Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 583

Search results for: Tamer M. Ibrahim

583 Design and Synthesis of Some Pyrimidine Derivatives as Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Hematologic Malignancies

Authors: Ibrahim M. Labouta, Gina N. Tageldin, Salwa M. Fahmy, Hayam M. Ashour, Mounir A. Khalil, Tamer M. Ibrahim, Nefertiti A. El-Nikhely

Abstract:

Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical effector molecule in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling transduction. It regulates B cell proliferation, development and survival. Since BTK is widely expressed in many B cell leukaemias and lymphomas, targeting BTK by small molecules inhibitors became an attractive idea as new treatment modalities for B cell mediated hematologic malignancies. Ibrutinib is the 1st generation BTK inhibitor, approved by FDA for treatment of relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It binds irreversibly to the unique cysteine (Cys481) within the ATP-binding pocket of BTK. Besides ibrutinib, many irreversible covalent BTK inhibitors comprising pyrimidine nucleus such as spebrutinib (phase IIb) showed high selectivity and potency when compared to it. In this study, the designed compounds were based on 5-cyano-2-methylsulfanyl pyrimidine core and decorated with electrophilic warheads which are essential for the optimal activity for targeted covalent inhibition (TCI). However, modifications at pyrimidine C4 or C6 were made by introduction of substituted amines which are provided to behave differently. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their anticancer activity in leukemia cell lines (e.g. THP-1). Results showed that, some derivatives exhibited antiproliferative activity with IC50 ranged from 5-50 μM, The in vitro enzymatic inhibitory assay for these compounds against BTK is still under investigation. Nevertheless, we could conclude from the initial biological screening that, the synthesized 4 or 6-subsitituted aminopyrimidines represent promising and novel antileukemic agents. Meanwhile, further studies are still needed to attribute this activity through targeting BTK enzyme and inhibition of BCR signaling pathway.

Keywords: BTK inhibitors, hematologic malignancies, structure based drug design (SBDD), targeted covalent inhibitors (TCI)

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582 The Role of Neuroserpin in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Sevil Arabaci Tamer, Gonul Gurol, Ibrahim Tekeoglu, Halil Harman, Ihsan Hakki Ciftci

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Neuroserpin (NSP) is a serine protease inhibitor and member of the serpin family. It is expressed in developing and adult nervous systems, and acts as an inhibitor of protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and a regulator of neuronal growth and plasticity. Also NSP displays anti-inflammatory activity. But, its role in rheumatoid arthritis had never been studied before. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of neuroserpin in patients with RA. A total of 50 frozen (-20 ºC) serum samples 40 of them belonged to patients with RA, and 10 sample belonged to healthy subjects, were enrolled prospectively. We used DAS-28 to evaluate disease activity. The following clinical data gathered from the original patients' charts. Serum neuroserpin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our preliminary study results demonstrate, for the first time, that NSP levels are significantly different in RA patients relative to healthy subjects (P = 0.014). So, NSP contribute to pathological condition of RA. Thus, we believe that serum NSP levels can be as a marker in patients with RA. However other inflammatory diseases should be further investigated.

Keywords: neuroserpin, rheumatoid arthritis, tPA, tPA inhibitor

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581 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract

Authors: Ibrahim Isah Lakan, Nasiru Ibrahim

Abstract:

These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.

Keywords: microbials, mineral, phytochemicals, stachtarpheta indica extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
580 A Robotic Cube to Preschool Children for Acquiring the Mathematical and Colours Concepts

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Tamer M. Ismail, M. Abd El Salam

Abstract:

This work presents a robot called Conceptual Robotic Cube, CR-Cube. The robot can be used as an educational tool for children from the age of three. It has a cube shape attached with a camera colours sensor. In addition, it contains four wheels to move smoothly. The researchers prepared a questionnaire to measure the efficiency of the robot. The design and the questionnaire was presented to 11 experts who agreed that the robot is appropriate for learning numbering and colours for preschool children.

Keywords: CR-Cube, robotic cube, conceptual robot, conceptual cube, colour concept, early childhood education

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579 Optimal Configuration for Polarimetric Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

Authors: Ibrahim Watad, Ibrahim Abdulhalim

Abstract:

Conventional spectroscopic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used, both in fundamental research and environmental monitoring as well as healthcare diagnostics. However, they still lack the low limit of detection (LOD) and there still a place for improvement. SPR conventional sensors are based on the detection of a dip in the reflectivity spectrum which is relatively wide. To improve the performance of these sensors, many techniques and methods proposed either to reduce the width of the dip or to increase the sensitivity. Together with that, profiting from the sharp jump in the phase spectrum under SPR, several works suggested the extraction of the phase of the reflected wave. However, existing phase measurement setups are in general more complicated compared to the conventional setups, require more stability and are very sensitive to external vibrations and noises. In this study, a simple polarimetric technique for phase extraction under SPR is presented, followed by a theoretical error analysis and an experimental verification. The advantages of the proposed technique upon existing techniques will be elaborated, together with conclusions regarding the best polarimetric function, and its corresponding optimal metal layer range of thicknesses to use under the conventional Kretschmann-Raether configuration.

Keywords: plasmonics, polarimetry, thin films, optical sensors

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578 Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for Determination of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Criteria

Authors: Ibrahim Cil, Onur Kurtcu, H. Ibrahim Demir, Furkan Yener, Yusuf. S. Turkan, Muharrem Unver, Ramazan Evren

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Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is decision-making way at the end of integrating the current AHP method with fuzzy structure. In this study, the processes of production planning, inventory management and purchasing department of a system were analysed and were requested to decide the performance criteria of each area. At this point, the current work processes were analysed by various decision-makers and comparing each criteria by giving points according to 1-9 scale were completed. The criteria were listed in order to their weights by using Fuzzy AHP approach and top three performance criteria of each department were determined. After that, the performance criteria of supply chain consisting of three departments were asked to determine. The processes of each department were compared by decision-makers at the point of building the supply chain performance system and getting the performance criteria. According to the results, the criteria of performance system of supply chain by using Fuzzy AHP were determined for which will be used in the supply chain performance system in the future.

Keywords: AHP, fuzzy, performance evaluation, supply chain

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577 Instructional Leadership and Competency in Capacity Development among Principals: A Mediation with Self Efficacy in Moderate Performing Schools

Authors: Mohd Ibrahim K. Azeez, Mohammed Sani Ibrahim, Rosemawati Mustapa, Maisarah A. Malik, Chandrakala Varatharajoo, Wee Akina Sia Seng Lee

Abstract:

The leadership of the principals is known to be a key indicator in development and school performance. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the extent of the influence of instructional leadership in the field of supervision and curriculum focus on capacity development competence in the field of communication and teamwork. In addition, this study also examines self-efficacy mediator school leadership in the field of self-improvement and self-management of school principals. The study involved 383 guest teachers from 55 secondary schools for leadership in schools. Data was analyzed using SEM aid program AMOS 21. The final result shows partial mediation model was the best model fit to obtain the best goodness of fit of (X2/df = 4.663, CFI = 0.922, GFI = 0.778, TLI = 0914, NFI = 0.903, and RMSEA = 0.098) compared to the direct effect model of the findings (X2/df = 5.319, CFI = 0.908, GFI = 0755, TLI = 0.899, NFI = 0.889, and RMSEA = 0.106). While the findings of the fully mediator model with a self-efficacy refers principals as a mediator as follows (X2/df = 4.838, CFI = 0918, GFI = 0772, TLI = 0.910, NFI = 0.899, and RMSEA = 0.100). Therefore, it can be concluded that the findings clearly demonstrate self-efficacy variables principals become a mediator in the relationship between instructional leadership capacity and competency development.

Keywords: instructional leadership, capacity development, self-efficacy, competency

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576 Protective Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Osama M. Ahmed, Walaa G. Hozayen, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree

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The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: antioxidants, doxorubicin, hepatotoxicity, purslane

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575 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah

Abstract:

Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

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574 Green, Smooth and Easy Electrochemical Synthesis of N-Protected Indole Derivatives

Authors: Sarah Fahad Alajmi, Tamer Ezzat Youssef

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Here, we report a simple method for the direct conversion of 6-Nitro-1H-indole into N-substituted indoles via electrochemical dehydrogenative reaction with halogenated reagents under strongly basic conditions through N–R bond formation. The N-protected indoles have been prepared under moderate and scalable electrolytic conditions. The conduct of the reactions was performed in a simple divided cell under constant current without oxidizing reagents or transition-metal catalysts. The synthesized products have been characterized via UV/Vis spectrophotometry, 1H-NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy. A possible reaction mechanism is discussed based on the N-protective products. This methodology could be applied to the synthesis of various biologically active N-substituted indole derivatives.

Keywords: green chemistry, 1H-indole, heteroaromatic, organic electrosynthesis

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573 Challenges of Domestic Water Security for Sustainable Development in North Central Belt of Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Ibbi Ibrahim, Isaiah Ndalassan Ibrahim

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Accessibility and availability of good quality water have become a major concern among different users. This paper examines the caustic importance of water security in relation to people’s desire for survival. It observed the democratic ideology of national policy on domestic water supply and demand and its implementation for national and societal development. It used analogy on equilibrium approach to ascertain the household water security. In most communities, it is glaring that several public water management in operation for several years are hardly performing efficiently to reach equilibrium demand. Moreover most settlements being rural or urban lack effective public water system that could ensure regular supplies to the population. The terrain and gradual declining of efficient rainfall northward poses great challenge to the region in managing water supply and demand adequately. This study itemized the need for the government to get clear strategy for a sustainable development on better water efficiency. Partnership in providing workable policy on water security is considered apparently important. It is also suggested that water plant treatment should be established in every medium-sized towns in the country.

Keywords: good quality of water, water accessibility, water availability, water sustainable

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572 Nonclassical Antifolates: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Some New Quinazolin-4-One Analogues as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

Authors: Yomna Ibrahim El-Gazzar, Hussien Ibrahim El-Subbagh, Hanan Hanaa Georgey, Ghada S. Hassan Hassan

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Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme that has pivotal importance in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase. Thymidylate synthase is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the reductive methylation of (dUMP) to (dTMP) utilizing N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate as a cofactor. A new series of 2-substituted thio-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed that possessed electron withdrawing or donating functional groups (Cl or OCH3) at position 6- or 7-, 4-methoxyphenyl function at position 3-.The thiol function is used to connect to either 1,2,4-triazole, or 1,3,4-thiadiazole via a methylene bridge. Most of the functional groups designed to be accommodated on the quinazoline ring such as thioether, alkyl to increase lipid solubility of polar compounds, a character very much needed in the nonclassical DHFR inhibitors. The target compounds were verified with spectral data and elemental analysis. DHFR inhibitions, as well as antitumor activity, were applied on three cell lines (MCF-7, CACO-2, HEPG-2).

Keywords: nonclassical antifolates, DHFR Inhibitors, antitumor activity, quinazoline ring

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571 Influence of Cathodic Protection on High Strength, Pre-Stressed Corroded Tendons

Authors: Ibrahim R. Elomari, Fin O'Flaherty, Ibrahim R. Elomari, Paul Lambert

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Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique commonly used to arrest corrosion of steel in infrastructure. However, it is not generally used on high strength, pre-stressed tendons due to the risk of hydrogen generation, leading to possible embrittlement. This paper investigates its use in such circumstances where the applied protection potential is varied to determine if CP can be safely employed on pre-stressed tendons. Plain steel tendons measuring 5.4 mm diameter were pre-stressed in timber moulds and embedded in sand/cement mortar, formulated to represent gunite. Two levels of pre-stressing were investigated (400MPa and 1200MPa). Pre-corrosion of 0% (control), 3% and 6% target loss of cross-sectional area was applied to replicate service conditions. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) was then applied to the tendons at two levels of potential to identify any effect on strength. Instant-off values up to -950mV were used for normal protection with values of -1100mV or more negative to achieve overprotection. Following the ICCP phase, the tendons were removed from the mortar, cleaned and weighed to confirm actual percentage of corrosion. Tensile tests were then conducted on the tendons. The preliminary results show the influence of normal levels and overprotection of CP on the ultimate strength of the tendons.

Keywords: pre-stressed concrete, corrosion, cathodic protection, hydrogen embrittlement

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570 DNA Intercalating Alkaloids Isolated from Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae)

Authors: Mohamed Tamer, Wink Michael

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DNA intercalating agents increase the stability of DNA which can be demonstrated by measuring the melting temperature Tm. Tm can be determined in a spectrophotometer in which the cell temperature is increased gradually. The resulting absorption data comes as a sigmoidal curve from which melting temperature can be determined when half of the DNA has denatured. The current study aims to assess DNA intercalating activities of four pure bioactive isoquinoline alkaloids: sanguinarine, berberine, allocryptopine, and chelerythrine which were isolated from Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae) by repeated silica gel column chromatography, recrystallization and preparative TLC. The isolated compounds were identified by comparing their physical properties and mass spectra with those of the published data. The results showed that sanguiarine is the most active intercalating agent with Tm value of 83.55 ± 0.49 followed by berberine, chelerythrine, and allocryptopine with Tm values 62.58 ± 0.47, 51.38 ± 0.37 and 50.94 ± 0.65, respectively, relative to 49.78 ± 1.05 of bacteriophage DNA alone and 86.09 ± 0.5 for ethidium bromide as a positive control.

Keywords: alkaloids, Chelidonium majus, DNA intercalation, Tm

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569 Integrating Process Planning, WMS Dispatching, and WPPW Weighted Due Date Assignment Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Tarık Cakar, Ibrahim Cil, Muharrem Dugenci, Caner Erden

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Conventionally, process planning, scheduling, and due-date assignment functions are performed separately and sequentially. The interdependence of these functions requires integration. Although integrated process planning and scheduling, and scheduling with due date assignment problems are popular research topics, only a few works address the integration of these three functions. This work focuses on the integration of process planning, WMS scheduling, and WPPW due date assignment. Another novelty of this work is the use of a weighted due date assignment. In the literature, due dates are generally assigned without considering the importance of customers. However, in this study, more important customers get closer due dates. Typically, only tardiness is punished, but the JIT philosophy punishes both earliness and tardiness. In this study, all weighted earliness, tardiness, and due date related costs are penalized. As no customer desires distant due dates, such distant due dates should be penalized. In this study, various levels of integration of these three functions are tested and genetic search and random search are compared both with each other and with ordinary solutions. Higher integration levels are superior, while search is always useful. Genetic searches outperformed random searches.

Keywords: process planning, weighted scheduling, weighted due-date assignment, genetic algorithm, random search

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568 Role of Interlukin-18 in Primary Knee Osteoarthritis: Clinical, Laboratory and Radiological Study

Authors: Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Enas Mohamed Shahine, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Ghada Salah Attia Hussein

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by a progressive degradation of articular cartilage and is the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. IL-18 contributes to the destruction of cartilage and bone in the disease process of arthritis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of IL-18 in primary knee OA patients. Serum level of IL-18 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 30 primary knee OA patients and compared to 20 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers as a control group. Radiographic severity of OA was assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) global scale. Pain, stiffness and functional assessment were done using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). OA patients had significantly higher serum IL-18 level than in control group (420.93 ± 345.4 versus 151.03 ± 144.16 pg/ml, P=0.001). Serum level of IL-18 was positively correlated with KL global scale (P=0.001). There were no statistically significant correlations between serum level of IL-18 and pain, stiffness, function subscales and total WOMAC index scores among the studied patients. In conclusions, IL-18 has a role in the pathogenesis of OA and it is positively correlated with the radiographic damage of OA.

Keywords: Interlukin-18, knee osteoarthritis, primary osteoarthritis, WOMAC scale

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567 The Implications of Person-Organisation Spirituality Fit on Employees’ Ethical and Spiritual Leadership Behaviours: Insights from Jordan

Authors: Tamer Koburtay, Radi Haloub

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Person-Organization fit theory concerns how people flourish in a workplace that is congruence with their values and other traits. This paper seeks to highlight the theoretical relevance that workplace spirituality may add to the existing theory development of the P-O fit. In specific, it aims to empirically test the emerged framework that encompasses how workplace and self-spirituality match may enhance the perceived P-O fit, and how such a fit can enhance both employees’ ethical behaviors (i.e., humanism and honesty) and spiritual leadership behaviors. Drawing on a survey of the private and public sectors in Jordan, the results reveal that increasing the match in workplace and employees’ spirituality positively enhances the perceived P-O fit. Further, ethical and spiritual behaviors were found to be positively linked with a higher P-O fit. The importance of this paper is by generating a concept (i.e., P-O spirituality fit) beyond the already vast literature on P-O fit.

Keywords: ethical behavior, leadership, P-O fit, spirituality, leadership

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566 Low Back Pain among Nurses in Penang Public Hospitals: A Study on Prevalence and Factors Associated

Authors: Izani Uzair Zubair, Mohd Ismail Ibrahim, Mohd Nazri Shafei, Hassan Merican Omar Naina Merican, Mohamad Sabri Othman, Mohd Izmi Ahmad Ibrahim, Rasilah Ramli, Rajpal Singh Karam Singh

Abstract:

Nurses experience a higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and musculoskeletal complaints as compared to other hospital workers. Due to no proper policy related to LBP, the job has exposed them to the problem. Thus, the current study aims to look at the intensity of the problem and factors associated with development of LBP. Method and Tools: A cross sectional study was carried out among 1292 nurses from six public hospitals in Penang. They were randomly selected and those who were pregnant and have been diagnosed to have LBP were excluded. A Malay validated BACK Questionnaire was used. The associated factors were determined by using multiple logistic regression from SPSS version 20.0. Result: Most of the respondents were at mean age 30 years old and had mean working experience 86 months. The prevalence of LBP was identified as 76% (95% CI 74, 82). Factors that were associated with LBP among nurses include lifting a heavy object (OR2.626 (95% CI 1.978, 3.486) p =0.001 and the estimation weight of the lifted object (OR1.443 (95% CI 1.056, 1.970) p =0.021. Conclusion: Nurses who practice lifting heavy object and weight of the object lifted give a significant contribution to the development of LBP. The prevalence of the problem is significantly high. Thus, a proper no weight lifting policy should be considered.

Keywords: low back pain, nurses, Penang public hospital, Penang

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565 Evaluation of Digital Assessment of Anal Sphincter Muscle Strength

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat Mohamed Anwar

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Examination of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction is essential in initial assessment and assessment of efficacy of rehabilitation of patients with faecal incontinence (FI) and obstructed defecation (OD). The present study was conducted to evaluate the digital assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) in comparison to anal manometry squeeze pressure. The present cross-sectional study included 65 patients. There were 40 patients (61.5 %) with FI and 25 patients (38.5 %) with OD. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination including assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS and anal manometry (mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MOS and anal manometry squeeze pressures including mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure among FI group and OD group. In conclusion, assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS is a valid method and can substitute anal manometry assessment.

Keywords: anal manometry, external anal sphincter muscle, Modified Oxford Scale, muscle strength

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564 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Abdelazim Ibrahim

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Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: rock, slope, stabilization, protection, Makkah

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563 Bacteria Immobilized Electrospun Fibrous Biocomposites for Cr (VI) Remediation in Water

Authors: Omer Faruk Sarioglu, Asli Celebioglu, Turgay Tekinay, Tamer Uyar

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Fibrous biocomposites were developed by immobilization of a Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strain, morganella morganii STB5, on electrospun polystyrene (PS) and polysulfone (PSU) webs. Cr(VI) removal characteristics of STB5/PS and STB5/PSU fibrous biocomposites were determined at 25 mg L-1 of initial Cr(VI) and 70.41% and 68.27% of removal were observed within 72 h, respectively. Reusability test results indicate that both biocomposites are potentially reusable and can be used for at least 5 cycles. After storage test results suggest that the biocomposites can be stored awhile without losing their Cr(VI) bioremoval capabilities. SEM images of STB5 immobilized PS and PSU webs after the reusability test exhibit strong attachment of bacterial biofilms onto fibrous surfaces. Our results are quite promising and suggesting that reusable bacteria immobilized electrospun fibrous biocomposites might be applicable for Cr(VI) remediation in water systems.

Keywords: electrospinning, polystyrene, polysulfone, Cr(VI) bioremoval, environmental sustainability

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562 Lyapunov-Based Tracking Control for Nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Robot

Authors: Raouf Fareh, Maarouf Saad, Sofiane Khadraoui, Tamer Rabie

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This paper presents a tracking control strategy based on Lyapunov approach for nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot. This control strategy consists of two levels. First, a kinematic controller is developed to adjust the right and left wheel velocities. Using this velocity control law, the stability of the tracking error is guaranteed using Lyapunov approach. This kinematic controller cannot be generated directly by the motors. To overcome this problem, the second level of the controllers, dynamic control, is designed. This dynamic control law is developed based on Lyapunov theory in order to track the desired trajectories of the mobile robot. The stability of the tracking error is proved using Lupunov and Barbalat approaches. Simulation results on a nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented approach.

Keywords: mobile robot, trajectory tracking, Lyapunov, stability

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561 ICT for Smart Appliances: Current Technology and Identification of Future ICT Trend

Authors: Abubakar Uba Ibrahim, Ibrahim Haruna Shanono

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Smart metering and demand response are gaining ground in industrial and residential applications. Smart Appliances have been given concern towards achieving Smart home. The success of Smart grid development relies on the successful implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in power sector. Smart Appliances have been the technology under development and many new contributions to its realization have been reported in the last few years. The role of ICT here is to capture data in real time, thereby allowing bi-directional flow of information/data between producing and utilization point; that lead a way for the attainment of Smart appliances where home appliances can communicate between themselves and provide a self-control (switch on and off) using the signal (information) obtained from the grid. This paper depicts the background on ICT for smart appliances paying a particular attention to the current technology and identifying the future ICT trends for load monitoring through which smart appliances can be achieved to facilitate an efficient smart home system which promote demand response program. This paper grouped and reviewed the recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, so that the reader can be provided with a comprehensive and insightful review of where ICT for smart appliances stands and is heading to. The paper also presents a brief overview of communication types, and then narrowed the discussion to the load monitoring (Non-intrusive Appliances Load Monitoring ‘NALM’). Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of the ICT framework are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.

Keywords: communication technology between appliances, demand response, load monitoring, smart appliances, smart grid

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560 Chamba Encroachment into Jukum Territory and Its Impact 1830-1900

Authors: Iliya Ibrahim Gimba

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The period between the late 18th and early 19th centuries was characterized by conflict of ethnic nationalities in the Benue valley region. This conflict was exacerbated by the introduction of the Fulani jihad that began in Hausa land into the Benue valley region. Fulani in this region launched the Jihad movement which pushed out some ethnic groups from their natural abode or ancestral home to live a nomad live until they could settle and established a stayed in a particular place. The Chamba were being displaced by the Fulani jihad that took place around Faro deo in about 1809. It was from there that most of the Chamba migrated out, some into the Cameroon republic, while others moved into the Benue valley region. Among those that entered into the Benue valley region are the Sama, Kola, Gayam etc, and could be found in Donga local Government area of Taraba state. Those Chamba clan that later on cameo into the Benue Valley are Pyeri, Kashimbila etc. The sudden movement of the Chamba or migrations into the Jukun territory co-in ceded with the period that the Jihad had already had a severe and consequential effect or impact on the Jukun territory cause by Yakubu Ibrahim of Bzuchi, and Buba Yero of Gombe, and Hamaruwa of Muri Emirate. This ne authorities in Kwararafa Kingdom cut the Jukun King out of contact with Borno and Hausa-land. This paper set to examine the chiefdom that the Chamba established right within the Jukun headquarters of Wukari. Sources to be used are published books, Journals, Archival materials, and M.A. Thesis to enable us know the impact of Chamba migrations on the Jukun territory and reactions of the Jukun’s to this new comers.

Keywords: Chamba people, encroachment, migration, ethnic nationalities

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559 Optimization of Cutting Forces in Drilling of Polimer Composites via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Eser Yarar, Fahri Vatansever, A. Tamer Erturk, Sedat Karabay

Abstract:

In this study, drilling behavior of multi-layer orthotropic polyester composites reinforced with woven polyester fiber and PTFE particle was investigated. Conventional drilling methods have low cost and ease of use. Therefore, it is one of the most preferred machining methods. The increasing range of use of composite materials in many areas has led to the investigation of the machinability performance of these materials. The drilling capability of the synthetic polymer composite material was investigated by measuring the cutting forces using different tool diameters, feed rate and high cutting speed parameters. Cutting forces were measured using a dynamometer in the experiments. In order to evaluate the results of the experiment, the Taguchi experimental design method was used. According to the results, the optimum cutting parameters were obtained for 0.1 mm/rev, 1070 rpm and 2 mm diameter drill bit. Verification tests were performed for the optimum cutting parameters obtained according to the model. Verification experiments showed the success of the established model.

Keywords: cutting force, drilling, polimer composite, Taguchi

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558 Modeling of Oligomerization of Ethylene in a Falling film Reactor for the Production of Linear Alpha Olefins

Authors: Adil A. Mohammed, Seif-Eddeen K. Fateen, Tamer S. Ahmed, Tarek M. Moustafa

Abstract:

Falling film were widely used for gas-liquid absorption and reaction process. Modeling of falling film for oligomerization of ethylene reaction to linear alpha olefins is developed. Although there are many researchers discuss modeling of falling film in many processes, there has been no publish study the simulation of falling film for the oligomerization of ethylene reaction to produce linear alpha olefins. The Comsol multiphysics software was used to simulate the mass transfer with chemical reaction in falling film absorption process. The effect of concentration profile absorption of the products through falling thickness is discussed. The effect of catalyst concentration, catalyst/co-catalyst ratio, and temperature is also studied. For the effect of the temperature, as it increase the concentration of C4 increase. For catalyst concentration and catalyst/co-catalyst ratio as they increases the concentration of C4 increases, till it reached almost constant value.

Keywords: falling film, oligomerization, comsol mutiphysics, linear alpha olefins

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557 Fuel Cells and Offshore Wind Turbines Technology for Eco-Friendly Ports with a Case Study

Authors: Ibrahim Sadek Sedik Ibrahim, Mohamed M. Elgohary

Abstract:

Sea ports are considered one of the factors affecting the progress of economic globalization and the international trade; consequently, they are considered one of the sources involved in the deterioration of the maritime environment due to the excessive amount of exhaust gases emitted from their activities. The majority of sea ports depend on the national electric grid as a source of power for the domestic and ships’ electric demands. This paper discusses the possibility of shifting ports from relying on the national grid electricity to green power-based ports. Offshore wind turbines and hydrogenic PEM fuel cell units appear as two typical promising clean energy sources for ports. As a case study, the paper investigates the prospect of converting Alexandria Port in Egypt to be an eco-friendly port with the study of technical, logistic, and financial requirements. The results show that the fuel cell, followed by a combined system of wind turbines and fuel cells, is the best choice regarding electricity production unit cost by 0.101 and 0.107 $/kWh, respectively. Furthermore, using of fuel cells and offshore wind turbine as green power concept will achieving emissions reduction quantity of CO₂, NOx, and CO emissions by 80,441, 20.814, and 133.025 ton per year, respectively. Finally, the paper highlights the role that renewable energy can play when supplying Alexandria Port with green energy to lift the burden on the government in supporting the electricity, with a possibility of achieving a profit of 3.85% to 22.31% of the annual electricity cost compared with the international prices.

Keywords: fuel cells, green ports, IMO, national electric grid, offshore wind turbines, port emissions, renewable energy

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556 CFD Study on the Effect of Primary Air on Combustion of Simulated MSW Process in the Fixed Bed

Authors: Rui Sun, Tamer M. Ismail, Xiaohan Ren, M. Abd El-Salam

Abstract:

Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the key scopes in the global clean energy strategy. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was established. In order to reveal these features of the combustion process in a fixed porous bed of MSW. Transporting equations and process rate equations of the waste bed were modeled and set up to describe the incineration process, according to the local thermal conditions and waste property characters. Gas phase turbulence was modeled using k-ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The heterogeneous reaction rates were determined using Arrhenius eddy dissipation and the Arrhenius-diffusion reaction rates. The effects of primary air flow rate and temperature in the burning process of simulated MSW are investigated experimentally and numerically. The simulation results in bed are accordant with experimental data well. The model provides detailed information on burning processes in the fixed bed, which is otherwise very difficult to obtain by conventional experimental techniques.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, waste incineration, municipal solid waste (MSW), fixed bed, primary air

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555 The Effects of High Velocity Low Amplitude Thrust Manipulation versus Low Velocity Low Amplitude Mobilization in Treatment of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda,  Mona H. Gamal Eldein, Ibrahim Magdy Elnaggar

Abstract:

Background: High-velocity low amplitude thrust (HVLAT) manipulation and low-velocity low amplitude (LVLA) mobilization are an effective treatment for low back pain (LBP). Purpose: This study compared the effects of HVLAT versus LVLA on pain, functional deficits and segmental mobility in treatment of chronic mechanical LBP. Methods: Ninety patients suffering from chronic mechanical LBP are classified to three groups; Thirty patients treated by HVLAT (group I), thirty patients treated by LVLA (group II) and thirty patients as control group (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 28.00±2.92, 27.83±2.28 and 28.07±3.05 years and BMI 27.98±2.60, 28.80±2.40 and 28.70±2.53 kg/m2 for group I, II and III respectively. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire and modified schoper test were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted two weeks before and after treatment with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The treatment program group one was two weeks single session per week, and for group II two sessions per week for two weeks. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and Oswestry score compared with group II two weeks after treatment. Moreover, the mobility in modified schoper increased significantly and the pain scores and Oswestry scores decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with control group. Interpretation/Conclusion: HVLAT is preferable to LVLA mobilization, possibly due to a beneficial neurophysiological effect by Stimulating mechanically sensitive neurons in the lumbar facet joint capsule.

Keywords: low back pain, manipulation, mobilization, low velocity

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554 Development of E-Tendering Models for Nigerian Public Procuring Entities

Authors: Bello Abdullahi, Kabir Bala, Yahaya M. Ibrahim, Ahmed D. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Public sector tendering has traditionally been conducted using manual paper-based processes which are known to be inefficient, less transparent, and more prone to manipulations and errors. However, the advent of the Internet and its associated technologies has led to the development of numerous e-Tendering systems that addressed many of the problems associated with the manual paper-based tendering system. Currently, in Nigeria, the public tendering processes are largely conducted based on manual paper-based system that is bedevilled by a number of problems such as inordinate delays, inefficiencies, manipulation of the tender evaluation process, corruption, lack of transparency and competition, among other problems. These problems can be addressed through the adoption of existing web-based e-Tendering systems which are known to address most of these problems. However, these existing e-Tendering systems that have been developed are not based on the Nigerian legal procurement processes and as such their suitability for local application is very limited. This paper is part of a larger study that attempt to address this problem through the development of an e-Tendering system that is based on the requirements of the Nigerian public procuring entities. In this paper, the identified tendering processes commonly used by Nigerian public procuring entities in the selection of construction sources are presented. A multi-methods research approach was used to identify those tendering processes. Specifically, 19 existing business use cases used by Nigerian public procuring entities were identified and 61 system use cases were prescribed based on the identified business use cases. The use cases were used as the basis for the development of domain and software conceptual models. The models were successfully used to guide the development of an e-Tendering system called NPS-eTender. Ripple and Unified Process were adopted as the software development methodologies.

Keywords: e-tendering, e-procurement, requirement model, conceptual model, public sector tendering, public procurement

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