Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3548

Search results for: earth construction

3548 Stress Variation of Underground Building Structure during Top-Down Construction

Authors: Soo-yeon Seo, Seol-ki Kim, Su-jin Jung


In the construction of a building, it is necessary to minimize construction period and secure enough work space for stacking of materials during the construction especially in city area. In this manner, various top-down construction methods have been developed and widely used in Korea. This paper investigates the stress variation of underground structure of a building constructed by using SPS (Strut as Permanent System) known as a top-down method in Korea through an analytical approach. Various types of earth pressure distribution related to ground condition were considered in the structural analysis of an example structure at each step of the excavation. From the analysis, the most high member force acting on beams was found when the ground type was medium sandy soil and a stress concentration was found in corner area.

Keywords: construction of building, top-down construction method, earth pressure distribution, member force, stress concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
3547 Hygrothermal Properties of Raw Earth Material

Authors: Ichrak Hamrouni, Tariq Ouahbi, Natalija Lhuissier, Saïd Taibi, Mehrez Jemai, Olivier Crumeyrolle, Hatem Zenzri


Raw earth is the oldest building technique used for over 11 centuries, thanks to its various benefits. The most known raw earth construction technics are compressed earth blocks, rammed earth, raw earth concrete, and daub. The raw earth can be stabilized with hydraulic binders, mixed by fibers, or hyper-compacted in order to improve its mechanical behaviour. Moreover, raw earth is characterized by a low thermal conductivity what make it a good thermal insulator, and it has a very important capacity to condense and evaporate relative humidity. In this context, many researches have been developed. They have shown that the mechanical characteristics of earth materials increase with the hyper-compaction and adding fibers or hydraulic binders. Besides, other researches have been determined the thermal and hygroscopic properties of raw earth. They have shown that this material able to contribute to moisture and heat control in constructions. Its hygrothermal properties are better than fired earth bricks and concrete. The aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal and hygrometric behavior of raw earth material using experimental tests allows to determine the main Hygrothermal properties such as the water Vapour permeability and thermal conductivity and compare the results with those of other building materials such as fired clay bricks and cement concrete is presented.

Keywords: raw earth material, hygro-thermal, thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability, building materials, building materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
3546 Pattern the Location and Area of Earth-Dumping Stations from Vehicle GPS Data in Taiwan

Authors: Chun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Chang Li, Xiu-Hui Wen, Yi-Ching Tu


The objective of this study explores GPS (Global Positioning System) applied to trace construction vehicles such as trucks or cranes, help to pattern the earth-dumping stations of traffic construction in Taiwan. Traffic construction in this research is defined as the engineering of high-speed railways, expressways, and which that distance more than kilometers. Audit the location and check the compliance with regulations of earth-dumping stations is one of important tasks in Taiwan EPA. Basically, the earth-dumping station was known as one source of particulate matter from air pollution during construction process. Due to GPS data can be analyzed quickly and be used conveniently, this study tried to find out dumping stations by modeling vehicles tracks from GPS data during work cycle of construction. The GPS data updated from 13 vehicles related to an expressway construction in central Taiwan. The GPS footprints were retrieved to Keyhole Markup Language (KML) files so that can pattern the tracks of trucks by computer applications, the data was collected about eight months- from Feb. to Oct. in 2017. The results of GPS footprints identified dumping station and outlined the areas of earthwork had been passed to the Taiwan EPA for on-site inspection. Taiwan EPA had issued advice comments to the agency which was in charge of the construction to prevent the air pollution. According to the result of this study compared to the commonly methods in inspecting environment by manual collection, the GPS with KML patterning and modeling method can consumes less time. On the other hand, through monitoring the GPS data from construction vehicles could be useful for administration to development and implementation of strategies in environmental management.

Keywords: automatic management, earth-dumping station, environmental management, Global Positioning System (GPS), particulate matter, traffic construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
3545 Toughness of a Silt-Based Construction Material Reinforced with Fibers

Authors: Y. Shamas, S. Imanzadeh, A. Jarno, S. Taibi


Silt-based construction material is acknowledged since forever and lately received the researchers’ attention more than before as being an ecological and economical alternative for typical cement-based concrete. Silt-based material is known for its worldwide availability, cheapness, and various applications. Some rules should be defined to obtain a standardized method for the use of raw earth as a modern construction material; but first, its mechanical properties should be precisely studied to better understand its behavior in order to find new aspects in making it a better competitor for the cement concrete that is high energy-demanding in terms of gray energy. Some researches were performed on the raw earth material to enhance its characteristics as strength and ductility for their importance and their wide use for various materials. Yet, many other mechanical properties can be used to study the mechanical behavior of raw earth materials such as Young’smodulus and toughness. Studies concerning the toughness of material were rarely conducted previously except for metals despite its significant role associated to the energy absorbed by the material under loading before fracturing. The purpose of this paper is to restate different toughness definitions used in the literature and propose a new definition.

Keywords: silt-based material, raw earth concrete, stress-strain curve, energy, toughness

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3544 Characterization of Stabilized Earth in the Construction Field

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Fatoum Kharchi


This study deals with the characterization of stabilized earth in the field of construction from the behavior under changes in conservation conditions that may occur during the lifetime of the material, namely, the exposure to high humidity and temperature variations. These two parameters are involved increasingly, because of climate changes that are confronting earth-based constructions to conditions for which they were not originally designed. These exposure conditions may affect the long-term behavior of the material and the entire structure. A cement treatment was adopted for stabilizing the earth with dosages ranging from 4, 6, 8 to 10%. The influence of addition percentage was analyzed in this context based on laboratory tests measuring the evolution of compressive strength, rate of absorption and shrinkage, and finally thermal conductivity. It was shown that the behaviour was dependent on the ambient conditions which influence the action of the binder. Temperate cure has proved beneficial for the material as the cement content increased. Moisture has less affected the compressive strength with increasing the cement content. The absorption was reduced with the increase of cement dosage. Regarding the variation of shrinkage, cement assays have presented an optimum value beyond which the addition of further quantities was less advantageous. The thermal conductivity on the other hand, increased with increasing cement content, which decreased the insulating properties of the material.

Keywords: behavior, characterization, construction, earth, stabilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
3543 Effect of Manual Compacting and Semi-Automatic Compacting on Behavior of Stabilized Earth Concrete

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Fattoum Kharchi, Fahim Kahlouche, Youcef Benna


In the recent years, a considerable level of interest has been developed on the use of earth in construction, led by its rediscovery as an environmentally building material. The Stabilized Earth Concrete (SEC) is a good alternative to the cement concrete, thanks to its thermal and moisture regulating features. Many parameters affect the behavior of stabilized earth concrete. This article presents research results related to the influence of the compacting nature on some SEC properties namely: The mechanical behavior, capillary absorption, shrinkage and sustainability to water erosion, and this, basing on two types of compacting: Manual and semi-automatic.

Keywords: behavior, compacting, manual, SEC, semi-automatic

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
3542 Partial Replacement of Lateritic Soil with Crushed Rock Sand (Stone Dust) in Compressed Earth Brick Production

Authors: A. M. Jungudo, M. A. Lasan


Affordable housing has long been one of the basic necessities of life to man. The ever rising prices of building materials are one of the major causes of housing shortage in many developing countries. Breaching the gap of housing needs in developing countries like Nigeria is an awaiting task longing for attention. This is due to lack of research in the development of local materials that will suit the troubled economies of these countries. The use of earth material to meet the housing needs is a sustainable option and its material is freely available universally. However, people are doubtful of using the earth material due to its modest outlook and uncertain durability. This research aims at enhancing the durability of Compressed Earth Bricks (CEBs) using stone dust as a stabilizer. The result indicates that partial replacement of lateritic soil with stone dust at 30% improves its compressive strength along with abrasive resistance.

Keywords: earth construction, durability, stone dust, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
3541 First Earth Size

Authors: Ibrahim M. Metwally


Have you ever thought that earth was not the same earth we live on? Was it bigger or smaller? Was it a great continent surrounded by huge ocean as Alfred Wegener (1912) claimed? Earth is the most amazing planet in our Milky Way galaxy and may be in the universe. It is the only deformed planet that has a variable orbit around the sun and the only planet that has water on its surface. How did earth deformation take place? What does cause earth to deform? What are the results of earth deformation? How does its orbit around the sun change? First earth size computation can be achieved only considering the quantum of iron and nickel rested into earth core. This paper introduces a new theory “Earth expansion Theory”. The principles of “Earth Expansion Theory” are leading to new approaches and concepts to interpret whole earth dynamics and its geological and environmental changes. This theory is not an attempt to unify the two divergent dominant theories of continental drift, plate tectonic theory and earth expansion theory. The new theory is unique since it has a mathematical derivation, explains all the change to and around earth in terms of geological and environmental changes, and answers all unanswered questions in other theories. This paper presents the basic of the introduced theory and discusses the mechanism of earth expansion and how it took place, the forces that made the expansion. The mechanisms of earth size change from its spherical shape with radius about 3447.6 km to an elliptic shape of major radius about 6378.1 km and minor radius of about 6356.8 km and how it took place, are introduced and discussed. This article also introduces, in a more realistic explanation the formation of oceans and seas, the preparation of river formation. It also addresses the role of iron in earth size enlargement process within the continuum mechanics framework.

Keywords: earth size, earth expansion, continuum mechanics, continental and ocean formation

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
3540 A Study on the Reinforced Earth Walls Using Sandwich Backfills under Seismic Loads

Authors: Kavitha A.S., L.Govindaraju


Reinforced earth walls offer excellent solution to many problems associated with earth retaining structures especially under seismic conditions. Use of cohesive soils as backfill material reduces the cost of reinforced soil walls if proper drainage measures are taken. This paper presents a numerical study on the application of a new technique called sandwich technique in reinforced earth walls. In this technique, a thin layer of granular soil is placed above and below the reinforcement layer to initiate interface friction and the remaining portion of the backfill is filled up using the existing insitu cohesive soil. A 6 m high reinforced earth wall has been analysed as a two-dimensional plane strain finite element model. Three types of reinforcing elements such as geotextile, geogrid and metallic strips were used. The horizontal wall displacements and the tensile loads in the reinforcement were used as the criteria to evaluate the results at the end of construction and dynamic excitation phases. Also to verify the effectiveness of sandwich layer on the performance of the wall, the thickness of sand fill surrounding the reinforcement was varied. At the end of construction stage it is found that the wall with sandwich type backfill yielded lower displacements when compared to the wall with cohesive soil as backfill. Also with sandwich backfill, the reinforcement loads reduced substantially when compared to the wall with cohesive soil as backfill. Further, it is found that sandwich technique as backfill and geogrid as reinforcement is a good combination to reduce the deformations of geosynthetic reinforced walls during seismic loading.

Keywords: geogrid, geotextile, reinforced earth, sandwich technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
3539 Overtopping Protection Systems for Overflow Earth Dams

Authors: Omid Pourabdollah, Mohsen Misaghian


Overtopping is known as one the most important reasons for the failure of earth dams. In some cases, it has resulted in heavy damages and losses. Therefore, enhancing the safety of earth dams against overtopping has received much attention in the past four decades. In this paper, at first, the overtopping phenomena and its destructive consequences will be introduced. Then, overtopping failure mechanism of embankments will be described. Finally, different types of protection systems for stabilization of earth dams against overtopping will be presented. These include timber cribs, riprap and gabions, reinforced earth, roller compacted concrete, and the precast concrete blocks.

Keywords: embankment dam, overtopping, roller compacted concrete, wedge concrete block

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
3538 Dilation Effect on 3D Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients for Retaining Wall

Authors: Khelifa Tarek, Benmebarek Sadok


The 2D passive earth pressures acting on rigid retaining walls problem has been widely treated in the literature using different approaches (limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip line and numerical computation), however, the 3D passive earth pressures problem has received less attention. This paper is concerned with the numerical study of 3D passive earth pressures induced by the translation of a rigid rough retaining wall for associated and non-associated soils. Using the explicit finite difference code FLAC3D, the increase of the passive earth pressures due to the decrease of the wall breadth is investigated. The results given by the present numerical analysis are compared with other investigation. The influence of the angle of dilation on the coefficients is also studied.

Keywords: numerical modeling, FLAC3D, retaining wall, passive earth pressures, angle of dilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3537 A Comparison between Modelled and Actual Thermal Performance of Load Bearing Rammed Earth Walls in Egypt

Authors: H. Hafez, A. Mekkawy, R. Rostom


Around 10% of the world’s CO₂ emissions could be attributed to the operational energy of buildings; that is why more research is directed towards the use of rammed earth walls which is claimed to have enhanced thermal properties compared to conventional building materials. The objective of this paper is to outline how the thermal performance of rammed earth walls compares to conventional reinforced concrete skeleton and red brick in-fill walls. For this sake, the indoor temperature and relative humidity of a classroom built with rammed earth walls and a vaulted red brick roof in the area of Behbeit, Giza, Egypt were measured hourly over 6 months using smart sensors. These parameters for the rammed earth walls were later also compared against the values obtained using a 'DesignBuilder v5' model to verify the model assumptions. The thermal insulation of rammed earth walls was found to be 30% better than this of the redbrick infill, and the recorded data were found to be almost 90% similar to the modelled values.

Keywords: rammed earth, thermal insulation, indoor air quality, design builder

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
3536 Utilizing Google Earth for Internet GIS

Authors: Alireza Derambakhsh


The objective of this examination is to explore the capability of utilizing Google Earth for Internet GIS applications. The study particularly analyzes the utilization of vector and characteristic information and the capability of showing and preparing this information in new ways utilizing the Google Earth stage. It has progressively been perceived that future improvements in GIS will fixate on Internet GIS, and in three noteworthy territories: GIS information access, spatial data scattering and GIS displaying/preparing. Google Earth is one of the group of geobrowsers that offer a free and simple to utilize administration that empower information with a spatial part to be overlain on top of a 3-D model of the Earth. This examination makes a methodological structure to accomplish its objective that comprises of three noteworthy parts: A database level, an application level and a customer level. As verification of idea a web model has been produced, which incorporates a differing scope of datasets and lets clients direst inquiries and make perceptions of this custom information. The outcomes uncovered that both vector and property information can be successfully spoken to and imagined utilizing Google Earth. In addition, the usefulness to question custom information and envision results has been added to the Google Earth stage.

Keywords: Google earth, internet GIS, vector, characteristic information

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
3535 2D Numerical Analysis for Determination of the Effect of Bored Piles Constructed against the Landslide near Karabuk University Stadium

Authors: Dogan Cetin, Burak Turk, Mahmut Candan


Landslides cause remarkable damage and loss of human life every year around the world. They may be made more likely by factors such as earthquakes, heavy precipitation, and incorrect construction activities near or on slopes. The stadium of Karabük University is located at the bottom of a very high slope. After construction of the stadium, severe deformations were observed on the social activity area surrounding the stadium. Some inclinometers were placed behind the stadium to detect the possible landslide activity. According to measurements of the inclinometers, irregular soil movements were detected at depths between 20 m and 45 m. Also, significant heaves and settlements were observed behind the stadium walls located at the toe of the slope. The heaves indicate that the stadium walls were under threat of a significant landslide. After inclinometer readings and field observations, the potential failure geometry was estimated. The protection system was designed based on numerous numerical analysis performed by 2-D Plaxis software. After the design was completed, protective geotechnical work was started. Before the geotechnical work began, new inclinometers were installed to monitor earth movement during the work and afterward. The total horizontal length of the possible failure surface is 220 m. Geotechnical work included two-row-pile construction and three-row-pile construction on the slope. The bored piles were 120 cm in diameter for two-row-pile construction, and 150 cm in diameter for three-row-pile construction. Pile length is 31.30 m for two-row-pile construction and 31.40 m for three-row-pile construction. The distance between two-row-pile and three-row-pile construction is 60 m. With these bored piles, the landslide was divided into three parts. In this way, the earth's pressure was reduced. After a number of inclinometer readings, it was seen that deformation continued during the work, but after the work was done, the movement reversed, and total deformation stayed in mm dimension. It can be said that the protection work eliminated the possible landslide.

Keywords: landslide, landslide protection, inclinometer measurement, bored piles

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3534 Fused Salt Electrolysis of Rare-Earth Materials from the Domestic Ore and Preparation of Rare-Earth Hydrogen Storage Alloys

Authors: Jeong-Hyun Yoo, Hanjung Kwon, Sung-Wook Cho


Fused salt electrolysis was studied to make the high purity rare-earth metals using domestic rare-earth ore. The target metals of the fused salt electrolysis were Mm (Misch metal), La, Ce, Nd, etc. Fused salt electrolysis was performed with the supporting salt such as chloride and fluoride at the various temperatures and ampere. The metals made by fused salt electrolysis were analyzed to identify the phase and composition using the methods of XRD and ICP. As a result, the acquired rare-earth metals were the high purity ones which had more than 99% purity. Also, VIM (vacuum induction melting) was studied to make the kg level rare-earth alloy for the use of secondary battery and hydrogen storage. In order to indentify the physicochemical properties such as phase, impurity gas, alloy composition and hydrogen storage, the alloys were investigated. The battery characteristics were also analyzed through the various tests in the real production line of a battery company.

Keywords: domestic rare-earth ore, fused salt electrolysis, rare-earth materials, hydrogen storage alloy, secondary battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
3533 Dynamic Active Earth Pressure on Flexible Cantilever Retaining Wall

Authors: Snehal R. Pathak, Sachin S. Munnoli


Evaluation of dynamic earth pressure on retaining wall is a topic of primary importance. In present paper, dynamic active earth pressure and displacement of flexible cantilever retaining wall has been evaluated analytically using 2-DOF mass-spring-dashpot model by incorporating both wall and backfill properties. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic active earth pressure and wall displacement are studied and presented in graphical form. The obtained results are then compared with the various conventional methods, experimental analysis and also with PLAXIS analysis. It is observed that the dynamic active earth pressure decreases with increase in the wall flexibility while wall displacement increases linearly with flexibility of the wall. The results obtained by proposed 2-DOF analytical model are found to be more realistic and economical.

Keywords: earth pressure, earthquake, 2-DOF model, Plaxis, retaining walls, wall movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
3532 A Study on Finite Element Modelling of Earth Retaining Wall Anchored by Deadman Anchor

Authors: K. S. Chai, S. H. Chan


In this paper, the earth retaining wall anchored by discrete deadman anchor to support excavations in sand is modelled and analysed by finite element analysis. A study is conducted to examine how deadman anchorage system helps in reducing the deflection of earth retaining wall. A simplified numerical model is suggested in order to reduce the simulation duration. A comparison between 3-D and 2-D finite element analyses is illustrated.

Keywords: finite element, earth retaining wall, deadman anchor, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
3531 Mythological Influences on the Works of J. R. R. Tolkien: A Scrutiny of Middle-Earth Stories

Authors: Ali Mohammadi


The present study is an attempt to investigate the influence of mythology on J.R.R. Tolkien's literary works in general and on Middle-Earth in particular. Moreover, despite the fact that mythology is usually regarded as a thing of the past predominantly found in the early works of literature, this inquiry reveals that how modern literary works can artistically benefit from mythological elements of Old English Era so as to enrich their content and stand out as innovative masterpieces. Indeed, having been a philologist and well-acquainted with mythological literature, Tolkien paved the way for a novel understanding of literature by bridging the gap between the old and the new. In the end, it was concluded that had mythology not been utilised by Tolkien, his works, and on top of all, Middle-Earth, would not have turned into a modern literary showpiece.

Keywords: literature, Middle-Earth, mythology, Tolkien

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
3530 Approaches to Eco-Friendly Architecture: Modules Assembled Specially to Conserve

Authors: Arshleen Kaur, Sarang Barbarwar, Madhusudan Hamirwasia


Sustainable architecture is going to be the soul of construction in the near future, with building material as a vital link connecting sustainability to construction. The priority in Architecture has shifted from having a lesser negative footprint to having a positive footprint on Earth. The design has to be eco-centric as well as anthro-centric so as to attain its true purpose. Brick holds the same importance like a cell holds in one’s body. The study focuses on this basic building block with an experimental material and technique known as Module Assembled Specially to Conserve (MASC). The study explores the usage and construction of these modules in the construction of buildings. It also shows the impact assessment of the modules on the environment and its significance in reducing the carbon footprint of the construction industry. The aspects like cost-effectiveness, ease of working and reusability of MASC have been studied as well.

Keywords: anthro-centric, carbon footprint, eco-centric, sustainable

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3529 Influence of Reinforcement Stiffness on the Performance of Back-to-Back Reinforced Earth Wall upon Rainwater Infiltration

Authors: Gopika Rajagopal, Sudheesh Thiyyakkandi


Back-to-back reinforced earth (RE) walls are extensively used in these days as bridge abutments and highway ramps, owing to their cost efficiency and ease of construction. High quality select fill is the most suitable backfill material due to its excellent engineering properties and constructability. However, industries are compelled to use low quality, locally available soil because of its ample availability on site. However, several failure cases of such walls are reported, especially subsequent to rainfall events. The stiffness of reinforcement is one of the major factors affecting the performance of RE walls. The present study focused on analyzing the effect of reinforcement stiffness on the performance of complete select fill, complete marginal fill, and hybrid-fill (i.e., combination of select and marginal fills) back-to-back RE walls, immediately after construction and upon rainwater infiltration through finite element modelling. A constant width to height (W/H) ratio of 3 and height (H) of 6 m was considered for the numerical analysis and the stiffness of reinforcement layers was varied from 500 kN/m to 10000 kN/m. Results showed that reinforcement stiffness had a noticeable influence on the response of RE wall, subsequent to construction as well as rainwater infiltration. Facing displacement was found to decrease and maximum reinforcement tension and factor of safety were observed to increase with increasing the stiffness of reinforcement. However, beyond a stiffness of 5000 kN/m, no significant reduction in facing displacement was observed. The behavior of fully marginal fill wall considered in this study was found to be reasonable even after rainwater infiltration when the high stiffness reinforcement layers are used.

Keywords: back-to-back reinforced earth wall, finite element modelling, rainwater infiltration, reinforcement stiffness

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3528 Separation of Rare-Earth Metals from E-Wastes

Authors: Gulsara Akanova, Akmaral Ismailova, Duisek Kamysbayev


The separation of rare earth metals (REM) from a neodymium magnet has been widely studied in the last year. The waste of computer hard disk contains 25.41 % neodymium, 64.09 % iron, and <<1 % boron. To further the separation of rare-earth metals, the magnet dissolved in open and closed systems with nitric acid. In the closed system, the magnet was dissolved in a microwave sample preparation system at different temperatures and pressures and the dissolution process lasted 1 hour. In the open system, the acid dissolution of the magnet was conducted at room temperature and the process lasted 30-40 minutes. To remove the iron in the magnet, oxalic acid was used and precipitated as oxalates under both conditions. For separation of rare earth metals (Nd, Pr and Dy) from magnet waste is used sorption method.

Keywords: dissolution of the magnet, Neodymium magnet, rare earth metals, separation, Sorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
3527 Removal of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solutions with a Treated Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: M. Mana, M. S. Ouali, L. C. de Menorval


A spent bleaching earth from an edible oil refinery has been treated by impregnation with a normal sodium hydroxide solution followed by mild thermal treatment (100°C). The obtained material (TSBE) was washed, dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, SEM, BET, and thermal analysis. The clay structure was not apparently affected by the treatment and the impregnated organic matter was quantitatively removed. We have investigated the comparative sorption of safranine and methylene blue on this material, the spent bleaching earth (SBE) and the virgin bleaching earth (VBE). The kinetic results fit the pseudo second order kinetic model and the Weber & Morris, intra-particle diffusion model. The pH had no effect on the sorption efficiency. The sorption isotherms followed the Langmuir model for various sorbent concentrations with good values of determination coefficient. A linear relationship was found between the calculated maximum removal capacity and the solid/solution ratio. A comparison between the results obtained with this material and those of the literature highlighted the low cost and the good removal capacity of the treated spent bleaching earth.

Keywords: basic dyes, isotherms, sorption, spent bleaching earth

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
3526 Effect of Moisture Content Compaction in the Geometry Definition of Earth Dams

Authors: Julian B. García, Virginie Q. R. Pinto, André P. Assis


This paper presents numerical flow and slope stability simulations in three typical sections of earth dams built in tropical regions, two homogeneous with different slope inclinations, and the other one heterogeneous with impermeable core. The geotechnical material parameters used in this work were obtained from a lab testing of physical characterization, compaction, consolidation, variable load permeability and saturated triaxial type CD for compacted soil samples with standard proctor energy at optimum moisture content (23%), optimum moisture content + 2% and optimum moisture content +5%. The objective is to analyze the general behavior of earth dams built in rainy regions where optimum moisture is exceeded. The factor of safety is satisfactory for the three sections compacted in all moisture content during the stages of operation and end of construction. On The other hand, the rapid drawdown condition is the critical phase for homogeneus dams configuration, the factor of safety obtained were unsatisfactory. In general, the heterogeneous dam behavior is more efficient due to the fact that the slopes are made up of gravel, which favors the dissipation of pore pressures during the rapid drawdown. For the critical phase, the slopes should have lower inclinations of the upstream and downstream slopes to guarantee stability, although it increases the costs.

Keywords: earth dams, flow, moisture content, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
3525 Geopolymer Stabilization of Earth Building Material for Construction 3D Printing

Authors: Timur Mukhametkaliyev


The earthen material possesses low compression strength, and it is highly sensitive to the water content. Different binders can be added (Portland cement or lime) to improve the durability and the mechanical characteristics of earthen material, but the production of these binders has high embodied energy and results in an increase in world CO₂ emission. Geopolymers are binders which can be synthesized at low temperature in alkaline solutions from raw materials consisting of amorphous aluminosilicates. Geopolymers are an attractive substitution of Portland cement and can be used as an excellent stabilization for earthen material. In this study, earthen material stabilized with geopolymer binder for use in construction 3D printing was developed. Construction 3D printing offers freedom of design, waste minimisation, customisation, reduced labour, and automation. For successful 3D printing, the properties of used material are the most important aspects because they require adaptability for extrusion and controlled time of hardening for the binder.

Keywords: 3D printing, building construction, geopolymer, architecture

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3524 A Review on the Necessities of Green Building in Bangladesh and Its Construction Process

Authors: Syeda Afsana Azad


Climate change, due to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has been recognized as one of the biggest threats to the present world. The condition of the earth is getting worse day by day due to climate change. Bangladesh is considered to be one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to large population, sharp urbanization, etc. Construction of green building is a very good solution to reduce the greenhouse effect. Green building technology refers to that kind of structures which are environmentally friendly and resource-efficient throughout a building’s service life. This technology can provide at least 50% energy saving opportunity to the nation. The necessity of the construction of structures in an environment-friendly way is increasing now. This study shows the scenario of rapid population growth, urbanization, necessity of green building in Bangladesh and also discusses the construction process of green building. As the present climate condition of Bangladesh is not friendly, construction of green building is very much needed. To battle climate change, it is mandatory to construct green building.

Keywords: Bangladesh, climate change, green building, green house effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
3523 Programmable Shields in Space

Authors: Tapas Kumar Sinha, Joseph Mathew


At the moment earth is in grave danger due to threats of global warming. The temperature of the earth has risen by almost 20C. Glaciers in the Arctic have started to melt. It would be foolhardy to think that this is a small effect and in time it would go away. Global warming is caused by a number of factors. However, one sure and simple way to totally eliminate this problem is to put programmable shields in space. Just as an umbrella blocks sunlight, a programmable shield in space will block sun rays from reaching the earth as in a solar eclipse and cause cooling in the penumbral region just as it happens during an eclipse.

Keywords: glaciers, green house, global warming space, satellites

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
3522 Flotation of Rare Earth Oxides from Iron-Oxide Silicate Rich Tailings Using Fatty Acids

Authors: George B. Abaka-Wood, Massimiliano Zanin, Jonas Addai-Mensah, William Skinner


The versatility of froth flotation has made it vital in the beneficiation of rare earth elements minerals from either high or low-grade ores. There has been a significant increase in the quantity of iron oxide silicate-rich tailings generated from the extraction of primary commodities such as copper and gold in Australia, which have been identified to contain very low-grade rare earth oxides (≤ 1%). There is a vast knowledge gap in the beneficiation of rare earth oxides from such tailings. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using fatty acids as collectors for the flotation recovery and upgrade of rare earth oxides from selected iron-oxide silicate-rich tailings. Two forms of fatty acid collectors (oleic acid and sodium oleate) were tested in this investigation. Flotation tests were carried out using a 1.2 L Denver D-12 cell. The effects of pulp pH, fatty acid dosage, particle size distribution (-150 +75 µm, -75 +38 µm and -38 µm) and conventional depressants (sodium silicate and starch) dosage on flotation recovery of rare earth oxides were investigated. A comparison of the flotation results indicated that sodium oleate was the more efficient fatty acid for rare earth oxides flotation at all the pulp pH investigated. The flotation performance was found to be particle size-dependent. Both sodium silicate and starch were unselective in decreasing the recovery of iron oxides and silicate minerals, respectively with the corresponding decrease in rare earth oxides recovery. Generally, iron oxides and silicate minerals formed the substantial fraction of the flotation concentrates obtained, both in the absence and presence of depressants, resulting in a generally low rare earth oxides upgrade, even though rare earth oxides recoveries were high. The flotation tests carried out on the tailings sample suggest the feasibility of rare earth oxides recovery using fatty acids, although particle size distribution and minerals liberation are key limiting factors in achieving selective rare earth oxides upgrade.

Keywords: depressants, flotation, oleic acid, sodium oleate

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
3521 Comparison of Data Reduction Algorithms for Image-Based Point Cloud Derived Digital Terrain Models

Authors: M. Uysal, M. Yilmaz, I. Tiryakioğlu


Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a digital numerical representation of the Earth's surface. DTMs have been applied to a diverse field of tasks, such as urban planning, military, glacier mapping, disaster management. In the expression of the Earth' surface as a mathematical model, an infinite number of point measurements are needed. Because of the impossibility of this case, the points at regular intervals are measured to characterize the Earth's surface and DTM of the Earth is generated. Hitherto, the classical measurement techniques and photogrammetry method have widespread use in the construction of DTM. At present, RADAR, LiDAR, and stereo satellite images are also used for the construction of DTM. In recent years, especially because of its superiorities, Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has an increased use in DTM applications. A 3D point cloud is created with LiDAR technology by obtaining numerous point data. However recently, by the development in image mapping methods, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetric data acquisition has increased DTM generation from image-based point cloud. The accuracy of the DTM depends on various factors such as data collection method, the distribution of elevation points, the point density, properties of the surface and interpolation methods. In this study, the random data reduction method is compared for DTMs generated from image based point cloud data. The original image based point cloud data set (100%) is reduced to a series of subsets by using random algorithm, representing the 75, 50, 25 and 5% of the original image based point cloud data set. Over the ANS campus of Afyon Kocatepe University as the test area, DTM constructed from the original image based point cloud data set is compared with DTMs interpolated from reduced data sets by Kriging interpolation method. The results show that the random data reduction method can be used to reduce the image based point cloud datasets to 50% density level while still maintaining the quality of DTM.

Keywords: DTM, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), uniform, random, kriging

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3520 Rare Earth Element (REE) Geochemistry of Tepeköy Sandstones (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

Authors: Mehmet Yavuz Hüseyinca, Şuayip Küpeli


Sandstones from Upper Eocene - Oligocene Tepeköy formation (Member of Mezgit Group) that exposed on the eastern edge of Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents. Average concentrations of ΣREE, ΣLREE (Total light rare earth elements) and ΣHREE (Total heavy rare earth elements) were determined as 31.37, 26.47 and 4.55 ppm respectively. These values are lower than UCC (Upper continental crust) which indicates grain size and/or CaO dilution effect. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by the average ratios of (La/Yb)cn = 6.20, (La/Sm)cn = 4.06, (Gd/Lu)cn = 1.10, Eu/Eu* = 0.99 and Ce/Ce* = 0.94. Lower values of ΣLREE/ΣHREE (Average 5.97) and (La/Yb)cn suggest lower fractionation of overall REE. Moreover (La/Sm)cn and (Gd/Lu)cn ratios define less inclined LREE and almost flat HREE pattern when compared with UCC. Almost no Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) emphasizes that REE were originated from terrigenous material. Also depleted LREE and no Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*) suggest an undifferentiated mafic provenance for the sandstones.

Keywords: central Anatolia, provenance, rare earth elements, REE, Tepeköy sandstone

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3519 Seismic Active Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls with Reinforced Backfill

Authors: Jagdish Prasad Sahoo


The increase in active earth pressure during the event of an earthquake results sliding, overturning and tilting of earth retaining structures. In order to improve upon the stability of structures, the soil mass is often reinforced with various types of reinforcements such as metal strips, geotextiles, and geogrids etc. The stresses generated in the soil mass are transferred to the reinforcements through the interface friction between the earth and the reinforcement, which in turn reduces the lateral earth pressure on the retaining walls. Hence, the evaluation of earth pressure in the presence of seismic forces with an inclusion of reinforcements is important for the design retaining walls in the seismically active zones. In the present analysis, the effect of reinforcing horizontal layers of reinforcements in the form of sheets (Geotextiles and Geogrids) in sand used as backfill, on reducing the active earth pressure due to earthquake body forces has been studied. For carrying out the analysis, pseudo-static approach has been adopted by employing upper bound theorem of limit analysis in combination with finite elements and linear optimization. The computations have been performed with and out reinforcements for different internal friction angle of sand varying from 30 ° to 45 °. The effectiveness of the reinforcement in reducing the active earth pressure on the retaining walls is examined in terms of active earth pressure coefficient for presenting the solutions in a non-dimensional form. The active earth pressure coefficient is expressed as functions of internal friction angle of sand, interface friction angle between sand and reinforcement, soil-wall interface roughness conditions, and coefficient of horizontal seismic acceleration. It has been found that (i) there always exists a certain optimum depth of the reinforcement layers corresponding to which the value of active earth pressure coefficient becomes always the minimum, and (ii) the active earth pressure coefficient decreases significantly with an increase in length of reinforcements only up to a certain length beyond which a further increase in length hardly causes any reduction in the values active earth pressure. The optimum depth of the reinforcement layers and the required length of reinforcements corresponding to the optimum depth of reinforcements have been established. The numerical results developed in this analysis are expected to be useful for purpose of design of retaining walls.

Keywords: active, finite elements, limit analysis, presudo-static, reinforcement

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