Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1919

Search results for: Portuguese companies

1919 Innovation in "Low-Tech" Industries: Portuguese Footwear Industry

Authors: Antonio Marques, Graça Guedes

Abstract:

The Portuguese footwear industry had in the last five years a remarkable performance in the exportation values, the trade balance and others economic indicators. After a long period of difficulties and with a strong reduction of companies and employees since 1994 until 2009, the Portuguese footwear industry changed the strategy and is now a success case between the international players of footwear. Only the Italian industry sells footwear with a higher value than the Portuguese and the distance between them is decreasing year by year. This paper analyses how the Portuguese footwear companies innovate and make innovation, according the classification proposed by the Oslo Manual. Also analyses the strategy follow in the innovation process, as suggested by Freeman and Soete, and shows the linkage between the type of innovation and the strategy of innovation. The research methodology was qualitative and the strategy for data collection was the case study. The qualitative data will be analyzed with the MAXQDA software. The economic results of the footwear companies studied shows differences between all of them and these differences are related with the innovation strategy adopted. The companies focused in product and marketing innovation, oriented to their target market, have higher ratios “turnover per worker” than the companies focused in process innovation. However, all the footwear companies in this “low-tech” industry create value and contribute to a positive foreign trade of 1.310 million euros in 2013. The growth strategies implemented has the participation of the sectorial organizations in several innovative projects. And it’s obvious that cooperation between all of them is a critical element to the performance achieved by the companies and the innovation observed. Can conclude that the Portuguese footwear sector has in the last years an excellent performance (economic results, exportation values, trade balance, brands and international image) and his performance is strongly related with the strategy in innovation followed, the type of innovation and the networks in the cluster. A simplified model, called “Ace of Diamonds”, is proposed by the authors and explains the way how this performance was reached by the seven companies that participate in the study (two of them are the leaders in the setor), and if this model can be used in others traditional and “low-tech” industries.

Keywords: footwear, innovation, “low-tech” industry, Oslo manual

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1918 Directors’ Duties, Civil Liability, and the Business Judgment Rule under the Portuguese Legal Framework

Authors: Marisa Catarina da Conceição Dinis

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The commercial companies’ management has suffered an important material and legal transformation in the last years, mainly related to the changes in the Portuguese legal framework and because of the fact they were recently object of great expansion. In fact, next to the smaller family businesses, whose management is regularly assumed by partners, companies with social investment highly scattered, whose owners are completely out from administration, are now arising. In those particular cases, the business transactions are much more complex and require from the companies’ managers a highly technical knowledge and some specific professionals’ skills and abilities. This kind of administration carries a high-level risk that can both result in great success or in great losses. Knowing that the administration performance can result in important losses to the companies, the Portuguese legislator has created a legal structure to impute them some responsibilities and sanctions. The main goal of this study is to analyze the Portuguese law and some jurisprudence about companies’ management rules and about the conflicts between the directors and the company. In order to achieve these purposes we have to consider, on the one hand, the legal duties directly connected to the directors’ functions and on the other hand the disrespect for those same rules. The Portuguese law in this matter, influenced by the common law, determines that the directors’ attitude should be guided by loyalty and honesty. Consequently, we must reflect in which cases the administrators should respond to losses that they might cause to companies as a result of their duties’ disrespect. In this way is necessary to study the business judgment rule wich is a rule that refers to a liability exclusion rule. We intend, in the same way, to evaluate if the civil liability that results from the directors’ duties disrespect can extend itself to those who have elected them ignoring or even knowing that they don´t have the necessary skills or appropriate knowledge to the position they hold. To charge directors’, without ruining entrepreneurship, charging, in the same way, those who select them reinforces the need for more responsible and cautious attitudes which will lead consequently to more confidence in the markets.

Keywords: business judgment rule, civil liability of directors, duty of care, duty of care, Portuguese legal framework

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1917 Human Resources Management Practices in Hospitality Companies

Authors: Dora Martins, Susana Silva, Cândida Silva

Abstract:

Human Resources Management (HRM) has been recognized by academics and practitioners as an important element in organizations. Therefore, this paper explores the best practices of HRM and seeks to understand the level of participation in the development of these practices by human resources managers in the hospitality industry and compare it with other industries. Thus, the study compared the HRM practices of companies in the hospitality sector with HRM practices of companies in other sectors, and identifies the main differences between their HRM practices. The results show that the most frequent HRM practices in all companies, independently of its sector of activity, are hiring and training. When comparing hospitality sector with other sectors of activity, some differences were noticed, namely in the adoption of the practices of communication and information sharing, and of recruitment and selection. According to these results, the paper discusses the major theoretical and practical implications. Suggestions for future research are also presented.

Keywords: exploratory study, human resources management practices, human resources manager, hospitality companies, Portuguese companies

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1916 The Presence of Carnism on Portuguese Television

Authors: Rui Pedro Fonseca

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a research about carnism on Portuguese television. It begins by presenting a case study of MasterChef program (TVI) which conveys carnism in both practices and language, and from which some characteristics of their dominant representations are described. Subsequently, the paper presents the indicators of the presence of carnism in the Portuguese television programming, between 2013 and 2014, in the TVI, RTP1, and SICS channels. The data reveals that there is the hegemony of the carnist ideology in the main channels of the Portuguese television. Also, the samples collected and viewed show no mention of the impacts of carnism in its various dimensions (non-human animals, environment, human health and sustainability).

Keywords: carnism, speciesism, television, Portugal

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1915 Portuguese Influence on Minas Gerais Dessert Culinary During Brazil Colonization Period

Authors: Silvania M. P. Silva, Ricardo A. Mazaro, Gemilde M. Queiroz, Josefa Barbosa, Lucas S. Victorino, Grasiela J. Silva

Abstract:

The Minas Gerais sweets have a remarkable personality, perceived on the original usage of fruits, sweets, and cheeses in the Brazilian gastronomic landscape, as a unique representation of Minas Gerais. This memory-related and feeling-oriented food is one of the treasures common to all Brazilians. It is mandatory to mention its Portuguese roots for the use of honey, as well as sugar cane and its countless possibilities. This work will show that this heritage is predominantly Portuguese, born in Portuguese convents and that it crossed the Atlantic. Through a historical survey, visits to mining towns known for their sweet culture and material collected in these places, we present the protagonists of this journey of flavors: the Portuguese cake makers (boleiras), who brought the knowledge, ingredients, and the dream of a better life in the crowded mines of gold and opportunities, helping to form a new Minas Gerais knowledge with their delicacies.

Keywords: sweets from portugal, convent sweets, minas gerais, brazil

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1914 Understanding the Productivity Effect on Industrial Management: The Portuguese Wood Furniture Industry Case Study

Authors: Jonas A. R. H. Lima, Maria Antonia Carravilla

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As productivity concepts are widely related to industrial savings, it is becoming particularly important in a more and more competitive world, to really understand how productivity can be well used in industrial management techniques. Nowadays, consumers are no more willing to pay for mistakes and inefficiencies. Therefore, one way for companies to stay competitive is to control and increase their productivity. This study aims to define clearly the productivity concept, understand how a company can affect productivity, and, if possible, identify the relation between each identified productivity factor. This will help managers, by clarifying the main issues behind productivity concepts and proposing a methodology to measure, control and increase productivity. The main questions to be answered are: what is the importance of productivity for the Portuguese Wood Furniture Industry? Is it possible to control productivity internally, or is it a phenomenon external to companies, hard or even impossible to control? How to understand, control and adjust productivity performance? How to make productivity to become one main asset for maximizing the use of the available resources? This essay will follow a constructive approach mostly based in the research hypothesis mentioned above. For that, a literature review is being done to find the main conceptual frameworks and empirical studies that already exist, and by doing so, highlight eventual knowledge or conflicting research to be addressed in this work. We expect to build theoretical explanations and test theoretical predictions from participants understandings and own experiences, by elaborating field surveys and interviews, to select adjusted productivity indicators and analyze the productivity evolution according the adjustments on other variables. Its intended the conduction of an exploratory work that can simultaneous clarify productivity concepts, objectives, and define frameworks. This investigation intends to migrate from merely academic concepts to a daily basis operational reality of the companies from the Portuguese Wood Furniture Industry highlighting productivity increased importance within modern engineering and industrial management. The ambition is to clarify, systemize and develop a management tool that may not only control but positively influence the way resources are used.

Keywords: industrial management, motivation, productivity, performance indicators, reward management, wood furniture industry

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1913 The Influence of Advertising in the Respect of the Right to Adequate Food: Some Notes regarding the Portuguese Legal Framework

Authors: Susana Almeida

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The right to adequate food is a human right protected under several international human rights treaties of universal or regional application. In addition, this social right is – as we intend to demonstrate – guaranteed under the Portuguese Constitution. Therefore, in order to assure the protection of this right, the Portuguese State must not only abstain from interfering with this human right (negative obligation) but also take action to secure the human right to adequate food (positive obligation). In this context, the Portuguese State has developed several governmental policies, such as taxing sugary drinks, setting the maximum amount of salt in the bread or creating the National Program for the Promotion of Healthy Food. Nevertheless, we intend to demonstrate that special attention should be given to advertising, as advertisements have an extreme influence on the consumers' decisions and hence on the food decisions. In this paper, besides explaining the cross construction of the human right to adequate food, we aim to examine the Advertising Portuguese Code and to study the several provisions that could be held by the Portuguese consumer to challenge some advertisements due to the violation of the right to health and the right to adequate food. Moreover, having in mind the influence of advertising on the food decisions and the serious problems that unhealthy food may bring (e.g., child obesity), one should ask if this legal framework should not be reviewed in order to lay out some restrictions on advertising, namely setting advices like in alcohol advertisements.

Keywords: advertising code, consumer law, right to adequate food, social human right

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1912 Structural Modeling and Experimental-Numerical Correlation of the Dynamic Behavior of the Portuguese Guitar by Using a Structural-Fluid Coupled Model

Authors: M. Vieira, V. Infante, P. Serrão, A. Ribeiro

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The Portuguese guitar is a pear-shaped plucked chordophone particularly known for its role in Fado, the most distinctive traditional Portuguese musical style. The acknowledgment of the dynamic behavior of the Portuguese guitar, specifically of its modal and mode shape response, has been the focus of different authors. In this research, the experimental results of the dynamic behavior of the guitar, which were previously obtained, are correlated with a vibro-acoustic finite element model of the guitar. The modelling of the guitar offered several challenges which are presented in this work. The results of the correlation between experimental and numerical data are presented and indicate good correspondence for the studied mode shapes. The influence of the air inside the chamber, for the finite element analysis, is shown to be crucial to understand the low-frequency modes of the Portuguese guitar, while, for higher frequency modes, the geometry of the guitar assumes greater relevance. Comparison is made with the classical guitar, providing relevant information about the intrinsic differences between the two, such as between its tones and other acoustical properties. These results represent a sustained base for future work, which will allow the study of the influence of different location and geometry of diverse components of the Portuguese guitar, being as well an asset to the comprehension of its musical properties and qualities and may, furthermore, represent an advantage for its players and luthiers.

Keywords: dynamic behavior of guitars, instrument acoustics, modal analysis, Portuguese guitar

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1911 Production of Oral Vowels by Chinese Learners of Portuguese: Problems and Didactic Implications

Authors: Adelina Castelo

Abstract:

The increasing number of learners of Portuguese as Foreign Language in China justifies the need to define the phonetic profile of these learners and to design didactic materials that are adjusted to their specific problems in pronunciation. Different aspects of this topic have been studied, but the production of oral vowels still needs to be investigated. This study aims: (i) to identify the problems the Chinese learners of Portuguese experience in the pronunciation of oral vowels; (ii) to discuss the didactic implications drawn from those problems. The participants were eight native speakers of Mandarin Chinese that had been learning Portuguese in College for almost a year. They named pictured objects and their oral productions were recorded and phonetically transcribed. The selection of the objects to name took into account some linguistic variables (e.g. stress pattern, syllable structure, presence of the Portuguese oral vowels in different word positions according to stress location). The results are analysed in two ways: the impact of linguistic variables on the success rate in the vowels' production; the replacement strategies used in the non-target productions. Both analyses show that the Chinese learners of Portuguese (i) have significantly more difficulties with the mid vowels as well as the high central vowel and (ii) do not master the vowel height feature. These findings contribute to define the phonetic profile of these learners in terms of oral vowel production. Besides, they have important didactic implications for the pronunciation teaching to these specific learners. Those implications are discussed and exemplified.

Keywords: Chinese learners, learners’ phonetic profile, linguistic variables, Portuguese as foreign language, production data, pronunciation teaching, oral vowels

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1910 Managing Expatriates' Return: Repatriation Practices in a Sample of Firms in Portugal

Authors: Ana Pinheiro, Fatima Suleman

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Literature has revealed strong awareness of companies in regard of expatriation, but issues associated with repatriation of employees after an international assignment have been overlooked. Repatriation is one of the most challenging human resource practices that affect how companies benefit from acquired skills and high potential employees; and gain competitive advantage through network developed during expatriation. However, empirical evidence achieved so far suggests that expatriates have been disappointed because companies lack an effective repatriation strategy. Repatriates’ professional and emotional needs are often unrecognized, while repatriation is perceived as a non-issue by companies. The underlying assumption is that the return to parent company, and original country, culture and language does not demand for any particular support. Unfortunately, this basic view has non-negligible consequences on repatriates, especially on expatriate retention and turnover rates after expatriation. The goal of our study is to examine the specific policies and practices adopted by companies to support employees after an international assignment. We assume that expatriation is process which ends with repatriation. The latter is such a crucial issue as the expatriation and require due attention through appropriate design of human resource management policies and tools. For this purpose, we use data from a qualitative research based on interviews to a sample of firms operating in Portugal. We attempt to compare how firms accommodate the concerns with repatriation in their policies and practices. Therefore, the interviews collect data on both expatriation and repatriation process, namely the selection and skills of candidates to expatriation, training, mentoring, communication and pay policies. Portuguese labor market seems to be an interesting case study for mainly two reasons. On the one hand, Portuguese Government is encouraging companies to internationalize in the context of an external market-oriented growth model. On the other hand, expatriation is being perceived as a job opportunity in the context of high unemployment rates of both skilled and non-skilled. This is an ongoing research and the data collected until now indicate that companies follow the pattern described in the literature. The interviewed companies recognize the higher relevance of repatriation process than expatriation, but disregard specific human resource policies. They have perceived that unfavorable labor market conditions discourage mobility across companies. It should be stressed that companies underline that employees enhanced the relevance of stable jobs and attach far less importance to career development and other benefits after expatriation. However, there are still cases of turnover and difficulties of retention. Managers’ report non-negligible cases of turnover associated with lack of effective repatriation programs and non-recognition of good performance. Repatriates seem to having acquired entrepreneurial spirit and skills and often create their own company. These results suggest that even in the context of worsening labor market conditions, there should be greater awareness of the need to retain talents, experienced and highly skills employees. Ultimately, other companies poach invaluable assets, while internationalized companies risk being training providers.

Keywords: expatriates, expatriation, international management, repatriation

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1909 Sustainability Adoption Barriers in Small and Mid-size Enterprises (SEMs)

Authors: L.Vaz, L. Ferreira, R. Aparício, J. Pedro, M. Franco

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This article concerns a qualitative analysis, through an interview, regarding “Sustainability Adoption Barriers in SMEs.” To begin with, the article provides a state-of-the-art overview through fifty-seven articles initially extracted from the Scopus database. The articles were analyzed, and four main clusters emerged in the literature: 1) sustainability and small and medium-sized companies; 2) sustainable business models; 3) sustainability practices adoption procedures, and 4) adoption difficulties on sustainability practices. Utilizing interviews as a methodology, the article seeks to strengthen knowledge regarding sustainability practices, their barriers and the sustainable procedures adopted by SMEs in a Portuguese context. The results demonstrate that the literature agrees with this case study, where there are numerous sustainable practices, yet, due to financial, political, cultural, and technological factors, barriers emerge in the adoption process. By comparing the literature findings with the conducted interviews of interior Portuguese SMEs, this article develops a contribution to the scientific community through a captivating, intuitive and motivating way.

Keywords: barriers, practices, business model, green

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1908 Preparation on Sentimental Analysis on Social Media Comments with Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Gated Recurrent Unit and Model Glove in Portuguese

Authors: Leonardo Alfredo Mendoza, Cristian Munoz, Marco Aurelio Pacheco, Manoela Kohler, Evelyn Batista, Rodrigo Moura

Abstract:

Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques are increasingly more powerful to be able to interpret the feelings and reactions of a person to a product or service. Sentiment analysis has become a fundamental tool for this interpretation but has few applications in languages other than English. This paper presents a classification of sentiment analysis in Portuguese with a base of comments from social networks in Portuguese. A word embedding's representation was used with a 50-Dimension GloVe pre-trained model, generated through a corpus completely in Portuguese. To generate this classification, the bidirectional long short-term memory and bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) models are used, reaching results of 99.1%.

Keywords: natural processing language, sentiment analysis, bidirectional long short-term memory, BI-LSTM, gated recurrent unit, GRU

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1907 CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility Performance of Indian Automobiles Companies

Authors: Jagbir Singh Kadyan

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This research paper critically analyse the performance of those Indian Automobile Companies which are listed and traded on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India and which are also included in the NSE nifty auto Index. In India, CSR–Corporate Social Responsibility is mandatory for certain qualifying companies under the Indian Companies Act 2013, which replaces the erstwhile Companies Act 1956. There has been a significant shift in the focus and approaches of the Indian Corporates towards their CSR obligations with the insertion of section 135, revision of section 198 and introduction of schedule VII of the Indian Companies Act 2013. Every such qualifying companies are required to mandatorily spend at least 2% of their annual average net profit of the immediately preceding three financial years on such CSR activities as specified under schedule VII of the Companies act 2013. This research paper analyzes the CSR performance of such Indian companies. This research work is originally based on the secondary data. The annual reports of the selected Indian automobile companies have been extensively used and considered for this research work.

Keywords: board of directors, corporate social responsibility, CSR committees, Indian automobile companies, Indian companies act 2013, national stock exchange

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1906 The Impact of Health Tourism on Companies’ Performance: A Cross Country Analysis

Authors: Anna Paola Micheli, Carmelo Intrisano, Anna Maria Calce

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This research focused on the capability of health tourism to improve the economic and financial performance of healthcare companies. It is assumed that health tourism companies have better profitability and financial efficiency because they can also count on cross-border demand differently from no health tourism companies. A three-level gap analysis was conducted: the first concerns health tourism companies located in Italy and in the other EU28 states; in the second Italian and EU28, no health tourism companies were compared; the third level is about the Italian system with a comparison between health tourism and no health tourism companies. Findings highlighted that Italian healthcare companies have better profitability performance if compared to European ones, but they present weaknesses in the financial position given the illiquidity and excessive leverage. Furthermore, studying the Italian system, we found that health tourism companies are more profitable than no health tourism companies.

Keywords: financial performance, gap analysis, health tourism, profitability performance, value creation

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1905 The Portuguese Legal Instruments to Combat the Improper Use of the Contract Service

Authors: Ana Lambelho

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Nowadays is very common that an activity may be performed independently or dependently. In Portugal, the Labour Law exclusively protects the dependent labour relations. The independent work is regulated by civil law, where the autonomy of the will is the main principle. For companies is more advantageous to hire people under a service agreement since, in that case, the relation is not submitted to the limits established in Labour law and collective bargaining. This practice has nothing wrong, if the performance of work is, in fact, made autonomously. The problem is the increased frequency of the celebration of service agreements to hide a legal relation of subordination. Aware of this and regarding the huge difficulty to demonstrate the existence of subordinated work (that often runs against the employee), the Portuguese legislator devoted some legislative rules in order to facilitate the evidence of legal subordination and, on the other hand, to avoid the misuse of the provision of service agreements. This study focuses precisely on the analysis of this solution, namely the so-called presumption of ‘laboralidade’ and on the lawsuit to recognize the existence of a labour contract. The presumption of the existence of a labour contract is present in the Portuguese legal system since 2003, and received, with the 2009 Labour Code, a new redaction that, according to the doctrine and the jurisprudence, finally approached it to a legal presumption, with the consequent reversal of the burden of proof and, in consequence, made easier to proof the legal subordination, because the employee will just have to plead and prove the existence of two of the elements described in the law to use this presumption. Another change in the Portuguese legal framework is related with the competencies of the Authority for Working Conditions (AWC): now, if during an inspection, the Authority finds a situation that seems to be an undeclared employment situation, it may access the company and, if it does not regularize voluntarily the situation, AWC has a duty to communicate to the public prosecutor, who will begin the lawsuit for the recognition of the existence of an employment contract. To defend the public interest, the action to recognize the existence of an employment contract will follow its terms, even against the employee will. Although the existence of these mechanisms does not solve by itself the problem of evasion of labour law and false ‘green receipts’, it is undeniable that it is an important step in combating fraud in this field.

Keywords: independent work, labour contract, Portugal, service agreement

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1904 Child Mortality in Portuguese Speaking Africa Countries: Levels and Trends, 1975-2021

Authors: Alcino Panguana

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All Portuguese-speaking African countries are in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region that has high infant mortality rates, being responsible for 49.6% of deaths in Portuguese-speaking African countries, Angola has levels of infant mortality among children, where 2017, 156 children who died before reaching 1 year of life in 1000 live births. Although there is an increase in studies that document trends and specific causes of infant mortality in each country, historical-comparative studies of infant mortality among these countries remain rare. Understanding the trend of this indicator is important for policymakers and planners in order to improve access to successful child survival operations. Lusophone Africa continues with high infant mortality rates in the order of 64 deaths per thousand births. Assuming heterogeneities that can characterize these countries, raise an analysis investigated indicator at the country level to understand the pattern and historical trend of infant mortality within Lusophone Africa from the year 2021. The result is to understand the levels and evolution of infant mortality in Portuguese-speaking African countries.

Keywords: child mortality, levels, trends, lusophone African countries

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1903 The Benefits of Regional Brand for Companies

Authors: H. Starzyczna, M. Stoklasa, K. Matusinska

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This article deals with the benefits of regional brands for companies in the Czech Republic. Research was focused on finding out the expected and actual benefits of regional brands for companies. The data were obtained by questionnaire survey and analysed by IBM SPSS. Representative sample of 204 companies was created. The research analysis disclosed the expected benefits that the regional brand should bring to companies. But the actual benefits are much worse. The statistical testing of hypotheses revealed that the benefits depend on the region of origin, which surprised both us and the regional coordinators.

Keywords: Brand, regional brands, product protective branding programs, brand benefits

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1902 The Power of “Merkiavelli”: Representations of Angela Merkel in the Portuguese Press (2008-2015)

Authors: Ana Mouro, Ana Ramalheira

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Since 1989, with the Fall of the Berlin Wall, Germany has undergone a profound restructuring political and economic process. When the Euro Crisis broke out, Germany was no longer the “sick man” of Europe. Instead, it had recovered its dominance as the strongest and wealthiest economy within the European Union. With the European Debt Crisis, that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009, Germany´s Chancellor Angela Merkel has gained the power of deciding, so to say, on the fate of the debtor nations, but she neither stands for binding German commitments, nor refuses assistance. A debate on whether Merkel’s hesitation has been deliberated and used as a means of coercion has arisen on international print media, and the Portuguese Press has been no exception. This study, which was conducted by using news reporting, opinion articles, interviews and editorials, published in the Portuguese weekly Expresso and the daily Público, from 2008 to 2015, tries to show how Merkel’s hesitation, depicted in the press by the term “Merkiavelli”, was perceived in Portugal, a country that had to embrace the austerity measures, imposed by the European Central Bank, but defined under Angela Merkel´s leading role.

Keywords: Euro crisis, “Merkiavelli”, cultural studies, Portuguese quality press

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1901 Data Mining Practices: Practical Studies on the Telecommunication Companies in Jordan

Authors: Dina Ahmad Alkhodary

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the practices of Data Mining on the telecommunication companies in Jordan, from the viewpoint of the respondents. In order to achieve the goal of the study, and test the validity of hypotheses, the researcher has designed a questionnaire to collect data from managers and staff members from main department in the researched companies. The results shows improvements stages of the telecommunications companies towered Data Mining.

Keywords: data, mining, development, business

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1900 Implications of Private Military Security Companies on Stewardship of the Profession of Arms

Authors: Kevin Krupski

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Private Military Security Companies have grown to become a major force contributor to nations in military operations. Scholars have debated the implications of this in relation to control and efficiency related to the privatization of violence, but there has been little discussion on how these companies affect the profession of arms. Specifically, this paper seeks to address how the privatization of violence influences the military’s stewardship, whether private military security companies are capable of stewardship of the military profession, and whether there are aspects of stewardship of the military profession that private military security companies are capable of emulating. This paper reviews literature on stewardship, the relationship of the military to the state, and private military security companies in order to identify overlap between uniformed military services and the private sector. Then, it offers a typology for determining under what conditions an organization would act as a steward. Ultimately, there are insufficient reasons for private military security companies to act as stewards of the profession of arms.

Keywords: stewardship, military profession, civil-military, security

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1899 Hedging and Corporate Governance: Lessons from the Financial Crisis

Authors: Rodrigo Zeidan

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The paper identifies failures of decision making and corporate governance that allow non-financial companies around the world to develop hedging strategies that lead to hefty losses in the aftermath of the financial crisis. The sample is comprised of 346 companies from 10 international markets, of which 49 companies (and a subsample of 13 distressed companies) lose a combined US$18.9 billion. An event study shows that most companies that present losses in derivatives experience negative abnormal returns, including a number of companies in which the effect is persistent after a year. The results of a probit model indicate that the lack of a formal hedging policy, no monitoring to the CFOs, and considerations of hubris and remuneration contribute to the mismanagement of hedging policies.

Keywords: risk management, hedging, derivatives, monitoring, corporate governance structure, event study, hubris

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1898 Defining Human Resources “Bundles” and Its’ Correlation with Companies’ Financial Performances

Authors: Ivana Tadic, Snjezana Pivac

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Although human resources are recognized as the crucial companies’ resources and their positive influence on companies’ performances has been confirmed through different researches, scientists are still debating it. In order to contribute this debate, this paper firstly discusses the most important human resource management elements and practices and its influence on companies’ success. Afterwards it defines human resource “bundles” – interrelated and internally consistent human resource practices, complementary to each other, or the most important human resource practices and elements regarding Croatian companies and its human resource management activities. Finally, the paper provides empirical results; more precisely it reveals the relation of the level of development of human resource management function (“bundles”) and companies’ financial performances (using profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, solvency ratios and a group of additional ratios related to employees’ indicators).

Keywords: companies’ performances, human resource bundles, multivariate statistical analysis, marketing

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1897 Evaluation of Access to Finance for Local Oil Fields Companies in Ghana

Authors: Gordon Newlove Asamoah, Wendy Ama Oti

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This study focused on evaluating access to finance for local oil fields companies in Ghana. The study adopted a census survey design in evaluating access to finance for local oil fields companies in Ghana. The respondents of this study were 30 management members of three oil fields companies in Ghana. The data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) to generate tables and graphs for interpretation. The results show that most companies use equity financing in combination with other forms of financing to finance their business activities. This research has shown the various challenges bordering on the financing of local oil and gas projects with an emphasis on the challenges of raising funds by indigenous oil companies. Financing of the projects by indigenous oil field companies in Ghana is preferably achieved through equity finance mainly because it is the easiest to get compared to all the other forms of financing available. Other sources of financing available are debt financing, joint venture and retained earnings from the profits generated from their operations. The study made recommendations to local oil fields companies as to how they can make good use of the capital market to raise financing.

Keywords: access, financing, oil fields, Ghana

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1896 Quality Culture Framework Proposal for Libyan Industrial Companies

Authors: Mostafa Ahmed Shokshok

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Libyan industrial companies face many challenges in today's competitive market. Quality management culture approaches is one of these challenges which may furnish the road to the Libyan industrial companies to effectively empower their employees and improve their ability to respond to the international competition. The primary objective of this paper is to design a practical approach to guide Libyan industrial companies toward successful quality culture implementation.

Keywords: TQM, quality culture, Libyan manufacturing industries, quality framework

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1895 Bankruptcy Prediction Analysis on Mining Sector Companies in Indonesia

Authors: Devina Aprilia Gunawan, Tasya Aspiranti, Inugrah Ratia Pratiwi

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This research aims to classify the mining sector companies based on Altman’s Z-score model, and providing an analysis based on the Altman’s Z-score model’s financial ratios to provide a picture about the financial condition in mining sector companies in Indonesia and their viability in the future, and to find out the partial and simultaneous impact of each of the financial ratio variables in the Altman’s Z-score model, namely (WC/TA), (RE/TA), (EBIT/TA), (MVE/TL), and (S/TA), toward the financial condition represented by the Z-score itself. Among 38 mining sector companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX), 28 companies are selected as research sample according to the purposive sampling criteria.The results of this research showed that during 3 years research period at 2010-2012, the amount of the companies that was predicted to be healthy in each year was less than half of the total sample companies and not even reach up to 50%. The multiple regression analysis result showed that all of the research hypotheses are accepted, which means that (WC/TA), (RE/TA), (EBIT/TA), (MVE/TL), and (S/TA), both partially and simultaneously had an impact towards company’s financial condition.

Keywords: Altman’s Z-score model, financial condition, mining companies, Indonesia

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1894 The Role of Capital Budgeting in Nigeria Companies

Authors: Eworo David

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It is dearly evident that a company which does not and will not innovate faces the grave danger of being pushed out of existence. The purpose of this study is to bring to knowledge of companies the significance of capital budgeting in viable project implementation and for proper investment appraisal as regards steps involved in effective investment strategies. The study examines investment policies of Nigeria companies. It deals with an overview of capital budgeting. The analysis covers the data gathered from two multi-national companies in Nigeria. The population of the study was the senior managers and the top management staff of the companies. The system of capital budgeting structure and project implementation styles were compared and contrasted to determine whether the system has MADE or MARRED the development of the organizations. The recommendations contribute towards Nigeria companies to remain and survive in business through the use of capital budgeting.

Keywords: appraisal, budgeting structure, capital budgeting, effective investment strategies

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1893 The Quality of Accounting Information of Private Companies in the Czech Republic

Authors: Kateřina Struhařová

Abstract:

The paper gives the evidence of quality of accounting information of Czech private companies. In general the private companies in the Czech Republic do not see the benefits of providing accounting information of high quality. Based on the research of financial statements of entrepreneurs and companies in Zlin region it was confirmed that the quality of accounting information differs among the private entities and that the major impact on the accounting information quality has the fact if the financial statements are audited as well as the size of the entity. Also the foreign shareholders and lenders have some impact on the accounting information quality.

Keywords: accounting information quality, financial statements, Czech Republic, private companies

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1892 Differences in the Processing of Sentences with Lexical Ambiguity and Structural Ambiguity: An Experimental Study

Authors: Mariana T. Teixeira, Joana P. Luz

Abstract:

This paper is based on assumptions of psycholinguistics and investigates the processing of ambiguous sentences in Brazilian Portuguese. Specifically, it aims to verify if there is a difference in processing time between sentences with lexical ambiguity and sentences with structural (or syntactic) ambiguity. We hypothesize, based on the Garden Path Theory, that the two types of ambiguity entail different cognitive efforts, since sentences with structural ambiguity require that two structures be processed, whereas ambiguous phrases whose root of ambiguity is in a word require the processing of a single structure, which admits a variation of punctual meaning, within the scope of only one lexical item. In order to test this hypothesis, 25 undergraduate students, whose average age was 27.66 years, native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, performed a self-monitoring reading task of ambiguous sentences, which had lexical and structural ambiguity. The results suggest that unambiguous sentence processing is faster than ambiguous sentence processing, whether it has lexical or structural ambiguity. In addition, participants presented a mean reading time greater for sentences with syntactic ambiguity than for sentences with lexical ambiguity, evidencing a greater cognitive effort in sentence processing with structural ambiguity.

Keywords: Brazilian portuguese, lexical ambiguity, sentence processing, syntactic ambiguity

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1891 Factors Influencing Disclosure and CSR Spending in Indian Companies: An Econometric Analysis

Authors: Shekar Babu, Amalendu Jyothishi

Abstract:

The New Companies Bill-2013 in India has mandated all the companies with a certain profit to spend on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Despite the Corporate Governance (CG) compliances at the strategic level the firms have to engage in social good. For both the Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSE) and the private companies in India the need for strategic CSR focus through operational efficiency measures are mandated. In this paper the focus is to find out if the Indian companies understand their responsibility towards the society despite government making CSR mandatory. Analyzing both the CPSEs and Private companies the researchers find out which set of companies behave responsibly towards the society. Does any particular industry group(s) impact the society by disclosing their CSR spending activities. The key financial and non-financial parameters that influence CSR spending were identified and through econometric analysis methodologies (logistic regression and OLS models) the results were analyzed. The innovative methods were developed to identify if the firms operate efficiently and at the same time complying with the new CSR laws. An innovative matrix was developed to explain how companies could operate efficiently and be compliant in parallel how some of the companies can strategically realign their spending by operating efficiently.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility(CSR), corporate governance(CG), India, logit function, ordinary least squares (OLS)

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1890 Management Accounting Techniques of Companies Listed on the Stock Exchange in Thailand

Authors: Prateep Wajeetongratana

Abstract:

The objectives of the research were to examine that how management accounting techniques were perceived and used by companies listed on the stock exchange and to investigate similarities or differences of management accounting practices between companies listed on the stock exchange and Thai SMEs. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. The finding found that almost all of the companies used traditional management accounting techniques more than advanced management accounting techniques. Four management accounting techniques having no significant association with business characteristic were standard costing, job order costing, process costing. The barriers that Thai SMEs encountered were a lack of proper accounting system and the insufficient knowledge in management accounting of the accountants. The comparison results revealed that both companies listed on the stock exchange and Thai SMEs used traditional management accounting techniques more than advanced techniques.

Keywords: companies listed on the stock exchange, financial budget, management accounting, operating budget

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