Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 86

Search results for: hematologic malignancies

86 Design and Synthesis of Some Pyrimidine Derivatives as Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Hematologic Malignancies

Authors: Ibrahim M. Labouta, Gina N. Tageldin, Salwa M. Fahmy, Hayam M. Ashour, Mounir A. Khalil, Tamer M. Ibrahim, Nefertiti A. El-Nikhely

Abstract:

Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical effector molecule in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling transduction. It regulates B cell proliferation, development and survival. Since BTK is widely expressed in many B cell leukaemias and lymphomas, targeting BTK by small molecules inhibitors became an attractive idea as new treatment modalities for B cell mediated hematologic malignancies. Ibrutinib is the 1st generation BTK inhibitor, approved by FDA for treatment of relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It binds irreversibly to the unique cysteine (Cys481) within the ATP-binding pocket of BTK. Besides ibrutinib, many irreversible covalent BTK inhibitors comprising pyrimidine nucleus such as spebrutinib (phase IIb) showed high selectivity and potency when compared to it. In this study, the designed compounds were based on 5-cyano-2-methylsulfanyl pyrimidine core and decorated with electrophilic warheads which are essential for the optimal activity for targeted covalent inhibition (TCI). However, modifications at pyrimidine C4 or C6 were made by introduction of substituted amines which are provided to behave differently. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their anticancer activity in leukemia cell lines (e.g. THP-1). Results showed that, some derivatives exhibited antiproliferative activity with IC50 ranged from 5-50 μM, The in vitro enzymatic inhibitory assay for these compounds against BTK is still under investigation. Nevertheless, we could conclude from the initial biological screening that, the synthesized 4 or 6-subsitituted aminopyrimidines represent promising and novel antileukemic agents. Meanwhile, further studies are still needed to attribute this activity through targeting BTK enzyme and inhibition of BCR signaling pathway.

Keywords: BTK inhibitors, hematologic malignancies, structure based drug design (SBDD), targeted covalent inhibitors (TCI)

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85 Prognosis of Patients with COVID-19 and Hematologic Malignancies

Authors: Elizabeth Behrens, Anne Timmermann, Alexander Yerkan, Joshua Thomas, Deborah Katz, Agne Paner, Melissa Larson, Shivi Jain, Seo-Hyun Kim, Celalettin Ustun, Ankur Varma, Parameswaran Venugopal, Jamile Shammo

Abstract:

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) causes persistent concern for poor outcomes in vulnerable populations. Patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) have been found to have higher COVID-19 case fatality rates compared to those without malignancy. While cytopenias are common in patients with HM, especially in those undergoing chemotherapy treatment, hemoglobin (Hgb) and platelet count have not yet been studied, to our best knowledge, as potential prognostic indicators for patients with HM and COVID-19. The goal of this study is to identify factors that may increase the risk of mortality in patients with HM and COVID-19. In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, 65 patients with HM and laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were identified between March 2020 and January 2021. Information on demographics, laboratory data the day of COVID-19 diagnosis, and prognosis was extracted from the electronic medical record (EMR), chart reviewed, and analyzed using the statistical software SAS version 9.4. Chi-square testing was used for categorical variable analyses. Risk factors associated with mortality were established by logistic regression models. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (37%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (20%), and plasma cell dyscrasia (15%) were the most common HM. Higher Hgb level upon COVID-19 diagnosis was related to decreased mortality, odd ratio=0.704 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.511-0.969; P = .0263). Platelet count the day of COVID-19 diagnosis was lower in patients who ultimately died (mean 127 ± 72K/uL, n=10) compared to patients who survived (mean 197 ±92K/uL, n=55) (P=.0258). Female sex was related to decreased mortality, odd ratio=0.143 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.026-0.785; P = .0353). There was no mortality difference between the patients who were on treatment for HM the day of COVID-19 diagnosis compared to those who were not (P=1.000). Lower Hgb and male sex are independent risk factors associated with increased mortality of HM patients with COVID-19. Clinicians should be especially attentive to patients with HM and COVID-19 who present with cytopenias. Larger multi-center studies are urgently needed to further investigate the impact of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and demographics on outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancies diagnosed with COVID-19.

Keywords: anemia, COVID-19, hematologic malignancy, prognosis

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84 Hospital Acquired Bloodstream Infections Among Patients With Hematological and Solid Malignancies: Epidemiology, Causative Pathogens and Mortality

Authors: Marah El-Beeli, Abdullah Balkhair, Zakaryia Al Muharmi, Samir Al Adawi, Mansoor Al-Jabri, Abdullah Al Rawahi, Hazaa Al Yahyae, Eman Al Balushi, Yahya M. Al-Farsi

Abstract:

The health care service and the anticancer chemotherapeutics has changed the natural history of cancer into manageable chronic disease and improve the cancer patient’s lifestyle and increase the survival time. Despite that, still, infection is the major dilemma opposing the cancer patient either because of the clinical presentation of the cancer type and impaired immune system or as a consequence of anticancer therapy. This study has been conducted to1) track changes in the epidemiology of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections among patients with malignancies in the last five years. 2) To explore the causative pathogens and 3) the outcome of HA-BSIs in patients with a different types of malignancies. An ampi-directional study (retrospective and prospective follow up) of patients with malignancies admitted at Sultan Qaboos University hospital (570-bed tertiary hospital) during the study period (from January 2015 to December 2019). The cumulative frequency and prevalence rates of HA-BSIs by patients and isolates were calculated. In addition, the cumulative frequency of participants with single versus mixed infections and types of causative micro-organisms of HA-BSIs were obtained. A total of 1246 event of HA-BSIs has occurred during the study period. Nearly the third (30.25%) of the HA-BSI events was identified among 288 patients with malignancies. About 20% of cases were mixed infections (more than one isolate). Staphylococcus spp were the predominant isolated pathogen (24.7%), followed by Klebsiella spp (15.8%), Escherichia spp (13%), and Pseudomonas spp (9.3%). About half (51%) of cases died in the same year, and (64%) of the deaths occur within two weeks after the infection. According to the observations, no changes in the trends of epidemiology, causative pathogens, morbidity, and mortality rates in the last five years.

Keywords: epidemiology, haematological malignancies, hospital acquired bloodstream infections, solid malignancies

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83 Trends in the Incidence of Bloodstream Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies in the Period 1991–2012

Authors: V. N. Chebotkevich, E. E. Schetinkina, V. V. Burylev, E. I. Kaytandzhan, N. P. Stizhak

Abstract:

Objective: Blood stream infections (BSI) are severe, life-threatening illness for immuno compromised patients with hematological malignancies. We report the trend in blood-stream infections in this group of patients in the period 1991-2013. Methods: A total of 4742 blood samples investigated. All blood cultures were incubated in a continuous monitoring system for 7 days before discarding negative. On signaled positive, organism was identified by conventional methods. The Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the indication of human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Results: Between 1991 and 2001 the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus) being the most common germs isolated (70,9%) were as Gram-negative rods (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp.) – 29,1%. In next decade 2002-2012 the number of Gram-negative bacteria was increased up to 40.2%. It is shown that the incidence of bacteremia was significantly more frequent at the background of detectable Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus-specific DNA in blood. Over recent years, an increased frequency of micro mycetes was registered in blood of the patients with hematological malignancies (Candida spp. was predominant). Conclusion: Accurate and timely detection of BSI is important in determining appropriate treatment of infectious complications in patients with hematological malignancies. The isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from blood cultures remains a clinical dilemma for physicians and microbiologists. But in many cases this agent is of the clinical significance in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. The role of CMV and EBV in development of bacteremia was demonstrated.

Keywords: infectious complications, blood stream infections, bacteremia, hemoblastosis

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82 Risk of Mortality and Spectrum of Second Primary Malignancies in Mantle Cell Lymphoma before and after Ibrutinib Approval: A Population-Based Study

Authors: Karthik Chamari, Vasudha Rudraraju, Gaurav Chaudhari

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Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the mature B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The course of MCL is moderately aggressive and variable, and it has median overall survival of 8 to 10 years. Ibrutinib, a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration in November of 2013 for the treatment of MCL patients who have received at least one prior therapy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether there has been a change in survival and patterns of second primary malignancies (SPMs) among the MCL population in the US after ibrutinib approval. Methods: Using the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18, we conducted a retrospective study with patients diagnosed with MCL (ICD-0-3 code 9673/3) between 2007 and 2018. We divided patients into two six-year cohorts, pre-ibrutinib approval (2007-2012) and post-ibrutinib approval (2013-2018), and compared relative survival rates (RSRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPMs between cohorts. Results: We included 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL between 2007 and 2018 in the SEER-18 survival and SIR registries. Of these, 4,205 (45%) patients were included in the pre-ibrutinib cohort, and 5052 (55%) patients were included in the post-ibrutinib cohort. The median follow-up duration for the pre-ibrutinib cohort was 54 months (range 0 to 143 months), and the post-ibrutinib cohort was 20 months (range 0 to 71 months). There was a significant difference in the five-year RSRs between pre-ibrutinib and post-ibrutinib cohorts (57.5% vs. 62.6%, p < 0.005). Out of the 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL, 920 developed SPMs. A higher proportion of SPMs occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (63%) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (37%). Non-hematological malignancies comprised most of all SPMs. A higher incidence of non-hematological malignancies occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.56) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.14, 95% CI 1 to 1.3). There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of cancers of the respiratory tract (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.18), urinary tract (SIR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.06) when compared with other non-hematological malignancies in post-ibrutinib cohort. Conclusions: Our study results suggest the relative survival rates have increased since the approval of ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma patients. Additionally, for some unclear reasons, the incidence of SPM’s (non-hematological malignancies), mainly cancers of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, have increased in the six years following the approval of ibrutinib. Further studies should be conducted to determine the cause of these findings.

Keywords: mantle cell lymphoma, Ibrutinib, relative survival analysis, secondary primary cancers

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81 Immature Platelet Fraction and Immature Reticulocyte Fraction as Early Predictors of Hematopoietic Recovery Post Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Aditi Mittal, Nishit Gupta, Tina Dadu, Anil Handoo

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Introduction: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment done for hematologic malignancies and other clinical conditions. Its main objective is to reconstitute the hematopoietic system of the recipient by administering an infusion of donor hematopoietic stem cells. Transplant engraftment is the first sign of bone marrow recovery. The main objective of this study is to assess immature platelet fraction (IPF) and immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) as early indicators of post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant engraftment. Methods: Patients of all age groups and both genders undergoing both autologous and allogeneic transplants were included in the study. All the CBC samples were run on Mindray CAL-8000 (BC-6800 plus; Shenzhen, China) analyser and assessed for IPF and IRF. Neutrophil engraftment was defined as the first of three consecutive days with an ANC >0.5 x 109/L and platelet engraftment with a count >20 x 109/L. The cut-off values for IRF were calculated as 13.5% with a CV of 5% and for IPF was 19% with a CV of 12%. Results: The study sample comprised 200 patients, of whom 116 had undergone autologous HSCT, and 84 had undergone allogeneic HSCT. We observed that IRF anticipated the neutrophil recovery by an average of 5 days prior to IPF. Though there was no significant variation in IPF and IRF for the prediction of platelet recovery, IRF was preceded by 1 or 2 days to IPF in 25% of cases. Conclusions: Both IPF and IRF can be used as reliable parameters as predictors for post-transplant engraftment; however, IRF seems to be more reliable than IPF as a simple, inexpensive, and widely available tool for predicting marrow recovery several days before engraftment.

Keywords: transplantation, stem cells, reticulocyte, engraftment

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80 Hematologic Inflammatory Markers and Inflammation-Related Hepatokines in Pediatric Obesity

Authors: Mustafa Metin Donma, Orkide Donma

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Obesity in children particularly draws attention because it may threaten the individual’s future life due to many chronic diseases it may lead to. Most of these diseases, including obesity itself altogether are related to inflammation. For this reason, inflammation-related parameters gain importance. Within this context, complete blood cell counts, ratios or indices derived from these counts have recently found some platform to be used as inflammatory markers. So far, mostly adipokines were investigated within the field of obesity. The liver is at the center of the metabolic pathways network. Metabolic inflammation is closely associated with cellular dysfunction. In this study, hematologic inflammatory markers and two major hepatokines, cytokines produced predominantly by the liver, fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) and fetuin A were investigated in pediatric obesity. Two groups were constituted from seventy-six obese children based on World Health Organization criteria. Group 1 was composed of children whose age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (BMI) percentiles were between 95 and 99. Group 2 consists of children who are above the 99ᵗʰ percentile. The first and the latter groups were defined as obese (OB) and morbid obese (MO). Anthropometric measurements of the children were performed. Informed consent forms and the approval of the institutional ethics committee were obtained. Blood cell counts and ratios were determined by an automated hematology analyzer. The related ratios and indexes were calculated. Statistical evaluation of the data was performed by the SPSS program. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of neutrophil-to lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-to-high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio between the groups. Mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width values were decreased (p<0.05), total platelet count, red cell distribution width (RDW) and systemic immune inflammation index values were increased (p<0.01) in MO group. Both hepatokines were increased in the same group; however, increases were not statistically significant. In this group, also a strong correlation was calculated between FGF-21 and RDW when controlled by age, hematocrit, iron and ferritin (r=0.425; p<0.01). In conclusion, the association between RDW, a hematologic inflammatory marker, and FGF-21, an inflammation-related hepatokine, found in MO group is an important finding discriminating between OB and MO children. This association is even more powerful when controlled by age and iron-related parameters.

Keywords: childhood obesity, fetuin A , fibroblast growth factor-21, hematologic markers, red cell distribution width

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79 Potential Drug-Drug Interactions at a Referral Hematology-Oncology Ward in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Shirinsadat Badri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Iman Karimzadeh, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

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Purpose: To assess the pattern and probable risk factors for moderate and major drug–drug interactions in a referral hematology-oncology ward in Iran. Methods: All patients admitted to hematology–oncology ward of Dr. Shariati Hospital during a 6-month period and received at least two anti-cancer or non-anti-cancer medications simultaneously were included. All being scheduled anti-cancer and non-anti-cancer medications both prescribed and administered during ward stay were considered for drug–drug interaction screening by Lexi-Interact On- Desktop software. Results: One hundred and eighty-five drug–drug interactions with moderate or major severity were detected from 83 patients. Most of drug–drug interactions (69.73 %) were classified as pharmacokinetics. Fluconazole (25.95 %) was the most commonly offending medication in drug–drug interactions. Interaction of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with fluconazole was the most common drug–drug interaction (27.27 %). Vincristine with imatinib was the only identified interaction between two anti-cancer agents. The number of administered medications during ward stay was considered as an independent risk factor for developing a drug–drug interaction. Conclusions: Potential moderate or major drug–drug interactions occur frequently in patients with hematological malignancies or related diseases. Performing larger standard studies are required to assess the real clinical and economical effects of drug–drug interactions on patients with hematological and non-hematological malignancies.

Keywords: drug–drug interactions, hematology–oncology ward, hematological malignancies

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78 Neurological Complications Related to Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy under Anesthesia

Authors: Behzad Sinaei, Shahryar Sane, Behzad Kazemi Haki

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Children with different malignancies usually experience potential neurologic complications when treated with radiation therapy, especially if under frequent anesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurologic problems associated with anesthesia in pediatrics treated with radiotherapy under anesthesia. The study was a cross-sectional experiment that consisted of 133 pediatric patients with different malignancies who needed anesthesia for performing radiotherapy and were referred to Omid Charity Hospital and Imam Khomeini University Hospital from 2014 to 2020 by the census. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant (P-value < 0.05). Anesthesia complications in this study were slight and insignificant. Some were due to the effects of the tumor on other important organs or either previous radiation therapy or chemotherapy. For safe anesthesia, considering the effects of tumors on body organs and the neurological complications they cause can greatly help reduce anesthesia complications in pediatrics under radiation therapy.

Keywords: anesthesia, neurologic complications, pediatrics, radiotherapy

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77 Hematological Malignancies in Children and Parental Occupational Exposure

Authors: H. Kalboussi, A. Aloui, W. Boughattas, M. Maoua, A. Brahem, S. Chatti, O. El Maalel, F. Debbabi, N. Mrizak, Y. Ben Youssef, A. Khlif, I. Bougmiza

Abstract:

Background: In recent decades, the incidence of children's hematological malignancies has been increasing worldwide including Tunisia. Their severity is reflected in the importance of the medical, social and economic impact. This increase remains fully unexplained, and the involvement of genetic, environmental and occupational factors is strongly suspected. Materials and Methods: Our study is a cross-sectional survey of the type case-control conducted in the University Hospital of Farhat Hached of Sousse during the period ranging between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012,and which included children with acute leukemia compared to children unharmed by neoplastic disease . Cases and controls were matched by age and gender. Our objective was to: - Describe the socio-occupational characteristics of the parents of children with acute leukemia. - Identify potential occupational factors implicated in the genesis of acute leukemia. Result: The number of acute leukemia cases in the Hematology Service and day hospital of the University Hospital of Farhat Hached during the study period was 66 cases divided into in 40 boys and 26 girls with a sex ratio of 1.53. Our cases and controls were matched by age and gender. The risk of incidence of leukemia in children from smoking fathers was higher (p = 0.02, OR = 2.24, IC = [1.11 - 4.52]). The risk of incidence of leukemia in children from alcoholic fathers was higher with p = 0,009, OR = 3.9; CI = [1.33 - 11.39]. After adjusting different variables, the difference persisted significantly with pa = 0.03 and ORa = 3.5; ICa = [1.09 -11.6]. 25.7 % of cases had a family history of blood disease and neoplasia, whereas no control presented that. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.006), OR = 1.46, IC = [1.38 - 1.56]. The parental occupational exposures associated to the occurrence of acute leukemia in children were: - Pesticides with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.03), OR = 2.94, IC = [1.06 - 8.13]. This difference persisted after adjustment with different variables pa = 0.01, ORa 3.75; ICa = [1.27 - 11.03]. - Cement without a statistically non-significant difference (p = 0.2). This difference has become significant after adjustment with the different variables pa = 0.03; ORa = 2.67; ICa = [1.06 - 6.7]. Conclusion: Parental exposure to occupational risk factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute leukemia in children.

Keywords: hematological malignancies, children, parents, occupational exposure

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76 Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma in an HIV-Positive Patient: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Roland Benedict Reyes, Marc Edsel Ayes, Regina Berba, Cybele Lara Abad

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Background: Three AIDS-defining malignancies have been associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cervical carcinoma. However, new cases of non-AIDS defining malignancies also have been increasingly associated with HIV. One of these is a rare intracranial malignancy, meningeal hemangiopericyotma. Case Description: A 32-year old HIV-positive male, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy, was admitted to our hospital due to generalized weakness and sudden onset hearing loss. Cranial MRI was done, which revealed a temporal nodule with the following considerations: granuloma, meningioma or metastases. A craniotomy was performed and the mass excised. Results from the biopsy showed meningeal hemangiopericytoma. The patient was then started on antiretroviral therapy (Lamivudine, Tenofovir, and Efavirenz) and was discharged for radiation therapy and metastatic work-up as an outpatient. On follow-up seven months later, metastatic work up revealed multiple hepatic foci not previously documented suggestive of metastasis short of biopsy sampling. Conclusions: This case of an intracranial hemangiopericytoma in an HIV-positive patient is the second case thus far presented, based on our systematic and extensive search of the literature.

Keywords: Hemangiopericytoma, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Meningeal hemangiopericytoma, Neoplasm

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75 Transplant Oncology: An Evolution Field of Treating Cancer by Transplantation

Authors: Maen Abdelrahim, Abdullah Esmail

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Transplant oncology is an emerging concept of cancer treatment with a promising prospective outcome. The application of oncology, transplant medicine, and surgery to improve patients’ survival and quality of life is the core of transplant oncology. Hepatobiliary malignancies have been treated by liver transplantation (LT) with significant improved outcome. In addition, as the liver is the most common site of metastasis for colorectal cancer (CRC), patients with CRC who have stable unresectable liver metastases are good candidates for LT, and initial studies have shown improved survival compared to palliative systemic therapy. The indications of LT for hepatobiliary malignancies have been slowly expanded over the years in a stepwise manner; however, they have only been shown to improve patient survival in the setting of limited systemic therapy options. This review illustrates the concept and history of transplant oncology as an evolving field for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic biliary cancer, and liver-only metastasis of non-hepatobiliary carcinoma. The utility of immunotherapy in the transplant setting will be discussed as well as the feasibility of using circulating tumor DNA for surveillance post-transplantation.

Keywords: transplant oncology, liver transplantation, cholangiocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, liver metastases, hepatocellular carcinoma, circulating tumor DNA, colorectal cancers, immunotherapy

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74 The Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the Expression of Muc1 and P65 in a Cervical Cancer Cell Line, HCS-2

Authors: K. R. Thabethe, G. A. Adefolaju, M. J. Hosie

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Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer globally and it is one of three AIDS defining malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs and has been shown to play a significant role in reducing the incidence of some AIDS defining malignancies, although its effect on cervical cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer and HAART. This was achieved by studying the expression of two signalling molecules expressed in cervical cancer; MUC1 and P65. Following the 24 hour treatment of a cervical cancer cell line, HCS-2, with drugs which are commonly used as part of HAART at their clinical plasma concentrations, real-time qPCR and immunofluorescence were used in order to study gene and protein expression. A one way ANOVA followed by a Tukey Kramer Post Hoc test was conducted using JMP 11 software on both sets of data. The drug classified as a protease inhibitor (PI) (i.e. LPV/r) reduced MUC1 and P65 gene and protein expression more than the other drug tested. PIs are known to play a significant role in cell death, therefore the cells were thought to be more susceptible to cell death following treatment with PIs. In conclusion, the drugs used, especially the PI showed some anticancer effects by facilitating cell death through decreased gene and protein expression of MUC1 and P65 and present promising agents for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cervical cancer, haart, MUC1, P65

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73 Neuromingeal Cryptococcosis Revealing IgA-λ Multiple Myeloma

Authors: L. Mtibaa, N. Baccouchi, S. Hannechi, R. Abid, R. Battikh, B. Jemli

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Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection which is commonly associated with an immune-compomised state, especially HIV infection. Rare cases of cryptococcosis have been reported in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and they are all at a late stage of the disease. However, the inaugural character of cryptococcosis revealing the MM at an early stage has never been reported to our best knowledge. We presented here a case of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis in a patient without any apparent underlying conditions, who has revealed IgA-λ MM. Early detection and treatment of cryptococcosis are essential to reduce morbidity and for a better outcome.

Keywords: Cryptococcosis, Cryptococcus, hematologic, malignancy

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72 Tc-99m MIBI Scintigraphy to Differentiate Malignant from Benign Lesions, Detected on Planar Bone Scan

Authors: Aniqa Jabeen

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Tc-99m MIBI (Technetium 99-methoxy-iso-butyl-isonitrile) scintigraphy to differentiate malignancies from benign lesions, which were detected on planar bone scans. Materials and Methods: 59 patients with bone lesions were enrolled in the study. The scintigraphic findings were compared with the clinical, radiological and the histological findings. Each patient initially underwent a three-phase bone scan with Tc-99m MDP (Methylene Diphosphonate) and if evidence of lesion found, the patient then underwent a dynamic and static MIBI scintigraphy after three to four days. The MDP and MIBI scans were evaluated visually and quantitatively. For quantitative analysis count ratios of lesions and contralateral normal side (L/C) were taken by region of interests drawn on scans. The Student T test was applied to assess the significant difference between benign and malignant lesions p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The MDP scans showed the increase tracer uptake, but there was no significant difference between benign and malignant uptake of the radiotracer. However significant difference (p-value 0.015), in uptake was seen in malignant (L/C = 3.51 ± 1.02) and benign lesion (L/C = 2.50±0.42) on MIBI scan. Three of thirty benign lesions did not show significant MIBI uptake. Seven malignant appeared as false negatives. Specificity of the scan was 86.66%, and its Negative Predictive Value (NPV) was 81.25% whereas the sensitivity of scan was 79.31%. In excluding the axial metastasis from the lesions, the sensitivity of MIBI scan increased to 91.66% and the NPV also increased to 92.85%. Conclusion: MIBI scintigraphy provides its usefulness by distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. MIBI also correctly identifies metastatic lesions. The negative predictive value of the scan points towards its ability to accurately diagnose the normal (benign) cases. However, biopsy remains the gold standard and a definitive diagnostic modality in musculoskeletal tumors. MIBI scan provides useful information in preoperative assessment and in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions.

Keywords: benign, malignancies, MDP bone scan, MIBI scintigraphy

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71 Factor Associated with Uncertainty Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Sandra Adarve, Jhon Osorio

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Uncertainty has been studied in patients with different types of cancer, except in patients with hematologic cancer and undergoing transplantation. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with uncertainty in adults patients with malignant hemato-oncology diseases who are scheduled to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation based on Merle Mishel´s Uncertainty theory. This was a cross-sectional study with an analytical purpose. The study sample included 50 patients with leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma selected by non-probability sampling by convenience and intention. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were measured. Mishel´s Scale of Uncertainty in Illness was used for the measurement of uncertainty. A bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the relationships and associations between the different variables and uncertainty level. For this analysis, the distribution of the uncertainty scale values was evaluated through the Shapiro-Wilk normality test to identify statistical tests to be used. A multivariate analysis was conducted through a logistic regression using step-by-step technique. Patients were 18-74 years old, with a mean age of 44.8. Over time, the disease course had a median of 9.5 months, an opportunity was found in the performance of the transplantation of < 20 days for 50% of the patients. Regarding the uncertainty scale, a mean score of 95.46 was identified. When the dimensions of the scale were analyzed, the mean score of the framework of stimuli was 25.6, of cognitive ability was 47.4 and structure providers was 22.8. Age was identified to correlate with the total uncertainty score (p=0.012). Additionally, a statistically significant difference was evidenced between different religious creeds and uncertainty score (p=0.023), education level (p=0.012), family history of cancer (p=0.001), the presence of comorbidities (p=0.023) and previous radiotherapy treatment (p=0.022). After performing logistic regression, previous radiotherapy treatment (OR=0.04 IC95% (0.004-0.48)) and family history of cancer (OR=30.7 IC95% (2.7-349)) were found to be factors associated with the high level of uncertainty. Uncertainty is present in high levels in patients who are going to be subjected to bone marrow transplantation, and it is the responsibility of the nurse to assess the levels of uncertainty and the presence of factors that may contribute to their presence. Once it has been valued, the uncertainty must be intervened from the identified associated factors, especially all those that have to do with the cognitive capacity. This implies the implementation and design of intervention strategies to improve the knowledge related to the disease and the therapeutic procedures to which the patients will be subjected. All interventions should favor the adaptation of these patients to their current experience and contribute to seeing uncertainty as an opportunity for growth and transcendence.

Keywords: hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, hematologic diseases, nursing, uncertainty

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70 Diagnosis of Avian Pathology in the East of Algeria

Authors: Khenenou Tarek, Benzaoui Hassina, Melizi Mohamed

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The diagnosis requires a background of current knowledge in the field and also complementary means in which the laboratory occupies the central place for a better investigation. A correct diagnosis allows to establish the most appropriate treatment as soon as possible and avoids both the economic losses associated with mortality and growth retardation often observed in poultry furthermore it may reduce the high cost of treatment. Epedemiologic survey, hematologic and histopathologic study’s are three aspects of diagnosis heavily used in both human and veterinary pathology and the advanced researches in human medicine would be exploited to be applied in veterinary medicine with given modification .Whereas, the diagnostic methods in the east of Algeria are limited to the clinical signs and necropsy finding. Therefore, the diagnosis is based simply on the success or the failure of the therapeutic methods (therapeutic diagnosis).

Keywords: chicken, diagnosis, hematology, histopathology

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69 Timely Palliative Screening and Interventions in Oncology

Authors: Jaci Marie Mastrandrea, Rosario Haro

Abstract:

Background: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends that healthcare institutions have established processes for integrating palliative care (PC) into cancer treatment and that all cancer patients be screened for PC needs upon initial diagnosis as well as throughout the entire continuum of care (National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2021). Early PC screening and intervention is directly associated with improved patient outcomes. The Sky Lakes Cancer Treatment Center (SLCTC) is an institution that has access to PC services yet does not have protocols in place for identifying patients with palliative needs or a standardized referral process. The aim of this quality improvement project was to improve early access to PC services by establishing a standardized screening and referral process for outpatient oncology patients. Method: The sample population included all adult patients with an oncology diagnosis who presented to the SLCTC for treatment during the project timeline. The “Palliative and Supportive Needs Assessment'' (PSNA) screening tool was developed from validated, evidence-based PC referral criteria. The tool was initially implemented using paper forms, and data was collected over a period of eight weeks. Patients were screened by nurses on the SLCTC oncology treatment team. Nurses responsible for screening patients received an educational inservice prior to implementation. Patients with a PSNA score of three or higher received an educational handout on the topic of PC and education about PC and symptom management. A score of five or higher indicates that PC referral is strongly recommended, and the patient’s EHR is flagged for the oncology provider to review orders for PC referral. The PSNA tool was approved by Sky Lakes administration for full integration into Epic-Beacon. The project lead collaborated with the Sky Lakes’ information systems team and representatives from Epic on the tool’s aesthetic and functionality within the Epic system. SLCTC nurses and physicians were educated on how to document the PSNA within Epic and where to view results. Results: Prior to the implementation of the PSNA screening tool, the SLCTC had zero referrals to PC in the past year, excluding referrals to hospice. Data was collected from the completed screening assessments of 100 patients under active treatment at the SLCTC. Seventy-three percent of patients met criteria for PC referral with a score greater than or equal to three. Of those patients who met referral criteria, 53.4% (39 patients) were referred for a palliative and supportive care consultation. Patients that were not referred to PC upon meeting criteria were flagged in EPIC for re-screening within one to three months. Patients with lung cancer, chronic hematologic malignancies, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal malignancy most frequently met the criteria for PC referral and scored highest overall on the scale of 0-12. Conclusion: The implementation of a standardized PC screening tool at the SLCTC significantly increased awareness of PC needs among cancer patients in the outpatient setting. Additionally, data derived from this quality improvement project supports the national recommendation for PC to be an integral component of cancer treatment across the entire continuum of care.

Keywords: oncology, palliative and supportive care, symptom management, outpatient oncology, palliative screening tool

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68 Imaging of Peritoneal Malignancies - A Pictorial Essay and Proposed Imaging Framework

Authors: T. Hennedige

Abstract:

Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of the extent of peritoneal disease, which in turn determines prognosis and treatment choice. Despite advances in imaging technology, assessment of the peritoneum remains relatively challenging secondary to its large surface area, complex anatomy, and variety of imaging modalities available. This poster will review the mechanisms of spread, namely intraperitoneal dissemination, directly along peritoneal pathways, haematogeneous dissemination, and lymphatic spread. This will be followed by a side-by-side pictorial comparison of the detection of peritoneal deposits using CT, MRI, and PET/CT, depicting the advantages and shortcomings of each modality. An imaging selection framework will then be presented, which may aid the clinician in selecting the appropriate imaging modality for the malignancy in question.

Keywords: imaging, CT, malignancy, MRI, peritoneum, PET

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67 Spontaneous Tumour Lysis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Rojith K. Balakrishnan

Abstract:

Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome is a constellation of electrolyte abnormalities and an acute renal failure which occurs in the setting of rapid cell turnover prior to the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. While spontaneous tumour lysis well-described in patients with Burkitt lymphoma, it is thought to occur less commonly in patients with other hematological malignancies. We present a case of forty-year-old female who presented with features of acute renal failure, on further evaluation turned out to be a newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia with spontaneous tumour lysis best of our knowledge only three cases of AML with spontaneous tumour lysis has reported world wide.

Keywords: AML, tumour lysis, renal failure, myeloid leukemia

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66 Overview and Pathophysiology of Radiation-Induced Breast Changes as a Consequence of Radiotherapy Toxicity

Authors: Monika Rezacova

Abstract:

Radiation-induced breast changes are a consequence of radiotherapy toxicity over the breast tissues either related to targeted breast cancer treatment or other thoracic malignancies (eg. lung cancer). This study has created an overview of different changes and their pathophysiology. The main conditions included were skin thickening, interstitial oedema, fat necrosis, dystrophic calcifications, skin retractions, glandular atrophy, breast fibrosis and radiation induced breast cancer. This study has performed focused literature search through multiple databases including pubmed, medline and embase. The study has reviewed English as well as non English publications. As a result of the literature the study provides comprehensive overview of radiation-induced breast changes and their pathophysiology with small focus on new development and prevention.

Keywords: radiotherapy toxicity, breast tissue changes, breast cancer treatment, radiation-induced breast changes

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65 A Rare Case of Acquired Benign Tracheoesophageal Fistula: Case Report and Literature Review

Authors: Sarah Bouayyad, Ajay Nigam, Meera Beena

Abstract:

Acquired benign tracheoesophageal fistula is a rare medical condition that usually results from trauma, foreign bodies, or granulomatous infections. This is an unusual presentation of a male patient with a history of laryngectomy who had had over a period of several years inappropriately and vigorously used valve cleaning brushes to clean tracheal secretions, which had led to the formation of a tracheoesophageal fistula. Due to the patient’s obsessive habit, we couldn’t manage him using conventional surgical methods. Instead, we opted for the placement of a salivary bypass tube, which yielded good results and recovery. To the best of our knowledge, no other case of similar etiology has been published. We would like to highlight the importance of appropriate patient selection and education prior to performing a tracheoesophageal puncture to avoid developing life-threatening complications as demonstrated in our case report.

Keywords: tracheoesophageal fistula, speech valve, endoscopic insertion of salivary bypass tube, head and neck malignancies

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64 Qualitative Analysis of Emotional Thoughts in the Perspective of Nurses Who Have Been Working Experience in Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Unit

Authors: Sevil Inal, Leman Yantiri, Meral Kelleci

Abstract:

Aim: In this study, it was aimed to qualitatively analyze the feelings, thoughts and meanings of the nurses who had experience in child hematology in the past. Method: In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 nurses between 29 and 53 years of age who had previously worked in child hematology-oncology unit. Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured interview form. Each interview lasted 20-30 minute. Some of the questions are: ‘What kind of experiences do you experience when you think about the periods you are working in hematology-oncology service?’ ‘Do you explain the reason for living these feelings?’ The data were analyzed with QSR NVivo 7 software. Results: From the perspective of the nurses who had experience working in the pediatric hematology-oncology service in the past, five main themes and sub-themes related to emotions and thoughts towards this experiment were identified in the study. 1) Positive and negative emotions: (a) fear and anxiety, (b) desperation, pity, guilt, (c) burnout, (d) longing; 2) Being coping 3) Professional implications 4) Meaning of life 5) Unmet needs and suggestions. Conclusions: Working in hematology should be viewed as a multidimensional situation that affects the way nurses view their profession and life, leading to a wide range of emotional lives. Data obtained from this study can be used to strengthen hematologic nurses.

Keywords: cancer, child, care, hematology, nursing

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63 Hypoglycemic Coma in Elderly Patients with Diabetes mellitus

Authors: D. Furuya, H. Ryujin, S. Takahira, Y. Sekine, Y. Oya, K. Sonoda, H. Ogawa, Y. Nomura, R. Maruyama, H. Kim, T. Kudo, A. Nakano, T. Saruta, S. Sugita, M. Nemoto, N. Tanahashi

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the clinical characteristics of hypoglycemic coma in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Participants in this retrospective study comprised 91 patients (54 men, 37 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 71.5 ± 12.6 years; range, 42-97 years) brought to our emergency department by ambulance with disturbance of consciousness in the 7 years from April 2007 to March 2014. Patients with hypoglycemia caused by alcoholic ketoacidosis, nutrition disorder, malignancies and psychological disorder were excluded. Results: Patients with type 1 (8 of 91) or type 2 DM (83 of 91) were analyzed. Mean blood sugar level was 31.6 ± 10.4 in all patients. A sulfonylurea (SU) was more commonly used in elderly (>75 years old; n=44)(70.5%) than in younger patients (36.2%, p < 0.05). Cases showing prolonged unconsciousness (range, 1 hour to 21 days; n=30) included many (p < 0.05) patients with dementia (13.3%; 0.5% without dementia) and fewer (p < 0.05) patients with type 1 DM (0%; 13.1% in type 2 DM). Specialists for DM (n=33) used SU less often (24.2%) than general physicians (69.0%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: In cases of hypoglycemic coma, SU was frequently used in elderly patients with DM.

Keywords: hypoglycemic coma, Diabetes mellitus, unconsciousness, elderly patients

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62 Antigen-Presenting Cell Characteristics of Human γδ T Lymphocytes in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Piamsiri Sawaisorn, Tienrat Tangchaikeeree, Waraporn Chan-On, Chaniya Leepiyasakulchai, Rachanee Udomsangpetch, Suradej Hongeng, Kulachart Jangpatarapongsa

Abstract:

Human Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes are regarded as promising effector cells for cancer immunotherapy since they have the ability to eliminate several tumor cells through non-peptide antigen recognition and non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction. An issue of recent interest is the capability to activate γδ T cells by use of a group of drugs, such as pamidronate, that cause accumulation of phosphoantigen which is recognized by γδ T cell receptors. Moreover, their antigen presenting cell-like phenotype and function have been confirmed in many clinical trials. In this study, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells derived from normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells were activated with pamidronate and the expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can recognize and kill chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells treated with pamidronate through their cytotoxic activity. To support the strong role played by Vγ9Vδ2 T cells against cancer, we provide the evidence that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells activated with CML cell lysate antigen can efficiently express antigen presenting cell (APC) phenotype and function. In conclusion, pamidronate can be used in intentional activation of human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells and can increase the susceptibility of CML cells to cytotoxicity of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. The activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells by cancer cells lysate can show their APC characteristics, and so greatly increase the interest in exploring their therapeutic potential in hematologic malignancy.

Keywords: γδ T lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells, chronic myeloid leukemia, cancer, immunotherapy

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61 Structure-Based Virtual Screening to Identify CLDN4 Inhibitors

Authors: Jayanthi Sivaraman

Abstract:

Claudins are the important components of the tight junctions that play a key role in paracellular permeability. Among various members of Claudin family, Claudin 4 (CLDN4) is found to be overexpressed in ovarian, pancreatic carcinomas and other epithelial malignancies. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to identify potent inhibitors for CLDN4 from the ZINC database using virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. A well refined molecular model of CLDN4 was built using Prime of Schrodinger v10.2(Template- PDB ID: 4P79). Approximately, 6 million compounds from ZINC database are subjected to high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) against the active site of CLDN4. Molecular docking using GLIDE predicted ARG31, ASN142, ASP146 and ARG158 as critically important residues. Furthermore, three compounds from ZINC database (ZINC96331839, ZINC36533519 and ZINC75819394) showed highly promising ADME properties and binding affinity with stable conformation. The therapeutic efficiency of these lead compounds is evaluated and confirmed by in-vitro and in-vivo studies which leads to the development of novel anti-cancer drugs.

Keywords: ADME property, inhibitors, molecular docking, virtual screening

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60 Association between Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Breast Sarcoma: A Case Report

Authors: Ines Zemni, Maher Slimane, Jamel Ben Hassouna, Khaled Rahal

Abstract:

Background: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disease, which is associated with an increased risk of developing different malignancies including breast cancer. The association between NF1 band breast sarcoma is a rare entity. Herein we present a 25-year-old woman with NF1 who had fibrosarcoma of the left breast. Case presentation: The patient has multiple thoraco-abdominal 'café au lait' spots. Clinical examination showed a lump of the left breast measuring 9 cm of diameter, which was noticed for 6 months. There was a left inguinal mass of 6 cm of diameter. The patient underwent first a left lumpectomy. Histopathological exam revealed a high-grade fibrosarcoma of the left breast measuring 7.5 cm. Three months later, the patient underwent a left mastectomy and excision of the inguinal mass, which was a neurofibroma. An adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy were indicated, but not applied because of the timeout. The patient is now alive after a follow up of 6 years, with no loco-regional recurrence or metastasis. Conclusion: The relationship between NF1 and breast cancer need to be more clarified by further studies. Establishing a specific screening program of these patients may help to make an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer.

Keywords: neurofibromatosis, breast, sarcoma, cancer

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59 Clonal Evaluation of Malignant Mesothelioma

Authors: Sabahattin Comertpay, Sandra Pastorino, Rosanna Mezzapelle, Mika Tanji, Oriana Strianese, Andrea Napolitano, Tracey Weigel, Joseph Friedberg, Paul Sugarbaker, Thomas Krausz, Ena Wang, Amy Powers, Giovanni Gaudino, Harvey I. Pass, Fatmagul Ozcelik, Barbara L. Parsons, Haining Yang, Michele Carbone

Abstract:

Tumors are thought to be monoclonal in origin. This paradigm arose decades ago, primarily from the study of hematopoietic malignancies and sarcomas. The clonal origin of malignant mesothelioma (MM), a deadly cancer resistant to the current therapies, has not been investigated. Examination of the pleura from patients with MM shows often the presence of multiple pleural nodules, raising the question of whether they represent independent or metastatic growth processes. To investigate the clonality patterns of MM, we used the HUMARA (Human Androgen Receptor) assay to examine 14 sporadic and 2 familial Malignant Mesotheliomas (MM). Of 16 specimens studied, 15 were informative and 14/15 revealed two electrophoretically distinct methylated HUMARA alleles, indicating a polyclonal origin for these tumors. This discovery has important clinical implications, because an accurate assessment of tumor clonality is key to the design of novel molecular strategies for the treatment of MM.

Keywords: malignant mesothelioma, clonal origin, HUMARA, sarcomas

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58 Disseminated Tuberculosis: Experience from Tuberculosis Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Center at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in the Philippines

Authors: Jamie R. Chua, Christina Irene D. Mejia, Regina P. Berba

Abstract:

Disseminated tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis involving two or more non-contiguous sites identified through bacteriologic confirmation or clinical diagnosis. Over the five year period included in the study, the UP-PGH TB DOTS clinic had total of 3,967 referrals, and the prevalence of disseminated tuberculosis is 1% (68/3967). The mean age was 33.9 years (range 19-64 years) with a male: female ratio of 1:1. 67% (52 patients) had no predisposing comorbid illness or immune disorder. The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (19%), back pain (13%), abdominal enlargement (11%) and mass (10.2%). Anemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and high-normal serum calcium were common biochemical and hematologic findings. Around 36% (25) of patients were diagnosed clinically with disseminated tuberculosis despite lacking bacteriologic evidence of multi-organ involvement. The lungs (86%) is still the most commonly involved site, followed by intestinal (22%), vertebral/Pott’s (27%), and pelvic/genital (19%). The mean time from presentation to initiation of therapy was 22 days (SD 32.7). Only 18 patients (29.3%) were properly recorded to have been referred to local TB DOTs facilities. Of the 68 patients, only 16% (11 patients) continued follow-up at PGH, and all had documented treatment completion. Treatment outcomes of the remaining were unknown. Due to the variety of involved sites, a high index of suspicion is required. Knowledge on clinical features, common radiographic findings, and histopathologic characteristics of disseminated TB is important as bacteriologic evidence of infection is not always apparent.

Keywords: disseminated tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, miliary tuberculosis, tuberculosis

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57 A Prenylflavanoid, HME5 with Antiproliferative Activity in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

Authors: Mashitoh Abd Rahman, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Faiqah Ramli, Syam Mohan, Noraziah Nordin, Hamed Karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancies. HME5, a prenylflavanoid has been isolated from local medicinal plant. This compound has been reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities including anticancer property. However, the potential of HME5 as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent on an ovarian cancer cells has not yet been investigated. In this present study, we examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of HME5 on Caov-3 (Human Ovarian Adenocarcinoma) cell line by using 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-y]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Acridine orange and propidium Iodide (AOPi) and cell cycle analysis study. HME5 has shown to inhibit Caov-3 in a time-dependent manner with the IC50 values of 5µg/ml, 2µg/ml and 1µg/ml after 24h, 48h and 72h treatment, respectively. Morphological study from AOPi analysis showed that HME5 induced apoptosis after 24 and 48h post-treatment. Nevertheless, HME5 exhibited cell cycle arrest at G1 phase as indicated in flow cytometry cell cycle profiling. In conclusion, HME5 inhibited proliferation of Caov-3 through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase.

Keywords: apoptosis, prenylflavanoid, ovarian cancer, HME5

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