Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6341

Search results for: heat affected zone

6341 Investigation of Heat Affected Zone of Steel P92 Using the Thermal Cycle Simulator

Authors: Petr Mohyla, Ivo Hlavatý, Jiří Hrubý, Lucie Krejčí


This work is focused on mechanical properties and microstructure of heat affected zone (HAZ) of steel P92. The thermal cycle simulator was used for modeling a fine grained zone of HAZ. Hardness and impact toughness were measured on simulated samples. Microstructural analysis using optical microscopy was performed on selected samples. Achieved results were compared with the values of a real welded joint. The thermal cycle simulator allows transferring the properties of very small HAZ to the sufficiently large sample where the tests of the mechanical properties can be performed. A satisfactory accordance was found when comparing the microstructure and mechanical properties of real welds and simulated samples.

Keywords: heat affected zone, impact test, thermal cycle simulator, time of tempering

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
6340 Effect of Variation of Temperature Distribution on Mechanical Properties of Shield Metal Arc Welded Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: Arvind Mittal, Rajesh Gupta


Influence of heat input on the micro structure and mechanical properties of shield metal arc welded of duplex stainless steel UNSNO.S-31803 has been investigated. Three heat input combinations designated as low heat (0.675 KJ/mm), medium heat (0.860 KJ/mm) and high heat (1.094 KJ/mm) and weld joints made using these combinations were subjected to micro structural evaluations and tensile and impact testing so as to analyze the effect of thermal arc energy on the micro structure and mechanical properties of these joints. The result of this investigation shows that the joints made using low heat input exhibited higher tensile strength than those welded with medium and high heat input. Heat affected zone of welded joint made with medium heat input has austenitic ferritic grain structure with some patchy austenite provide high toughness. Significant grain coarsening was observed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of medium and high heat input welded joints, whereas low heat input welded joint shows the fine grain structure in the heat affected zone with small amount of dendritic formation and equiaxed grain structure where inner zone indicates slowly cooled grains in the direction of heat dissipation. This is the main reason for the observable changes of tensile properties of weld joints welded with different arc energy inputs.

Keywords: microstructure, mechanical properties, shield metal arc welded, duplex stainless steel

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6339 Axiomatic Design of Laser Beam Machining Process

Authors: Nikhil Deshpande, Rahul Mahajan


Laser Beam Machining (LBM) is a non-traditional machining process that has inherent problems like dross, striation, and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) which reduce the quality of machining. In the present day scenario, these problems are controlled only by iteratively adjusting a large number of process parameters. This paper applies Axiomatic Design principles to design LBM process so as to eliminate the problem of dross and striation and minimize the effect of HAZ. Process parameters and their ranges are proposed to set-up the LBM process, execute the cut and finish the workpiece so as to obtain the best quality cut.

Keywords: laser beam machining, dross, striation, heat affected zone, axiomatic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
6338 Microstructural Characterization of Creep Damage Evolution in Welded Inconel 600 Superalloy

Authors: Lourdes Yareth Herrera-Chavez, Alberto Ruiz, Victor H. Lopez


Superalloys are used in components that operate at high temperatures such as pressure vessels and heat exchanger tubing. Design standards for these components must consider creep resistance among other criteria. Fusion welding processes are commonly used in the industry to join such components. Fusion processes commonly generate three distinctive zones, i.e. heat affected zone (HAZ), namely weld metal (WM) and base metal (BM). In nickel-based superalloy, the microstructure developed during fusion welding dictates the mechanical response of the welded component and it is very important to establish these effects in the mechanical response of the component. In this work, two plates of Inconel 600 superalloy were Gas Metal Arc Welded (GMAW). Creep samples were cut and milled to specifications and creep tested at a temperature (650 °C) using stress level of 350, 300, 275, 250 and 200 MPa. Microstructural analysis results showed a progressive creep damage evolution that depends on the stress levels with a preferential accumulation of creep damage at the heat affected zone where the creep rupture preferentially occurs owing to an austenitic matrix with grain boundary precipitated of the type Cr23C6. The fractured surfaces showed dimple patterns of cavity and voids. Results indicated that the damage mechanism is due to cavity growth by the combined effect of the power law and diffusion creep.

Keywords: austenitic microstructure, creep damage evolution, heat affected zone, vickers microhardness

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6337 Effect of Crystallographic Characteristics on Toughness of Coarse Grain Heat Affected Zone for Different Heat Inputs

Authors: Trishita Ray, Ashok Perka, Arnab Karani, M. Shome, Saurabh Kundu


Line pipe steels are used for long distance transportation of crude oil and gas under extreme environmental conditions. Welding is necessary to lay large scale pipelines. Coarse Grain Heat Affected Zone (CGHAZ) of a welded joint exhibits worst toughness because of excessive grain growth and brittle microstructures like bainite and martensite, leading to early failure. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate microstructures and properties of the CGHAZ for different welding heat inputs. In the present study, CGHAZ for two heat inputs of 10 kJ/cm and 50 kJ/cm were simulated in Gleeble 3800, and the microstructures were investigated in detail by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). Charpy Impact Tests were also done to evaluate the impact properties. High heat input was characterized with very low toughness and massive prior austenite grains. With the crystallographic information from EBSD, the area of a single prior austenite grain was traced out for both the welding conditions. Analysis of the prior austenite grains showed the formation of high angle boundaries between the crystallographic packets. Effect of these packet boundaries on secondary cleavage crack propagation was discussed. It was observed that in the low heat input condition, formation of finer packets with a criss-cross morphology inside prior austenite grains was effective in crack arrest whereas, in the high heat input condition, formation of larger packets with higher volume of low angle boundaries failed to resist crack propagation resulting in a brittle fracture. Thus, the characteristics in a crystallographic packet and impact properties are related and should be controlled to obtain optimum properties.

Keywords: coarse grain heat affected zone, crystallographic packet, toughness, line pipe steel

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6336 Modelling Heat Transfer Characteristics in the Pasteurization Process of Medium Long Necked Bottled Beers

Authors: S. K. Fasogbon, O. E. Oguegbu


Pasteurization is one of the most important steps in the preservation of beer products, which improves its shelf life by inactivating almost all the spoilage organisms present in it. However, there is no gain saying the fact that it is always difficult to determine the slowest heating zone, the temperature profile and pasteurization units inside bottled beer during pasteurization, hence there had been significant experimental and ANSYS fluent approaches on the problem. This work now developed Computational fluid dynamics model using COMSOL Multiphysics. The model was simulated to determine the slowest heating zone, temperature profile and pasteurization units inside the bottled beer during the pasteurization process. The results of the simulation were compared with the existing data in the literature. The results showed that, the location and size of the slowest heating zone is dependent on the time-temperature combination of each zone. The results also showed that the temperature profile of the bottled beer was found to be affected by the natural convection resulting from variation in density during pasteurization process and that the pasteurization unit increases with time subject to the temperature reached by the beer. Although the results of this work agreed with literatures in the aspects of slowest heating zone and temperature profiles, the results of pasteurization unit however did not agree. It was suspected that this must have been greatly affected by the bottle geometry, specific heat capacity and density of the beer in question. The work concludes that for effective pasteurization to be achieved, there is a need to optimize the spray water temperature and the time spent by the bottled product in each of the pasteurization zones.

Keywords: modeling, heat transfer, temperature profile, pasteurization process, bottled beer

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
6335 Temperature Evolution, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloy Welded by Friction Stir Welding: Comparison with Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: Saliha Gachi, Mouloud Aissani, Fouad Boubenider


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique that can join material without melting the plates to be welded. In this work, we are interested to demonstrate the potentiality of FSW for joining the heat-treatable aluminum alloy 2024-T3 which is reputed as difficult to be welded by fusion techniques. Thereafter, the FSW joint is compared with another one obtained from a conventional fusion process Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG). FSW welds are made up using an FSW tool mounted on a milling machine. Single pass welding was applied to fabricated TIG joint. The comparison between the two processes has been made on the temperature evolution, mechanical and microstructure behavior. The microstructural examination revealed that FSW weld is composed of four zones: Base metal (BM), Heat affected zone (HAZ), Thermo-mechanical affected zone (THAZ) and the nugget zone (NZ). The NZ exhibits a recrystallized equiaxed refined grains that induce better mechanical properties and good ductility compared to TIG joint where the grains have a larger size in the welded region compared with the BM due to the elevated heat input. The microhardness results show that, in FSW weld, the THAZ contains the lowest microhardness values and increase in the NZ; however, in TIG process, the lowest values are localized on the NZ.

Keywords: friction stir welding, tungsten inert gaz, aluminum, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
6334 Studies on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone in a Micro Alloyed Steel

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, S. K. Nath


Proper selection of welding parameters for getting excellent weld is a challenge. HAZ simulation helps in identifying suitable welding parameters like heating rate, cooling rate, peak temperature, and energy input. In this study, the influence of weld thermal cycle of heat affected zone (HAZ) is simulated for Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) using Gleeble ® 3800 thermomechanical simulator. A (Micro-alloyed) MA steel plate of thickness 18 mm having yield strength 450MPa is used for making test specimens. Determination of the mechanical properties of weld simulated specimens including Charpy V-notch toughness and hardness is performed. Peak temperatures of 1300°C, 1150°C, 1000°C, 900°C, 800°C, heat energy input of 22KJ/cm and preheat temperatures of 30°C have been used with Rykalin-3D simulation model. It is found that the impact toughness (75J) is the best for the simulated HAZ specimen at the peak temperature 900ºC. For parent steel, impact toughness value is 26.8J at -50°C in transverse direction.

Keywords: HAZ simulation, mechanical properties, peak temperature, ship hull steel, weldability

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6333 Unusual Weld Failures of Rotary Compressor during Hydraulic Tests: Analysis revealed Boron Induced Cracking in Fusion Zone

Authors: Kaushal Kishore, Vaibhav Jain, Hrishikesh Jugade, Saurabh Hadas, Manashi Adhikary, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Bhattacharyya


Rotary air compressors in air conditioners are used to suck excessive volume of air from the atmosphere in a small space to provide drive to the components attached to them. Hydraulic test is one of the most important methods to decide the suitability of these components for usage. In the present application, projection welding is used to join the hot rolled steel sheets after forming for manufacturing of air compressors. These sheets belong to two different high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel grades. It was observed that one batch of compressors made of a particular grade was cracking from the weld, whereas those made of another grade were passing the hydraulic tests. Cracking was repeatedly observed from the weld location. A detailed comparative study of the compressors which failed and successfully passed pressure tests has been presented. Location of crack initiation was identified to be the interface of fusion zone/heat affected zone. Shear dimples were observed on the fracture surface confirming the ductile mode of failure. Hardness profile across the weld revealed a sharp rise in hardness in the fusion zone. This was attributed to the presence of untempered martensitic lath in the fusion zone. A sharp metallurgical notch existed at the heat affected zone/fusion zone interface due to transition in microstructure from acicular ferrite and bainite in HAZ to untempered martensite in the fusion zone. In contrast, welds which did not fail during the pressure tests showed a smooth hardness profile with no abnormal rise in hardness in the fusion zone. The bainitic microstructure was observed in the fusion zone of successful welds. This difference in microstructural constituents in the fusion zone was attributed to the presence of a small amount of boron (0.002 wt. %) in the sheets which were cracking. Trace amount of boron is known to substantially increase the hardenability of HSLA steel, and cooling rate during resolidification in the fusion zone is sufficient to form martensite. Post-weld heat treatment was recommended to transform untempered martensite to tempered martensite with lower hardness.

Keywords: compressor, cracking, martensite, weld, boron, hardenability, high strength low alloy steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
6332 Microstructure and SEM Analysis of Joints Fabricated by FSW of Aluminum Alloys 5083 and 6063

Authors: Jaskirat Singh, Roshan Lal Virdi, Khushdeep Goyal


The purpose of this paper is to perform a microstructural analysis of Friction Stir Welded joints of aluminum alloys 6063 and 5083, also to check the properties of the weld zone by SEM analysis. FSW experiments were carried on CNC Vertical milling machine. The tools used for welding were the round cylindrical pin shape and square pin shape. It is found that Microstructure shows the uniformly distributed material with minimum heat affected zone and dense welded zone without any defect. Microstructures indicate that the weld material is defect free. The SEM shows the diffusion of material with base metal with proper bonding without any defect.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminum alloy, microstructure, SEM analysis

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6331 Friction Stir Processing of the AA7075T7352 Aluminum Alloy Microstructures Mechanical Properties and Texture Characteristics

Authors: Roopchand Tandon, Zaheer Khan Yusufzai, R. Manna, R. K. Mandal


Present work describes microstructures, mechanical properties, and texture characteristics of the friction stir processed AA7075T7352 aluminum alloy. Phases were analyzed with the help of x-ray diffractometre (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) along with the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Depth-wise microstructures and dislocation characteristics from the nugget-zone of the friction stir processed specimens were studied using the bright field (BF) and weak beam dark-field (WBDF) TEM micrographs, and variation in the microstructures as well as dislocation characteristics were the noteworthy features found. XRD analysis display changes in the chemistry as well as size of the phases in the nugget and heat affected zones (Nugget and HAZ). Whereas the base metal (BM) microstructures remain un-affected. High density dislocations were noticed in the nugget regions of the processed specimen, along with the formation of dislocation contours and tangles. .The ɳ’ and ɳ phases, along with the GP-Zones were completely dissolved and trapped by the dislocations. Such an observations got corroborated to the improved mechanical as well as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) performances. Bulk texture and residual stress measurements were done by the Panalytical Empyrean MRD system with Co- kα radiation. Nugget zone (NZ) display compressive residual stress as compared to thermo-mechanically(TM) and heat affected zones (HAZ). Typical f.c.c. deformation texture components (e.g. Copper, Brass, and Goss) were seen. Such a phenomenon is attributed to the enhanced hardening as well as other mechanical performance of the alloy. Mechanical characterizations were done using the tensile test and Anton Paar Instrumented Micro Hardness tester. Enhancement in the yield strength value is reported from the 89MPa to the 170MPa; on the other hand, highest hardness value was reported in the nugget-zone of the processed specimens.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, mechanical characterization, texture characterstics, friction stir processing

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6330 Effect of Cladding Direction on Residual Stress Distribution in Laser Cladded Rails

Authors: Taposh Roy, Anna Paradowska, Ralph Abrahams, Quan Lai, Michael Law, Peter Mutton, Mehdi Soodi, Wenyi Yan


In this investigation, a laser cladding process with a powder feeding was used to deposit stainless steel 410L (high strength, excellent resistance to abrasion and corrosion, and great laser compatibility) onto railhead (higher strength, heat treated hypereutectoid rail grade manufactured in accordance with the requirements of European standard EN 13674 Part 1 for R400HT grade), to investigate the development and controllability of process-induced residual stress in the cladding, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and substrate and to analyse their correlation with hardness profile during two different laser cladding directions (across and along the track). Residual stresses were analysed by neutron diffraction at OPAL reactor, ANSTO. Neutron diffraction was carried out on the samples in longitudinal (parallel to the rail), transverse (perpendicular to the rail) and normal (through thickness) directions with high spatial resolution through the thickness. Due to the thick rail and thin cladding, 4 mm thick reference samples were prepared from every specimen by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). Metallography across the laser claded sample revealed four distinct zones: The clad zone, the dilution zone, HAZ and the substrate. Compressive residual stresses were found in the clad zone and tensile residual stress in the dilution zone and HAZ. Laser cladding in longitudinally cladding induced higher tensile stress in the HAZ, whereas transversely cladding rail showed lower tensile behavior.

Keywords: laser cladding, residual stress, neutron diffraction, HAZ

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6329 Application of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems Technique for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process of Pressure Vessel Steel AASTM A516 Grade 70

Authors: Omar Al Denali, Abdelaziz Badi


The ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel is a suitable material used for the fabrication of boiler pressure vessels working in moderate and lower temperature services, and it has good weldability and excellent notch toughness. The post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) or stress-relieving heat treatment has significant effects on avoiding the martensite transformation and resulting in high hardness, which can lead to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was implemented to predict the material tensile strength of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) experiments. The ANFIS models presented excellent predictions, and the comparison was carried out based on the mean absolute percentage error between the predicted values and the experimental values. The ANFIS model gave a Mean Absolute Percentage Error of 0.556 %, which confirms the high accuracy of the model.

Keywords: prediction, post-weld heat treatment, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, mean absolute percentage error

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6328 Austenite Transformation in Duplex Stainless Steels under Fast Cooling Rates

Authors: L. O. Luengas, E. V. Morales, L. F. G. De Souza, I. S. Bott


Duplex Stainless Steels are well known for its good mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. However, when submitted to heating, these features can be lost since the good properties are strongly dependent on the austenite-ferrite phase ratio which has to be approximately 1:1 to keep the phase balance. In a welded joint, the transformation kinetics at the heat affected zone (HAZ) is a function of the cooling rates applied which in turn are dependent on the heat input. The HAZ is usually ferritized at these temperatures, and it has been argued that small variations of the chemical composition can play a role in the solid state transformation sequence of ferrite to austenite during cooling. The δ → γ transformation has been reported to be massive and diffusionless due to the fast cooling rate, but it is also considered a diffusion controlled transformation. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of different heat inputs on the HAZ of two duplex stainless steels UNS S32304 and S32750, obtained by physical simulation.

Keywords: duplex stainless steels, HAZ, microstructural characterization, physical simulation

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6327 An Analytical and Numerical Solutions for the Thermal Analysis of a Mechanical Draft Wet Cooling Tower

Authors: Hamed Djalal


The thermal analysis of the mechanical draft wet cooling tower is performed in this study by the heat and mass transfer modelization in the packing zone. After combining the heat and mass transfer laws, the mass and energy balances and by involving the Merkel assumptions; firstly, an ordinary differential equations system is derived and solved numerically by the Runge-Kutta method to determine the water and air temperatures, the humidity, and also other properties variation along the packing zone. Secondly, by making some linear assumptions for the air saturation curve, an analytical solution is formed, which is developed for the air washer calculation, but in this study, it is applied for the cooling tower to express also the previous parameters mathematically as a function of the packing height. Finally, a good agreement with experimental data is achieved by both solutions, but the numerical one seems to be the more accurate for modeling the heat and mass transfer process in the wet cooling tower.

Keywords: evaporative cooling, cooling tower, air washer, humidification, moist air, heat, and mass transfer

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6326 Solar Pond: Some Issues in Their Management and Mathematical Description

Authors: A. A. Abdullah, K. A. Lindsay


The management of a salt-gradient is investigated with respect to the interaction between the solar pond and its associated evaporation pond. Issues considered are the impact of precipitation and the operation of the flushing system with particular reference to the case in which the flushing fluid is pure water. Results suggest that a management strategy based on a flushing system that simply replaces evaporation losses of water from the solar pond and evaporation pond will be optimally efficient. Such a management strategy will maintain the operational viability of a salt-gradient solar pond as a reservoir of cheap heat while simultaneously ensuring that the associated evaporation pond can feed the storage zone of the solar pond with sufficient saturated brine to balance the effect of salt diffusion. Other findings are, first, that once near saturation is achieved in the evaporation pond, the efficacy of the proposed management strategy is relatively insensitive to both the size of the evaporation pond or its depth, and second, small changes in the extraction of heat from the storage zone of a salt-gradient solar pond have an amplified effect on the temperature of that zone. The possibility of boiling of the storage zone cannot be ignored in a well-configured salt-gradient solar pond.

Keywords: aqueous sodium chloride, constitutive expression, solar pond, salt-gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
6325 Improvement in Blast Furnace Performance Using Softening - Melting Zone Profile Prediction Model at G Blast Furnace, Tata Steel Jamshedpur

Authors: Shoumodip Roy, Ankit Singhania, K. R. K. Rao, Ravi Shankar, M. K. Agarwal, R. V. Ramna, Uttam Singh


The productivity of a blast furnace and the quality of the hot metal produced are significantly dependent on the smoothness and stability of furnace operation. The permeability of the furnace bed, as well as the gas flow pattern, influences the steady control of process parameters. The softening – melting zone that is formed inside the furnace contributes largely in distribution of the gas flow and the bed permeability. A better shape of softening-melting zone enhances the performance of blast furnace, thereby reducing the fuel rates and improving furnace life. Therefore, predictive model of the softening- melting zone profile can be utilized to control and improve the furnace operation. The shape of softening-melting zone depends upon the physical and chemical properties of the agglomerates and iron ore charged in the furnace. The variations in the agglomerate proportion in the burden at G Blast furnace disturbed the furnace stability. During such circumstances, it was analyzed that a w-shape softening-melting zone profile was formed inside the furnace. The formation of w-shape zone resulted in poor bed permeability and non-uniform gas flow. There was a significant increase in the heat loss at the lower zone of the furnace. The fuel demand increased, and the huge production loss was incurred. Therefore, visibility of softening-melting zone profile was necessary in order to pro-actively optimize the process parameters and thereby to operate the furnace smoothly. Using stave temperatures, a model was developed that predicted the shape of the softening-melting zone inside the furnace. It was observed that furnace operated smoothly during inverse V-shape of the zone and vice-versa during w-shape. This model helped to control the heat loss, optimize the burden distribution and lower the fuel rate at G Blast Furnace, TSL Jamshedpur. As a result of furnace stabilization productivity increased by 10% and fuel rate reduced by 80 kg/thm. Details of the process have been discussed in this paper.

Keywords: agglomerate, blast furnace, permeability, softening-melting

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6324 Elastic Constants of Heat Treated Wood

Authors: Ergun Guntekin


Effects of heat treatment on elastic constants of Black pine (Pinus nigra) wood were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at two different temperatures (180 and 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus in three anatomical directions, six Poisson’s ratios and three Shear modulus values associated with the main directions were evaluated by compression tests. Compression strength of the samples in three principal directions was also determined. All of the properties of the specimens tested were altered by heat treatment. The degree of alteration depends on the temperature as well as duration applied. Results indicate that EL and compression strength in L direction were not significantly influenced, compression strength in R direction significantly decreased, ER, ET and compression strength in T direction were increased for shorter periods, then dropped for 8-hour application of 180 ºC. ER was not significantly affected, compression strength in R direction and EL was significantly decreased, ET and compression strength in T direction were increased for shorter periods, then decreased for 8-hour application of 210 ºC. The shear modulus of the samples was decreased with application of treatment combinations. Most of the Poisson’s ratios were not affected by heat treatment.

Keywords: black pine, elastic constants, heat treatment, wood

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6323 Characterization of Two Hybrid Welding Techniques on SA 516 Grade 70 Weldments

Authors: M. T. Z. Butt, T. Ahmad, N. A. Siddiqui


Commercially SA 516 Grade 70 is frequently used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels, boilers and storage tanks etc. in fabrication industry. Heat input is the major parameter during welding that may bring significant changes in the microstructure as well as the mechanical properties. Different welding technique has different heat input rate per unit surface area. Materials with large thickness are dealt with different combination of welding techniques to achieve required mechanical properties. In the present research two schemes: Scheme 1: SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) & GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) and Scheme 2: SMAW & SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) of hybrid welding techniques have been studied. The purpose of these schemes was to study hybrid welding effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldment, heat affected zone and base metal area. It is significant to note that the thickness of base plate was 12 mm, also welding conditions and parameters were set according to ASME Section IX. It was observed that two different hybrid welding techniques performed on two different plates demonstrated that the mechanical properties of both schemes are more or less similar. It means that the heat input, welding techniques and varying welding operating conditions & temperatures did not make any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties. Hence, the hybrid welding techniques mentioned in the present study are favorable to implicate for the industry using the plate thickness around 12 mm thick.

Keywords: grade 70, GTAW, hybrid welding, SAW, SMAW

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6322 Performance Evaluation of Extruded-type Heat sinks Used in Inverter for Solar Power Generation

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee


In this study, heat release performances of the three extruded-type heat sinks can be used in the inverter for solar power generation were evaluated. Numbers of fins in the heat sinks (namely E-38, E-47 and E-76) were 38, 47 and 76, respectively. Heat transfer areas of them were 1.8, 1.9 and 2.8 m2. The heat release performances of E-38, E-47, and E-76 heat sinks were measured as 79.6, 81.6, and 83.2%, respectively. The results of heat release performance show that the larger amount of heat transfer area the higher heat release rate. While on the other, in this experiment, variations of the mass flow rates caused by different cross-sectional areas of the three heat sinks may not be the major parameter of the heat release. Despite the 47.4% increment of heat transfer area of E-76 heat sink than that of E-47 one, its heat release rate was higher by only 2.0%; this suggests that its heat transfer area need to be optimized.

Keywords: solar Inverter, heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation

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6321 Laser Welding of Titanium Alloy Ti64 to Polyamide 6.6: Effects of Welding Parameters on Temperature Profile Evolution

Authors: A. Al-Sayyad, P. Lama, J. Bardon, P. Hirchenhahn, L. Houssiau, P. Plapper


Composite metal–polymer materials, in particular titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) to polyamide (PA6.6), fabricated by laser joining, have gained cogent interest among industries and researchers concerned with aerospace and biomedical applications. This work adopts infrared (IR) thermography technique to investigate effects of laser parameters used in the welding process on the three-dimensional temperature profile at the rear-side of titanium, at the region to be welded with polyamide. Cross sectional analysis of welded joints showed correlations between the morphology of titanium and polyamide at the weld zone with the corresponding temperature profile. In particular, spatial temperature profile was found to be correlated with the laser beam energy density, titanium molten pool width and depth, and polyamide heat affected zone depth.

Keywords: laser welding, metals to polymers joining, process monitoring, temperature profile, thermography

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6320 Institutional Superposition, over Management and Coastal Economic Development: Coastal Areas in China

Authors: Mingbao Chen, Mingli Zhao


The coastal zone is the intersection of land and sea system, and also is the connecting zone of the two economic systems of land and sea. In the world, all countries attach great importance to the coastal zone management and the coastal zone economy. In China, the government has developed a number of related coastal management policies and institutional, such as marine functional zoning, main function zoning, integrated coastal zone management, to ensure the sustainable utilization of the coastal zone and promote the development of coastal economic. However, in practice, the effect is not satisfactory. This paper analyses the coastal areas of coastal zone management on coastal economic growth contribution based on coastal areas economic development data with the 2007-2015 in China, which uses the method of the evaluation index system of coastal zone management institutional efficiency. The results show that the coastal zone management institutional objectives are not clear, and the institutional has high repeatability. At the same time, over management of coastal zone leads to low economic efficiency because the government management boundary is blurred.

Keywords: institutional overlap, over management, coastal zone management, coastal zone economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
6319 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

Authors: H. Bhowmik, A. Faisal, Ahmed Al Yaarubi, Nabil Al Alawi


Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

Keywords: Fourier number, Nusselt number, Rayleigh number, steady state, transient

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
6318 Comparison of Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses in Laser and Electron Beam Welded Ti–5Al–2.5Sn Titanium Alloy

Authors: M. N. Baig, F. N. Khan, M. Junaid


Titanium alloys are widely employed in aerospace, medical, chemical, and marine applications. These alloys offer many advantages such as low specific weight, high strength to weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, high melting point and good fatigue behavior. These attractive properties make titanium alloys very unique and therefore they require special attention in all areas of processing, especially welding. In this work, 1.6 mm thick sheets of Ti-5Al-2,5Sn, an alpha titanium (α-Ti) alloy, were welded using electron beam (EBW) and laser beam (LBW) welding processes to achieve a full penetration Bead-on Plate (BoP) configuration. The weldments were studied using polarized optical microscope, SEM, EDS and XRD. Microhardness distribution across the weld zone and smooth and notch tensile strengths of the weldments were also recorded. Residual stresses using Hole-drill Strain Measurement (HDSM) method and deformation patterns of the weldments were measured for the purpose of comparison of the two welding processes. Fusion zone widths of both EBW and LBW weldments were found to be approximately equivalent owing to fairly similar high power densities of both the processes. Relatively less oxide content and consequently high joint quality were achieved in EBW weldment as compared to LBW due to vacuum environment and absence of any shielding gas. However, an increase in heat-affected zone width and partial ά-martensitic transformation infusion zone of EBW weldment were observed because of lesser cooling rates associated with EBW as compared with LBW. The microstructure infusion zone of EBW weldment comprised both acicular α and ά martensite within the prior β grains whereas complete ά martensitic transformation was observed within the fusion zone of LBW weldment. Hardness of the fusion zone in EBW weldment was found to be lower than the fusion zone of LBW weldment due to the observed microstructural differences. Notch tensile specimen of LBW exhibited higher load capacity, ductility, and absorbed energy as compared with EBW specimen due to the presence of high strength ά martensitic phase. It was observed that the sheet deformation and deformation angle in EBW weldment were more than LBW weldment due to relatively more heat retention in EBW which led to more thermal strains and hence higher deformations and deformation angle. The lowest residual stresses were found in LBW weldments which were tensile in nature. This was owing to high power density and higher cooling rates associated with LBW process. EBW weldment exhibited highest compressive residual stresses due to which the service life of EBW weldment is expected to improve.

Keywords: Laser and electron beam welding, Microstructure and mechanical properties, Residual stress and distortions, Titanium alloys

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6317 Numerical Study of Heat Release of the Symmetrically Arranged Extruded-Type Heat Sinks

Authors: Man Young Kim, Gyo Woo Lee


In this numerical study, we want to present the design of highly efficient extruded-type heat sink. The symmetrically arranged extruded-type heat sinks are used instead of a single extruded or swaged-type heat sink. In this parametric study, the maximum temperatures, the base temperatures between heaters, and the heat release rates were investigated with respect to the arrangements of heat sources, air flow rates, and amounts of heat input. Based on the results we believe that the use of both side of heat sink is to be much better for release the heat than the use of single side. Also from the results, it is believed that the symmetric arrangement of heat sources is recommended to achieve a higher heat transfer from the heat sink.

Keywords: heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation, symmetrical arrangement

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6316 Strategies to Improve Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea and Dissecting the Cross Talk Mechanism

Authors: Renu Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar


In northern India, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) come across with terminal high-temperature stress during reproductive stage which leads to reduced yield. Hence, stable production of chickpea will depend on the development of new methods like ‘priming’ which allow improved adaptation to the drought and heat stress. In the present experiment, 11-day chickpea seedling was primed with mild drought stress and put on recovery stage by irrigating and finally 30-day seedlings were exposed to heat stress 38°C (4 hours), 35°C (8 hours) and 32°C (12 hours). To study the effect of combinatorial stress, heat and drought stress was applied simultaneously. Analyses of various physiological parameters like membrane damage assay, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative enzyme, total sugars were estimated at all stages. To study the effect of heat stress on the metabolites of the plants, GC-MS and HPLC were performed, while at transcriptional level Real-Time PCR of predicted heat stress-related genes was done. It was concluded that the heat stress significantly affected the chickpea plant at physiological and molecular level in all the five varieties. Results also show less damaging effect in primed plants by increasing the activity of antioxidative enzymes and increased expression of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors.

Keywords: chickpea, combinatorial stress, heat stress, oxidative stress, priming, RT-PCR

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6315 Micro-Study of Dissimilar Welded Materials

Authors: Ezzeddin Anawa, Abdol-Ghane Olabi


The dissimilar joint between aluminum /titanium alloys (Al 6082 and Ti G2) alloys were successfully achieved by CO2 laser welding with a single pass and without filler material using the overlap joint design. Laser welding parameters ranges combinations were experimentally determined using Taguchi approach with the objective of producing welded joint with acceptable welding profile and high quality of mechanical properties. In this study a joining of dissimilar Al 6082 / Ti G2 was result in three distinct regions fusion area (FA), heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the unaffected base metal (BM) in the weldment. These regions are studied in terms of its microstructural characteristics and microhardness which are directly affecting the welding quality. The weld metal was mainly composed of martensite alpha prime. In two different metals in the two different sides of joint HAZ, grain growth was detected. The microhardness of the joint distribution also has shown microhardness increasing in the HAZ of two base metals and a varying microhardness in fusion zone.

Keywords: microharness , microstructure, laser welding and dissimilar jointed materials.

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6314 Effect of Flow Holes on Heat Release Performance of Extruded-Type Heat Sink

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee


In this study, the enhancement of the heat release performance of an extruded-type heat sink to prepare the large-capacity solar inverter thru the flow holes in the base plate near the heat sources was investigated. Optimal location and number of the holes in the baseplate were determined by using a commercial computation program. The heat release performance of the shape-modified heat sink was measured experimentally and compared with that of the simulation. The heat sink with 12 flow holes in the 18-mm-thick base plate has a 8.1% wider heat transfer area, a 2.5% more mass flow of air, and a 2.7% higher heat release rate than those of the original heat sink. Also, the surface temperature of the base plate was lowered 1.5°C by the holes.

Keywords: heat sink, forced convection, heat transfer, performance evaluation, flow holes

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6313 Numerical Study on Jatropha Oil Pool Fire Behavior in a Compartment

Authors: Avinash Chaudhary, Akhilesh Gupta, Surendra Kumar, Ravi Kumar


This paper presents the numerical study on Jatropha oil pool fire in a compartment. A fire experiment with jatropha oil was conducted in a compartment of size 4 m x 4 m x m to study the fire development and temperature distribution. Fuel is burned in the center of the compartment in a pool diameter of 0.5 m with an initial fuel depth of 0.045 m. Corner temperature in the compartment, doorway temperature and hot gas layer temperature at various locations are measured. Numerical simulations were carried out using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software at grid size of 0.05 m, 0.12 m and for performing simulation heat release rate of jatropha oil measured using mass loss method were inputted into FDS. Experimental results shows that like other fuel fires, the whole combustion process can be divided into four stages: initial stage, growth stage, steady profile or developed phase and decay stage. The fire behavior shows two zone profile where upper zone consists of mainly hot gases while lower zone is relatively at colder side. In this study, predicted temperatures from simulation are in good agreement in upper zone of compartment. Near the interface of hot and cold zone, deviations were reported between the simulated and experimental results which is probably due to the difference between the predictions of smoke layer height by FDS. Also, changing the grid size from 0.12 m to 0.05 m does not show any effect in temperatures at upper zone while in lower zone, grid size of 0.05 m showed satisfactory agreement with experimental results. Numerical results showed that calculated temperatures at various locations matched well with the experimental results. On the whole, an effective method is provided with reasonable results to study the burning characteristics of jatropha oil with numerical simulations.

Keywords: jatropha oil, compartment fire, heat release rate, FDS (fire dynamics simulator), numerical simulation

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6312 Methanol Steam Reforming with Heat Recovery for Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production

Authors: Horng-Wen Wu, Yi Chao, Rong-Fang Horng


This study is to develop a methanol steam reformer with a heat recovery zone, which recovers heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine, and to investigate waste heat recovery ratio at the required reaction temperature. The operation conditions of the reformer are reaction temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, and 300 °C), steam to carbonate (S/C) ratio (0.9, 1.1, and 1.3), and N2 volume flow rate (40 cm3/min, 70 cm3/min, and 100 cm3/min). Finally, the hydrogen concentration, the CO, CO2, and N2 concentrations are measured and recorded to calculate methanol conversion efficiency, hydrogen flow rate, and assisting combustion gas and impeding combustion gas ratio. The heat source of this reformer comes from electric heater and waste heat of exhaust gas from diesel engines. The objective is to recover waste heat from the engine and to make more uniform temperature distribution within the reformer. It is beneficial for the reformer to enhance the methanol conversion efficiency and hydrogen-rich gas production. Experimental results show that the highest hydrogen flow rate exists at N2 of the volume rate 40 cm3/min and reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C and the value is 19.6 l/min. With the electric heater and heat recovery from exhaust gas, the maximum heat recovery ratio is 13.18 % occurring at water-methanol (S/C) ratio of 1.3 and the reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C.

Keywords: heat recovery, hydrogen-rich production, methanol steam reformer, methanol conversion efficiency

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