Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3306

Search results for: plantar pressure

3306 Neural Network and Support Vector Machine for Prediction of Foot Disorders Based on Foot Analysis

Authors: Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Adel Khorramrouz, Lalenoor Morvarid, Bagheri Mahtab

Abstract:

Background:- Foot disorders are common in musculoskeletal problems. Plantar pressure distribution measurement is one the most important part of foot disorders diagnosis for quantitative analysis. However, the association of plantar pressure and foot disorders is not clear. With the growth of dataset and machine learning methods, the relationship between foot disorders and plantar pressures can be detected. Significance of the study:- The purpose of this study was to predict the probability of common foot disorders based on peak plantar pressure distribution and center of pressure during walking. Methodologies:- 2323 participants were assessed in a foot therapy clinic between 2015 and 2021. Foot disorders were diagnosed by an experienced physician and then they were asked to walk on a force plate scanner. After the data preprocessing, due to the difference in walking time and foot size, we normalized the samples based on time and foot size. Some of force plate variables were selected as input to a deep neural network (DNN), and the probability of any each foot disorder was measured. In next step, we used support vector machine (SVM) and run dataset for each foot disorder (classification of yes or no). We compared DNN and SVM for foot disorders prediction based on plantar pressure distributions and center of pressure. Findings:- The results demonstrated that the accuracy of deep learning architecture is sufficient for most clinical and research applications in the study population. In addition, the SVM approach has more accuracy for predictions, enabling applications for foot disorders diagnosis. The detection accuracy was 71% by the deep learning algorithm and 78% by the SVM algorithm. Moreover, when we worked with peak plantar pressure distribution, it was more accurate than center of pressure dataset. Conclusion:- Both algorithms- deep learning and SVM will help therapist and patients to improve the data pool and enhance foot disorders prediction with less expense and error after removing some restrictions properly.

Keywords: deep neural network, foot disorder, plantar pressure, support vector machine

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3305 A Convolution Neural Network Approach to Predict Pes-Planus Using Plantar Pressure Mapping Images

Authors: Adel Khorramrouz, Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Ehsan Norouzi, Morvarid Lalenoor

Abstract:

Background: Plantar pressure distribution measurement has been used for a long time to assess foot disorders. Plantar pressure is an important component affecting the foot and ankle function and Changes in plantar pressure distribution could indicate various foot and ankle disorders. Morphologic and mechanical properties of the foot may be important factors affecting the plantar pressure distribution. Accurate and early measurement may help to reduce the prevalence of pes planus. With recent developments in technology, new techniques such as machine learning have been used to assist clinicians in predicting patients with foot disorders. Significance of the study: This study proposes a neural network learning-based flat foot classification methodology using static foot pressure distribution. Methodologies: Data were collected from 895 patients who were referred to a foot clinic due to foot disorders. Patients with pes planus were labeled by an experienced physician based on clinical examination. Then all subjects (with and without pes planus) were evaluated for static plantar pressures distribution. Patients who were diagnosed with the flat foot in both feet were included in the study. In the next step, the leg length was normalized and the network was trained for plantar pressure mapping images. Findings: From a total of 895 image data, 581 were labeled as pes planus. A computational neural network (CNN) ran to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The prediction accuracy of the basic CNN-based model was performed and the prediction model was derived through the proposed methodology. In the basic CNN model, the training accuracy was 79.14%, and the test accuracy was 72.09%. Conclusion: This model can be easily and simply used by patients with pes planus and doctors to predict the classification of pes planus and prescreen for possible musculoskeletal disorders related to this condition. However, more models need to be considered and compared for higher accuracy.

Keywords: foot disorder, machine learning, neural network, pes planus

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
3304 The Characteristics of Static Plantar Loading in the First-Division College Sprint Athletes

Authors: Tong-Hsien Chow

Abstract:

Background: Plantar pressure measurement is an effective method for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating movement performance of the foot. The purpose of this study is to explore the sprint athletes’ plantar loading characteristics and pain profiles in static standing. Methods: Experiments were undertaken on 80 first-division college sprint athletes and 85 healthy non-sprinters. ‘JC Mat’, the optical plantar pressure measurement was applied to examining the differences between both groups in the arch index (AI), three regional and six distinct sub-regional plantar pressure distributions (PPD), and footprint characteristics. Pain assessment and self-reported health status in sprint athletes were examined for evaluating their common pain areas. Results: Findings from the control group, the males’ AI fell into the normal range. Yet, the females’ AI was classified as the high-arch type. AI values of the sprint group were found to be significantly lower than the control group. PPD were higher at the medial metatarsal bone of both feet and the lateral heel of the right foot in the sprint group, the males in particular, whereas lower at the medial and lateral longitudinal arches of both feet. Footprint characteristics tended to support the results of the AI and PPD, and this reflected the corresponding pressure profiles. For the sprint athletes, the lateral knee joint and biceps femoris were the most common musculoskeletal pains. Conclusions: The sprint athletes’ AI were generally classified as high arches, and that their PPD were categorized between the features of runners and high-arched runners. These findings also correspond to the profiles of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS)-related plantar pressure. The pain profiles appeared to correspond to the symptoms of high-arched runners and PFPS. The findings reflected upon the possible link between high arches and PFPS. The correlation between high-arched runners and PFPS development is worth further studies.

Keywords: sprint athletes, arch index, plantar pressure distributions, high arches, patellofemoral pain syndrome

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3303 Combination of Plantar Pressure and Star Excursion Balance Test for Evaluation of Dynamic Posture Control on High-Heeled Shoes

Authors: Yan Zhang, Jan Awrejcewicz, Lin Fu

Abstract:

High-heeled shoes force the foot into plantar flexion position resulting in foot arch rising and disturbance of the articular congruence between the talus and tibiofibular mortice, all of which may increase the challenge of balance maintenance. Plantar pressure distribution of the stance limb during the star excursion balance test (SEBT) contributes to the understanding of potential sources of reaching excursions in SEBT. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic posture control while wearing high-heeled shoes using SEBT in a combination of plantar pressure measurement. Twenty healthy young females were recruited. Shoes of three heel heights were used: flat (0.8 cm), low (4.0 cm), high (6.6 cm). The testing grid of SEBT consists of three lines extending out at 120° from each other, which were defined as anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Participants were instructed to stand on their dominant limb with the heel in the middle of the testing grid and hands on hips and to reach the non-stance limb as far as possible towards each direction. The distal portion of the reaching limb lightly touched the ground without shifting weight. Then returned the reaching limb to the beginning position. The excursion distances were normalized to leg length. The insole plantar measurement system was used to record peak pressure, contact area, and pressure-time integral of the stance limb. Results showed that normalized excursion distance decreased significantly as heel height increased. The changes of plantar pressure in SEBT as heel height increased were more obvious in the medial forefoot (MF), medial midfoot (MM), rearfoot areas. At MF, the peak pressure and pressure-time integral of low and high shoes increased significantly compared with that of flat shoes, while the contact area decreased significantly as heel height increased. At MM, peak pressure, contact area, and pressure-time integral of high and low shoes were significantly lower than that of flat shoes. To reduce posture instability, the stance limb plantar loading shifted to medial forefoot. Knowledge of this study identified dynamic posture control deficits while wearing high-heeled shoes and the critical role of the medial forefoot in dynamic balance maintenance.

Keywords: dynamic posture control, high-heeled shoes, plantar pressure, star excursion balance test.

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3302 The Effect of Taekwondo on Plantar Pressure Distribution and Arch Index

Authors: Maryam Kakavand, Samira Entezari, Sara Khoshjamalfekri, Raghad Mimar

Abstract:

The objective of this study is 1) to compare elite female and beginner taekwondo players in terms of plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure, and right and left longitudinal arches, and 2) to compare preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite players. To the best of authors’ knowledge, as of yet, there is no information available about the plantar pressure distribution and arch index among taekwondo players. Material and Methods: An analytical-comparative research method is applied. Therefore seven elite athletes and eight novice athletes were selected. The emed-C50 platform was used to assess plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure of different areas, and planter longitudinal arch in a second step protocol. Independent t-test and dependent t-test were used at a level of 0.05 to compare the elites and beginners' right and left feet, and preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite athletes, respectively. Results: In comparing the right and left limbs of elite and beginner groups, findings indicate that there is only a significant difference in the mean pressure of the first metatarsal of the right foot. Findings also showed a significant difference in the contact area of the toes 3, 4, 5 regions between elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups’ right and left limbs and elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs in terms of pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, and arch index. Conclusion: It seems that taekwondo exercises have affected pressure distribution patterns among advanced players causing some differences in their planter pressure distribution pattern when compared to that of beginners. Therefore, taekwondo exercises may be a factor contributing to asymmetry performance in preferred and non-preferred limbs.

Keywords: planter pressure, arch index, taekwondo, elite

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3301 Inelastic and Elastic Taping in Plantar Pressure of Runners Pronators: Clinical Trial

Authors: Liana Gomide, Juliana Rodrigues

Abstract:

The morphology of the foot defines its mode of operation and a biomechanical reform indispensable for a symmetrical distribution of plantar pressures in order not to overload some of its components in isolation. High plantar pressures at specific points in the foot may be a causal factor in several orthopedic disorders that affect the feet such as pain and stress fracture. With digital baro-podometry equipment one can observe an intensity of pressures along the entire foot and quantify some of the movements, such as a subtalar pronation present in the midfoot region. Although, they are involved in microtraumas. In clinical practice, excessive movement has been limited with the use of different taping techniques applied on the plantar arch. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze and compare the influence of the inelastic and elastic taping on the distribution of plantar pressure of runners pronators. This is a randomized clinical trial and blind-crossover. Twenty (20) male subjects, mean age 33 ± 7 years old, mean body mass of 71 ± 7 kg, mean height of 174 ± 6 cm, were included in the study. A data collection was carried out by a single research through barop-odometry equipment - Tekscan, model F-scan mobile. The tests were performed at three different times. In the first, an initial barop-odometric evaluation was performed, without a bandage application, with edges at a speed of 9.0 km/h. In the second and third moments, the inelastic or elastic taping was applied consecutively, according to the definition defined in the randomization. As results, it was observed that both as inelastic and elastic taping, provided significant reductions in contact pressure and peak pressure values when compared to the moment without a taping. However, an elastic taping was more effective in decreasing contact pressure (no bandage = 714 ± 201, elastic taping = 690 ± 210 and inelastic taping = 716 ± 180) and no peak pressure in the midfoot region (no bandage = 1490 ± 42, elastic taping = 1273 ± 323 and inelastic taping = 1487 ± 437). It is possible to conclude that it is an elastic taping provided by pressure in the middle region, thereby reducing the subtalar pronunciation event during the run.

Keywords: elastic taping, inelastic taping, running, subtalar pronation

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3300 The Effect of Fixing Kinesiology Tape onto the Plantar Surface during Loading Phase of Gait

Authors: Albert K. Chong, Jasim Ahmed Ali Al-Baghdadi, Peter B. Milburn

Abstract:

Precise capture of plantar 3D surface of the foot at the loading gait phases on rigid substrate was found to be valuable for the assessment of the physiology, health and problems of the feet. Photogrammetry, a precision 3D spatial data capture technique is suitable for this type of dynamic application. In this research, the technique is utilised to study of the effect on the plantar deformation for having a strip of kinesiology tape on the plantar surface while going through the loading phase of gait. For this pilot study, one healthy adult male subject was recruited under the USQ University human research ethics guidelines for this preliminary study. The 3D plantar deformation data of both with and without applying the tape were analysed. The results and analyses are presented together with the detail of the findings.

Keywords: gait, human plantar, plantar loading, photogrammetry, kinesiology tape

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3299 A Low-Cost of Foot Plantar Shoes for Gait Analysis

Authors: Zulkifli Ahmad, Mohd Razlan Azizan, Nasrul Hadi Johari

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on development and conducting of a wearable sensor system for gait analysis measurement. For validation, the method of plantar surface measurement by force plate was prepared. In general gait analysis, force plate generally represents a studies about barefoot in whole steps and do not allow analysis of repeating movement step in normal walking and running. The measurements that were usually perform do not represent the whole daily plantar pressures in the shoe insole and only obtain the ground reaction force. The force plate measurement is usually limited a few step and it is done indoor and obtaining coupling information from both feet during walking is not easily obtained. Nowadays, in order to measure pressure for a large number of steps and obtain pressure in each insole part, it could be done by placing sensors within an insole. With this method, it will provide a method for determine the plantar pressures while standing, walking or running of a shoe wearing subject. Inserting pressure sensors in the insole will provide specific information and therefore the point of the sensor placement will result in obtaining the critical part under the insole. In the wearable shoe sensor project, the device consists left and right shoe insole with ten FSR. Arduino Mega was used as a micro-controller that read the analog input from FSR. The analog inputs were transmitted via bluetooth data transmission that gains the force data in real time on smartphone. Blueterm software which is an android application was used as an interface to read the FSR reading on the shoe wearing subject. The subject consist of two healthy men with different age and weight doing test while standing, walking (1.5 m/s), jogging (5 m/s) and running (9 m/s) on treadmill. The data obtain will be saved on the android device and for making an analysis and comparison graph.

Keywords: gait analysis, plantar pressure, force plate, earable sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
3298 Investigating the Dynamic Plantar Pressure Distribution in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Hilal Keklicek, Baris Cetin, Yeliz Salci, Ayla Fil, Umut Altinkaynak, Kadriye Armutlu

Abstract:

Objectives and Goals: Spasticity is a common symptom characterized with a velocity dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes (muscle tone) in patient with multiple sclerosis (MS). Hypertonic muscles affect the normal plantigrade contact by disturbing accommodation of foot to the ground while walking. It is important to know the differences between healthy and neurologic foot features for management of spasticity related deformities and/or determination of rehabilitation purposes and contents. This study was planned with the aim of investigating the dynamic plantar pressure distribution in individuals with MS and determining the differences between healthy individuals (HI). Methods: Fifty-five individuals with MS (108 foot with spasticity according to Modified Ashworth Scale) and 20 HI (40 foot) were the participants of the study. The dynamic pedobarograph was utilized for evaluation of dynamic loading parameters. Participants were informed to walk at their self-selected speed for seven times to eliminate learning effect. The parameters were divided into 2 categories including; maximum loading pressure (N/cm2) and time of maximum pressure (ms) were collected from heal medial, heal lateral, mid foot, heads of first, second, third, fourth and fifth metatarsal bones. Results: There were differences between the groups in maximum loading pressure of heal medial (p < .001), heal lateral (p < .001), midfoot (p=.041) and 5th metatarsal areas (p=.036). Also, there were differences between the groups the time of maximum pressure of all metatarsal areas, midfoot, heal medial and heal lateral (p < .001) in favor of HI. Conclusions: The study provided basic data about foot pressure distribution in individuals with MS. Results of the study primarily showed that spasticity of lower extremity muscle disrupted the posteromedial foot loading. Secondarily, according to the study result, spasticity lead to inappropriate timing during load transfer from hind foot to forefoot.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, plantar pressure distribution, gait, norm values

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
3297 The Comparison of Backward and Forward Running Program on Balance Development and Plantar Flexion Force in Pre Seniors: Healthy Approach

Authors: Neda Dekamei, Mostafa Sarabzadeh, Masoumeh Bigdeli

Abstract:

Backward running is commonly used in different sports conditioning, motor learning, and neurological purposes, and even more commonly in physical rehabilitation. The present study evaluated the effects of six weeks backward and forward running methods on balance promotion adaptation in students. 12 male and female preseniors with the age range of 45-60 years participated and were randomly classified into two groups of backward running (n: 6) and forward running (n: 6) training interventions. During six weeks, 3 sessions per week, all subjects underwent stated different models of backward and forward running training on treadmill (65-80 of HR max). Pre and post-tests were performed by force plate and electromyogram, two times before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using by T test. On the basis of obtained data, significant differences were recorded on balance and plantar flexion force in backward running (BR) and no difference for forward running (FR). It seems the training model of backward running can generate more stimulus to achieve better plantar flexion force and strengthening ankle protectors which leads to balance improvement in pre aging period. It can be recommended as an effective method to promote seniors life quality especially in balance neuromuscular parameters.

Keywords: backward running, balance, plantar flexion, pre seniors

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3296 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng

Abstract:

The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
3295 Comparison of Dynamic Balance Ability and Flexibility in Different Sports

Authors: Inci Kesilmis, Manolya Akin, Mehmet Melih Kesilmis

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to compare dynamic balance ability (bipedal, right, left foot) and plantar-dorsi flexion range of motion in fencers and swimmers. 43 fencers participated as volunteer with mean age 15.74±1.90year and mean training year 4.97±2.37year. 25 swimmers participated as volunteer with mean age 15.36±1.65 yr. and mean training year 5.98±2.35 yr. Dynamic balance measured while participants were standing in the anatomical position with prokin tecno body for bipedal, right, left foot. Plantar and dorsal flexion range of motion measured while participants in seated position on the examination table and goniometer placed on the lateral malleolus. For statistical analyses; independent samples t test was used. There were significant differences between bipedal (p < 0.05), right foot (p < 0.05), left foot (p < 0.05) dynamic balance ability in favor of fencers. Also there was significant difference between right and left foot dorsal flexion range of motion (p < 0.001) in favor of fencers. There was no significant difference in plantar flexion range of motion between fencers and swimmers. The difference observed in fencers may be due to the use of more dorsal flexion in action moves and that swimming does not impact loading sport and it is performed in pool.

Keywords: fencing, swimming, dynamic balance, flexibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
3294 Fiber Braggs Grating Sensor Based Instrumentation to Evaluate Postural Balance and Stability on an Unstable Platform

Authors: K. Chethana, A. S. Guru Prasad, H. N. Vikranth, H. Varun, S. N. Omkar, S. Asokan

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel application of Fiber Braggs Grating (FBG) sensors on an unstable platform to assess human postural stability and balance. The FBG sensor based Stability Analyzing Device (FBGSAD) developed demonstrates the applicability of FBG sensors in the measurement of plantar strain to assess the postural stability of subjects on unstable platforms during different stances in eyes open and eyes closed conditions on a rocker board. Comparing the Centre of Gravity (CG) variations measured on the lumbar vertebra of subjects using a commercial accelerometer along with FBGSAD validates the study. The results obtained depict qualitative similarities between the data recorded by both FBGSAD and accelerometer, illustrating the reliability and consistency of FBG sensors in biomechanical applications for both young and geriatric population. The developed FBGSAD simultaneously measures plantar strain distribution and postural stability and can serve as a tool/yardstick to mitigate space motion sickness, identify individuals who are susceptible to falls and to qualify subjects for balance and stability, which are important factors in the selection of certain unique professionals such as aircraft pilots, astronauts, cosmonauts etc.

Keywords: biomechanics, fiber bragg gratings, plantar strain measurement, postural stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
3293 Development of Plantar Insoles Reinforcement Using Biocomposites

Authors: A. C. Vidal, D. R. Mulinari, C. F. Bandeira, S. R. Montoro

Abstract:

Due to the great effort suffered by foot during movement, is of great importance to count on a shoe that has a proper structure and excellent support tread to prevent the immediate and long-term consequences in all parts of the body. In this sense, new reinforcements of insoles with high impact absorption were developed in this work, from a polyurethane (PU) biocomposite derived from castor oil reinforced or not with palm fibers. These insoles have been obtained from the mixture with polyol prepolymer (diisocyanate) and subsequently were evaluated morphologically, mechanically and by thermal analysis. The results revealed that the biocomposites showed lower flexural strength, higher impact strength and open interconnected pores in their microstructure, but with smaller cells and degradation temperature slightly higher compared to the marketed material, showing interesting properties for a possible application as reinforcement of insoles.

Keywords: composite, polyurethane insole, palm fibers, plantar insoles reinforcement

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3292 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

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3291 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig

Abstract:

In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: blood pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
3290 Calibration Methods of Direct and Indirect Reading Pressure Sensor and Uncertainty Determination

Authors: Sinem O. Aktan, Musa Y. Akkurt

Abstract:

Experimental pressure calibration methods can be classified into three areas: (1) measurements in liquid or gas systems, (2) measurements in static-solid media systems, and (3) measurements in dynamic shock systems. Fluid (liquid and gas) systems high accuracies can be obtainable and commonly used for the calibration method of a pressure sensor. Pressure calibrations can be performed for metrological traceability in two ways, which are on-site (field) and in the laboratory. Laboratory and on-site calibration procedures and the requirements of the DKD-R-6-1 and Euramet cg-17 guidelines will also be addressed. In this study, calibration methods of direct and indirect reading pressure sensor and measurement uncertainty contributions will be explained.

Keywords: pressure metrology, pressure calibration, dead-weight tester, pressure uncertainty

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3289 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.

Abstract:

Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

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3288 The Clinical Effectiveness of Off-The-Shelf Foot Orthoses on the Dynamics of Gait in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Vicki Cameron

Abstract:

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) typically effects the feet and about 20% of patients present initially with foot and ankle symptoms. Custom moulded foot orthoses (FO) in the management of foot and ankle problems in RA is well documented in the literature. Off-the-shelf FO are thought to provide an effective alternative to custom moulded FO in patients with RA, however they are not evidence based. Objectives: To determine the effects of off-the-shelf FO on; 1. quality of life (QOL) 2. walking speed 4. peak plantar pressure in the forefoot (PPPft) Methods: Thirty-five patients (six male and 29 female) participated in the study from 11/2006 to 07/2008. The age of the patients ranged from 26 to 80 years (mean 52.4 years; standard deviation [SD] 13.3 years). A repeated measures design was used, with patients presenting at baseline, three months and six months. Patients were tested walking barefoot, shod and shod with FO. The type of orthoses used was the Slimflex Plastic ® (Algeos). The Leeds Foot Impact Scale (LFIS) was used to investigate QOL. The Vicon 612 motion analysis system was used to determine the effect of FO on walking speed. The F-scan walkway and in-shoe systems provided information of the effect on PPPft. Ethical approval was obtained on 07/2006. Data was analysed using SPSS version 15.0. Results/Discussion: The LFIS data was analysed with a repeated measures ANOVA. There was a significant improvement in the LFIS score with the use of the FO over the six months (p<0.01). A significant increase in walking speed with the orthoses was observed (p<0.01). Peak plantar pressure in the forefoot was reduced with the FO, as shown by a non-parametric Friedman’s test (chi-square = 55.314, df=2, p<0.05). Conclusion: The results show that off-the-shelf FO are effective in managing foot problems in patients with RA. Patients reported an improved QOL with the orthoses, and further objective measurements were quantified to provide a rationale for this change. Patients demonstrated an increased walking speed, which has been shown to be associated with reduced pain. The FO decreased PPPft which have been reported as a site of pain and ulceration in patients with RA. Salient Clinical Points: Off-the-shelf FO offer an effective alternative to custom moulded FO, and can be dispensed at the chair side. This is crucial in the management of foot problems associated with RA as early intervention is advocated due to the chronic and progressive nature of the disease.

Keywords: podiatry, rheumatoid arthritis, foot orthoses, gait analysis

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3287 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

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3286 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, pressure vessel, saddle, support

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
3285 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama

Abstract:

Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, cavitation, negative pressure, observation

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
3284 Percentage Contribution of Lower Limb Moments to Vertical Ground Reaction Force in Normal Walking

Authors: Salam M. Elhafez, Ahmed A. Ashour, Naglaa M. Elhafez, Ghada M. Elhafez, Azza M. Abdelmohsen

Abstract:

Patients suffering from gait disturbances are referred by having muscle group dysfunctions. There is a need for more studies investigating the contribution of muscle moments of the lower limb to the vertical ground reaction force using 3D gait analysis system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the hip, knee and ankle moments in the sagittal plane contribute to the vertical ground reaction force in healthy subjects during normal speed of walking. Forty healthy male individuals volunteered to participate in this study. They were filmed using six high speed (120 Hz) Pro-Reflex Infrared cameras (Qualisys) while walking on an AMTI force platform. The data collected were the percentage contribution of the moments of the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane at the instant of occurrence of the first peak, second peak, and the trough of the vertical ground reaction force. The results revealed that at the first peak of the ground reaction force (loading response), the highest contribution was generated from the knee extension moment, followed by the hip extension moment. Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion moments produced high contribution to the trough of the ground reaction force (midstance) with approximately equal values. The second peak of the ground reaction force was mainly produced by the ankle plantar flexion moment. Conclusion: Hip and knee flexion and extension moments and ankle plantar flexion moment play important roles in the supporting phase of normal walking.

Keywords: gait analysis, ground reaction force, moment contribution, normal walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
3283 Expression of Somatostatin and Neuropeptide Y in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Hind Paw Incision in Rats

Authors: Anshu Bahl, Saroj Kaler, Shivani Gupta, S B Ray

Abstract:

Background: Somatostatin is an endogenous regulatory neuropeptide. Somatostatin and its analogues play an important role in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Neuropeptide Y is extensively distributed in the mammalian nervous system. NPY has an important role in blood pressure, circadian rhythm, obesity, appetite and memory. The purpose was to investigate somatostatin and NPY expression in dorsal root ganglia during pain. The plantar incision model in rats is similar to postoperative pain in humans. Methods: 24 adult male Sprague dawley rats were distributed randomly into two groups – Control (n=6) and incision (n=18) groups. Using Hargreaves apparatus, thermal hyperalgesia behavioural test for nociception was done under basal condition and after surgical incision in right hind paw at different time periods (day 1, 3 and 5). The plantar incision was performed as per standard protocol. Perfusion was done using 4% paraformaldehyde followed by extraction of dorsal root ganglia at L4 level. The tissue was processed for immunohistochemical localisation for somatostatin and neuropeptide Y. Results: Post incisional groups (day 1, 3 and 5) exhibited significant decrease of paw withdrawal latency as compared to control groups. Somatostatin expression was noted under basal conditions. It decreased on day 1, but again gradually increased on day 3 and further on day five post incision. The expression of Neuropeptide Y was noted in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia under basal conditions. Compared to control group, expression of neuropeptide Y decreased on day one after incision, but again gradually increased on day 3. Maximum expression was noted on day five post incision. Conclusion: Decrease in paw withdrawal latency indicated nociception, particularly on day 1. In comparison to control, somatostatin and NPY expression was decreased on day one post incision. This could be correlated with increased axoplasmic flow towards the spinal cord. Somatostatin and NPY expression was maximum on day five post incision. This could be due to decreased migration from the site of synthesis towards the spinal cord.

Keywords: dorsal root ganglia, neuropeptide y, postoperative pain, somatostatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
3282 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda

Abstract:

In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75 mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: flow visualization, pressure measurement, reverse flow, vortex tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
3281 Design and Simulation of MEMS-Based Capacitive Pressure Sensors

Authors: Kirankumar B. Balavalad, Bhagyashree Mudhol, B. G. Sheeparamatti

Abstract:

MEMS sensor have gained popularity in automotive, biomedical, and industrial applications. In this paper, the design and simulation of conventional, slotted, and perforated MEMS capacitive pressure sensor is proposed. Polysilicon material is used as diaphragm material that deflects due to applied pressure. Better sensitivity is the main advantage of conventional pressure sensor as compared with other two sensors and perforated pressure sensor achieves large operating pressure range. The proposed MEMS sensor demonstrated with diaphragm length 50um, gap depth 3um is being modelled. The simulation is carried out for different types of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor using COMSOL Multiphysics and Coventor ware.

Keywords: MEMS, conventional pressure sensor, slotted and perforated diaphragm, COMSOL multiphysics, coventor ware

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
3280 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoop Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (FoS) in Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Mohammed Hani Ajani

Abstract:

The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
3279 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoops Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (Fos) in the Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Mohammad Hani Ajani

Abstract:

The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
3278 A CFD Analysis of Flow through a High-Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline with an Undeformed and Deformed Orifice Plate

Authors: R. Kiš, M. Malcho, M. Janovcová

Abstract:

This work aims to present a numerical analysis of the natural gas which flows through a high-pressure pipeline and an orifice plate, through the use of CFD methods. The paper contains CFD calculations for the flow of natural gas in a pipe with different geometry used for the orifice plates. One of them has a standard geometry and a shape without any deformation and the other is deformed by the action of the pressure differential. It shows the behaviour of natural gas in a pipeline using the velocity profiles and pressure fields of the gas in both models with their differences. The entire research is based on the elimination of any inaccuracy which should appear in the flow of the natural gas measured in the high-pressure pipelines of the gas industry and which is currently not given in the relevant standard.

Keywords: orifice plate, high-pressure pipeline, natural gas, CFD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
3277 On the Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Internal Pressure in Air Bearings

Authors: Abdurrahim Dal, Tuncay Karaçay

Abstract:

Dynamics of a rotor supported by air bearings is strongly depends on the pressure distribution between the rotor and the bearing. In this study, internal pressure in air bearings is numerical and experimental analyzed for different radial clearances. Firstly the pressure distribution between rotor and bearing is modeled using Reynold's equation and this model is solved numerically. The rotor-bearing system is also modeled in four degree of freedom and it is simulated for different radial clearances. Then, in order to validate numerical results, a test rig is designed and the rotor bearing system is run under the same operational conditions. Pressure signals of left and right bearings are recorded. Internal pressure variations are compared for numerical and experimental results for different radial clearances.

Keywords: air bearing, internal pressure, Reynold’s equation, rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 337