Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: M. Ishak

42 Assessment of Radiological Dose for Th-232 Laboratory Accumulated in Tropical Freshwater Fish

Authors: Zal U’yun Wan Mahmood, Norfaizal Mohamed, Nita Salina Abu Bakar, Yii Mei Wo, Abdul Kadir Ishak, Mohamad Noh Sawon, Mohd Tarmizi Ishak, Khairul Nizam Razali

Abstract:

The study of thorium radiotracer bioaccumulation in the whole body tropical freshwater fish (Anabas testudeneus; climb pearch) was performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different Th-232 activity concentration andradiological dose in Anabas testudeneus under the laboratory bioaccumulation condition. Anabas testudeneus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL-1 (control), 50 BqL-1, 100 BqL-1,150 BqL-1and 200 BqL-1for 30 days. Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels were calculated and; total dose rates and risk quotients using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive decrease of Th concentration ratio. Meanwhile, the total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudeneus less than the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 µGyh-1 and the risk quotient less than one. Thus, the findings can be concluded that the radiological dose of Th-232 to Anabas testudeneus is a very low probability and the situation may be considered to be of negligible radiological concern.

Keywords: Anabas testudeneus, bioaccumulation, radiological dose, Th-232

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
41 Flow and Heat Transfer over a Shrinking Sheet: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak

Abstract:

The characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer over a permeable shrinking sheet is studied. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the suction parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

Keywords: dual solutions, heat transfer, shrinking sheet, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
40 Flow and Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Shrinking Sheet

Authors: N. Bachok, N. L. Aleng, N. M. Arifin, A. Ishak, N. Senu

Abstract:

The problem of laminar fluid flow which results from the shrinking of a permeable surface in a nanofluid has been investigated numerically. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. A similarity solution is presented which depends on the mass suction parameter S, Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion number Nb and thermophoresis number Nt. It was found that the reduced Nusselt number is decreasing function of each dimensionless number.

Keywords: Boundary layer, nanofluid, shrinking sheet, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, similarity solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
39 Combined Surface Tension and Natural Convection of Nanofluids in a Square Open Cavity

Authors: Habibis Saleh, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

Combined surface tension and natural convection heat transfer in an open cavity is studied numerically in this article. The cavity is filled with water-{Cu} nanofluids. The left wall is kept at low temperature, the right wall at high temperature and the bottom and top walls are adiabatic. The top free surface is assumed to be flat and non--deformable. Finite difference method is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. It is found that the insignificant effect of adding the nanoparticles were obtained about $Ma_{bf}=250$.

Keywords: natural convection, marangoni convection, nanofluids, square open cavity

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
38 Contemporary Visual Art and Shariah: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Ishak Ramli, Mohamad Noorman Masrek, Muhamad Abdul Aziz Ab Gani

Abstract:

Islam places restrictions and limitation to the creation and ownership of visual art. Not all forms of visual arts are permissible in Islam. However, guidance on the creation and ownership of visual arts is not made plain and clear not only to the Islamic followers but also to the art community. Given this gap, this study attempts to develop a conceptual framework that will guide artist and art collectors on what constitute to valid and acceptable through the Islamic perspective. Based on this framework, several research checklist are proposed. It is highly useful especially for the researchers who are interested to study the topic. Qualitative research is the best choice to test run the paper work to attempt all the checklist which are formed.

Keywords: contemporary visual art, Shariah, conceptual framework, Islam

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
37 Dual Solutions in Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak

Abstract:

The mixed convection stagnation point flow toward a vertical plate is investigated. The external flow impinges normal to the heated plate and the surface temperature is assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the stagnation point. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the mixed convection parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

Keywords: dual solutions, heat transfer, mixed convection, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
36 Performance Evaluation of Distributed and Co-Located MIMO LTE Physical Layer Using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform

Authors: Ishak Suleiman, Ahmad Kamsani Samingan, Yeoh Chun Yeow, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the benefits of distributed 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink systems compared to that of the co-located 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink system. The performance evaluation was carried out experimentally by using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP), where the comparison between the 4x4 MIMO LTE transmission downlink system in distributed and co-located techniques was examined. The measured Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) results showed that the distributed technique achieved better system performance compared to the co-located arrangement.

Keywords: multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO), distributed MIMO, co-located MIMO, LTE

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35 Conjugate Free Convection in a Square Cavity Filled with Nanofluid and Heated from Below by Spatial Wall Temperature

Authors: Ishak Hashim, Ammar Alsabery

Abstract:

The problem of conjugate free convection in a square cavity filled with nanofluid and heated from below by spatial wall temperature is studied numerically using the finite difference method. Water-based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles are chosen for the investigation. Governing equations are solved over a wide range of nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2), wave number ((0 ≤ λ ≤ 4) and thermal conductivity ratio (0.44 ≤ Kr ≤ 6). The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. It is found that the flow behavior and the heat distribution are clearly enhanced with the increment of the non-uniform heating.

Keywords: conjugate free convection, square cavity, nanofluid, spatial temperature

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34 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad

Abstract:

Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations

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33 Multistage Adomian Decomposition Method for Solving Linear and Non-Linear Stiff System of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: M. S. H. Chowdhury, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

In this paper, linear and non-linear stiff systems of ordinary differential equations are solved by the classical Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and the multi-stage Adomian decomposition method (MADM). The MADM is a technique adapted from the standard Adomian decomposition method (ADM) where standard ADM is converted into a hybrid numeric-analytic method called the multistage ADM (MADM). The MADM is tested for several examples. Comparisons with an explicit Runge-Kutta-type method (RK) and the classical ADM demonstrate the limitations of ADM and promising capability of the MADM for solving stiff initial value problems (IVPs).

Keywords: stiff system of ODEs, Runge-Kutta Type Method, Adomian decomposition method, Multistage ADM

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
32 Numerical Simulation of the Flow around Wing-In-Ground Effect (WIG) Craft

Authors: A. Elbatran, Y. Ahmed, A. Radwan, M. Ishak

Abstract:

The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will support in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future. This paper investigates the aerodynamic characteristic of compound wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model. Drag coefficient, lift coefficient and Lift and drag ratio were studied numerically with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The modifications of the wing has been done in order to investigate the most suitable wing configuration that can increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. A numerical investigation was carried out in this research work using finite volume Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE) code ANSYS CFX, Validation was carried out by using experiments. The experimental and the numerical results concluded that the lift to drag ratio decreased with the increasing of the ground clearance.

Keywords: drag Coefficient, ground clearance, navier-stokes, WIG

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
31 Healing Performances: Ethnographic Concepts and Emic Perspectives

Authors: S. Ishak, M. G. Nasuruddin

Abstract:

This paper looks at healing performances as ethnographic expressions of local knowledge and culture embedded within the Malay psyche and gemeinschaft. As society develops and progresses, these healing performances are caught within conflicting trajectories which become compounded by the contestations of tradition, religious concerns, locality and modernity. As exemplifications of the Malay ethos, these performances practice common rituals, cater to the innate needs of the practitioners and serve the targeted, closed, local community. This paper traces the ethnographic methods in documenting these practices as rituals of healing in a post-modern world. It delineates the ethnographic concepts used to analyze these rituals, and to semiotically read the varied binarial oppositions and juxtapositions. The paper concludes by highlighting the reconciliatory processes involved in maintaining these ritual performances as exemplifications of the Malay ethos playing an important role in the re-aligning, re-balancing and healing of the Malay community’s psyche.

Keywords: angina, winds, semangat, spirits, traditional theatres, trance

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
30 Effects of Viscous Dissipation on Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow towards a Horizontal Circular Cylinder

Authors: Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Mohd Zuki Salleh, Anuar Ishak, Nor Aida Zuraimi Md Noar

Abstract:

In this study, the numerical investigation of viscous dissipation on convective boundary layer flow towards a horizontal circular cylinder with constant wall temperature is considered. The transformed partial differential equations are solved numerically by using an implicit finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical solutions are obtained for the reduced Nusselt number and the skin friction coefficient as well as the velocity and temperature profiles. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for various values of the Prandtl number and Eckert number are analyzed and discussed. The results in this paper is original and important for the researchers working in the area of boundary layer flow and this can be used as reference and also as complement comparison purpose in future.

Keywords: free convection, horizontal circular cylinder, viscous dissipation, convective boundary layer flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
29 Main Puteri Traditional Malay Healing Ceremony

Authors: M. G. Nasuruddin, S. Ishak

Abstract:

This paper deals with the traditional Malay healing ritualistic ceremony known as Main Puteri. This non-invasive intervention uses the vehicle of performance to administer the healing process. It employs the performance elements of Makyung, that is, music, movements/dance, and dramatic dialogue to heal psychosomatic maladies. There are two perspectives to this therapeutic healing process, one traditional and the other scientific. From the traditional perspective, the psychosomatic illness is attributed to the infestations/possessions by malevolent spirits. To heal such patients, these spirits must be exorcised through placating them by making offerings. From the scientific perspective, the music (sonic orders), movements (kinetic energy), and smell (olfactory) connect with the brain waves to release the chemicals that would activate the internal healing energy. Currently, in Main Puteri, the therapeutic healing ritual is no longer relevant as modern clinical medicine has proven to be more effective. Thus, Main Puteri is an anachronism in today’s technologically advanced Malaysia.

Keywords: exorcism, main puteri, shamans, therapeutic healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
28 Application Water Quality Modelling In Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Management: A Review

Authors: S. A. Che Osmi, W. M. F. W. Ishak, S. F. Che Osmi

Abstract:

Nowadays the issues of water quality and water pollution have been a major problem across the country. A lot of management attempt to develop their own TMDL database in order to control the river pollution. Over the past decade, the mathematical modeling has been used as the tool for the development of TMDL. This paper presents the application of water quality modeling to develop the total maximum daily load (TMDL) information. To obtain the reliable database of TMDL, the appropriate water quality modeling should choose based on the available data provided. This paper will discuss on the use of several water quality modeling such as QUAL2E, QUAL2K, and EFDC to develop TMDL. The attempts to integrate several modeling are also being discussed in this paper. Based on this paper, the differences in the application of water quality modeling based on their properties such as one, two or three dimensional are showing their ability to develop the modeling of TMDL database.

Keywords: TMDL, water quality modeling, QUAL2E, EFDC

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27 Stagnation-Point Flow towards a Stretching/Shrinking Sheet in a Nanofluid: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak

Abstract:

The characteristics of stagnation point flow of a nanofluid towards a stretching/shrinking sheet are investigated. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. The numerical results show that dual (upper and lower branch) solutions exist for the shrinking case, while for the stretching case, the solution is unique. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the dual solutions. It is found that the skin friction decreases when the sheet is stretched, but increases when the suction effect is increased. It is also found that increasing the thermophoresis parameter reduces the heat transfer rate at the surface, while increasing the Brownian motion parameter increases the mass transfer rate at the surface.

Keywords: dual solutions, heat transfer, forced convection, nanofluid, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
26 Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography Encryption Engine on a FPGA

Authors: Mohamad Khairi Ishak

Abstract:

Conventional public key crypto systems such as RSA (Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman), DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm), and Elgamal are no longer efficient to be implemented in the small, memory constrained devices. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), which allows smaller key length as compared to conventional public key crypto systems, has thus become a very attractive choice for many applications. This paper describes implementation of an elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) encryption engine on a FPGA. The system has been implemented in 2 different key sizes, which are 131 bits and 163 bits. Area and timing analysis are provided for both key sizes for comparison. The crypto system, which has been implemented on Altera’s EPF10K200SBC600-1, has a hardware size of 5945/9984 and 6913/9984 of logic cells for 131 bits implementation and 163 bits implementation respectively. The crypto system operates up to 43 MHz, and performs point multiplication operation in 11.3 ms for 131 bits implementation and 14.9 ms for 163 bits implementation. In terms of speed, our crypto system is about 8 times faster than the software implementation of the same system.

Keywords: elliptic curve cryptography, FPGA, key sizes, memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
25 Double-Diffusive Natural Convection with Various Partially Heated and Salted Sources Arrangements in an Open Cavity

Authors: Norazam Arbin, Habibis Saleh, Ammar Alsabery, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

Double-diffusive natural convection in an open top cavity with partial vertical heating and salting sources is investigated numerically. Different temperatures and concentrations are applied at the source location on the right and left walls while the other remains adiabatic except at the open top surface. Various combinations of sources arrangements are imposed at the vertical walls in order to observe the significant impact to the convection. An iterative finite different method is used to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The effects of Marangoni number and sources arrangements on the contours of streamlines, isotherms, and concentrations are visualized as the outcome of the numerical solutions. The average Nusselt and Sherwood number are presented for various sources arrangements. It is clearly observed that the sources arrangements gave major impact on the heat and mass transfer rates. A horizontal-like pattern is found for sources arrangements that near the top-free surface.

Keywords: double-diffusive, Marangoni effect, partial heating, salting

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
24 Magneto-Convective Instability in a Horizontal Power-Law Nanofluid Saturated Porous Layer

Authors: Norazuwin Najihah Mat Tahir, Fuziyah Ishak, Seripah Awang Kechil

Abstract:

The onset of the convective instability in the horizontal through flow of a power-law nanofluid saturated by porous layer heated from below under the influences of magnetic field are investigated in this study. The linear stability theory is used for the transformation of the partial differential equations to system of ordinary differential equations through infinitesimal perturbations, scaling, linearization and method of normal modes with two-dimensional periodic waves. The system is solved analytically for the closed form solution of the Rayleigh number by using the Galerkin-type weighted residuals method to investigate the onset of both traveling wave and oscillatory convection. The effects of the power-law index, Lewis number and Peclet number on the stability of the system were investigated. The Lewis number stabilizes while the power-law index and Peclet number destabilize the nanofluid system. The system in the presence of magnetic field is more stable than the system in the absence of magnetic field.

Keywords: convection, instability, magnetic field, nanofluid, power-law

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
23 Effect of Milling Parameters on the Characteristics of Nanocrystalline TiAl Alloys Synthesized by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: Jinan B. Al-Dabbagh, Rozman Mohd Tahar, Mahadzir Ishak

Abstract:

TiAl alloy nano-powder was successfully produced by a mechanical alloying (MA) technique in a planetary ball mill. The influence of milling parameters, such as the milling duration, rotation speed, and balls-to-powder mass ratio, on the characteristics of the Ti50%Al powder, including the microstructure, crystallite size refinement, and phase formation, were investigated. It was found that MA of elemental Ti and Al powders promotes the formation of TiAl alloys, as Ti (Al) solid solution was formed after 5h of milling. Milling without the addition of process control agents led to a dramatic decrease in the crystallite size to 17.8 nm after 2h of milling. Higher rotation energy and a higher ball-to-powder weight ratio also accelerated the reduction in crystallite size. Subsequent heating up to 850°C resulted in the formation of a new intermetallic phase with a dominant TiAl3 phase plus minor γ-TiAl or α2-Ti3Al phase or both. A longer milling duration also exhibited a better effect on the micro-hardness of Ti50%Al powders.

Keywords: TiAl alloys, nanocrystalline materials, mechanical alloying, materials science

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22 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Azuraida Amat, Halimah Mohamed Kamari, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Ishak Mansor

Abstract:

The changes of the optical and structural properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were studied. Six glass samples, with different compositions [(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure, while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma irradiation causes a profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding. Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and the increase of defects in the glass. In conclusion, the glass with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give the smallest Eg and show less changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation, which indicate that this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other glasses.

Keywords: boro-tellurite, bismuth, gamma radiation, optical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
21 MHD Stagnation Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Suction in an Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) Fluid

Authors: K. Jafar, R. Nazar, A. Ishak, I. Pop

Abstract:

The present analysis considers the steady stagnation point flow and heat transfer towards a permeable sheet in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) electrically conducting fluid, with a constant magnetic field applied in the transverse direction to flow, and a local heat generation within the boundary layer with a heat generation rate proportional to (T-T_inf)^p. Using a similarity transformation, the governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical results are obtained for the flow and thermal fields for various values of the shrinking/stretching parameter lambda, the magnetic parameter M, the elastic parameter K, the Prandtl number Pr, the suction parameter s, the heat generation parameter Q, and the exponent p. The results indicate the existence of dual solutions for the shrinking sheet up to a critical value lambda_c whose value depends on the value of M, K, and s. In the presence of internal heat absorbtion (Q<0), the surface heat transfer rate decreases with increasing p but increases with parameter Q and s, when the sheet is either stretched or shrunk.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), boundary layer flow, UCM fluid, stagnation point, shrinking sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
20 Unsteady Natural Convection in a Square Cavity Partially Filled with Porous Media Using a Thermal Non-Equilibrium Model

Authors: Ammar Alsabery, Habibis Saleh, Norazam Arbin, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

Unsteady natural convection and heat transfer in a square cavity partially filled with porous media using a thermal non-equilibrium model is studied in this paper. The left vertical wall is maintained at a constant hot temperature and the right vertical wall is maintained at a constant cold temperature, while the horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing equations are obtained by applying the Darcy model and Boussinesq approximation. COMSOL's finite element method is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations together with specified boundary conditions. The governing parameters of this study are the Rayleigh number, the modified thermal conductivity ratio, the inter-phase heat transfer coefficien and the time independent. The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines in both fluid/porous layer, isotherms of fluid and solid porous layer, isotherms of fluid layer, and average Nusselt number.

Keywords: unsteady natural convection, thermal non-equilibrium model, Darcy model

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
19 Ultrasonic Assisted Growth of ZnO Nanorods at Low Temperature

Authors: Khairul Anuar, Wai Yee Lee, Daniel C. S. Bien, Hing Wah Lee, Ishak Azid

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of ultrasonic treatment on ZnO nutrient solution prior to the growth of ZnO nanorods, where the seed layer is annealed at 50 and 100°C. The results show that the ZnO nanorods are successfully grown on the sample annealed at 50°C in the sonicated ZnO nutrient solution with a length and a diameter of approximately 8.025 µm and 92 nm, respectively. However, no ZnO nanorods structures are observed for the sample annealed at 50°C and grown in unsonicated ZnO nutrient solution. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorods for the sample annealed at 100°C are successfully grown in both sonicated and unsonicated ZnO nutrient solutions. The length and diameter of the nanorods for the sample grown in the sonicated solution are 8.681 µm and 1.033 nm, whereas those for the sample grown in the unsonicated solution are 7.613 µm and 1.040 nm. This result shows that with ultrasonic treatment, the length of the ZnO nanorods increases by 14%, whereas their diameter is reduced by 0.7%, resulting in an increase of aspect ratio from 7:1 to 8:1. Electroconductivity and pH sensors are used to measure the conductivity and acidity level of the sonicated and unsonicated solutions, respectively. The result shows that the conductivity increases from 87 mS/cm to 10.4 mS/cm, whereas the solution pH decreases from 6.52 to 6.13 for the sonicated and unsonicated solutions, respectively. The increase in solution conductivity and acidity level elucidates the higher amount of zinc nutrient in the sonicated solution than in the unsonicated solution.

Keywords: ultrasonic treatment, low annealing temperature, ZnO nanostructure, nanorods

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18 Forecasting Age-Specific Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at Births for Malaysian Sub-Populations

Authors: Syazreen N. Shair, Saiful A. Ishak, Aida Y. Yusof, Azizah Murad

Abstract:

In this paper, we forecast age-specific Malaysian mortality rates and life expectancy at births by gender and ethnic groups including Malay, Chinese and Indian. Two mortality forecasting models are adopted the original Lee-Carter model and its recent modified version, the product ratio coherent model. While the first forecasts the mortality rates for each subpopulation independently, the latter accounts for the relationship between sub-populations. The evaluation of both models is performed using the out-of-sample forecast errors which are mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) for mortality rates and mean forecast errors (MFE) for life expectancy at births. The best model is then used to perform the long-term forecasts up to the year 2030, the year when Malaysia is expected to become an aged nation. Results suggest that in terms of overall accuracy, the product ratio model performs better than the original Lee-Carter model. The association of lower mortality group (Chinese) in the subpopulation model can improve the forecasts of high mortality groups (Malay and Indian).

Keywords: coherent forecasts, life expectancy at births, Lee-Carter model, product-ratio model, mortality rates

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17 Communicating with Spirits: Bridging the Nether World of Spirits and the Real World in Healing Performances

Authors: S. Ishak, M. G. Nasuruddin

Abstract:

Traditional Malay performances are carried out for both entertainment and curing purposes. In curing rituals, the men and women serving as shamans, communicates with the spirits and beings from the nether world to facilitate the curing process. The dependency on engaging with these other-worldly beings however, have raised religious issues of being syirik, namely practicing in rituals which are religiously forbidden. This study aims to observe how ritual leaders attempt to negotiate the fine balance between what has been religiously forbidden and the psychological and sociological needs of the patient. Two curing rituals, the main peteri and the malibobou were chosen to exemplify the communication between the physical and spiritual realities. In both rituals, the healers engaged in procedures of curing as they attempted to diagnose sicknesses and proffer cures with the help of the spirits. The main peteri was conducted by a male shaman, the tuk teri whereas the malibobou was conducted by a female ritual specialist, the bobohizan. Main peteri and the malibobou both ended with ritually thanking and sending off the spirits back to their nether, invisible domains. These curing rituals heal not only the sick individual, but by extension, the village community. Therefore, there is a need to reconcile these rituals with religious tenets, beliefs and sociological-political-cultural dimensions.

Keywords: traditional healing, trance, spirits, main peteri, bobohizan

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16 A Study of Erosion and Sedimentation Rates Based on Two Different Seasons Using CS-137 As A Tracer in the Sembrong Catchment, Malaysia

Authors: Jalal [email protected], Dainee nor Fardzila Ahmad Tugi, Mohd Tarmizi Ishak, Mohd Izwan Abdul Adziz

Abstract:

This research paper aims to determine the rate of soil erosion and sedimentation by using Cesium-137,137Cs as a medium-term tracer in the Sembrong catchment, Malaysia, over two different study seasons. The results of the analysis show that rates of soil erosion and sedimentation for both seasons were variable. This can be clearly seen where the dry season only gives the value of the rate of soil erosion. Meanwhile, the wet season has given both soil erosion and sedimentation rate values. The dry season had rates of soil erosion between 5.09 t/ha/y to 51.03 t/ha/y. The wet season had soil erosion and sedimentation rates between 8.02 t/ha/y to 39.78 t/ha/y and -4.81 t/ha/y to - 50.81 t/ha/y, each, respectively. rubber and oil palm plantations referring to Station 17 and station 4/6, located near Semberong Lake and Sembrong River, had the highest rates of soil erosion and sedimentation at 51.03 t/ha/y and -50.81 t/ha/y, respectively. Various factors must also be taken into account, such as soil types, the total volume of rainfall received for both seasons, as well as differences in land use at the study stations. In conclusion, 137Cs as a medium-term tracer was successfully used to determine rates of soil erosion and sedimentation in two different seasons for the Sembrong catchment area. The data on soil erosion and sedimentation rates for this study will be very useful for present, and future land and water management in the Sembrong catchment area and may be compared with other similar catchments in Malaysia.

Keywords: soil erosion, sedimentation, cesium-137, catchment management

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15 Development of Total Maximum Daily Load Using Water Quality Modelling as an Approach for Watershed Management in Malaysia

Authors: S. A. Che Osmi, W. M. F. Wan Ishak, H. Kim, M. A. Azman, M. A. Ramli

Abstract:

River is one of important water sources for many activities including industrial and domestic usage such as daily usage, transportation, power supply and recreational activities. However, increasing activities in a river has grown the sources of pollutant enters the water bodies, and degraded the water quality of the river. It becomes a challenge to develop an effective river management to ensure the water sources of the river are well managed and regulated. In Malaysia, several approaches for river management have been implemented such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) program for coordinating the management of resources in a natural environment based on river basin to ensure their sustainability lead by Department of Drainage and Irrigation (DID), Malaysia. Nowadays, Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is one of the best approaches for river management in Malaysia. TMDL implementation is regulated and implemented in the United States. A study on the development of TMDL in Malacca River has been carried out by doing water quality monitoring, the development of water quality model by using Environmental Fluid Dynamic Codes (EFDC), and TMDL implementation plan. The implementation of TMDL will help the stakeholders and regulators to control and improve the water quality of the river. It is one of the good approaches for river management in Malaysia.

Keywords: EFDC, river management, TMDL, water quality modelling

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14 The Depth Penetration of Beryllium-7, ⁷BE as a Tracer in the Sembrong Catchment Area Study

Authors: J. Sharib, D. N. A. Tugi, M. T. Ishak, M. I. A. Adziz

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research paper conducted was to study the penetration of ⁷Be onto the soil surface for two different seasons in different areas of agricultural activity. The study was conducted during the dry and wet seasons from January to May 2019 in the Sembrong catchment area. The Sembrong Catchment Area is located in the district of Kluang, Johor in the South of Peninsular Malaysia and was selected based on the small size of the catchment and surrounded by various agricultural activities. A total of twenty (20) core soil samples to a depth of 10 cm each were taken using a metal corer made of metal. All these samples were brought to the Radiochemistry and Environment Group (RAS), Nuclear Malaysia, Block 23, Bangi, Malaysia, to enable the preparation, drying and analysis work to be carried out. Furthermore, all samples were oven dried at 45 – 60 ºC so that the dry weight became constant and gently disaggregated. Lastly, dried samples were milled and sieved at 2 mm before being packed into a well-type container and ready for ⁷Be analysis. The result of the analysis shows that the penetration of ⁷Be into the soil surface decreases by an exponential decay. The distribution of profiles to the interior of the soil surface or ho values ranged from 1.56 to 3.62 kg m⁻² and from 2.59 to 4.17 kg m⁻² for both dry and wet seasons. Consequently, the dry season has given a lower ho value when compared to the wet season. In conclusion, ⁷Be is a very suitable tracer to be used in determining the penetration onto the soil surface or ho values for the two different seasons.

Keywords: depth penetration, dry season, wet season, sembrong catchment, well type container

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13 Exploring the Challenges and Opportunities in Clinical Waste Management: The Case of Private Clinics, Selangor, Malaysia

Authors: Golyasamin Khanehzaei, Mohd. Bakri Ishak, Ahmad Makmom Hj Abdullah, Latifah Abd Manaf

Abstract:

Abstract—Management of clinical waste is a critical problem worldwide. Immediate attention is required to manage the clinical waste in an appropriate way in newly developing economy country such as Malaysia. The increasing amount of clinical waste generated is resulted from rapid urbanization and growing number of private health care facilities in developing countries such as Malaysia. In order to develop a sensible clinical waste management system and improvement of the management, information on factors affecting clinical waste generation has the crucial role. This paper is the study of management characteristics of clinical waste and the level of efficiency of clinical waste management systems operating in private clinics located in Selangor, Malaysia. Are they following the proper international standards? By taking all of this in consideration the aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the current trend, current challenges and also the present opportunities among the challenges of clinical waste management in private clinics of Selangor, Malaysia. The SWOT analysis was characterized for the evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The methodology for this study was constituted of direct observation, Informal interviews, Conducting SWOT analysis, conduction of one sustainability dimensions analysis and application. The results show that clinical waste management in private clinics is far from an ideal model.

Keywords: clinical waste, SWOT analysis, Selangor, Malaysia

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