Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: aerofoil

15 Investigation of the Kutta Condition Using Unsteady Flow

Authors: K. Bhojnadh, M. Fiddler, D. Cheshire

Abstract:

An investigation into the Kutta effect on the trailing edge of a subsonic aerofoil was conducted which led to an analysis using Ansys Fluent to determine the effect of flow separation over a NACA 0012 aerofoil. This aerofoil was subjected to oscillations to create an unsteady flow over the aerofoil, therefore, creating turbulence, with unsteady aerodynamics playing a key role to determine the flow regimes when the aerofoil is subjected to different angles of attack along with varying Reynolds numbers. Many theories were evolved to determine the flow parameters of a 2-D aerofoil in these unsteady conditions because they behave unpredictably at the trailing edge when subjected to a different angle of attack. The shear area observed in the boundary layer at the trailing edge tends towards an unsteady turbulent flow even at small angles of attack, creating drag as the flow separates, reducing the aerodynamic performance of aerofoil. In this paper, research was conducted to determine the effect of Kutta circulation over the aerofoil and the effect of that circulation in reducing the effect of pressure and boundary layer distribution over the aerofoil. The effect of circulation is observed by using Ansys Fluent by using varying flow parameters and differential schemes to observe the flow behaviour on the aerofoil. Initially, steady flow analysis was conducted on the aerofoil to determine the effect of circulation, and it was noticed that the effect of circulation could only be properly observed when the aerofoil is subjected to oscillations. Therefore, that was modelled by using Ansys user-defined functions, which define the motion of the aerofoil by creating a dynamic mesh on the aerofoil. Initial results were observed, and further development of the dynamic mesh functions in Ansys is taking place. This research will determine the overall basic principles of unsteady flow aerodynamics applied to the investigation of Kutta related circulation, and gives an indication regarding the generation of vortices which is discussed further in this paper.

Keywords: circulation, flow seperation, turbulence modelling, vortices

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14 A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Turbulence Flow and Parameterization of an Aerofoil

Authors: Mohamed Z. M. Duwahir, Shian Gao

Abstract:

The main objective of this project was to introduce and test a new scheme for parameterization of subsonic aerofoil, using a function called Shape Function. Python programming was used to create a user interactive environment for geometry generation of aerofoil using NACA and Shape Function methodologies. Two aerofoils, NACA 0012 and NACA 1412, were generated using this function. Testing the accuracy of the Shape Function scheme was done by Linear Square Fitting using Python and CFD modelling the aerofoil in Fluent. NACA 0012 (symmetrical aerofoil) was better approximated using Shape Function than NACA 1412 (cambered aerofoil). The second part of the project involved comparing two turbulent models, k-ε and Spalart-Allmaras (SA), in Fluent by modelling the aerofoils NACA 0012 and NACA 1412 in conditions of Reynolds number of 3 × 106. It was shown that SA modelling is better for aerodynamic purpose. The experimental coefficient of lift (Cl) and coefficient of drag (Cd) were compared with empirical wind tunnel data for a range of angle of attack (AOA). As a further step, this project involved drawing and meshing 3D wings in Gambit. The 3D wing flow was solved and compared with 2D aerofoil section experimental results and wind tunnel data.

Keywords: CFD simulation, shape function, turbulent modelling, aerofoil

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13 Flow Separation Control on an Aerofoil Using Grooves

Authors: Neel K. Shah

Abstract:

Wind tunnel tests have been performed at The University of Manchester to investigate the impact of surface grooves of a trapezoidal planform on flow separation on a symmetrical aerofoil. A spanwise array of the grooves has been applied around the maximum thickness location of the upper surface of an NACA-0015 aerofoil. The aerofoil has been tested in a two-dimensional set-up in a low-speed wind tunnel at an angle of attack (AoA) of 3° and a chord-based Reynolds number (Re) of ~2.7 x 105. A laminar separation bubble developed on the aerofoil at low AoA. It has been found that the grooves shorten the streamwise extent of the separation bubble by shedding a pair of counter-rotating vortices. However, the increase in leading-edge suction due to the shorter bubble is not significant since the creation of the grooves results in a decrease of surface curvature and an increase in blockage (increase in surface pressure). Additionally, the increased flow mixing by the grooves thickens the boundary layer near the trailing edge of the aerofoil also contributes to this limitation. As a result of these competing effects, the improvement in the pressure-lift and pressure-drag coefficients are small, i.e., by ~1.30% and ~0.30%, respectively, at 3° AoA. Crosswire anemometry shows that the grooves increase turbulence intensity and Reynolds stresses in the wake, thus indicating an increase in viscous drag.

Keywords: aerofoil flow control, flow separation, grooves, vortices

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12 A Study on Shock Formation over a Transonic Aerofoil

Authors: M. Fowsia, Dominic Xavier Fernando, Vinojitha, Rahamath Juliyana

Abstract:

Aerofoil is a primary element to be designed during the initial phase of creating any new aircraft. It is the component that forms the cross-section of the wing. The wing is used to produce lift force that balances the weight which is acting downwards. The lift force is created due to pressure difference over the top and bottom surface which is caused due to velocity variation. At sub-sonic velocities, for a real fluid, we obtain a smooth flow of air over both the surfaces. In this era of high speed travel, commercial aircraft that can travel faster than speed of sound barrier is required. However transonic velocities cause the formation of shock waves which can cause flow separation over the top and bottom surfaces. In the transonic range, shock waves move across the top and bottom surfaces of the aerofoil, until both the shock waves merge into a single shock wave that is formed near the leading edge of theaerofoil. In this paper, a transonic aerofoil is designed and its aerodynamic properties at different velocities in the Transonic range (M = 0.8; 0.9; 1; 1.1; 1.2) are studied with the help of CFD. The Pressure and Velocity distributions over the top and bottom surfaces of aerofoil are studied and the variations of shock patterns, at different velocities, are analyzed. The analysis can be used to determine the effect of drag divergence on the lift created by the aerofoil.

Keywords: transonic aerofoil, cfd, drag divergence, shock formation, viscous flow

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11 Studies on Performance of an Airfoil and Its Simulation

Authors: Rajendra Roul

Abstract:

The main objective of the project is to bring attention towards the performance of an aerofoil when exposed to the fluid medium inside the wind tunnel. This project aims at involvement of civil as well as mechanical engineering thereby making itself as a multidisciplinary project. The airfoil of desired size is taken into consideration for the project to carry out effectively. An aerofoil is the shape of the wing or blade of propeller, rotor or turbine. Lot of experiment have been carried out through wind-tunnel keeping aerofoil as a reference object to make a future forecast regarding the design of turbine blade, car and aircraft. Lift and drag now become the major identification factor for any design industry which shows that wind tunnel testing along with software analysis (ANSYS) becomes the mandatory task for any researchers to forecast an aerodynamics design. This project is an initiative towards the mitigation of drag, better lift and analysis of wake surface profile by investigating the surface pressure distribution. The readings has been taken on airfoil model in Wind Tunnel Testing Machine (WTTM) at different air velocity 20m/sec, 25m/sec, 30m/sec and different angle of attack 00,50,100,150,200. Air velocity and pressures are measured in several ways in wind tunnel testing machine by use to measuring instruments like Anemometer and Multi tube manometer. Moreover to make the analysis more accurate Ansys fluent contribution become substantial and subsequently the CFD simulation results. Analysis on an Aerofoil have a wide spectrum of application other than aerodynamics including wind loads in the design of buildings and bridges for structural engineers.

Keywords: wind-tunnel, aerofoil, Ansys, multitube manometer

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10 Flow-Control Effectiveness of Convergent Surface Indentations on an Aerofoil at Low Reynolds Numbers

Authors: Neel K. Shah

Abstract:

Passive flow control on aerofoils has largely been achieved through the use of protrusions such as vane-type vortex generators. Consequently, innovative flow-control concepts should be explored in an effort to improve current component performance. Therefore, experimental research has been performed at The University of Manchester to evaluate the flow-control effectiveness of a vortex generator made in the form of a surface indentation. The surface indentation has a trapezoidal planform. A spanwise array of indentations has been applied in a convergent orientation around the maximum-thickness location of the upper surface of a NACA-0015 aerofoil. The aerofoil has been tested in a two-dimensional set-up in a low-speed wind tunnel at an angle of attack (AoA) of 3° and a chord-based Reynolds number (Re) of ~2.7 x 105. The baseline model has been found to suffer from a laminar separation bubble at low AoA. The application of the indentations at 3° AoA has considerably shortened the separation bubble. The indentations achieve this by shedding up-flow pairs of streamwise vortices. Despite the considerable reduction in bubble length, the increase in leading-edge suction due to the shorter bubble is limited by the removal of surface curvature and blockage (increase in surface pressure) caused locally by the convergent indentations. Furthermore, the up-flow region of the vortices, which locally weakens the pressure recovery around the trailing edge of the aerofoil by thickening the boundary layer, also contributes to this limitation. Due to the conflicting effects of the indentations, the changes in the pressure-lift and pressure-drag coefficients, i.e., cl,p and cd,p, are small. Nevertheless, the indentations have improved cl,p and cd,p beyond the uncertainty range, i.e., by ~1.30% and ~0.30%, respectively, at 3° AoA. The wake measurements show that turbulence intensity and Reynolds stresses have considerably increased in the indented case, thus implying that the indentations increase the viscous drag on the model. In summary, the convergent indentations are able to reduce the size of the laminar separation bubble, but conversely, they are not highly effective in reducing cd,p at the tested Reynolds number.

Keywords: aerofoil flow control, laminar separation bubbles, low Reynolds-number flows, surface indentations

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9 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an RC Airplane Wing Using a NACA 2412 Profile at Different Angle of Attacks

Authors: Huseyin Gokberk, Shian Gao

Abstract:

CFD analysis of the relationship between the coefficients of lift and drag with respect to the angle of attack on a NACA 2412 wing section of an RC plane is conducted. Both the 2D and 3D models are investigated with the turbulence model. The 2D analysis has a free stream velocity of 10m/s at different AoA of 0°, 2°, 5°, 10°, 12°, and 15°. The induced drag and drag coefficient increased throughout the changes in angles even after the critical angle had been exceeded, whereas the lift force and coefficient of lift increased but had a limit at the critical stall angle, which results in values to reduce sharply. Turbulence flow characteristics are analysed around the aerofoil with the additions caused due to a finite 3D model. 3D results highlight how wing tip vortexes develop and alter the flow around the wing with the effects of the tapered configuration.

Keywords: CFD, turbulence modelling, aerofoil, angle of attack

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8 Prediction of Trailing-Edge Noise under Adverse-Pressure Gradient Effect

Authors: Li Chen

Abstract:

For an aerofoil or hydrofoil in high Reynolds number flows, broadband noise is generated efficiently as the result of the turbulence convecting over the trailing edge. This noise can be related to the surface pressure fluctuations, which can be predicted by either CFD or empirical models. However, in reality, the aerofoil or hydrofoil often operates at an angle of attack. Under this situation, the flow is subjected to an Adverse-Pressure-Gradient (APG), and as a result, a flow separation may occur. This study is to assess trailing-edge noise models for such flows. In the present work, the trailing-edge noise from a 2D airfoil at 6 degree of angle of attach is investigated. Under this condition, the flow is experiencing a strong APG, and the flow separation occurs. The flow over the airfoil with a chord of 300 mm, equivalent to a Reynold Number 4x10⁵, is simulated using RANS with the SST k-ɛ turbulent model. The predicted surface pressure fluctuations are compared with the published experimental data and empirical models, and show a good agreement with the experimental data. The effect of the APG on the trailing edge noise is discussed, and the associated trailing edge noise is calculated.

Keywords: aero-acoustics, adverse-pressure gradient, computational fluid dynamics, trailing-edge noise

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7 Numerical Investigation of the Bio-fouling Roughness Effect on Tidal Turbine

Authors: O. Afshar

Abstract:

Unlike other renewable energy sources, tidal current energy is an extremely reliable, predictable and continuous energy source as the current pattern and speed can be predicted throughout the year. A key concern associated with tidal turbines is their long-term reliability when operating in the hostile marine environment. Bio-fouling changes the physical shape and roughness of turbine components, hence altering the overall turbine performance. This paper seeks to employ Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to quantify the effects of this problem based on the obtained flow field information. The simulation is carried out on a NACA 63-618 aerofoil. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulent model are used to simulate the flow around the model. Different levels of fouling are studied on 2D aerofoil surface with quantified fouling height and density. In terms of lift and drag coefficient results, numerical results show good agreement with the experiment which was carried out in wind tunnel. Numerical results of research indicate that an increase in fouling thickness causes an increase in drag coefficient and a reduction in lift coefficient. Moreover, pressure gradient gradually becomes adverse as height of fouling increases. In addition, result by turbulent kinetic energy contour reveals it increases with fouling height and it extends into wake due to flow separation.

Keywords: tidal energy, lift coefficient, drag coefficient, roughness

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6 Numerical and Experimental Comparison of Surface Pressures around a Scaled Ship Wind-Assisted Propulsion System

Authors: James Cairns, Marco Vezza, Richard Green, Donald MacVicar

Abstract:

Significant legislative changes are set to revolutionise the commercial shipping industry. Upcoming emissions restrictions will force operators to look at technologies that can improve the efficiency of their vessels -reducing fuel consumption and emissions. A device which may help in this challenge is the Ship Wind-Assisted Propulsion system (SWAP), an actively controlled aerofoil mounted vertically on the deck of a ship. The device functions in a similar manner to a sail on a yacht, whereby the aerodynamic forces generated by the sail reach an equilibrium with the hydrodynamic forces on the hull and a forward velocity results. Numerical and experimental testing of the SWAP device is presented in this study. Circulation control takes the form of a co-flow jet aerofoil, utilising both blowing from the leading edge and suction from the trailing edge. A jet at the leading edge uses the Coanda effect to energise the boundary layer in order to delay flow separation and create high lift with low drag. The SWAP concept has been originated by the research and development team at SMAR Azure Ltd. The device will be retrofitted to existing ships so that a component of the aerodynamic forces acts forward and partially reduces the reliance on existing propulsion systems. Wind tunnel tests have been carried out at the de Havilland wind tunnel at the University of Glasgow on a 1:20 scale model of this system. The tests aim to understand the airflow characteristics around the aerofoil and investigate the approximate lift and drag coefficients that an early iteration of the SWAP device may produce. The data exhibits clear trends of increasing lift as injection momentum increases, with critical flow attachment points being identified at specific combinations of jet momentum coefficient, Cµ, and angle of attack, AOA. Various combinations of flow conditions were tested, with the jet momentum coefficient ranging from 0 to 0.7 and the AOA ranging from 0° to 35°. The Reynolds number across the tested conditions ranged from 80,000 to 240,000. Comparisons between 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and the experimental data are presented for multiple Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models in the form of normalised surface pressure comparisons. These show good agreement for most of the tested cases. However, certain simulation conditions exhibited a well-documented shortcoming of RANS-based turbulence models for circulation control flows and over-predicted surface pressures and lift coefficient for fully attached flow cases. Work must be continued in finding an all-encompassing modelling approach which predicts surface pressures well for all combinations of jet injection momentum and AOA.

Keywords: CFD, circulation control, Coanda, turbo wing sail, wind tunnel

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5 Concept and Design of a Biomimetic Single-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV)

Authors: S. Thomas, D. Ho, A. Kerroux, L. Lixi, N. Rackham, S. Rosenfeld

Abstract:

In this first paper, the different concepts and designs to build a single-wing MAV are discussed. Six scratch-building prototypes using three different designs have been tested regarding sufficient lift and weight distribution, of which various configurations were explored. Samare prototypes achieved wireless control over the motor and flap whilst obtaining data from the IMU, though obtaining an increase in lift was the key issue due to insufficient thrust. The final prototype was able to demonstrate an improvement in weight distribution.

Keywords: SAMARE, micro aerial vehicle (MAV), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), mono-copter, single-wing, mono-wing, flight control, aerofoil, lift

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4 Leading Edge Vortex Development for a 65° Delta Wing with Varying Thickness and Maximum Thickness Locations

Authors: Jana Stucke, Sean Tuling, Chris Toomer

Abstract:

This study focuses on the numerical investigation of the leading edge vortex (LEV) development over a 65° swept delta wing with varying thickness and maximum thickness location and their impact on its overall performance. The tested configurations are defined by a 6% and 12 % thick biconvex aerofoil with maximum thickness location at 30% and 50% of the root chord. The results are compared to a flat plate delta wing configuration of 3.4% thickness. The largest differences are observed for the aerofoils of 12% thickness and are used to demonstrate the trends and aerodynamic characteristics from here on. It was found that the vortex structure changes with change with maximum thickness and overall thickness. This change leads to not only a reduction in lift but also in drag, especially when the maximum thickness is moved forward. The reduction in drag, however, outweighs the loss in lift thus increasing the overall performance of the configuration.

Keywords: aerodynamics, CFD, delta wing, leading edge vortices

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3 Wax Patterns for Integrally Cast Rotors/Stators of Aeroengine Gas Turbines

Authors: Pradyumna R., Sridhar S., A. Satyanarayana, Alok S. Chauhan, Baig M. A. H.

Abstract:

Modern turbine engines for aerospace applications need precision investment cast components such as integrally cast rotors and stators, for their hot end turbine stages. Traditionally, these turbines are used as starter engines. In recent times, such engines are also used for strategic missile applications. The rotor/stator castings consist of a central hub (shrouded in some designs) over which a number of aerofoil shaped blades are located. Since these components cannot be machined, investment casting is the only available route for manufacture and hence stringent dimensional aerospace quality has to be in-built in the casting process itself. In the process of investment casting, pattern generation by injection of wax into dedicated dies/moulds is the first critical step. Traditional approach deals in producing individual blades with hub/shroud features through wax injection and assembly of a set of such injected patterns onto a dedicated and precisely manufactured fixture to wax-weld and generate an integral wax pattern, a process known as the ‘segmental approach’. It is possible to design a single-injection die with retractable metallic inserts in the case of untwisted blades of stator patterns without the shroud. Such an approach is also possible for twisted blades of rotors with highly complex design of inter-blade inserts and retraction mechanisms. DMRL has for long established methods and procedures for the above to successfully supply precision castings for various defence related projects. In recent times, urea based soluble insert approach has also been successfully applied to overcome the need to design and manufacture a precision assembly fixture, leading to substantial reduction in component development times. Present paper deals in length various approaches tried and established at DMRL to generate precision wax patterns for aerospace quality turbine rotors and stators. In addition to this, the importance of simulation in solving issues related to wax injection is also touched upon.

Keywords: die/mold and fixtures, integral rotor/stator, investment casting, wax patterns, simulation

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2 Conceptual and Preliminary Design of Landmine Searching UAS at Extreme Environmental Condition

Authors: Gopalasingam Daisan

Abstract:

Landmines and ammunitions have been creating a significant threat to the people and animals, after the war, the landmines remain in the land and it plays a vital role in civilian’s security. Especially the Children are at the highest risk because they are curious. After all, an unexploded bomb can look like a tempting toy to an inquisitive child. The initial step of designing the UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) for landmine detection is to choose an appropriate and effective sensor to locate the landmines and other unexploded ammunitions. The sensor weight and other components related to the sensor supporting device’s weight are taken as a payload weight. The mission requirement is to find the landmines in a particular area by making a proper path that will cover all the vicinity in the desired area. The weight estimation of the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) can be estimated by various techniques discovered previously with good accuracy at the first phase of the design. The next crucial part of the design is to calculate the power requirement and the wing loading calculations. The matching plot techniques are used to determine the thrust-to-weight ratio, and this technique makes this process not only easiest but also precisely. The wing loading can be calculated easily from the stall equation. After these calculations, the wing area is determined from the wing loading equation and the required power is calculated from the thrust to weight ratio calculations. According to the power requirement, an appropriate engine can be selected from the available engine from the market. And the wing geometric parameter is chosen based on the conceptual sketch. The important steps in the wing design to choose proper aerofoil and which will ensure to create sufficient lift coefficient to satisfy the requirements. The next component is the tail; the tail area and other related parameters can be estimated or calculated to counteract the effect of the wing pitching moment. As the vertical tail design depends on many parameters, the initial sizing only can be done in this phase. The fuselage is another major component, which is selected based on the slenderness ratio, and also the shape is determined on the sensor size to fit it under the fuselage. The landing gear is one of the important components which is selected based on the controllability and stability requirements. The minimum and maximum wheel track and wheelbase can be determined based on the crosswind and overturn angle requirements. The minor components of the landing gear design and estimation are not the focus of this project. Another important task is to calculate the weight of the major components and it is going to be estimated using empirical relations and also the mass is added to each such component. The CG and moment of inertia are also determined to each component separately. The sensitivity of the weight calculation is taken into consideration to avoid extra material requirements and also reduce the cost of the design. Finally, the aircraft performance is calculated, especially the V-n (velocity and load factor) diagram for different flight conditions such as not disturbed and with gust velocity.

Keywords: landmine, UAS, matching plot, optimization

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1 Wind Turbine Scaling for the Investigation of Vortex Shedding and Wake Interactions

Authors: Sarah Fitzpatrick, Hossein Zare-Behtash, Konstantinos Kontis

Abstract:

Traditionally, the focus of horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade aerodynamic optimisation studies has been the outer working region of the blade. However, recent works seek to better understand, and thus improve upon, the performance of the inboard blade region to enhance power production, maximise load reduction and better control the wake behaviour. This paper presents the design considerations and characterisation of a wind turbine wind tunnel model devised to further the understanding and fundamental definition of horizontal axis wind turbine root vortex shedding and interactions. Additionally, the application of passive and active flow control mechanisms – vortex generators and plasma actuators – to allow for the manipulation and mitigation of unsteady aerodynamic behaviour at the blade inboard section is investigated. A static, modular blade wind turbine model has been developed for use in the University of Glasgow’s de Havilland closed return, low-speed wind tunnel. The model components - which comprise of a half span blade, hub, nacelle and tower - are scaled using the equivalent full span radius, R, for appropriate Mach and Strouhal numbers, and to achieve a Reynolds number in the range of 1.7x105 to 5.1x105 for operational speeds up to 55m/s. The half blade is constructed to be modular and fully dielectric, allowing for the integration of flow control mechanisms with a focus on plasma actuators. Investigations of root vortex shedding and the subsequent wake characteristics using qualitative – smoke visualisation, tufts and china clay flow – and quantitative methods – including particle image velocimetry (PIV), hot wire anemometry (HWA), and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) – were conducted over a range of blade pitch angles 0 to 15 degrees, and Reynolds numbers. This allowed for the identification of shed vortical structures from the maximum chord position, the transitional region where the blade aerofoil blends into a cylindrical joint, and the blade nacelle connection. Analysis of the trailing vorticity interactions between the wake core and freestream shows the vortex meander and diffusion is notably affected by the Reynold’s number. It is hypothesized that the shed vorticity from the blade root region directly influences and exacerbates the nacelle wake expansion in the downstream direction. As the design of inboard blade region form is, by necessity, driven by function rather than aerodynamic optimisation, a study is undertaken for the application of flow control mechanisms to manipulate the observed vortex phenomenon. The designed model allows for the effective investigation of shed vorticity and wake interactions with a focus on the accurate geometry of a root region which is representative of small to medium power commercial HAWTs. The studies undertaken allow for an enhanced understanding of the interplay of shed vortices and their subsequent effect in the near and far wake. This highlights areas of interest within the inboard blade area for the potential use of passive and active flow control devices which contrive to produce a more desirable wake quality in this region.

Keywords: vortex shedding, wake interactions, wind tunnel model, wind turbine

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