Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3843

Search results for: tourism product

3843 Role of Tourism Cluster in Improvement of Economic Competitiveness of Georgia

Authors: Alexander Sharashenidze

Abstract:

This article discusses the role of tourism in the economics of Georgia, justifies the necessity of several governmental supporting tools for diversification of tourism product and increasing competitiveness. Tourism directions are characterized through discovering Georgian tourism potential, considering cultural and geographical features; tools of formating supplemental products and development opportunities of Tbilisi and, also regions are asserted in the case of conducting appropriate government policy. There are presented tools of suggesting innovative tourism products, improvement of service, decreasing taxes, also providing availability to them. The role of tourism cluster in improvement of national competitiveness is substantiated. Based on the analysis of competitive factors influencing the development of tourism cluster, conclusions are made, and recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: economic competitivness, enhancing competitiveness, Georgian economic, tourism cluster, tourism product

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
3842 An Assessment of Potentials, Challenges, and Opportunities of Ethiopian Cultural Centers for Tourism Product Development

Authors: Berie Abebe Getahun

Abstract:

The tourism sector has been identified by the Ethiopian government as one of the priority economic sectors and planned to make Ethiopia among the top five African destinations by 2020. It is obvious international tourism demand for Ethiopia lags behind other African countries like South Africa, Egypt, Morocco, Tanzania, and Kenya. Meanwhile, the number of international tourists’ arrival to Ethiopia increases continuously. The main purpose of this study was to find out potentials, challenges, and opportunities of Ethiopian Cultural Center for tourism product development. Therefore, an attempt has been made to identify potentials over which tourism product development can be enhanced, and opportunities that promote tourism product development in Ethiopia. To achieve this objective, data have been collected by using observation, interview and focus group discussion with selected informants working the ministry of tourism and culture. The collected data has been analyzed by transcribing materials, and by using thematic analysis method based on the research objective. Likewise, the analyzed data has been discussed in the context of prevailing literature. As revealed in finding, Ethiopian cultural center has untapped potential for tourism product development that includes: meetings, incentives, conferences, events, availability of concerned stakeholders and demand of visitors. On the other hand, lack of awareness about tourism product development, financial constraints, skilled manpower, absence of tour guiding service and interpretation of heritages have been identified as the major challenges that hindering tourism product development in the cultural center. Moreover, the growth of domestic tourism, distinctive presence and rich culture of Ethiopia, and policy of Ethiopia that promotes the growth and preservation of indigenous cultures are deemed important opportunities for tourism product development in the country. And lastly, conducting a research based on tourism product development, reviewing the existing marketing and promotion strategies, training manpower, working harmoniously with the concerned stakeholders, and a careful examination of opportunities present in order to best utilize resources were implications drawn for future intervention.

Keywords: challenges and opportunities of tourism, Ethiopian tourism potential, tourism product, tourism product development

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3841 Tourism in the Information Age

Authors: Suleyman Karacor

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to investigate tourism marketing in the information age because of the importance and sensitivity. In the twenty-first century as a result of today's the increasing competition and product diversification in the tourism sector, tourism businesses must take into account exogenous variables such as new technological developments, commercial experience and consumer demand. In the information age, tourist product consumers tend to reserve their leisure time and expenditure on more active opportunities for different experiences instead of living the same experience again. Increasing the number of agents in the tourism sector, travel opportunities offering different experiences and more intensive use of modern technology helps to present diversification of leisure activities for tourists. From the perspective of tourists, travel costs are still important for buying the touristic products but maintaining a high level of tourist satisfaction is also of increasing importance. Tourists tend to prefer activities that add value. A real tourist product must be able to create value and new priorities for tourists. Therefore this study aims to review recent significant developments in international tourism marketing research and practices. To this end, this study reviews tourism marketing-focused articles.

Keywords: information age, tourism marketing, tourism marketing mix, management

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3840 Internet as a Marketing Tool for Tourism Promotion

Authors: Emeka Okonkwo

Abstract:

The Information Technology (IT) has prevailed over all functions of strategic and operational management. The Internet (a product of information technology) has increasingly become a popular medium for marketing. This paper examines the potentials of Internet for tourism marketing. To achieve this, the paper x-rays the characteristics of tourism marketing and examines the application of the Internet in tourism marketing. It is argued that the use of Internet for tourism marketing will not only reach a broad audience and reduce the cost of transaction (by conventional methods used by travel agents in times past), but, will also alleviate the problems of identification, authentication and confirmation of travels/package tours by tourists as well as promotion of tourism industry.

Keywords: internet, marketing, tourism, tourism management

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3839 Relationship between Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions and Tourism Product Satisfaction

Authors: Thanawit Buafai, Siyathorn Khunon

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore the satisfaction levels of tourism product components on the island of Samui by studying the cultural dimension relationships of Hofsted’s classic theory. Both the six Hofsted cultural dimensions and tourism production satisfaction measures have been of interest worldwide. Therefore, the challenge of this study is to re-confirm previous research results in the ever-changing current contexts of the modern globalized business era. Self-rated questionnaires were employed to collect data from six nationalities of tourists in Samui, totaling 386 samples. The reliability of this research methodology was 0.967. Correlation was applied to analyze the relationships. The results indicate that Masculinity is significantly related to tourism destination satisfaction for every factor, while the other five cultural dimensions are related to some factors of tourism satisfaction. Surprisingly, tourist satisfaction toward the bar/restaurant factor is significantly correlated with all six cultural dimensions.

Keywords: cultural dimensions, tourism products, Samui, Thailand

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3838 Exploitation of Technology by the Tshwane Residence for Tourism Development Purposes

Authors: P. P. S. Sifolo, P. Tladi, J. Maimela

Abstract:

This article investigates technology used by Tshwane residents intended for tourism purposes. The aim is to contribute information to the Tshwane interested parties for planning and management concerning technology within the tourism sector. This study identified the types of tourist related technologies used by the Tshwane residents, be it for business purposes or personal use. The study connected the exploitation of technology for tourism purposes through unpacking the tourism sector as it utilizes technology. Quantitative research methodology was used whereby self-completed questionnaires were chosen as research instruments. The research study carried out a search for knowledge on technology for tourism and the Tshwane residents; however the study revealed that technology has certainly imprinted tourism massively because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Technology has assisted tourism businesses stay abreast of competition with ICT and because of that, SA is on the map as one the economically performing countries in Africa. Moreover, technology and tourism make a meaningful impact on job creation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Keywords: tourism, information and communication technology, Tshwane residents, technology for tourism

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3837 Developing Points of Attractions and Destinations: The Case Study of Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand

Authors: Panisa Panyalert

Abstract:

This research presents the tourism industry at Nakhon Sawan province in an aspect of developing points of attractions and destinations. The author attempts to empirically analyze the tourist destination, Nakhon Sawan, by using components of the tourism inventory include: attraction, accessibility, accommodation and amenity. An understanding of existing tourism product is very important in order to find out strength and weakness by comparing with the nearby well-known tourist destination, Phitsanulok province. Moreover, the hypothetical evolution of a tourist area will be utilized as a framework for indicating stages of the destination in relation to number of tourists. The study uses secondary data of number of tourist arrivals in Nakhon Sawan from 2008 to 2013 receiving from National Statistical Office and Nakhon Sawan Provincial Administration Organization (NPAO) in order to find the stage of destination development, and an in-depth interview with several open-ended questions would be preferred in order to get deep details of necessary data by video recording with ten respondents. The findings are concentrated on potential places and sites, existing tourism product, strength and weakness, and positioning to assist the province to be the destination of tourists’ mind.

Keywords: destination development, destination management, tourism inventory, tourism product

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3836 A Niche Sustainable Tourism Product: Stakeholder Perceptions on Sustainable Conference Tourism in Cyprus

Authors: Xenia I. Loizidou, Anthi Gavriel, Demetra Petsa

Abstract:

The tourism industry is a significant contributor to Cyprus's Gross Domestic Product. However, as the main tourism product is 'sun and sea', the industry is significantly unsustainable, with the majority of tourists (approx. 90%) concentrated in coastal areas over a short period of time, causing negative environmental, social, and economic impacts. The newly established Cypriot Deputy Ministry of Tourism aims to diversify the Cypriot tourism industry by focusing on the development of niche tourism products that will elongate the touristic season and divert visitors to inland mountainous and rural areas. In this respect, conference and event tourism is an ideal product for development. The current paper presents the results of fieldwork carried out between January and March 2020 in Cyprus, with key stakeholders within the conference and event tourism sector. The work consisted of a survey and semi-structured interviews to determine the current level of sustainability within the conference tourism sector, the main barriers to the sector's development, as well as key stakeholder insights and suggestions for measures to improve the sector's sustainability. The results suggest that there is a general lack of understanding of the negative economic, environmental and social impacts associated with the organization of conventional conferences and events, compared to the positive impacts of sustainable conferences/events. There also seems to be a lack of awareness of actions that can be taken to make the conference and event sector more sustainable. Incentives, marketing, branding, and training are identified as some of the effective means to improve the sustainability of the Cypriot conference and event sector, as is the development of country-wide sustainability policy and a review and enforcement of national waste management legislation. The research outputs will be utilized for the development of targeted toolkits, training, and awareness-raising activities that will drive Cyprus towards becoming an international sustainable tourism destination.

Keywords: conference, event, sustainability, tourism

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3835 Cultural Heritage Resources for Tourism, Two Countries – Two Approaches: A Comparative Analysis of Cultural Tourism Products in Turkey and Austria

Authors: Irfan Arikan, George Christian Steckenbauer

Abstract:

Turkey and Austria are examples for highly developed tourism destinations, where tourism providers use cultural heritage and regional natural resources to develop modern tourism products in order to be successful on increasingly competitive international tourism markets. The use and exploitation of these resources follow on the one hand international standards of tourism marketing (as ‘sustainability’). Therefore, we find highly comparable internationalized products in these destinations (like hotel products, museums, spas etc.). On the other hand, development standards and processes strongly depend on local, regional and national cultures, which influence the way how people work, cooperate, think and create. Thus, cultural factors also influence the attitude towards cultural heritage and natural resources and the way, how these resources are used for the creation of tourism products. This leads to differences in the development of tourism products on several levels: 1. In the selection of cultural heritage and natural resources for the product development process 2. In the processes, how tourism products are created 3. In the way, how providers and marketing organisations work with tourism products based on cultural heritage or natural resources. Aim of this paper is to discover differences in these dimensions by analysing and comparing examples of tourism products in Turkey and Austria, both countries with a highly developed, high professional tourism industry and rich experience of stakeholders in tourism industry in the field of product development and marketing. The cases are selected from the following fields: + Cultural tourism / heritage tourism + City tourism + Industrial heritage tourism + Nature and outdoor tourism + Health tourism The cases are analysed based on available secondary data (as several cases are scientifically described) and expert interviews with local and regional stakeholders of tourism industry and tourism experts. The available primary and secondary data will be analysed and displayed in a comparative structure that allows to derive answers to the above stated research question. The result of the project therefore will be a more precise picture about the influence of cultural differences on the use and exploitation of resources in the field of tourism that allows developing recommendations for tourism industry, which must be taken into consideration to assure cultural and natural resources are treated in a sustainable and responsible way. The authors will edit these culture-cross recommendations in form of a ‘check-list’ that can be used as a ‘guideline’ for tourism professionals in the field of product development and marketing and therefore connects theoretical research to the field of practical application and closes the gap between academic research and the field of tourism practice.

Keywords: cultural heritage, natural resources, Austria, Turkey

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3834 Sustainable Tourism at the Bedside of Local Development of a Rural Coastline Village: Taleza, Collo, Algeria

Authors: Sihem Ferah, Karima Messaoudi

Abstract:

Tourism is far from of being apprehended as a closed space limited to a defined area. The different experiences in the world have shown that tourism should be set up in the city, where locals can meet tourists, to know their history, tradition, culture, and relationship with the territory. In Algeria, the strategy employed in the context of promoting tourism is to integrate sustainable tourism based on a set of instruments such as the tourism expansion areas named ZET. Unfortunately, these areas have promoted the economic and environmental dimension, neglecting the social dimension which is the responsible of the community well–being. The case of Taleza village in Collo (characterized by its various potential) demonstrates clearly this paradox between the planned tourism in the ZET in Taleza as an economic product and the Tourism lived inside this local environment. When people by their genius and innovative action have succeeded to create an alternative tourism (social tourism) developed through guesthouses, sales of local products which have participated in promoting local Tourism Taleza. The aim of this research is to find a strong position between the planned space ZET and the village of Taleža where sustainable tourism can be installed that encourages the social membership, preservation of the natural heritage of Taleza and generates economic benefits that will ensure a local development of the village and will succeed in maintain sustainable tourism on its territory.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, local development, rural areas, tourism expansion zone

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3833 An Integrated Emergency Management System for the Tourism Industry in Oman

Authors: Majda Al Salti

Abstract:

Tourism industry is considered globally as one of the leading industries due to its noticeable contribution to countries' gross domestic product (GDP) and job creation. However, tourism is vulnerable to crisis and disaster that requires its preparedness. With its limited capabilities, there is a need to improve links and the understanding between the tourism industry and the emergency services, thus facilitating future emergency response to any potential incident. This study aims to develop the concept of an integrated emergency management system for the tourism industry. The study used face-to-face semi-structured interviews to evaluate the level of crisis and disaster preparedness of the tourism industry in Oman. The findings suggested that there is a lack of understanding of crisis and disaster management, and hence preparedness level among Oman Tourism Authorities appears to be under-expectation. Therefore, a clear need for tourism sector inter- and intra-integration and collaboration is important in the pre-disaster stage. The need for such integrations can help the tourism industry in Oman to prepare for future incidents as well as identifying its requirements in time of crisis for effective response.

Keywords: tourism, emergency services, crisis, disaster

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3832 Obstacles to Accessible Tourism for People with Mental, Physical and Mobility Disability: A Case Study of North Cyprus

Authors: Marjan Kamyabi

Abstract:

Attending tourism in the current century is one of the key factors in the success of the tourism industry and, consequently, the prosperity of the economies of the countries. In this regard, accessible tourism can play a major role in the development of tourism, taking into account the attractions, facilities and capabilities of the development of tourism in Northern Cyprus, and given that the satisfaction of tourists from the product and destination of tourism has an undeniable role in attracting tourists. The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental barriers and accessibility of the tourism industry in Northern Cyprus. Another goal of this study is to introduce this consumer group to the tourism community. In order to achieve the objectives of this paper, a questionnaire was designed and provided to three tourism professionals to assess the reliability, and then, among the 200 people with physical and mental disabilities who travelled to Cyprus, The data analysis was used as a confirmatory factor analysis method. The environmental barrier for tourists with disabilities is classified in three sections of transport, attractions and accommodation, each section being separately identified separately. In general, observance of the principles and standards of proper fitting in the main sectors of the tourism industry of Northern Cyprus in the situation The facilities and transportation were identified as the first problem and obstacle for the development of tourism for people with physical and mental disabilities and, finally, suggestions and solutions for the development of tourism for people with physical and physical disabilities were presented.

Keywords: accessible tourism, environmental barriers, tourism, people with disability, accessibility

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3831 Video Materials as a Persuasive Strategy in Tourism Discourse

Authors: Ganna Zakharova

Abstract:

The persuasive influence of tourism promotional materials is very much experienced nowadays. In order to attract the attention of viewers, marketers choose various techniques in their digital texts. Video is an essential element for attraction and seduction; it is a trigger element for tourists. This solution for web marketing engages and convinces potential tourists to book a tourism product. Embedding video materials into a website provides useful information, create different feelings in viewers, and help them finalize their decisions. The present article discusses video solutions for health tourism websites used to allure potential tourists. The paper reviews the influential elements of persuasive tourism marketing videos. The article highlights how these components as persuasive strategies of tourism promotional materials can influence the decisions of tourism websites’ users. The result section provides the real examples of the deployment of the mentioned technique to convince the audience by the website of 'Karpaty' resort (Ukraine). This technique is worth attention as it plays an important role in the promotion of tourism services. The data collection of this study will provide updated information in relation to the rhetoric of tourism.

Keywords: tourism discourse, persuasive video, influential videos in marketing, persuasive discourse, tourism promotion

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3830 A Conceptual Framework to Study Cognitive-Affective Destination Images of Thailand among French Tourists

Authors: Ketwadee Madden

Abstract:

Product or service image is among the vital factors that predict individuals’ choice of buying a product or services, goes to a place or attached to a person. Similarly, in the context of tourism, the destination image is a very important factor to which tourist considers before making their tour destination decisions. In light of this, the objective of this study is to conceptually investigate among French tourists, the determinants of Thailand’s tourism destination image. For this objective to be achieved, prior studies were reviewed, leading to the development of conceptual framework highlighting the determinants of destination image. In addition, this study develops some hypotheses that are to be empirically investigated. Aside these, based on the conceptual findings, suggestions on how to motivate European tourists to chose Thailand as their preferred tourism destination were made.

Keywords: cognitive destination image, affective destination image, motivations, risk perception, word of mouth

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3829 The Sustainable Cultural Tourism of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in Thailand

Authors: Narong Anurak

Abstract:

The objectives of the study were to determine the factors influencing tourists’ destination decision making for cultural tourism in the southern provinces, to examine the potential for developing cultural tourism and to guideline for marketing strategy for cultural tourism in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Both quantitative and qualitative data were applied in this study. The samples of 400 cases for quantitative analysis were tourists who were interested in cultural tourism in the southern provinces, and traveled to cultural sites in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Surat Thani, and Phuket, and 14 representatives from provincial tourism committee of Nakhon Si Thammarat. The study found that Thai and foreign tourists are influenced by different important marketing mix factors (7Ps) when making decisions for cultural tourism in southern provinces. The important factors for Thai respondents were physical evidence, price, people, and place at high importance level, whereas, product, process, and promotion were moderate importance level as well.

Keywords: marketing mix factors, Nakhon Si Thammarat province, sustainable cultural tourism, tourists decision making

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3828 Impact of Storytelling for Effective Marketing and Reputation Management of Heritage Tourism Destination with Special Reference to Haflong (Assam, India)

Authors: Rohit Sarin

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to prove the impact of storytelling for effective marketing and maintaining the reputation of the destination for long run. This notable aspect of heritage tourism is cultural exchange among the various communities who visit our country India. Every destination has a life cycle like the product known as destination life cycle. India is considered to be the hub of cultural heritage tourism; its cultural heritage tourism can be traced back to several centuries. Heritage tourism has gained the popularity of global cuisine activity. The statistics of 2014 reveals 903 million International Tourist in heritage tourism destination is done to know the impact of storytelling for their visit to particulars heritage tourism destination. SWOT analysis of the destination is undertaken for the research purpose. A collection of data from the travel agency was taken who visited the heritage tourism destination and were asked to fill questionnaire for the research purpose to know the impact of storytelling for their visit to destination. A total of 100 respondents filled the questionnaire. Likert scale was used in the paper also highlighted the scope, advantage and disadvantage of storytelling for effective marketing and reputation management.

Keywords: destination life cycle, heritage tourism, random sampling, reputation management, storytelling

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3827 Financial Problems Met in the Tourism Sector in Turkey: A Survey on the Tourism Businesses

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Mesut Murat Adabali

Abstract:

As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with tourism sector and legislators.

Keywords: financial problems, the problems of tourism businesses, tourism businesses, tourism sector in Turkey

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3826 Mechanism of Changing a Product Concept

Authors: Kiyohiro Yamazaki

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis explaining the mechanism in the case, where the product is deleted or reduced the fundamental function of the product through the product concept changes in the digital camera industry. This paper points out not owning the fundamental technology might cause the change of the product concept. Casio could create new competitive factor so that this paper discusses a possibility of the mechanism of changing the product concept.

Keywords: firm without fundamental technology, product development, product concept, digital camera industry, Casio

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3825 Outline of a Technique for the Recommendation of Tourism Products in Cuba Using GIS

Authors: Jesse D. Cano, Marlon J. Remedios

Abstract:

Cuban tourism has developed so much in the last 30 years to the point of becoming one of the engines of the Cuban economy. With such a development, Cuban companies opting for e-tourism as a way to publicize their products and attract customers has also grown. Despite this fact, the majority of Cuban tourism-themed websites simply provide information on the different products and services they offer which results in many cases, in the user getting overwhelmed with the amount of information available which results in the user abandoning the search before he can find a product that fits his needs. Customization has been recognized as a critical factor for successful electronic tourism business and the use of recommender systems is the best approach to address the problem of personalization. This paper aims to outline a preliminary technique to obtain predictions about which products a particular user would give a better evaluation; these products would be those which the website would show in the first place. To achieve this, the theoretical elements of the Cuban tourism environment are discussed; recommendation systems and geographic information systems as tools for information representation are also discussed. Finally, for each structural component identified, we define a set of rules that allows obtaining an electronic tourism system that handles the personalization of the service provided effectively.

Keywords: geographic information system, technique, tourism products, recommendation

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3824 Interest Rate of Managers and Tourism Officials over E-Tourism Development: Case Study of Lenjan City

Authors: Akram Shahriyari, Reza Mokhtari Malek Abadi

Abstract:

E-tourism is among the issues that have recently been entered into the field of tourism. In order to achieve this type of tourism, Information and Communications Technology (or ICT) infrastructures as well as Co-governmental organizations and tourism resources are important. In this study, the opinions of managers and tourism officials about the e-tourism in Lenjan city were measured; it also surveyed the impact of level of digital literacy of managers and tourism officials on attracting tourists in Lenjan city. This study was conducted in Lenjan, one of the environs of the Esfahan province. This study is a documentary – survey and the sources include library resources and also questionnaires. The results obtained indicate that if managers use ICT, it may help e-tourism to be developed in the region, and increasing managers’ beliefs on e-tourism and upgrading their level of digital literacy may affect e-tourism development.

Keywords: ICT, e-tourism, opinion of managers and officials, Lejnan

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3823 Wine Tourism in Rural Russia: Perceptions of Vineyard Managers

Authors: Jeremy Schultz

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of vineyard managers in the Krasnodar Region of Southern Russia located between the city of Kransnodar and the Black Sea. In recent years, wine tourism throughout the region has seen tremendous growth due in part to the concurrent growth in the number of tourists vacationing at the Black Sea. This trend has contributed to the development of large-scale wine operations developing in numerous rural locations along the tourists’ travel path. Niche areas of tourism, such as wine tourism, have proven to provide economic viability for rural communities all around the world. Understanding their shared group characteristics while honoring their unique qualities as individuals aids in responsible wine tourism development that provides a sense of well-being for the communities and stakeholders involved. Semi-structured interviews and lived experience methodologies were used in locations that were associated with wine food tourism operations. By understanding management perspectives, it lends insight into sustainable destination management and wine tourism product development, furthering our progress toward ethical, responsible, and financially feasible operations. This research also represents a collaborative effort between Russia and the United States that supports an agenda of sustainable destination development and management. As a global community, we need to continue to investigate stakeholder perceptions and strategic management techniques that best support the pillars upon which responsible tourism was founded.

Keywords: wine tourism, tourism development, Russia, rural tourism

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3822 Dark Tourism and Local Development. Creating a Dark Urban Route

Authors: Christos N. Tsironis, Loanna Mitaftsi

Abstract:

Currently, the various forms of tours and touristic visits to destinations associated with the “dark” facets of the past constitute one of the most dynamic fields of touristic initiatives and economic development. This analysis focuses on the potential development of urban dark routes. It aims a) to shed light to touristic, social, and ethical considerations and to describe some of the trends and links combining heritage and dark tourism in post-pandemic societies and b) to explore the possibilities of developing a new and polymorphic form of dark tourism in Thessaloniki, Greece, a distinctive heritage destination. The analysis concludes with a detailed dark route designed to serve a new, polymorphic and sustainable touristic product that describes a dark past with places, sights, and monuments and narrates stories and events stigmatized by death, disaster, and violence throughout the city’s history.

Keywords: dark tourism, dark urban route, local development, polymorphic tourism

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3821 Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh Rituals as Creative Cultural Product in Tourism; Case Study: Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Neda Torabi Farsani, Mohammad Mortazavi, Maryam Masaeli

Abstract:

Nowadays intangible heritage as a creative product plays an important role in promoting tourism. The intangible heritage is transmitted from past generation to the present and future generation and constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, nature and history. In recent decade, intangible heritage especially Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh rituals as creative cultural product attract many tourists to a destination and they well-known as tourist attractions in Iran. The study was conducted in Isfahan city. This research has two major purposes: 1) to introduce Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual as tourist attraction and, 2) to investigate the attitude of domestic tourists towards Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual in Isfahan city. On the basis of the results of this study, it can be concluded that the domestic tourists are interested in gaining experience and increasing their knowledge in Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual.

Keywords: Isfahan, Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual, tourist attitude, Iran

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3820 Methodologies for Management of Sustainable Tourism: A Case Study in Jalapão/to/Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska C. Dutra, Afonso R. Aquino

Abstract:

The study is in application and analysis of two tourism management tools that can contribute to making public managers decision: the Barometer of Tourism Sustainability (BTS) and the Ecological Footprint (EF). The results have shown that BTS allows you to have an integrated view of the tourism system, awakening to the need for planning of appropriate actions so that it can achieve the positive scale proposed (potentially sustainable). Already the methodology of ecological tourism footprint is an important tool to measure potential impacts generated by tourism to tourist reality.

Keywords: barometer of tourism sustainability, ecological footprint of tourism, Jalapão/Brazil, sustainable tourism

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3819 Examining the Perceptions of Religious Stakeholders towards Religious Tourism Development

Authors: Katerina Pericleous, Zanet Garanti

Abstract:

Traveling for religious and pilgrimage purposes consist of an early-stage motivation for the historical development of tourism. Sacred places become important attractions for local and foreign visitors, and many countries invest on the development of religious and pilgrimage tourism. Cyprus has a rich tradition as an important place for the establishment and diffusion of the Christian Orthodox Religion (Greek). Being considered the ‘island of Saints’, Cyprus sets strong foundations to be recognised as a spiritual destination of devotion for visitors interested in discovering the roots and the spiritual essence of the Christian Orthodox Religion. The paper elucidates on bringing together the fact whether tourism in sacred places affect the spirituality and religiosity. Thus, the aim is to consider the perceptions of main religious stakeholders, including monastery abbots, in relation to the development of religious tourism. The aim of the study is fulfilled by incorporating questionnaires targeting the responses of the involved religious key players and stakeholders. The results of the study are indicative and provide an understanding in terms of religious tourism as an important product by interpreting the stance of religious stakeholders. In general, religious leaders support tourism in religious sites and argue that spirituality and holiness can be maintained as long there is a policy that is followed both by religious and tourism policy makers. Undoubtedly, establishing Cyprus as a religious tourism destination would bring many economic and social benefits.

Keywords: religious tourism, cyprus, Christian orthodox religion, monasteries

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3818 Product Line Design with Customization in the Presence of Demand Uncertainty

Authors: Parisa Bagheri Tookanlou

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze a product line design problem faced by a manufacturing firm where the product line consists of a customized product in addition to a standard product and is offered in a market in which customers are heterogeneous on aesthetic attributes of the product. The customization level of a product is defined by the fraction of aesthetic attributes of the product that the manufacturer chooses to customize. In contrast to the existing literature on product line design that predominantly assumes deterministic demand, we consider the presence of demand uncertainty and frame the product line design problem in a single period (news vendor) setting. We examine the effect of demand uncertainty on product line decisions. Furthermore, we also examine how product line decisions are influenced by channel structure. While we use the centralized channel as a benchmark, we consider the decentralized dual channel where the customized product is sold through an online channel owned by the manufacturer and the standard product is sold through a retailer. We introduce a supply contract between the manufacturer and the retailer for improving channel efficiency and coordinate the distribution channel.

Keywords: product line design, demand uncertainty, customization level, distribution channel

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3817 Coastal Environment: Statistical Analysis and Geomorphic Impact on Urban Tourism in Lagos, Portugal

Authors: Magdalena Kuleta

Abstract:

Ponta de Piedade (37º05 ' N, 08º40 ' W) is an area located in the southern part of the Lagos municipality, which include an abrasive and accumulative type of coastline. It is the one of the main touristic destinations of the city. The dynamic development of the attractiveness of the coast, is related with the expansion of the new tourism infrastructure and urban tourism products. These products are: transportation, sightseeing and entertainment in the form of the boat trips. Each type of excursion refers to the different product. This progress brings also many risks associated primarily with landslides cliffs. Natural conditions affecting the coast, create a huge impact on the evolution of urban tourism management. Based on observation, statistical analysis and survey method, author compare the period of six years from 2012 to 2016 in terms of the number of tourists, number and diversity of attractions, most frequently dialled products and infrastructure changes in the city. Carried methodology is based on data belonging to Turismo Portugal and the tourist company Days of Adventure. Main result, is to indicate the essence of the income from coastal tourism into the city development and how does it influence on the marketing and promoting of urban tourism in Lagos.

Keywords: geomorphology of the coast in Lagos, market and promotion, quality of tourism service, urban tourism products

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3816 Marketing Mix for Tourism in the Chonburi Province

Authors: Pisit Potjanajaruwit

Abstract:

The objectives of the study were to determine the marketing mix factors that influencing tourist’s destination decision making for cultural tourism in the Chonburi province. Both quantitative and qualitative data were applied in this study. The samples of 400 cases for quantitative analysis were tourists (both Thai and foreign) who were interested in cultural tourism in the Chonburi province, and traveled to cultural sites in Chonburi and 14 representatives from provincial tourism committee of Chonburi and local tourism experts. Statistics utilized in this research included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and multiple regression analysis. The study found that Thai and foreign tourists are influenced by different important marketing mix factors. The important factors for Thai respondents were physical evidence, price, people, and place at high importance level. For foreign respondents, physical evidence, price, people, and process were high importance level, whereas, product, place, and promotion were moderate importance level.

Keywords: Chonburi Province, decision making, cultural tourism, marketing mixed

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3815 Product Development Process to Obtain Community Standard Product Certificate: A Case of Bangkhonthi, Samut Songkhram, Thailand

Authors: Supattra Pranee

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to study the product development process to obtain a community standard product certificate and to set a guideline for the product development process to obtain the community product certificate. Focus group discussion was conducted with many experts in the field, local government officials, and representatives from local producers in Bangkontee district. The findings revealed that there were eight important processes to obtain the community product certificate: 1) prepare document, 2) submit the document, 3) set up an appointment for onsite inspection, 4) onsite inspection and sample collections, 5) evaluate samples, 6) obtain test result, and 7) obtain certificate.

Keywords: perceived values, tourist destination, visiting, product development

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3814 Sustainable Tourism from a Multicriteria Analysis Perspective

Authors: Olga Blasco-Blasco, Vicente Liern

Abstract:

The development of tourism since the mid-20th century has raised problems of overcrowding, indiscriminate construction in seaside areas and gentrification. Increasingly, the World Tourism Organisation and public institutions are promoting policies that encourage sustainability. From the perspective of sustainability, three types of tourism can be established: traditional tourism, sustainable tourism and sustainable impact tourism. Measuring sustainability is complex due to its multiple dimensions of different relative importance and diversity in nature. In order to try to answer this problem and to identify the benefits of applying policies that promote sustainable tourism, a decision-making analysis will be carried out through the application of a multicriteria analysis method. The proposal is applied to hotel reservations and to the evaluation and management of tourism sustainability in the Spanish Autonomous Communities.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, multicriteria analysis, flexible optimization, composite indicators

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