Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4162

Search results for: hospitality industry

4162 ICT Applications and Gender Participation on the Sustainability of Tourism and Hospitality Industry

Authors: Ayanfulu Yekini

Abstract:

The hotel and tourism industry remains male-dominated, particularly in the upper echelons of management and ICT remained underutilized. While there is a massive revolution in this trend across the globe, it appears much progress has not been made in our nation Nigeria. This paper aimed at evaluating the relevance of ICT and Gender Participation to Sustainability of Hospitality and Tourism Industry in Nigeria. The research study was conducted in tourism organizations, travel agents, hotels, restaurants, resorts, professionals in tourism, travel and hospitality industry within Nigeria. The respondents are from the tourism/hospitality industries employees and entrepreneurs only.

Keywords: ICT, hotel, gender participation, Nigeria, tourism

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4161 Examining the Effects of National Disaster on the Performance of Hospitality Industry in Korea

Authors: Kim Sang Hyuck, Y. Park Sung

Abstract:

The outbreak of national disasters stimulates the decrease of the both internal and domestic tourism demands, causing bad effects on the hospitality industry. The effective and efficient risk management regarding national disasters are being increasingly required from the hospitality industry practitioners and the tourism policymakers. To establish the effective and efficient risk management strategy on national disasters, the most essential prerequisite condition is the correct estimation of national disasters’ effects in terms of the size and duration of the damages occurred from national disaster on hospitality industry. More specifically, the national disasters are twofold: natural disaster and social disaster. In addition, the hospitality industry has consisted of several types of business, such as hotel, restaurant, travel agency, etc. As reasons of the above, it is important to consider how each type of national disasters differently influences on the performance of each type of hospitality industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is examining the effects of national disaster on hospitality industry in Korea based on the types of national disasters as well as the types of hospitality business. The monthly data was collected from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2016. The indexes of industrial production for each hospitality industry in Korea were used with the proxy variable for the performance of each hospitality industry. Two national disaster variables (natural disaster and social disaster) were treated as dummy variables. In addition, the exchange rate, industrial production index, and consumer price index were used as control variables in the research model. The impulse response analysis was used to examine the size and duration of the damages occurred from each type of national disaster on each type of hospitality industries. The results of this study show that the natural disaster and the social disaster differently influenced on each type of hospitality industry. More specifically, the performance of airline industry is negatively influenced by the natural disaster at the time of 3 months later from the incidence. However, the negative impacts of social disaster on airline industry occurred not significantly over the time periods. For the hotel industry, both natural disaster and social disaster negatively influence the performance of hotel industry at the time of 5 months and 6 months later, respectively. Also, the negative impact of natural disaster on the performance of restaurant industry occurred at the time of 5 months later, as well as for both 3 months and 6 months later for the social disaster. Finally, both natural disaster and social disaster negatively influence the performance of travel agency at the time of 3 months and 4 months later, respectively. In conclusion, the types of national disasters differently influence the performance of each type of hospitality industry in Korea. These results would provide an important information to establish the effective and efficient risk management strategy for the national disasters.

Keywords: impulse response analysis, Korea, national disaster, performance of hospitality industry

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4160 Green Hospitality Industry: An Experience Study with Game Theory in China

Authors: Min Wei

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The green hotel provides the products/services consistent with the full utilization of resources, protecting the ecological environment conducive to customers’ requirements and health. In order to better develop the green hospitality industry, this paper applies the game theory to analyze the intrinsic relationship and balanced interests among the stakeholders including government, hotels, and tourists during green hospitality development. Based on the hypothesis in game theory, this paper tries to construct a linkage mechanism in stakeholders, by which a theoretical basis for the interests’ balance can be realized. By using game theory and constructing a game model including tourists, hotels and government, this paper analyzes the relationship of the various stakeholders involved in the green hospitality development, and subsequently proposes the development model of green hospitality industry. On the one hand, this paper applies game theory to construct a green hotel development model and provides a theoretical basis for the interest balance of stakeholders based on theoretical perspective. On the other hand, the current development of green hospitality industry is still in initial phase, and the outcome of this research tries to guide tourists to form a green awareness and to establish the concept of green consumption for hotel development, so that green hotel products/services are provided. In addition, this paper provides a basis for decision making in the relevant government departments so that the interests of all stakeholders are promoted and cooperative game between stakeholders is established, for which the sustainable development of green hotels is achieved. The findings indicate that the process of achieving green hospitality industry development is to maximize the whole interests of stakeholders.

Keywords: green hospitality, game theory, stakeholders, development model

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4159 Activity-Based Costing in the Hospitality Industry: A Case Study in a Hotel

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Mohammad Ara

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to provide some empirical evidence about implementing Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the hospitality industry in Iran. For this purpose, we consider the Tabriz International Hotel as our sample hotel and then gather the relevant data from its cost accounting system in 2012. Then, we use ABC as our costing method and compare the cost of each service unit with that cost which had been extracted for the traditional costing method. The results show a different cost per unit for two methods. Also, because of its more precise and detailed provided information, an ABC system facilitates the decision-making process for managers on decisions related to profitability analysis, budgeting, pricing, and so on.

Keywords: Activity-Based Costing (ABC), activity, cost driver, hospitality industry

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4158 Training the Hospitality Entrepreneurship on the Account of Constructing Nascent Entrepreneurial Competence

Authors: Ching-Hsu Huang, Yao-Ling Liu

Abstract:

Over the past several decades there has been considerable research on the topics of entrepreneurship education and nascent entrepreneurial competence. The purpose of this study is to explore the nascent entrepreneurial competence within entrepreneurship education via the use of three studies. It will be a three-phrases longitudinal study and the effective plan will combine the qualitative and quantitative mixed research methodology in order to understand the issues of nascent entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial competence in hospitality industry in Taiwan. In study one, the systematic literature reviews and twelve nascent entrepreneurs who graduated from hospitality management department will be conducted simultaneously to construct the nascent entrepreneurial competence indicators. Nine subjects who are from industry, government, and academia will be the decision makers in terms of forming the systematic nascent entrepreneurial competence indicators. The relative importance of indicators to each decision maker will be synthesized and compared using the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. According to the results of study one, this study will develop the teaching module of nascent hospitality entrepreneurship. It will include the objectives, context, content, audiences, assessment, pedagogy and outcomes. Based on the results of the second study, the quasi-experiment will be conducted in third study to explore the influence of nascent hospitality entrepreneurship teaching module on learners’ learning effectiveness. The nascent hospitality entrepreneurship education program and entrepreneurial competence will be promoted all around the hospitality industry and vocational universities. At the end, the implication for designing the nascent hospitality entrepreneurship teaching module and training programs will be suggested for the nascent entrepreneurship education. All of the proposed hypotheses will be examined and major finding, implication, discussion, and recommendations will be provided for the government and education administration in hospitality field.

Keywords: entrepreneurial competence, hospitality entrepreneurship, nascent entrepreneurial, training in hospitality entrepreneurship

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4157 Hospitality Management to Welcome Foreign Guests in the Japanese Lodging Industry

Authors: Shunichiro Morishita

Abstract:

This study examines the factors for attracting foreign guests in the Japanese lodging industry and discusses some measures taken for accepting foreign guests. It reviews three different accommodation providers acclaimed highly by foreign guests, Yamashiroya, Sawanoya and Fuji-Hakone Guest House, and identifies their characteristics. The common points for attracting foreign guests were: 1) making the best use of the old facilities, 2) multilingual signs, guidance and websites, 3) necessary and sufficient communication in English, 4) events and opportunities to experience Japanese culture, 5) omotenashi, warm and homely Japanese hospitality. These findings indicate that foreign guests’ dissatisfaction level can be decreased through internationalization utilizing ICT and by offering multilingual support. On the other hand, their satisfaction level can be increased by encouraging interaction with other guests and local Japanese people, providing events and opportunities to experience Japanese culture and omotenashi, home-style Japanese hospitality.

Keywords: hospitality management, foreign guests, Japanese lodging industry, Omotenashi

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4156 The Financial Impact of Covid 19 on the Hospitality Industry in New Zealand

Authors: Kay Fielden, Eelin Tan, Lan Nguyen

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In this research project, data was gathered at a Covid 19 Conference held in June 2021 from industry leaders who discussed the impact of the global pandemic on the status of the New Zealand hospitality industry. Panel discussions on financials, human resources, health and safety, and recovery were conducted. The themes explored for the finance panel were customer demographics, hospitality sectors, financial practices, government impact, and cost of compliance. The aim was to see how the hospitality industry has responded to the global pandemic and the steps that have been taken for the industry to recover or sustain their business. The main research question for this qualitative study is: What are the factors that have impacted on finance for the hospitality industry in New Zealand due to Covid 19? For financials, literature has been gathered to study global effects, and this is being compared with the data gathered from the discussion panel through the lens of resilience theory. Resilience theory applied to the hospitality industry suggests that the challenges imposed by Covid 19 have been the catalyst for government initiatives, technical innovation, engaging local communities, and boosting confidence. Transformation arising from these ground shifts have been a move towards sustainability, wellbeing, more awareness of climate change, and community engagement. Initial findings suggest that there has been a shift in customer base that has prompted regional accommodation providers to realign offers and to become more flexible to attract and maintain this realigned customer base. Dynamic pricing structures have been required to meet changing customer demographics. Flexible staffing arrangements include sharing staff between different accommodation providers, owners with multiple properties adopting different staffing arrangements, maintaining a good working relationship with the bank, and conserving cash. Uncertain times necessitate changing revenue strategies to cope with external factors. Financial support offered by the government has cushioned the financial downturn for many in the hospitality industry, and managed isolation and quarantine (MIQ) arrangements have offered immediate financial relief for those hotels involved. However, there is concern over the long-term effects. Compliance with mandated health and safety requirements has meant that the hospitality industry has streamlined its approach to meeting those requirements and has invested in customer relations to keep paying customers informed of the health measures in place. Initial findings from this study lie within the resilience theory framework and are consistent with findings from the literature.

Keywords: global pandemic, hospitality industry, new Zealand, resilience

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4155 Impact of Organizational and Individual Antecedents on Employees Empowerment in Nigeria's Hospitality

Authors: Olubunmi Kolawole

Abstract:

This study explored how certain organizational antecedents like work environment, and individual antecedents (e.g. job level and tenure) could affect employees empowerment in the hospitality industry. A total of 200 valid responses from a survey conducted in 10 hotels in Lagos Nigeria were received. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution and percentage analysis. Findings suggest that leadership, work environment, as well as tenure and level in the organization are reliable predictors of employees empowerment in Nigeria's hotel sector. Empowerment is a major factor which determines how employees feel about themselves and their jobs. The study concluded that organizations need to learn that an empowered employee will put in superior performance which would positively impact on the organization.

Keywords: employee empowerment, hospitality industry, individual-level antecedents, leadership, organizational antecedents

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4154 Human Resources Management Practices in Hospitality Companies

Authors: Dora Martins, Susana Silva, Cândida Silva

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Human Resources Management (HRM) has been recognized by academics and practitioners as an important element in organizations. Therefore, this paper explores the best practices of HRM and seeks to understand the level of participation in the development of these practices by human resources managers in the hospitality industry and compare it with other industries. Thus, the study compared the HRM practices of companies in the hospitality sector with HRM practices of companies in other sectors, and identifies the main differences between their HRM practices. The results show that the most frequent HRM practices in all companies, independently of its sector of activity, are hiring and training. When comparing hospitality sector with other sectors of activity, some differences were noticed, namely in the adoption of the practices of communication and information sharing, and of recruitment and selection. According to these results, the paper discusses the major theoretical and practical implications. Suggestions for future research are also presented.

Keywords: exploratory study, human resources management practices, human resources manager, hospitality companies, Portuguese companies

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4153 Digitization of European SMEs in Tourism and Hospitality: The Case of Greek Hoteliers

Authors: Joanna K. Konstantinou

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to explore the need of small and medium-sized businesses in tourism and hospitality industry to adopt technology and enhance their degree of digitalization, along with the main benefits enjoyed by technology and the main challenges that hinder its adoption. Within a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, semi-structured interviews were conducted with three hotel owners and the focus was to identify the main reasons of adoption of technology, enablers and barriers. The findings were grouped with the goal of identifying typology of business practices in using and adopting technology.

Keywords: digitization, SMEs, tourism and hospitality, challenges, benefits

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4152 Global Gender Differences in Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry

Authors: Jonathan Hinton Westover, Maureen S. Andrade, Doug Miller

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Research has been inconclusive in determining if men or women experience more job satisfaction. A global comparison examining extrinsic and intrinsic factors, work relations, and work-life balance determinants found few differences; however, work relations and work-life balance factors were more significant for male than female workers across occupations. The current study uses International Social Survey Program data representing 37 countries to explore gender differences in job satisfaction in the hospitality industry. Findings demonstrate that mean job satisfaction scores for females are lower across hospitality occupations except for hotel receptionists, housekeeping supervisors, and hotel cleaners. Regression results revealed additional differences such as the significance of co-worker relations, the negative impact of being discriminated against and harassed at work, working weekends, marital status, and supervisory status for women with autonomy, work stress, education, and employment relationship being more salient for men. Interesting work, work being useful to society, job security, pay, relations with management, and work interfering with family were significant for both males and females.

Keywords: job satisfaction, gender, hospitality, global comparisons

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4151 Tourism and Hospitality Education Efficiency Management: The Case of the Tourism Department of Sultan Qaboos University

Authors: Tamer Mohamed Atef

Abstract:

The tourism and hospitality education is a branch of the overall tourism and hospitality industry that is dedicated to providing the industry with well-educated, well-trained, skilled, enthusiastic and committed workforce. The Tourism Department at the College of Arts and Social Sciences (Sultan Qaboos University), Oman, has been providing the Omani society with undergraduate tourism and hospitality educational services since Fall 2001. Despite the fact that Tourism Department graduates are not facing any employment concerns, fluctuation in the number of enrollees and graduates, however, has been a significant characteristic since the inception of the program. To address this concern, several tactical and strategic decisions have been made, notably that the program has received accreditation from two prestigious international accreditation institutions, which mark two major milestones in the educational journey of the Tourism Department. The current study, thus, aims to provide a tourism and hospitality education efficiency management model. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were identified: to analyze students in - graduates out matrix, and to assess graduates’ employment trends. A survey was conducted to assess the current employment status of the department graduates. Secondary data were collected from Deanship of Admission and Registration statistical reports on the Tourism Department. Data were tabulated and analyzed in such a way that set forth the major findings from the survey and the secondary data. This study sheds light on the educational system created and followed by the Tourism Department, in an effort to provide a tourism and hospitality education efficiency management model, that would help educators and administrators better manage their programs.

Keywords: tourism, hospitality, education, students, graduates, employability, indicators

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4150 ICT Training Programs in Tourism and Hospitality Institutes: An Analytical Study of Types, Effectiveness, and Graduate Perceived Importance

Authors: Magdy Abdel-Aleem Abdel-Ati Mayouf, Islam Al Sayed Hussein Al Sayed

Abstract:

Development of tourism and hospitality faculties' graduates is a key to the future health of hospitality and tourism sectors. Meanwhile information and communication technologies (ICTs) increasingly become the driving engine for productivity improvement and business opportunities in tourism and hospitality industry. Tourism and hospitality education and training must address these developments to enhance the ability of future managers to adopt a variety of ICT tools and strategies to increase their organization's efficiency and competitiveness. Therefore, this study aims to explore the types and effectiveness of ICT training offered by faculties of tourism and hotels in Egypt, and evaluating the importance of that training from the graduate's point of view. The study targets the graduates who graduated in the present ten years from three different faculties of tourism and hotels. Results argued the types, levels and effectiveness of ICT training offered in these faculties and the extent to which training programs were appreciated by graduates working in different fields, and finally, it recommended particular practices to enhance the training efficiency and raising the perceived benefits of it for workers in tourism and hospitality fields.

Keywords: training, IT, graduated, tourism and hospitality, education

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4149 Data Analytics in Hospitality Industry

Authors: Tammy Wee, Detlev Remy, Arif Perdana

Abstract:

In the recent years, data analytics has become the buzzword in the hospitality industry. The hospitality industry is another example of a data-rich industry that has yet fully benefited from the insights of data analytics. Effective use of data analytics can change how hotels operate, market and position themselves competitively in the hospitality industry. However, at the moment, the data obtained by individual hotels remain under-utilized. This research is a preliminary research on data analytics in the hospitality industry, using an in-depth face-to-face interview on one hotel as a start to a multi-level research. The main case study of this research, hotel A, is a chain brand of international hotel that has been systematically gathering and collecting data on its own customer for the past five years. The data collection points begin from the moment a guest book a room until the guest leave the hotel premises, which includes room reservation, spa booking, and catering. Although hotel A has been gathering data intelligence on its customer for some time, they have yet utilized the data to its fullest potential, and they are aware of their limitation as well as the potential of data analytics. Currently, the utilization of data analytics in hotel A is limited in the area of customer service improvement, namely to enhance the personalization of service for each individual customer. Hotel A is able to utilize the data to improve and enhance their service which in turn, encourage repeated customers. According to hotel A, 50% of their guests returned to their hotel, and 70% extended nights because of the personalized service. Apart from using the data analytics for enhancing customer service, hotel A also uses the data in marketing. Hotel A uses the data analytics to predict or forecast the change in consumer behavior and demand, by tracking their guest’s booking preference, payment preference and demand shift between properties. However, hotel A admitted that the data they have been collecting was not fully utilized due to two challenges. The first challenge of using data analytics in hotel A is the data is not clean. At the moment, the data collection of one guest profile is meaningful only for one department in the hotel but meaningless for another department. Cleaning up the data and getting standards correctly for usage by different departments are some of the main concerns of hotel A. The second challenge of using data analytics in hotel A is the non-integral internal system. At the moment, the internal system used by hotel A do not integrate with each other well, limiting the ability to collect data systematically. Hotel A is considering another system to replace the current one for more comprehensive data collection. Hotel proprietors recognized the potential of data analytics as reported in this research, however, the current challenges of implementing a system to collect data come with a cost. This research has identified the current utilization of data analytics and the challenges faced when it comes to implementing data analytics.

Keywords: data analytics, hospitality industry, customer relationship management, hotel marketing

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4148 Identification of Service Quality Determinants in the Hotel Sector - A Conceptual Review

Authors: Asem M. Othman

Abstract:

The expansion of the hospitality industry is unmistakable. Services, by nature, are intangible. Hence, service quality, in general, is a complicated process to be measured and evaluated. Hotels, as a service sector and part of the hospitality industry, are growing rapidly. This research paper was carried out to identify the quality determinants that may affect hotel guests’ service quality perception. In this research paper, each quality determinant will be discussed, illustrated, and justified thoroughly via a systematic literature review. The purpose of this paper is to set the stage to measure the significant influence of the service quality determinants on guest satisfaction. The knowledge produced from this study will assist practitioners and/or hotel service providers to imply into their policies.

Keywords: service quality, hotel service, quality management, quality determinants

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4147 E-Marketing Strategies and Destination Branding for the Tourism Industry in Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Marshal Idris, Murtala Mohammed Alamai, Adama Jummai Idris, Bello Mohammed Gwagwada

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The technological revolution of the 1990s have brought about many new opportunities and challenges for the tourism and hospitality industries mostly in Nigeria and with tourism having global industry information as its life-blood and technology becoming fundamental to the ability of the industry to operate effectively and competitively. The whole system of information technologies is being rapidly diffused throughout the tourism industry and no player will escape information technologies impacts. The paper gives an insight into the importance of destination branding and the application of information technologies and the use of Internet in tourism and hospitality industries in Nigeria giving strategic frameworks, providing analysis of the Internet and its impact on these sectors. It also aims to show how technological innovations and information system can be beneficial for destinations companies like game reserves national parks, and other resorts by using the literature of existing efforts in global industry players as well as documented evidences where recommendations for destinations and companies is made to seek to foster the development of this connection by investing considerable resources in marketing activities on social networks and by reinforcing the trust of users, because credibility and reliability are still critical in this area.

Keywords: branding, marketing, technology, tourism product

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4146 An Assessment of Experiential Learning Outcomes of Study Abroad Programs in Hospitality: A Learning Style Perspective

Authors: Radesh Palakurthi

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The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of experiential learning on learning outcomes in hospitality education. This paper presents the results of an online survey of students from the U.S. studying abroad and their self-reported change in learning outcomes as assessed using the Core Competencies Model for the Hospitality Industry developed by Employment and Training Development Office of the U.S. Department of Labor. The impact of student learning styles on learning outcomes is also evaluated in this study. Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory Model was used to assess students’ learning style. The results show that students reported significant improvements in their learning outcomes because of engaging in study abroad experiential learning programs. The learning styles of the students had significant effect on one of core learning outcomes- personal effectiveness.

Keywords: hospitality competencies, hospitality education, Kolb’s learning style inventory, learning outcomes, study abroad

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4145 Hotel and Service Industry in USA: Is It Leveraged? Case Study of Seven Important Hotel Chains

Authors: Azadeh Shahbazi

Abstract:

This study tries to find out the determinants of capital structure in hotel industry in 7 important hotel chains in USA within the period of 12 years of 2000 to 2012. The study is used a panel pooled regression to realize the relation among different variables. Results show that the variables which could make changes in the capital structure of firms are Non-Debt Tax Shield and Tangibility.

Keywords: capital structure, service industry, hospitality, finance

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4144 Price Setting and the Role of Accounting Information

Authors: Chris Durden, Peter Lane

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Cost accounting information potentially plays an important role in price setting. According to prior research fixed and variable cost information often is a key influence on pricing decisions. The literature highlights the benefits of applying systematic costing systems for enhanced price setting processes. This paper explores how costing systems are used for pricing decisions in the tourism and hospitality industry relative to other sources of price setting information. Pricing based on full cost information was found to have relatively greater importance and short-term survival and customer oriented objectives were found to be the more important pricing objectives. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a recent analysis of accounting’s role in price setting within the tourism and hospitality industry.

Keywords: cost accounting systems, pricing decisions, cost-plus pricing, market pricing, tourism industry

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4143 Hospitality Genealogy: Tracing the Ethics and Ontologies of Hospitality-Making on the Silk-Routes

Authors: Neil Michael Walsh, Angelique Lombarts

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The authors propose that hospitality is ‘made’ (constituted and performed) in the encounters on the Silk-Routes. Inspired with an initial Derridean perspective on hospitality (the conditional/unconditional) and methodologically underpinned with a Delueuzian relational-rhizomatic approach, the authors contend that hospitality is (re)produced in the encounters of self/other, east/west (among others). Thus, in the spirit of performativity and using the temporal-spatial conduit of the Silk Routes (the sites of ethical, cultural, economic, and material interaction of such exchange), the authors concur that hospitality is produced at the moment in which it is performed. Key themes engaged as units of analysis become welcome, reception, hostility, (and so on) which the authors engage and examine –as they unfold- in the narratives and accounts and material legacies of those who travelled the Silk Routes between the 2nd and 18th Centuries. The preliminary results suggest that these earlier performative moments in hospitality-making on the silk routes continue to resonate and ‘form’ the hospitalities of today. Indeed, these acts of hospitality continue to reconstitute and are never a final state of affairs.

Keywords: hospitality-genealogy, interactions, hospitality-making, Silk-Routes, rhizome, relationality

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4142 Followership Styles in the U.S. Hospitality Workforce: A Multi-Generational Comparison Study

Authors: Yinghua Huang, Tsu-Hong Yen

Abstract:

The latest advance in leadership research has revealed that leadership is co-created through the combined action of leading and following. The role of followers is as important as leaders in the leadership process. However, the previous leadership studies often conceptualize leadership as a leader-centric process, while the role of followers is largely neglected in the literature. Until recently, followership studies receives more attention because the character and behavior of followers are as vital as the leader during the leadership process. Yet, there is a dearth of followership research in the context of tourism and hospitality industries. Therefore, this study seeks to fill in the gap of knowledge and investigate the followership styles in the U.S. hospitality workforce. In particular, the objectives of this study are to identify popular followership practices among hospitality employees and evaluate hospitality employees' followership styles using Kelley’s followership typology framework. This study also compared the generational differences in followership styles among hospitality employees. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the workforce in the lodging and foodservice sectors consists of around 12% baby boomers, 29% Gen Xs, 23% Gen Ys, and 36% Gen Zs in 2019. The diversity of workforce demographics in the U.S. hospitality industry calls for more attention to understand the generational differences in followership styles and organizational performance. This study conducted an in-depth interview and a questionnaire survey to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. A snowball sampling method was used to recruit participants working in the hospitality industry in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. A total of 120 hospitality employees participated in this study, including 22 baby boomers, 32 Gen Xs, 30 Gen Ys, and 36 Gen Zs. 45% of the participants were males, and 55% were female. The findings of this study identified good followership practices across the multi-generational participants. For example, a Gen Y participant said that 'followership involves learning and molding oneself after another person usually an expert in an area of interest. I think of followership as personal and professional development. I learn and get better by hands-on training and experience'. A Gen X participant said that 'I can excel by not being fearful of taking on unfamiliar tasks and accepting challenges.' Furthermore, this study identified five typologies of Kelley’s followership model among the participants: 45% exemplary followers, 13% pragmatist followers, 2% alienated followers, 18% passive followers, and 23% conformist followers. The generational differences in followership styles were also identified. The findings of this study contribute to the hospitality human resource literature by identifying the multi-generational perspectives of followership styles among hospitality employees. The findings provide valuable insights for hospitality leaders to understand their followers better. Hospitality leaders were suggested to adjust their leadership style and communication strategies based on employees' different followership styles.

Keywords: followership, hospitality workforce, generational diversity, Kelley’s followership topology

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4141 Investigating the Trends in Tourism and Hospitality Industry in Nigeria at Centenary

Authors: Pius Agbebi Alaba

Abstract:

The study emphasized on the effects of contemporary and prospect trends on the development of Hospitality and Tourism in Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined globalization, safety and security, diversity, service, technology, demographic changes and price–value as contemporary trends while prospect trends such as green and Eco-lodgings, Development of mega hotels, Boutique hotels, Intelligent hotels with advanced technology using the guest’s virtual fingerprint in order to perform all the operations, increasing employee salaries in order retain the existing Staff, More emphasis on the internet and technology, Guests’ virtual and physical social network were equally examined. The methodology for the study involved review of existing related study, books, journal and internet. The findings emanated from the exercise showed clearly that the impact of both trends on the development of Hospitality and Tourism in Nigeria would bring about rapid positive transformation of her socio-economic, political and cultural environment. The implication of the study is that it will prepare both private and corporate individuals in hospitality and tourism business for the challenges inherent in both trends.

Keywords: hospitality and tourism, Nigeria's centenary, trends, implications

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4140 The Influence of Firm Characteristics on Profitability: Evidence from Italian Hospitality Industry

Authors: Elisa Menicucci, Guido Paolucci

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing profitability in the Italian hospitality industry during the period 2008-2016. Design/methodology/approach: This study examines the profitability and its determinants using a sample of 2366 Italian hotel firms. First, we use a multidimensional measure of profitability including attributes as return on equity, return on assets and occupancy rate. Second, we examine variables that are potentially related with performance and we sort these into five categories: market variables, business model, ownership structure, management education and control variables. Findings: The results show that financial crisis, business model and ownership structure influence profitability of hotel firms. Specific factors such as the internationalization, location, firm’s declaring accommodation as their primary activity and chain affiliation are associated positively with profitability. We also find that larger hotel firms have higher performance rankings, while hotels with higher operating cash flow volatility, greater sales volatility and a higher occurrence of losses have lower profitability. Research limitations/implications: Findings suggest the importance of considering firm specific factors to evaluate the profitability of a hotel firm. Results also provide evidence for academics to critically evaluate factors that would ensure profitability of hotels in developed countries such as Italy. Practical implications: This investigation offers valuable information and strategic implications for government, tourism policymakers, tourist hotel owners, hoteliers and tourism managers in their decision-making. Originality/value: This paper provides interesting insights into the characteristics and practices of profitable hotels in Italy. Few econometric studies empirically explored the determinants of performance in the European hospitality field so far. Therefore, this paper tries to close an important gap in the existing literature improving the understanding of profitability in the Italian hospitality industry.

Keywords: hotel firms, profitability, determinants, Italian hospitality industry

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4139 The Impact of a Living Wage on the UK Hotel Sector

Authors: Andreas Walmsley, Shobana Partington, Rebecca Armstrong, Harold Goodwin

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In the UK, more than 1 in 5 workers earn less than a living wage. The hospitality sector is particularly affected where it has been claimed two thirds of workers earn less than the living wage. The UK Government is set to introduce (April 2016) a national living wage (NLW) which is therefore likely to have a significant impact on the hospitality sector. To date limited data exists that focus on how hotels are tackling the issue, what stakeholder perceptions are towards the change in legislation, and how the NLW may affect working patterns in the sector. This study draws on interviews with a range of key stakeholders such as hotel HR and general managers as well as industry representatives to explore these issues within the broader context of responsible tourism. Data collection is still ongoing and is scheduled to be completed by the end of June 2016.

Keywords: hospitality, living wage, responsible tourism, tourism employment

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4138 Airbnb, Hotel Industry and Optimum Strategies: Evidence from European Cities, Barcelona, London and Paris

Authors: Juan Pedro Aznar Alarcon, Josep Maria Sayeras Maspera

Abstract:

Airbnb and other similar platforms are offering a near substitute to the traditional accommodation service supplied by the hotel sector. In this context, hotels can try to compete by offering higher quality and additional services, which imply the need for new investments or try to compete by reducing prices. The theoretical model presented in this paper analyzes the best response using a sequential game theory model. The main conclusion is that due to the financial constraints that small and medium hotels have these hotels have reduced prices whereas hotels that belong to international groups or have an easy access to financial resources have increased their investment to increase the quality of the service provided. To check the validity of the theoretical model financial data from Barcelona, London and Paris hotels have been used analyzing profitability, quality of the service provided, the investment propensity and the evolution of the gross profit. The model and the empirical data provide the base for some industrial policy in the hospitality industry. To address the extra cost that small hotels in Europe have to face compared by bigger firms would help to improve the level of quality provided and to some extent have positive externalities in terms of job creation and an increasing added value for the industry.

Keywords: Airbnb, profitability, hospitality industry, game theory

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4137 An Introspective look into Hotel Employees Career Satisfaction

Authors: Anastasios Zopiatis, Antonis L. Theocharous

Abstract:

In the midst of a fierce war for talent, the hospitality industry is seeking new and innovative ways to enrich its image as an employer of choice and not a necessity. Historically, the industry’s professions are portrayed as ‘unattractive’ due to their repetitious nature, long and unsocial working schedules, below average remunerations, and the mental and physical demands of the job. Aligning with the industry, hospitality and tourism scholars embarked on a journey to investigate pertinent topics with the aim of enhancing our conceptual understanding of the elements that influence employees at the hospitality world of work. Topics such as job involvement, commitment, job and career satisfaction, and turnover intentions became the focal points in a multitude of relevant empirical and conceptual investigations. Nevertheless, gaps or inconsistencies in existing theories, as a result of both the volatile complexity of the relationships governing human behavior in the hospitality workplace, and the academic community’s unopposed acceptance of theoretical frameworks mainly propounded in the United States and United Kingdom years ago, necessitate our continuous vigilance. Thus, in an effort to enhance and enrich the discourse, we set out to investigate the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction traits and the individual’s career satisfaction, and subsequent intention to remain in the hospitality industry. Reflecting on existing literature, a quantitative survey was developed and administered, face-to-face, to 650 individuals working as full-time employees in 4- and 5- star hotel establishments in Cyprus, whereas a multivariate statistical analysis method, namely Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), was utilized to determine whether relationships existed between constructs as a means to either accept or reject the hypothesized theory. Findings, of interest to both industry stakeholders and academic scholars, suggest that the individual’s future intention to remain within the industry is primarily associated with extrinsic job traits. Our findings revealed that positive associations exist between extrinsic job traits, and both career satisfaction and future intention. In contrast, when investigating the relationship of intrinsic traits, a positive association was revealed only with career satisfaction. Apparently, the local industry’s environmental factors of seasonality, excessive turnover, overdependence on seasonal, and part-time migrant workers, prohibit industry stakeholders in effectively investing the time and resources in the development and professional growth of their employees. Consequently intrinsic job satisfaction factors such as advancement, growth, and achievement, take backstage to the more materialistic extrinsic factors. Findings from the subsequent mediation analysis support the notion that intrinsic traits can positively influence future intentions indirectly only through career satisfaction, whereas extrinsic traits can positively impact both career satisfaction and future intention both directly and indirectly.

Keywords: career satisfaction, Cyprus, hotel employees, structural equation modeling, SEM

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4136 Service Delivery Process in the Luxury Hotel Industry in Dubai: A Hoteliers’ Perspective

Authors: Veronique Gregorec, Prakash Vel, Collins A. Brobbey

Abstract:

Service delivery process in the face of ever changing customer expectations could not have been more important in glamorous Dubai luxury hotel service sector. Based on in-depth discussions with Dubai luxury hotel service pioneers, customer expectations, service processes, customer complaining behavior, and service recovery strategies in the luxury hotel industry are evaluated from the perspectives of service providers. Findings are in agreement with the statement that in the service industry the customer is not always right, and that hotel service providers have acknowledged the need to take extra measures towards individualized and personal service experience delivery. Ultimately, hoteliers set highest standards at all stages of the service delivery process in order to achieve positive and high customer ratings in all customer evaluation areas.

Keywords: luxury hotels, Dubai hotels, Dubai hospitality industry, guest service process

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4135 Emotional Intelligence: A Panacea in the Management and Marketing of Hospitality and Tourism Good and Services

Authors: M. Azugama, P. Okoro Ugo Chigozie, A. O. Nnamocha

Abstract:

Emotional Intelligence constitutes powerful psychological forces that can strongly influence performance in behaviour, interaction and relationship management. Surprisingly how emotions are interpreted and employed in marketing of hospitality experience have had limited comprehension. Marketing of hospitality experiences have important emotional dimensions which the traditional marketing techniques tend to underplay. Guest and host relationship are challenged by mutual hospitableness obligations; suggesting that the commercial practice of delivering satisfactory guest experience has much to gain from traditional understanding of hospitality. By understanding the emotion-based hospitality transaction between guests and hosts, customers’ experiences can be delivered over and against competitor pressure. In this paper, marketing strategies and tactics in hospitality and tourism are principally concerned with adjusting each of the 6P & T elements (i.e. product, place, price and promotion; and adding people, processes and Time in service contexts), to provide a competitive offer (experience) to customers.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, hospitality and tourism, relationship management, marketing

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4134 Effect of Recruitment and Selection on Employee Performance in Hospitality Industries

Authors: Yusuf A. Bako, Olubunmi O. Kolawole

Abstract:

This study sought to establish the effect of recruitment and selection on the employee performance in hospitality industries. The success of any organization in this modern business environment depends on the caliber of the manpower that steer the affairs of the organization. History has shown that recruitment and selection as a function of human resources management practices have a pivotal role in determining the level of employee performance in an organization. The hospitality industries have been faced with challenges of performance due to unconventional selection and placement practices in terms of poor policy in selecting candidate, inconsistency in selection process, sidetracking employment test and interview, godfatherism and regional selection process etc. The overall objective of the study was to determine how recruitment and selection affect employee performance in hospitality industry in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study adopts descriptive and inferential research design while population was drawn from leading hotels in Ogun State, Nigeria. The samples size was 100 employees and questionnaire was used to collect data while Cronbach alpha was used to test the instrument. The result of the study reveals that correlation between employee performance and recruitment and selection were highly significant.

Keywords: employee performance, human resources management, practices, recruitment, selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
4133 How to Improve Tourism through Spas: A Comparative Study of USA and India

Authors: Vandana Deswal

Abstract:

Spas have been bringing people from far and near. They have long been recognized as the place for healing, relaxation, rejuvenation, and pampering. As the economies look forward to the newer ways of earning revenues; spas offer a bright option to the tourism of a place. They have become a strong pillar of hospitality and tourism industry in developed nations and developing nations can learn from their example. This paper is an attempt to study the impact of the spa industry on the tourism industry and to offer suggestions to strengthen this impact by understanding the situation in a developed economy (USA) and a developing one (India). A survey has been conducted on a sample size of 200 and the percentage analysis of the data reveals that spas can significantly add to the tourism of a place if they work on the accreditation system and put in more money and thought on their marketing plans.

Keywords: impact, India, marketing, spa, tourism, USA

Procedia PDF Downloads 366