcrowding through housing adaptability, considering factors such as physical flexibility, functional ambiguity, and incremental expansion schemes. Moreover, a case-study is presented to establish a framework for the theoretical application of the proposed approach.

Keywords: adaptive housing, low cost housing, overcrowding, housing model

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890 Assessment of Low Income Housing Delivery, Accessibility and Affordability Problem in Nigeria

Authors: Asimiyu Mohammed Jinadu

Abstract:

Housing is a basic necessity of life. Housing plays a central role in the life of living organisms as it provides the basic platform for the life support systems in human settlements. It is considered a social service and a basic right. Despite the importance of housing, Nigeria as a nation is faced with the problem of quantitative and qualitative shortfall in the number of housing units required to accommodate the citizens. This study examined the accessibility and affordability problems of low-income housing in Nigeria. It relied on secondary data obtained for the records of government ministries and agencies. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis, and the information was presented in simple tables and charts. The findings show that over the years the government has provided serviced plots of land, owner occupier houses and mortgage loans for the people. As at 2016, the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) has completed a total of 23,038 housing units while another 14, 488 units were on-going under the Public Private Partnership scheme across the country. The study revealed that a total of 910, 671 housing units were proposed by the Government under the various low-income housing programmes between 1960 and 2017, but only 156, 336 units were delivered within the period, representing 17.17% success rate. Amongst others, the low-income group faced the problems of low access to and unaffordability of the few low-income housing delivered in Nigeria. The study recommended that all abandoned housing projects should be reviewed, rationalized, completed and made available to the targeted low-income people. Investment in micro housing finance, design and implementation of pro-poor housing programme and massive investment in innovative slum upgrading programmes by both the government and private sector are also recommended to ameliorate the housing problems of the low-income group in Nigeria.

Keywords: housing, low income group, problem, programme

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889 Future Housing Energy Efficiency Associated with the Auckland Unitary Plan

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

The draft Auckland Unitary Plan outlines the future land used for new housing and businesses with Auckland population growth over the next thirty years. According to Auckland Unitary Plan, over the next 30 years, the population of Auckland is projected to increase by one million, and up to 70% of total new dwellings occur within the existing urban area. Intensification will not only increase the number of median or higher density houses such as terrace house, apartment building, etc. within the existing urban area but also change mean housing design data that can impact building thermal performance under the local climate. Based on mean energy consumption and building design data, and their relationships of a number of Auckland sample houses, this study is to estimate the future mean housing energy consumption associated with the change of mean housing design data and evaluate housing energy efficiency with the Auckland Unitary Plan.

Keywords: Auckland Unitary Plan, building thermal design, housing design, housing energy efficiency

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888 Ways to Define the Most Sustainable Actions for Water Shortage Prevention in Mega Cities, Especially in Developing Countries

Authors: Keivan Karimlou, Nemat Hassani, Abdollah Rashidi Mehrabadi

Abstract:

Climate change, industrial bloom, population growth and mismanagement are the most important factors that lead to water shortages around the world. Water shortages often lead to forced immigration, war, and thirst and hunger, especially in developing countries. One of the simplest solutions to solve the water shortage issues around the world is transferring water from one watershed to another; however it may not be a suitable solution. Water managers around the world use supply and demand management methods to decrease the incidence of water shortage in a sustainable manner. But as a matter of economic constraints, they must define a method to select the best possible action to reduce and limit water shortages. The following paper recognizes different kinds of criteria to select the best possible policy for reducing water shortage in mega cities by examining a comprehensive literature review.

Keywords: criteria, management, shortage, sustainable, water

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887 A Study on the Measurement of Spatial Mismatch and the Influencing Factors of “Job-Housing” in Affordable Housing from the Perspective of Commuting

Authors: Daijun Chen

Abstract:

Affordable housing is subsidized by the government to meet the housing demand of low and middle-income urban residents in the process of urbanization and to alleviate the housing inequality caused by market-based housing reforms. It is a recognized fact that the living conditions of the insured have been improved while constructing the subsidized housing. However, the choice of affordable housing is mostly in the suburbs, where the surrounding urban functions and infrastructure are incomplete, resulting in the spatial mismatch of "jobs-housing" in affordable housing. The main reason for this problem is that the residents of affordable housing are more sensitive to the spatial location of their residence, but their selectivity and controllability to the housing location are relatively weak, which leads to higher commuting costs. Their real cost of living has not been effectively reduced. In this regard, 92 subsidized housing communities in Nanjing, China, are selected as the research sample in this paper. The residents of the affordable housing and their commuting Spatio-temporal behavior characteristics are identified based on the LBS (location-based service) data. Based on the spatial mismatch theory, spatial mismatch indicators such as commuting distance and commuting time are established to measure the spatial mismatch degree of subsidized housing in different districts of Nanjing. Furthermore, the geographically weighted regression model is used to analyze the influencing factors of the spatial mismatch of affordable housing in terms of the provision of employment opportunities, traffic accessibility and supporting service facilities by using spatial, functional and other multi-source Spatio-temporal big data. The results show that the spatial mismatch of affordable housing in Nanjing generally presents a "concentric circle" pattern of decreasing from the central urban area to the periphery. The factors affecting the spatial mismatch of affordable housing in different spatial zones are different. The main reasons are the number of enterprises within 1 km of the affordable housing district and the shortest distance to the subway station. And the low spatial mismatch is due to the diversity of services and facilities. Based on this, a spatial optimization strategy for different levels of spatial mismatch in subsidized housing is proposed. And feasible suggestions for the later site selection of subsidized housing are also provided. It hopes to avoid or mitigate the impact of "spatial mismatch," promote the "spatial adaptation" of "jobs-housing," and truly improve the overall welfare level of affordable housing residents.

Keywords: affordable housing, spatial mismatch, commuting characteristics, spatial adaptation, welfare benefits

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