Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 421

Search results for: stone dust

421 Partial Replacement of Lateritic Soil with Crushed Rock Sand (Stone Dust) in Compressed Earth Brick Production

Authors: A. M. Jungudo, M. A. Lasan

Abstract:

Affordable housing has long been one of the basic necessities of life to man. The ever rising prices of building materials are one of the major causes of housing shortage in many developing countries. Breaching the gap of housing needs in developing countries like Nigeria is an awaiting task longing for attention. This is due to lack of research in the development of local materials that will suit the troubled economies of these countries. The use of earth material to meet the housing needs is a sustainable option and its material is freely available universally. However, people are doubtful of using the earth material due to its modest outlook and uncertain durability. This research aims at enhancing the durability of Compressed Earth Bricks (CEBs) using stone dust as a stabilizer. The result indicates that partial replacement of lateritic soil with stone dust at 30% improves its compressive strength along with abrasive resistance.

Keywords: earth construction, durability, stone dust, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
420 Cleaner Technology for Stone Crushers

Authors: S. M. Ahuja

Abstract:

There are about 12000 stone crusher units in India and are located in clusters around urban areas to the stone quarries. These crushers create lot of fugitive dust emissions and noise pollution which is a major health hazard for the people working in the crushers and also living in its vicinity. Ambient air monitoring was carried out near various stone crushers and it has been observed that fugitive emission varied from 300 to 8000 mg/Nm3. A number of stone crushers were thoroughly studied and their existing pollution control devices were examined. Limitations in the existing technology were also studied. A technology consisting of minimal effective spray nozzles to reduce the emissions at source followed by a containment cum control system having modular cyclones as air pollution control device has been conceived. Besides preliminary energy audit has also been carried out in some of the stone crushers which indicates substantial potential for energy saving.

Keywords: stone crushers, spray nozzles, energy audit

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
419 Creep Compliance Characteristics of Cement Dust Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

Authors: Ayman Othman, Tallat Abd el Wahed

Abstract:

The current research is directed towards studying the creep compliance characteristics of asphalt concrete mixtures modified with cement dust. This study can aid in assessing the permanent deformation potential of asphalt concrete mixtures. Cement dust was added to the mixture as mineral filler and compared with regular lime stone filler. A power law model was used to characterize the creep compliance behavior of the studied mixtures. Creep testing results have revealed that the creep compliance power law parameters have a strong relationship with mixture type. Testing results of the studied mixtures, as indicated by the creep compliance parameters revealed an enhancement in the creep resistance, Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength and compressive strength for cement dust mixtures as compared to mixtures with traditional lime stone filler. It is concluded that cement dust can be successfully used to decrease the potential of asphalt concrete mixture to permanent deformation and improve its mechanical properties. This is in addition to the environmental benefits that can be gained when using cement dust in asphalt paving technology.

Keywords: cement dust, asphalt concrete mixtures, creep compliance, Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
418 Influence of Pulverized Granite on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete

Authors: Kwabena A. Boakye, Eugene Atiemo, Trinity A. Tagbor, Delali Adjei

Abstract:

The use of mineral admixtures such as metakaolin, GGBS, fly ash, etc., in concrete is a common practice in the world. However, the only admixture available for use in the Ghanaian construction industry is calcined clay pozzolan. This research, therefore, studies the alternate use of granite dust, a by-product from stone quarrying, as a mineral admixture in concrete. Granite dust, which is usually damped as waste or as an erosion control material, was collected and pulverized to about 75µm. Some physical, chemical, and mineralogical tests were conducted on the granite dust. 5%-25% ordinary Portland cement of Class 42.5N was replaced with granite dust which was used as the main binder in the preparation of 150mm×150mm×150mm concrete cubes according to methods prescribed by BS EN 12390-2:2000. Properties such as workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption, and durability were determined. Compressive and flexural strength results indicate that granite dust could be used to replace ordinary Portland cement up to an optimum of 15% to achieve C25. Water permeability increased as the granite dust admixture content increased from 5% - 25%. Durability studies after 90 days proved that even though strength decreased as granite dust content increased, the concrete containing granite dust had better resistance to sulphate attack comparable to the reference cement. Pulverized granite can be used to partially replace ordinary Portland cement in concrete.

Keywords: admixture, granite dust, permeability, pozzolans

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
417 Effects of Charge Fluctuating Positive Dust on Linear Dust-Acoustic Waves

Authors: Sanjit Kumar Paul, A. A. Mamun, M. R. Amin

Abstract:

The Linear propagation of the dust-acoustic wave in a dusty plasma consisting of Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions and mobile charge fluctuating positive dust grains has been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that the dust charge fluctuation is a source of dissipation and its responsible for the formation of the dust-acoustic waves in such a dusty plasma. The basic features of such dust-acoustic waves have been identified. It has been proposed to design a new laboratory experiment which will be able to identify the basic features of the dust-acoustic waves predicted in this theoretical investigation.

Keywords: dust acoustic waves, dusty plasma, Boltzmann distributed electrons, charge fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 516
416 Physical Characterization of Indoor Dust Particles Using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Fatima S. Mohammed, Derrick Crump

Abstract:

Harmattan, a dusty weather condition characterized by thick smog-like suspended particles and dust storm are the peculiar events that happen during ¾ of the year in the Sahelian regions including Damaturu Town, Nigeria), resulting in heavy dust deposits especially indoors. The inhabitants of the Damaturu community are always inflicted with different ailments; respiratory tract infections, asthma, gastrointestinal infections and different ailments associated with the dusty nature of the immediate environment. This brought the need to investigate the nature of the settled indoor dust. Vacuum cleaner bag dust was collected from indoor of some Nigerian and UK homes, as well as outdoors including during seasonal dusty weather event (Harmattan and Storm dust). The dust was sieved, and the (150 µm size) particles were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physical characterization of the settled dust samples has revealed the various shapes and sizes, and elemental composition of the dust samples is indicating that some of the dust fractions were the respirable fractions and also the dust contained PM10 to PM 2.5 fractions with possible health effects. The elemental compositions were indicative of the diverse nature of the dust particle sources, which showed dust as a complex matrix.

Keywords: indoor dust, Harmattan dust, SEM, health effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
415 Fire Safety Engineering of Wood Dust Layer or Cloud

Authors: Marzena Półka, Bożena Kukfisz

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of dust explosion hazards in the process industries. It includes selected testing method of dust explosibility and presentation two of them according to experimental standards used by Department of Combustion and Fire Theory in The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw. In the article are presented values of maximum acceptable surface temperature (MAST) of machines operating in the presence of dust cloud and chosen dust layer with thickness of 5 and 12,5mm. The comparative analysis, points to the conclusion that the value of the minimum ignition temperature of the layer (MITL) and the minimum ignition temperature of dust cloud (MTCD) depends on the granularity of the substance. Increasing the thickness of the dust layer reduces minimum ignition temperature of dust layer. Increasing the thickness of dust at the same time extends the flameless combustion and delays the ignition.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, industrial hazards, minimum ignition temperature, wood dust

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
414 Studies on Design of Cyclone Separator with Tri-Chambered Filter Unit for Dust Removal in Rice Mills

Authors: T. K. Chandrashekar, R. Harish Kumar, T. B. Prasad, C. R. Rajashekhar

Abstract:

Cyclone separators are normally used for dust collection in rice mills for a long time. However, their dust collection efficiency is lower and is influenced by factors like geometry, exit pipe dimensions and length, humidity, and temperature at dust generation place. The design of cyclone has been slightly altered, and the new design has proven to be successful in collecting the dust particles of size up to 10 microns, the major modification was to change the height of exit pipe of the cyclone chamber to have optimum dust collection. The cyclone is coupled with a tri-chambered filter unit with three geo text materials filters of different mesh size to capture the dust less than 10 micron.

Keywords: cyclone-separator, rice mill, tri chambered filter, dust removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
413 Performance Evaluation of Cement Mortar with Crushed Stone Dust as Fine Aggregates

Authors: Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

The present work is based on application of cement mortar with natural sand and discontinuous steel fiber through which bending behavior of skinny beam was evaluated. This research is to study the effects of combining reinforcing steel meshes (continuous steel reinforcement) with discontinuous fibers as reinforcement in skinny walled Portland cement based cement mortar with crushed stone dust as a fine aggregate. The term ‘skinny’ means thickness of the beams is less than 25 mm. The main idea behind this combination is to satisfy the ultimate strength limit state through the steel mesh reinforcement (as a main reinforcement) and to control the cracking under service loads through fiber (Recron 3s) reinforcement (as secondary reinforcement). The main object of this study is to carry out the bending behavior of mortar reinforced thin beam with only one layer of steel mesh (with various transfer wire spacing) and with a recron 3s (Reliance) fifers. The wide experimental program with bending tests is undertaken. The following variables are investigated: (a) the reference mesh size - 25.4 x 25.4 mm and 50.8 x 50.8 mm; (b) the transverse wire spacing - 25.4 mm, 50.8 mm, and no transverse wires; (c) the type of fibers – Reliance (Recron 3s, 6mm length); and (d) the fiber volume fraction – 0.1% and 0.25%. Some of the main conclusions are: (a) the use of recron 3s fibers leads to a little better overall performance than that with no fiber; (b) an increase in equivalent stress is observed when 0.1% RF,0.25% R Fibers are used; (c) when 25.4 x 50.8 size steel mesh is used, no noticeable change in behavior is observed in comparison to specimens without fibers; and (d) for no fibers 0.1% and o.1% RF the transverse wire spacing has some little effect on the equivalent stress for RF fibers, the transverse wire has no influence but the equivalent stress are increased.

Keywords: cement mortar, crushed stone dust, fibre, steel mesh

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
412 Particle Dust Layer Density and the Optical Wavelength Absorption Relationship in Photovoltaic Module

Authors: M. Mesrouk, A. Hadj Arab

Abstract:

This work allows highlight the effect of dust on the absorption of the optical spectrum on the photovoltaic module, the effect of the particles dust presence on the photovoltaic modules have been a microscopic scale studied with COMSOL Multi-physic software simulation. In this paper, we have supposed the dust layer as a diffraction network repetitive optical structure characterized by the spacing between particle which represented by 'd' and the simulated structure (air-dust particle-glass). In this study we can observe the relationship between the wavelength and the particle spacing, the simulation shows us that the maximum wavelength transmission value corresponding, λ0 = 400nm, which represent the spacing value between the particles dust, d = 400 nm. In fact, we can observe that while increase dust layer density the wavelength transmission value decrease, there is a relationship between the density and wavelength value which can be absorbed in a dusty photovoltaic panel.

Keywords: dust effect, photovoltaic module, spectral absorption, wavelength transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
411 Changes in Serum Neopterin in Workers Exposed to Different Mineral Dust

Authors: Gospodinka Prakova, Pavlina Gidikova, Gergana Sandeva, Kamelia Haracherova, Emil Slavov

Abstract:

Neopterin was demonstrated to be a sensitive marker of cell-mediated immune reactions which plays a key role in the interaction of monocyte / macrophage activation. The purpose of this work was to investigate changes in serum neopterin in workers exposed to different composition of mineral dust. Material and Methods: Serum neopterin was studied in 193 exposed workers, divided into three groups, depending on the mineral dust and content of the quartz in the respirable fraction. The I-st group-coal dust containing less than 2% free crystalline silica (n=44), II-nd group-coal dust containing over 2% free crystalline silica (n=94) and the III-rd group-mixed dust with corundum and carborundum (n=55). The control group was composed of 21 individuals without exposure to dust. Serum neopterin was investigated by Elisa method in ng/ml according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Results and Discussion: It was found significantly higher level of serum neopterin in exposed workers of mineral dust (2,10 ± 0,62 ng / ml), compared with that of the control group (1,10 ± 0,85 ng/ml; p < 0,05). Neopterin levels in workers exposed to coal dust (1,87 ± 0,42 ng / ml-I-st and 3,32 ± 0,77 ng / ml-II-nd group) were significantly higher compared with those exposed to a mixed dust (1,31±0,68 mg / ml-third) and control group (p < 0,05). No significant difference in serum neopterin when exposed to a mixed dust composed of corundum and carborundum (III-rd) and a control group. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate activates a cell-mediated immune response when exposed to a mineral dust. The level of that activation depends mainly on the composition of the dust and is significantly highest in workers exposed to coal dust.

Keywords: mineral dust, neopterin, occupational exposure, respirable crystalline silica

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
410 The Effect of Street Dust on Urban Environment

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Abdel Hameed A. A. Awad, Said Munir, Atif M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy, Abdulaziz R. Seroji

Abstract:

Street dust has been knoweldged as an important source of air pollution. It does not remain deposited in a place for long, as it is easily resuspended back into the atmosphere. Street dust is a complex mixture derived from different sources: Deposited dust, traffic, tire, and brake wear, construction and demolition processes. The present study aims to evaluate the elementals ”iron, calcium, lead, cadmium, nickel, silicon, and selenium” and microbial “bacteria and fungi” contents associated street dust at the holy mosque areas. The street dust was collected by sweeping an arera~1m2 along the both sides of the road. The particles with diameter ≤ 1.7 µm constitued the highest percentages of the total particulate ≤45 µm. Moreover, The crustal species: iron and calcium were found in the highest concentrations, and proof that demolition and constricution were the main source of street dust. Also, the low biodiversity of microorganisms is attributed to severe weather conditions and characteristics of the arid environment.

Keywords: dust, microbial, environment, street

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
409 Cosmic Dust as Dark Matter

Authors: Thomas Prevenslik

Abstract:

Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) experiments suggesting dark matter does not exist are consistent with the argument that the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift measurements giving the higher than expected galaxy velocities are corrected for the redshift in cosmic dust. Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all velocity measurements in astronomy based on redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., an accelerating Universe expansion need not exist if data showing supernovae brighter than expected based on the redshift/distance relation is corrected for the redshift in dust. Extensions of redshift corrections for cosmic dust to other historical astronomical observations are briefly discussed.

Keywords: alternative theories, cosmic dust redshift, doppler effect, quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
408 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
407 Steel Dust as a Coating Agent for Iron Ore Pellets at Ironmaking

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. Hanafy, H. Al-Tassan

Abstract:

Cluster formation is an essential phenomenon during direct reduction processes at shaft furnaces. Decreasing the reducing temperature to avoid this problem can cause a significant drop in throughput. In order to prevent sticking of pellets, a coating material basically inactive under the reducing conditions prevailing in the shaft furnace, should be applied to cover the outer layer of the pellets. In the present work, steel dust is used as coating material for iron ore pellets to explore dust coating effectiveness and determines the best coating conditions. Steel dust coating is applied for iron ore pellets in various concentrations. Dust slurry concentrations of 5.0-30% were used to have a coated steel dust amount of 1.0-5.0 kg per ton iron ore. Coated pellets with various concentrations were reduced isothermally in weight loss technique with simulated gas mixture to the composition of reducing gases at shaft furnaces. The influences of various coating conditions on the reduction behavior and the morphology were studied. The optimum reduced samples were comparatively applied for sticking index measurement. It was found that the optimized steel dust coating condition that achieve higher reducibility with lower sticking index was 30% steel dust slurry concentration with 3.0 kg steel dust/ton ore.

Keywords: reduction, ironmaking, steel dust, coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
406 Dust Holding Capacity of Some Selected Road Side Tree Species

Authors: Jitin Rahul, Manish Kumar Jain

Abstract:

Dust pollution refers to the various locations, activities, or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere. The sources of dust can be classified into two major categories anthropogenic sources (man-made sources) and natural sources. Dust kicked up by heavy vehicles (Bus, Truck, Loaders, Tankers, car etc.) travelling on highways may make up approximately 33-40% of air pollution. Plants naturally cleanse the atmosphere by absorbing gases and particulate matter plants (Leaves). Plants are very good pollution indicator and also very good for dust capturing (Dust controlling). Many types tree species like Azadirachta indica A. juss, Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntz., Ficus bengalensis (Linn)., Pterocarpus marspium (Roxb.), Terminalia arjuna (Roxb, exDC.), Dalbergia sissoo roxb., and Ficus religiosa (Linn.) generally occur in roadside. These selected tree spiciness can control the dust pollution or dust capturing. It is well known that plants absorb particulate pollutants and help in dust controlling. Some tree species like (Ficus bengalensis, Ficus religiosa and Azadirachta indica) are very effective and natural means for controlling air pollution.

Keywords: dust, pollution, road, tree species

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
405 Evaluation of Stone Column Behavior Strengthened Circular Raft Footing under Static Load

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employing to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
404 Effect of Saturation and Deformation Rate on Split Tensile Strength for Various Sedimentary Rocks

Authors: D. K. Soni

Abstract:

A study of engineering properties of stones, i.e. compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, density, hardness were carried out to explore the possibility of optimum utilization of stone. The laboratory test results on equally dimensioned discs of the stone show a considerable variation in computed split tensile strength with varied rates of deformation. Hence, the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of a sand stone and lime stone under wet and dry conditions has been studied experimentally using the split tensile strength test technique. It has been observed that the tensile strength of these stone is very much dependent on the rate of deformation particularly in a dry state. On saturation the value of split tensile strength reduced considerably depending upon the structure of rock and amount of water absorption.

Keywords: sedimentary rocks, split tensile test, deformation rate, saturation rate, sand stone, lime stone

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
403 Numerical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Encased Stone Columns under Laterally Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

Out of all methods for ground improvement, stone column became more popular these days due to its simple construction and economic consideration. Installation of stone column especially in loose fine graded soil causes increasing in load bearing capacity and settlement reduction. Encased granular stone columns (EGCs) are commonly subjected to vertical load. However, they may also be subjected to significant amount of shear loading. In this study, three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses were conducted to estimate the shear load capacity of EGCs in sandy soil. Two types of different cases, stone column and geosynthetic encased stone column were studied at different normal pressures varying from 15 kPa to 75 kPa. Also, the effect of diameter in two cases was considered. A close agreement between the experimental and numerical curves of shear stress - horizontal displacement trend line is observed. The obtained result showed that, by increasing the normal pressure and diameter of stone column, higher shear strength is mobilized by soil; however, in the case of encased stone column, increasing the diameter had more dominated effect in mobilized shear strength.

Keywords: encased stone column, laterally load, ordinary stone column, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
402 Performance of Structural Concrete Containing Marble Dust as a Partial Replacement for River Sand

Authors: Ravande Kishore

Abstract:

The paper present the results of experimental investigation carried out to understand the mechanical properties of concrete containing marble dust. Two grades of concrete viz. M25 and M35 have been considered for investigation. For each grade of concrete five replacement percentages of sand viz. 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by marble dust have been considered. In all, 12 concrete mix cases including two control concrete mixtures have been studied to understand the key properties such as Compressive strength, Modulus of elasticity, Modulus of rupture and Split tensile strength. Development of Compressive strength is also investigated. In general, the results of investigation indicated improved performance of concrete mixture containing marble dust. About 21% increase in Compressive strength is noticed for concrete mixtures containing 20% marble dust and 80% river sand. An overall assessment of investigation results pointed towards high potential for marble dust as alternative construction material coming from waste generated in marble industry.

Keywords: construction material, partial replacement, marble dust, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
401 Numerical Modeling of Air Pollution with PM-Particles and Dust

Authors: N. Gigauri, A. Surmava, L. Intskirveli, V. Kukhalashvili, S. Mdivani

Abstract:

The subject of our study is atmospheric air pollution with numerical modeling. In the presented article, as the object of research, there is chosen city Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, with a population of one and a half million and a difficult terrain. The main source of pollution in Tbilisi is currently vehicles and construction dust. The concentrations of dust and PM (Particulate Matter) were determined in the air of Tbilisi and in its vicinity. There are estimated their monthly maximum, minimum, and average concentrations. Processes of dust propagation in the atmosphere of the city and its surrounding territory are modelled using a 3D regional model of atmospheric processes and an admixture transfer-diffusion equation. There were taken figures of distribution of the polluted cloud and dust concentrations in different areas of the city at different heights and at different time intervals with the background stationary westward and eastward wind. It is accepted that the difficult terrain and mountain-bar circulation affect the deformation of the cloud and its spread, there are determined time periods when the dust concentration in the city is greater than MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration, MAC=0.5 mg/m³).

Keywords: air pollution, dust, numerical modeling, PM-particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
400 Microstructures and Chemical Compositions of Quarry Dust As Alternative Building Material in Malaysia

Authors: Abdul Murad Zainal Abidin, Tuan Suhaimi Salleh, Siti Nor Azila Khalid, Noryati Mustapa

Abstract:

Quarry dust is a quarry end product from rock crushing processes, which is a concentrated material used as an alternative to fine aggregates for concreting purposes. In quarrying activities, the rocks are crushed into aggregates of varying sizes, from 75mm until less than 4.5 mm, the size of which is categorized as quarry dust. The quarry dust is usually considered as waste and not utilized as a recycled aggregate product. The dumping of the quarry dust at the quarry plant poses the risk of environmental pollution and health hazard. Therefore, the research is an attempt to identify the potential of quarry dust as an alternative building material that would reduce the materials and construction costs, as well as contribute effort in mitigating depletion of natural resources. The objectives are to conduct material characterization and evaluate the properties of fresh and hardened engineering brick with quarry dust mix proportion. The microstructures of quarry dust and the bricks were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the results suggest that the shape and surface texture of quarry dust is a combination of hard and angular formation. The chemical composition of the quarry dust was also evaluated using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and compared against sand and concrete. The quarry dust was found to have a higher presence of alumina (Al₂O₃), indicating the possibility of an early strength effect for brick. They are utilizing quarry dust waste as replacement material has the potential of conserving non-renewable resources as well as providing a viable alternative to disposal of current quarry waste.

Keywords: building materials, cement replacement, quarry microstructure, quarry product, sustainable materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
399 Air Classification of Dust from Steel Converter Secondary De-dusting for Zinc Enrichment

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer

Abstract:

The off-gas from the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), where pig iron is converted into steel, is treated in the primary ventilation system. This system is in full operation only during oxygen-blowing when the BOF converter vessel is in a vertical position. When pig iron and scrap are charged into the BOF and when slag or steel are tapped, the vessel is tilted. The generated emissions during charging and tapping cannot be captured by the primary off-gas system. To capture these emissions, a secondary ventilation system is usually installed. The emissions are captured by a canopy hood installed just above the converter mouth in tilted position. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of Zn and other components on the particle size of BOF secondary ventilation dust. Because of the high temperature of the BOF process it can be expected that Zn will be enriched in the fine dust fractions. If Zn is enriched in the fine fractions, classification could be applied to split the dust into two size fractions with a different content of Zn. For this air classification experiments with dust from the secondary ventilation system of a BOF were performed. The results show that Zn and Pb are highly enriched in the finest dust fraction. For Cd, Cu and Sb the enrichment is less. In contrast, the non-volatile metals Al, Fe, Mn and Ti were depleted in the fine fractions. Thus, air classification could be considered for the treatment of dust from secondary BOF off-gas cleaning.

Keywords: air classification, converter dust, recycling, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
398 Study on the Protection and Transformation of Stone House Building in Shitang Town, Wenling, Zhejiang

Authors: Zhang Jiafeng

Abstract:

Stone houses, represented by Shitang town, Wenling town, Taizhou city, are very precious cultural relics in Zhejiang province and even in the whole country. The coastal residences in eastern Zhejiang with distinctive regional characteristics are completely different from the traditional residential styles in the inland areas of Zhejiang. However, with the aggravation of the conflict between the use function of traditional stone houses and the modern lifestyle, and the lack of effective protection, stone houses are disappearing in large numbers. Therefore, it is very important to protect and inherit the stone house building, and make effective and feasible development strategies. This paper will analyze the formation background, location selection, plane layout, architectural form, spatial organization, material application, and construction technology of the stone houses through literature research and field investigation. In addition, a series of feasibility studies are carried out on the protection and renovation of stone houses. The ultimate purpose is to attract people's attention and provide some reference for the protection, inheritance, development, and utilization of traditional houses in coastal areas.

Keywords: regional, stone house building, traditional houses, Wenling Shitang

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
397 Dust and Soling Accumulation Effect on Photovoltaic Systems in MENA Region

Authors: I. Muslih, A. Alkhalailah, A. Merdji

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Photovoltaic efficiency is highly affected by dust accumulation; the dust particles prevent direct solar radiation from reaching the panel surface; therefore a reduction in output power will occur. A study of dust and soiling accumulation effect on the output power of PV panels was conducted for different periods of time from May to October in three countries of the MENA region, Jordan, Egypt, and Algeria, under local weather conditions. This study leads to build a more realistic equation to estimate the power reduction as a function of time. This logarithmic function shows the high reduction in power in the first days with 10% reduction in output power compared to the reference system, where it reaches a steady state value after 60 days to reach a maximum value of 30%.

Keywords: dust effect, MENA, solar energy, PV system

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
396 Effects of Dust Storm Events on Tuberculosis Incidence Rate in Northwest of China

Authors: Yun Wang, Ruoyu Wang, Tuo Chen, Guangxiu Liu, Guodong Chen, Wei Zhang

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in China. China has the world's second largest tuberculosis epidemic (after India). Xinjiang almost has the highest annual attendance rate of TB in China, and the province is also famous because of its severe dust storms. The epidemic timing starts in February and ends in July, and the dust storm mainly distribute throughout the spring and early summer, which strongly indicate a close linkage between causative agent of TB and dust storm events. However, mechanisms responsible for the observed patterns are still not clearly indentified. By comparing the information on cases of TB from Centers for Disease Control of China annual reports with dust storm atmosphere datasets, we constructed the relationship between the large scale annual occurrence of TB in Xinjiang, a Northwest province of China, and dust storm occurrence. Regional atmospheric indexes of dust storm based on surface wind speed show a clear link between population dynamics of the disease and the climate disaster: the onset of epidemics and the dust storm defined by the atmospheric index share the same mean year. This study is the first that provides a clear demonstration of connections that exist between TB epidemics and dust storm events in China. The development of this study will undoubtedly help early warning for tuberculosis epidemic onset in China and help nationwide and international public health institutions and policy makers to better control TB disease in Norwest China.

Keywords: dust storm, tuberculosis, Xinjiang province, epidemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
395 Application of Artificial Neural Network in Initiating Cleaning Of Photovoltaic Solar Panels

Authors: Mohamed Mokhtar, Mostafa F. Shaaban

Abstract:

Among the challenges facing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), dust accumulation on solar panels is considered the most severe problem that faces the growth of solar power plants. The accumulation of dust on the solar panels significantly degrades output from these panels. Hence, solar PV panels have to be cleaned manually or using costly automated cleaning methods. This paper focuses on initiating cleaning actions when required to reduce maintenance costs. The cleaning actions are triggered only when the dust level exceeds a threshold value. The amount of dust accumulated on the PV panels is estimated using an artificial neural network (ANN). Experiments are conducted to collect the required data, which are used in the training of the ANN model. Then, this ANN model will be fed by the output power from solar panels, ambient temperature, and solar irradiance, and thus, it will be able to estimate the amount of dust accumulated on solar panels at these conditions. The model was tested on different case studies to confirm the accuracy of the developed model.

Keywords: machine learning, dust, PV panels, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
394 Dust Ion Acoustic Shock Waves in Dissipative Superthermal Plasmas

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

In this paper, the properties of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma, whose constituents are inertial ions, superthermal electrons, and stationary dust particles, are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dissipation is taken into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is shown that the basic features of DIA shock waves are significantly modified by the effects of electron superthermality and ion kinematic viscosity.

Keywords: reductive perturbation method, dust ion acoustic shock wave, superthermal electron, dissipative plasmas

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
393 Determinants of House Dust, Endotoxin, and β- (1→ 3)-D-Glucan in Homes of Turkish Children

Authors: Afsoun Nikravan, Parisa Babaei, Gulen Gullu

Abstract:

We aimed to study the association between house dust endotoxin, β-(1→3)-D-glucan, and asthma in a sample representative of the Turkish population. We analyzed data from 240 participants. The house dust was collected from the homes of 110 asthmatics and 130 control (without asthma) school-aged children (6-11 years old). House dust from the living room and from bedroom floors were analyzed for endotoxin and beta-glucan contents. House dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for β-(1→3)-D-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding potential determinants. We found geometric means 187.5 mg/m² for dust. According to statistical values, the endotoxin geometric mean was 13.86×103 EU/g for the control group and 6.16×103 EU/g for the asthma group. As a result, the amount of bacterial endotoxin was measured at a higher level in the homes of children without asthma. The geometric mean for beta-glucan was 46.52 µg/g and 44.39 µg/g for asthma and control groups, respectively. No associations between asthma and microbial agents were observed in Turkish children. High correlations (r > 0.75) were found between floor dust and endotoxin loads, while endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations were not correlated. The type of flooring (hard-surface or textile) was the strongest determinant for loads of floor dust and concentrations of endotoxin. Water damage and dampness at home were determinants of β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations. Endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations in Turkish house dust might lower than concentrations seen in other European countries.

Keywords: indoor air quality, asthma, microbial pollutants, case-control

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392 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Mahigir

Abstract:

Stone column technique has been successfully employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of foundations. A series of finite element numerical analyses of harmonic dynamic loading have been conducted on strengthened raft footing to study the effects of single and group stone columns on settlement of circular footings. The settlement of circular raft footing that improved by single and group of stone columns are studied under harmonic dynamic loading. This loading is caused by heavy machinery foundations. A detailed numerical investigation on behavior of single column and group of stone columns is carried out by varying parameters like weight of machinery, loading frequency and period. The result implies that presence of single and group of stone columns enhanced dynamic behavior of the footing so that the maximum and residual settlement of footing significantly decreased. 

Keywords: finite element analysis, harmonic loading, settlement, stone column

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