Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2747

Search results for: FDS (fire dynamics simulator)

2747 Fire and Explosion Consequence Modeling Using Fire Dynamic Simulator: A Case Study

Authors: Iftekhar Hassan, Sayedil Morsalin, Easir A Khan

Abstract:

Accidents involving fire occur frequently in recent times and their causes showing a great deal of variety which require intervention methods and risk assessment strategies are unique in each case. On September 4, 2020, a fire and explosion occurred in a confined space caused by a methane gas leak from an underground pipeline in Baitus Salat Jame mosque during Night (Esha) prayer in Narayanganj District, Bangladesh that killed 34 people. In this research, this incident is simulated using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software to analyze and understand the nature of the accident and associated consequences. FDS is an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) system of fire-driven fluid flow which solves numerically a large eddy simulation form of the Navier–Stokes’s equations for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal radiation, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. This study focuses on understanding the nature of the fire and consequence evaluation due to thermal radiation caused by vapor cloud explosion. An evacuation modeling was constructed to visualize the effect of evacuation time and fractional effective dose (FED) for different types of agents. The results were presented by 3D animation, sliced pictures and graphical representation to understand fire hazards caused by thermal radiation or smoke due to vapor cloud explosion. This study will help to design and develop appropriate respond strategy for preventing similar accidents.

Keywords: consequence modeling, fire and explosion, fire dynamics simulation (FDS), thermal radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
2746 Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock

Authors: Guillaume Craveur

Abstract:

This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, numerical tools, rolling stock, evacuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
2745 Investigation of Flame and Soot Propagation in Non-Air Conditioned Railway Locomotives

Authors: Abhishek Agarwal, Manoj Sarda, Juhi Kaushik, Vatsal Sanjay, Arup Kumar Das

Abstract:

Propagation of fire through a non-air conditioned railway compartment is studied by virtue of numerical simulations. Simultaneous computational fire dynamics equations, such as Navier-Stokes, lumped species continuity, overall mass and energy conservation, and heat transfer are solved using finite volume based (for radiation) and finite difference based (for all other equations) solver, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). A single coupe with an eight berth occupancy is used to establish the numerical model, followed by the selection of a three coupe system as the fundamental unit of the locomotive compartment. Heat Release Rate Per Unit Area (HRRPUA) of the initial fire is varied to consider a wide range of compartmental fires. Parameters, such as air inlet velocity relative to the locomotive at the windows, the level of interaction with the ambiance and closure of middle berth are studied through a wide range of numerical simulations. Almost all the loss of lives and properties due to fire breakout can be attributed to the direct or indirect exposure to flames or to the inhalation of toxic gases and resultant suffocation due to smoke and soot. Therefore, the temporal stature of fire and smoke are reported for each of the considered cases which can be used in the present or extended form to develop guidelines to be followed in case of a fire breakout.

Keywords: fire dynamics, flame propagation, locomotive fire, soot flow pattern, non-air-conditioned coaches

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
2744 A Study for the Effect of Fire Initiated Location on Evacuation Success Rate

Authors: Jin A Ryu, Hee Sun Kim

Abstract:

As the number of fire accidents is gradually raising, many studies have been reported on evacuation. Previous studies have mostly focused on evaluating the safety of evacuation and the risk of fire in particular buildings. However, studies on effects of various parameters on evacuation have not been nearly done. Therefore, this paper aims at observing evacuation time under the effect of fire initiated location. In this study, evacuation simulations are performed on a 5-floor building located in Seoul, South Korea using the commercial program, Fire Dynamics Simulator with Evacuation (FDS+EVAC). Only the fourth and fifth floors are modeled with an assumption that fire starts in a room located on the fourth floor. The parameter for evacuation simulations is location of fire initiation to observe the evacuation time and safety. Results show that the location of fire initiation is closer to exit, the more time is taken to evacuate. The case having the nearest location of fire initiation to exit has the lowest ratio of successful occupants to the total occupants. In addition, for safety evaluation, the evacuation time calculated from computer simulation model is compared with the tolerable evacuation time according to code in Japan. As a result, all cases are completed within the tolerable evacuation time. This study allows predicting evacuation time under various conditions of fire and can be used to evaluate evacuation appropriateness and fire safety of building.

Keywords: fire simulation, evacuation simulation, temperature, evacuation safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2743 Numerical Study of Fire Propagation in Confined and Open Area

Authors: Hadj Miloua, Abbes Azzi

Abstract:

The objective of the present paper is to understand, predict and modeled the fire behavior in confined and open area in different conditions and diverse fuels such as liquid pool fire and the vegetative materials. The distinctive problems are a ventilated road tunnel used for urban transport, by the characterization installations of ventilation and his influence in the mode of smoke dispersion and the flame shape. A general investigation is relatively traditional, based on the modeling and simulation the scenario of the pool fire interacted with wind ventilation by the use of numerical software fire dynamic simulator FDS ver.5 to simulate the fire in ventilated tunnel. The second simulation by WFDS.5 is Wildland fire which is always occurs in forest and rangeland fire environments and will thus have an impact on people, property and resources.

Keywords: fire, road tunnel, simulation, vegetation, wildland

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
2742 Accidental Compartment Fire Dynamics: Experiment, Computational Fluid Dynamics Weakness and Expert Interview Analysis

Authors: Timothy Onyenobi

Abstract:

Accidental fires and its dynamic as it relates to building compartmentation and the impact of the compartment morphology, is still an on-going area of study; especially with the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling methods. With better knowledge on this subject come better solution recommendations by fire engineers. Interviews were carried out for this study where it was identified that the response perspectives to accidental fire were different with the fire engineer providing qualitative data which is based on “what is expected in real fires” and the fire fighters provided information on “what actually obtains in real fires”. This further led to a study and analysis of two real and comprehensively instrumented fire experiments: the Open Plan Office Project by National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) USA (to study time to flashover) and the TF2000 project by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) UK (to test for conformity with Building Regulation requirements). The findings from the analysis of the experiments revealed the relative yet critical weakness of fire prediction using a CFD model (usually used by fire engineers) as well as explained the differences in response perspectives of the fire engineers and firefighters from the interview analysis.

Keywords: CFD, compartment fire, experiment, fire fighters, fire engineers

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
2741 Numerical Study on Jatropha Oil Pool Fire Behavior in a Compartment

Authors: Avinash Chaudhary, Akhilesh Gupta, Surendra Kumar, Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents the numerical study on Jatropha oil pool fire in a compartment. A fire experiment with jatropha oil was conducted in a compartment of size 4 m x 4 m x m to study the fire development and temperature distribution. Fuel is burned in the center of the compartment in a pool diameter of 0.5 m with an initial fuel depth of 0.045 m. Corner temperature in the compartment, doorway temperature and hot gas layer temperature at various locations are measured. Numerical simulations were carried out using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software at grid size of 0.05 m, 0.12 m and for performing simulation heat release rate of jatropha oil measured using mass loss method were inputted into FDS. Experimental results shows that like other fuel fires, the whole combustion process can be divided into four stages: initial stage, growth stage, steady profile or developed phase and decay stage. The fire behavior shows two zone profile where upper zone consists of mainly hot gases while lower zone is relatively at colder side. In this study, predicted temperatures from simulation are in good agreement in upper zone of compartment. Near the interface of hot and cold zone, deviations were reported between the simulated and experimental results which is probably due to the difference between the predictions of smoke layer height by FDS. Also, changing the grid size from 0.12 m to 0.05 m does not show any effect in temperatures at upper zone while in lower zone, grid size of 0.05 m showed satisfactory agreement with experimental results. Numerical results showed that calculated temperatures at various locations matched well with the experimental results. On the whole, an effective method is provided with reasonable results to study the burning characteristics of jatropha oil with numerical simulations.

Keywords: jatropha oil, compartment fire, heat release rate, FDS (fire dynamics simulator), numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
2740 Coarse Grid Computational Fluid Dynamics Fire Simulations

Authors: Wolfram Jahn, Jose Manuel Munita

Abstract:

While computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of fire scenarios are commonly used in the design of buildings, less attention has been given to the use of CFD simulations as an operational tool for the fire services. The reason of this lack of attention lies mainly in the fact that CFD simulations typically take large periods of time to complete, and their results would thus not be available in time to be of use during an emergency. Firefighters often face uncertain conditions when entering a building to attack a fire. They would greatly benefit from a technology based on predictive fire simulations, able to assist their decision-making process. The principal constraint to faster CFD simulations is the fine grid necessary to solve accurately the physical processes that govern a fire. This paper explores the possibility of overcoming this constraint and using coarse grid CFD simulations for fire scenarios, and proposes a methodology to use the simulation results in a meaningful way that can be used by the fire fighters during an emergency. Data from real scale compartment fire tests were used to compare CFD fire models with different grid arrangements, and empirical correlations were obtained to interpolate data points into the grids. The results show that the strongly predominant effect of the heat release rate of the fire on the fluid dynamics allows for the use of coarse grids with relatively low overall impact of simulation results. Simulations with an acceptable level of accuracy could be run in real time, thus making them useful as a forecasting tool for emergency response purposes.

Keywords: CFD, fire simulations, emergency response, forecast

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
2739 Numerical Simulations of Fire in Typical Air Conditioned Railway Coach

Authors: Manoj Sarda, Abhishek Agarwal, Juhi Kaushik, Vatsal Sanjay, Arup Kumar Das

Abstract:

Railways in India remain primary mode of transport having one of the largest networks in the world and catering to billions of transits yearly. Catastrophic economic damage and loss to life is encountered over the past few decades due to fire to locomotives. Study of fire dynamics and fire propagation plays an important role in evacuation planning and reducing losses. Simulation based study of propagation of fire and soot inside an air conditioned coach of Indian locomotive is done in this paper. Finite difference based solver, Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) version 6 has been used for analysis. A single air conditioned 3 tier coupe closed to ambient surroundings by glass windows having occupancy for 8 people is the basic unit of the domain. A system of three such coupes combined is taken to be fundamental unit for the entire study to resemble effect to an entire coach. Analysis of flame and soot contours and concentrations is done corresponding to variations in heat release rate per unit volume (HRRPUA) of fire source, variations in conditioned air velocity being circulated inside coupes by vents and an alternate fire initiation and propagation mechanism via ducts. Quantitative results of fractional area in top and front view of the three coupes under fire and smoke are obtained using MATLAB (IMT). Present simulations and its findings will be useful for organizations like Commission of Railway Safety and others in designing and implementing safety and evacuation measures.

Keywords: air conditioned coaches, fire propagation, flame contour, soot flow, train fire

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
2738 Numerical Assessment of Fire Characteristics with Bodies Engulfed in Hydrocarbon Pool Fire

Authors: Siva Kumar Bathina, Sudheer Siddapureddy

Abstract:

Fires accident becomes even worse when the hazardous equipment like reactors or radioactive waste packages are engulfed in fire. In this work, large-eddy numerical fire simulations are performed using fire dynamic simulator to predict the thermal behavior of such bodies engulfed in hydrocarbon pool fires. A radiatively dominated 0.3 m circular burner with n-heptane as the fuel is considered in this work. The fire numerical simulation results without anybody inside the fire are validated with the reported experimental data. The comparison is in good agreement for different flame properties like predicted mass burning rate, flame height, time-averaged center-line temperature, time-averaged center-line velocity, puffing frequency, the irradiance at the surroundings, and the radiative heat feedback to the pool surface. Cask of different sizes is simulated with SS304L material. The results are independent of the material of the cask simulated as the adiabatic surface temperature concept is employed in this study. It is observed that the mass burning rate increases with the blockage ratio (3% ≤ B ≤ 32%). However, the change in this increment is reduced at higher blockage ratios (B > 14%). This is because the radiative heat feedback to the fuel surface is not only from the flame but also from the cask volume. As B increases, the volume of the cask increases and thereby increases the radiative contribution to the fuel surface. The radiative heat feedback in the case of the cask engulfed in the fire is increased by 2.5% to 31% compared to the fire without cask.

Keywords: adiabatic surface temperature, fire accidents, fire dynamic simulator, radiative heat feedback

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
2737 Effect of Impulse Fans Clearance Height on Smoke Behavior in enclosed Car Parks: Comparative Study using CFD

Authors: Khaled Abou Hweij, Adnan Akhdar

Abstract:

Recently, in many cities, car parks are commonly contracted below ground level in commercial, public, and residential buildings, which creates significant challenges for managing the smoke release from critical fire events such as car fire due to ceiling height limitations in these enclosed car parks. In fact, if not properly ventilated, a large amount of very hot smoke will be generated, filling the car park volume rapidly, thus compromising the egress of occupants and the access of fire fighters to the seat of the fire. As such, ventilating enclosed car parks is crucial as to deliver fresh air that helps in renewing air and expelling harmful gasses in normal mode of operation, and diluting smoke while reducing its temperature in emergency fire mode of operation. Traditionally, during car fire scenarios, smoke is controlled and exhausted mechanically via ducting system where louvers are commonly provided at high level and make-up air at low level. However, this strategy becomes very cumbersome in car parks where the available ceiling height and space is limited (especially in large towers with multiple services in the basements), rendering ducts installation almost impossible. In these cases, it is more efficient to use jet fans fixed under the car park ceiling to direct the fresh air/make-up air towards the designated extraction points and achieve the required ventilation performance both in normal and emergency fire modes. If not properly designed, the momentum generated by the jet fans can induce significant turbulence levels, which can force smoke to recirculate and spread behind the fire source in a phenomenon know as back-layering, compromising the safe routes used to distinguish the fire. This study will use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation on a full 3D model of an underground car park basement in order to understand how the jet fans clearance height from the ceiling affect the ventilation of the car park in normal mode and the propagation of smoke in emergency mode considering a typical 4MW car fire event based on the findings of BRE research program for car fires in basements. The simulations are carried using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software to check the achieved visibility levels, air speeds, carbon monoxide concentrations, and temperatures for the investigated jet fans clearance heights and to elucidate the smoke behavior and air movement in the car park in both normal and emergency modes of operation.

Keywords: carparks, computational fluid dynamics, cfd, fire, jet fans, smoke, turbulence, air change effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2736 A Trends Analysis of Yatch Simulator

Authors: Jae-Neung Lee, Keun-Chang Kwak

Abstract:

This paper describes an analysis of Yacht Simulator international trends and also explains about Yacht. Examples of yacht Simulator using Yacht Simulator include image processing for totaling the total number of vehicles, edge/target detection, detection and evasion algorithm, image processing using SIFT (scale invariant features transform) matching, and application of median filter and thresholding.

Keywords: yacht simulator, simulator, trends analysis, SIFT

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
2735 Investigations on Pyrolysis Model for Radiatively Dominant Diesel Pool Fire Using Fire Dynamic Simulator

Authors: Siva K. Bathina, Sudheer Siddapureddy

Abstract:

Pool fires are formed when the flammable liquid accidentally spills on the ground or water and ignites. Pool fire is a kind of buoyancy-driven and diffusion flame. There have been many pool fire accidents caused during processing, handling and storing of liquid fuels in chemical and oil industries. Such kind of accidents causes enormous damage to property as well as the loss of lives. Pool fires are complex in nature due to the strong interaction among the combustion, heat and mass transfers and pyrolysis at the fuel surface. Moreover, the experimental study of such large complex fires involves fire safety issues and difficulties in performing experiments. In the present work, large eddy simulations are performed to study such complex fire scenarios using fire dynamic simulator. A 1 m diesel pool fire is considered for the studied cases, and diesel is chosen as it is most commonly involved fuel in fire accidents. Fire simulations are performed by specifying two different boundary conditions: one the fuel is in liquid state and pyrolysis model is invoked, and the other by assuming the fuel is initially in a vapor state and thereby prescribing the mass loss rate. A domain of size 11.2 m × 11.2 m × 7.28 m with uniform structured grid is chosen for the numerical simulations. Grid sensitivity analysis is performed, and a non-dimensional grid size of 12 corresponding to 8 cm grid size is considered. Flame properties like mass burning rate, irradiance, and time-averaged axial flame temperature profile are predicted. The predicted steady-state mass burning rate is 40 g/s and is within the uncertainty limits of the previously reported experimental data (39.4 g/s). Though the profile of the irradiance at a distance from the fire along the height is somewhat in line with the experimental data and the location of the maximum value of irradiance is shifted to a higher location. This may be due to the lack of sophisticated models for the species transportation along with combustion and radiation in the continuous zone. Furthermore, the axial temperatures are not predicted well (for any of the boundary conditions) in any of the zones. The present study shows that the existing models are not sufficient enough for modeling blended fuels like diesel. The predictions are strongly dependent on the experimental values of the soot yield. Future experiments are necessary for generalizing the soot yield for different fires.

Keywords: burning rate, fire accidents, fire dynamic simulator, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
2734 Improving Fire Resistance of Wood and Wood-Based Composites and Fire Testing Systems

Authors: Nadir Ayrilmis

Abstract:

Wood and wood-based panels are one of the oldest structural materials used in the construction industry due to their significant advantages such as good mechanical properties, low density, renewable material, low-cost, recycling, etc. However, they burn when exposed to a flame source or high temperatures. This is very important when the wood products are used as structural or hemi-structural materials in the construction industry, furniture industry, so on. For this reason, the fire resistance is demanded property for wood products. They can be impregnated with fire retardants to improve their fire resistance. The most used fire retardants, fire-retardant mechanism, and fire-testing systems, and national and international fire-durability classifications and standard requirements for fire-durability of wood and wood-based panels were given in this study.

Keywords: fire resistance, wood-based panels, cone calorimeter, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
2733 Prediction of the Heat Transfer Characteristics of Tunnel Concrete

Authors: Seung Cho Yang, Jae Sung Lee, Se Hee Park

Abstract:

This study suggests the analysis method to predict the damages of tunnel concrete caused by fires. The result obtained from the analyses of concrete temperatures at a fire in a tunnel using ABAQUS was compared with the test result. After the reliability of the analysis method was verified, the temperatures of a tunnel at a real fire and those of concrete during the fire were estimated to predict fire damages. The temperatures inside the tunnel were estimated by FDS, a CFD model. It was deduced that the fire performance of tunnel lining and the fire damages of the structure at an actual fire could be estimated by the analysis method.

Keywords: fire resistance, heat transfer, numerical analysis, tunnel fire

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
2732 Study of Fire Propagation and Soot Flow in a Pantry Car of Railway Locomotive

Authors: Juhi Kaushik, Abhishek Agarwal, Manoj Sarda, Vatsal Sanjay, Arup Kumar Das

Abstract:

Fire accidents in trains bring huge disaster to human life and property. Evacuation becomes a major challenge in such incidents owing to confined spaces, large passenger density and trains moving at high speeds. The pantry car in Indian Railways trains carry inflammable materials like cooking fuel and LPG and electrical fittings. The pantry car is therefore highly susceptible to fire accidents. Numerical simulations have been done in a pantry car of Indian locomotive train using computational fluid dynamics based software. Different scenarios of a fire outbreak have been explored by varying Heat Release Rate per Unit Area (HRRPUA) of the fire source, introduction of exhaust in the cooking area, and taking a case of an air conditioned pantry car. Temporal statures of flame and soot have been obtained for each scenario and differences have been studied and reported. Inputs from this study can be used to assess casualties in fire accidents in locomotive trains and development of smoke control/detection systems in Indian trains.

Keywords: fire propagation, flame contour, pantry fire, soot flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
2731 Computational Fluid Dynamicsfd Simulations of Air Pollutant Dispersion: Validation of Fire Dynamic Simulator Against the Cute Experiments of the Cost ES1006 Action

Authors: Virginie Hergault, Siham Chebbah, Bertrand Frere

Abstract:

Following in-house objectives, Central laboratory of Paris police Prefecture conducted a general review on models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes used to simulate pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere. Starting from that review and considering main features of Large Eddy Simulation, Central Laboratory Of Paris Police Prefecture (LCPP) postulates that the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) model, from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), should be well suited for air pollutant dispersion modeling. This paper focuses on the implementation and the evaluation of FDS in the frame of the European COST ES1006 Action. This action aimed at quantifying the performance of modeling approaches. In this paper, the CUTE dataset carried out in the city of Hamburg, and its mock-up has been used. We have performed a comparison of FDS results with wind tunnel measurements from CUTE trials on the one hand, and, on the other, with the models results involved in the COST Action. The most time-consuming part of creating input data for simulations is the transfer of obstacle geometry information to the format required by SDS. Thus, we have developed Python codes to convert automatically building and topographic data to the FDS input file. In order to evaluate the predictions of FDS with observations, statistical performance measures have been used. These metrics include the fractional bias (FB), the normalized mean square error (NMSE) and the fraction of predictions within a factor of two of observations (FAC2). As well as the CFD models tested in the COST Action, FDS results demonstrate a good agreement with measured concentrations. Furthermore, the metrics assessment indicate that FB and NMSE meet the tolerance acceptable.

Keywords: numerical simulations, atmospheric dispersion, cost ES1006 action, CFD model, cute experiments, wind tunnel data, numerical results

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2730 An Experimental Study on the Optimum Installation of Fire Detector for Early Stage Fire Detecting in Rack-Type Warehouses

Authors: Ki Ok Choi, Sung Ho Hong, Dong Suck Kim, Don Mook Choi

Abstract:

Rack type warehouses are different from general buildings in the kinds, amount, and arrangement of stored goods, so the fire risk of rack type warehouses is different from those buildings. The fire pattern of rack type warehouses is different in combustion characteristic and storing condition of stored goods. The initial fire burning rate is different in the surface condition of materials, but the running time of fire is closely related with the kinds of stored materials and stored conditions. The stored goods of the warehouse are consisted of diverse combustibles, combustible liquid, and so on. Fire detection time may be delayed because the residents are less than office and commercial buildings. If fire detectors installed in rack type warehouses are inadaptable, the fire of the warehouse may be the great fire because of delaying of fire detection. In this paper, we studied what kinds of fire detectors are optimized in early detecting of rack type warehouse fire by real-scale fire tests. The fire detectors used in the tests are rate of rise type, fixed type, photo electric type, and aspirating type detectors. We considered optimum fire detecting method in rack type warehouses suggested by the response characteristic and comparative analysis of the fire detectors.

Keywords: fire detector, rack, response characteristic, warehouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
2729 Prediction of Fire Growth of the Office by Real-Scale Fire Experiment

Authors: Kweon Oh-Sang, Kim Heung-Youl

Abstract:

Estimating the engineering properties of fires is important to be prepared for the complex and various fire risks of large-scale structures such as super-tall buildings, large stadiums, and multi-purpose structures. In this study, a mock-up of a compartment which was 2.4(L) x 3.6 (W) x 2.4 (H) meter in dimensions was fabricated at the 10MW LSC (Large Scale Calorimeter) and combustible office supplies were placed in the compartment for a real-scale fire test. Maximum heat release rate was 4.1 MW and total energy release obtained through the application of t2 fire growth rate was 6705.9 MJ.

Keywords: fire growth, fire experiment, t2 curve, large scale calorimeter

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2728 A Small-Scale Study of Fire Whirls and Investigation of the Effects of Near-Ground Height on the Behavior of Fire Whirls

Authors: M. Arabghahestani, A. Darwish Ahmad, N. K. Akafuah

Abstract:

In this work, small-scale experiments of fire whirl were conducted to study the spinning fire phenomenon and to gain comprehensive understandings of fire tornadoes and the factors that affect their behavior. High speed imaging was used to track the flames at both temporal and spatial scales. This allowed us to better understand the role of the near-ground height in creating a boundary layer flow profile that, in turn contributes to formation of vortices around the fire, and consequent fire whirls. Based on the results obtained from these observations, we were able to spot the differences in the fuel burning rate of the fire itself as a function of a newly defined specific non-dimensional near-ground height. Based on our observations, there is a cutoff non-dimensional height, beyond which a normal fire can be turned into a fire whirl. Additionally, the results showed that the fire burning rate decreases by moving the fire to a height higher than the ground level. These effects were justified by the interactions between vortices formed by, the back pressure and the boundary layer velocity profile, and the vortices generated by the fire itself.

Keywords: boundary layer profile, fire whirls, near-ground height, vortex interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2727 Forest Fire Risk Mapping Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS-Based Application: A Case Study in Hua Sai District, Thailand

Authors: Narissara Nuthammachot, Dimitris Stratoulias

Abstract:

Fire is one of the main causes of environmental and ecosystem change. Therefore, it is a challenging task for fire risk assessment fire potential mapping. The study area is Hua Sai district, Nakorn Sri Thammarat province, which covers in a part of peat swamp forest areas. 55 fire points in peat swamp areas were reported from 2012 to 2016. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) methods were selected for this study. The risk fire area map was arranged on these factors; elevation, slope, aspect, precipitation, distance from the river, distance from town, and land use. The results showed that the predicted fire risk areas are found to be in appreciable reliability with past fire events. The fire risk map can be used for the planning and management of fire areas in the future.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fire risk assessment, geographic information system, peat swamp forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2726 A Review on Concrete Structures in Fire

Authors: S. Iffat, B. Bose

Abstract:

Concrete as a construction material is versatile because it displays high degree of fire-resistance. Concrete’s inherent ability to combat one of the most devastating disaster that a structure can endure in its lifetime, can be attributed to its constituent materials which make it inert and have relatively poor thermal conductivity. However, concrete structures must be designed for fire effects. Structural components should be able to withstand dead and live loads without undergoing collapse. The properties of high-strength concrete must be weighed against concerns about its fire resistance and susceptibility to spalling at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the causes, effects and some remedy of deterioration in concrete due to fire hazard will be discussed. Some cost effective solutions to produce a fire resistant concrete will be conversed through this paper.

Keywords: concrete, fire, spalling, temperature, compressive strength, density

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2725 Emissivity Analysis of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Fire

Authors: Christian Gaigl, Martin Mensinger

Abstract:

Once a fire resistance rating is necessary, it has to be proofed that the load bearing behavior of a steel construction under the exposure of fire still fits the static demands. High costs of passive fire protection, which satisfies the requirements, frequently result in a concrete solution. To optimize these expenses, one method is to determine the critical temperature according to the Eurocode DIN EN 1993-1-2. For this purpose, positive effects of hot-dip galvanized surface layers on the temperature development of steel members in the accidental situation of fire exposure has been investigated. The test results show a significant better heating behavior of hot-dip galvanized steel components compared to normal steel specimen. This leads in many cases to a R30 (30 minutes of ISO-fire) fire protection requirement of unprotected steel members and therefore to an economic added value.

Keywords: fire resistance, hot-dip galvanizing, steel constructions, R30 requirement, emissivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2724 The Control System Architecture of Space Environment Simulator

Authors: Zhan Haiyang, Gu Miao

Abstract:

This article mainly introduces the control system architecture of space environment simulator, simultaneously also briefly introduce the automation control technology of industrial process and the measurement technology of vacuum and cold black environment. According to the volume of chamber, the space environment simulator is divided into three types of small, medium and large. According to the classification and application of space environment simulator, the control system is divided into the control system of small, medium, large space environment simulator and the centralized control system of multiple space environment simulators.

Keywords: space environment simulator, control system, architecture, automation control technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
2723 Effect of Fire Exposure on the Ultimate Strength of Loaded Columns

Authors: Hatem Hamdy Ghieth

Abstract:

In the recent time many fires happened in many skeleton buildings. The fire may be continues for a long time. This fire may cause a collapse of the building. This collapse may be happened due to the time of exposure to fire as well as the rate of the loading to the carrying elements. In this research a laboratory study for reinforced concrete columns under effect of fire with temperature reaches (650 ْ C) on the behavior of columns which loaded with axial load and with exposing to fire temperature only from all sides of columns. the main parameters of this study are level of load applying to the column, and the temperature applied to the fire, this temperatures was 500oC and 650oc. Nine concrete columns with dimensions 20x20x100 cms were casted one of these columns was tested to determine the ultimate load while the least were fired according to the experimental schedule.

Keywords: columns, fire duration, concrete strength, level of loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
2722 Canada Deuterium Uranium Updated Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model for Canadian Nuclear Plants

Authors: Hossam Shalabi, George Hadjisophocleous

Abstract:

The Canadian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) use some portions of NUREG/CR-6850 in carrying out Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). An assessment for the applicability of NUREG/CR-6850 to CANDU reactors was performed and a CANDU Fire PRA was introduced. There are 19 operating CANDU reactors in Canada at five sites (Bruce A, Bruce B, Darlington, Pickering and Point Lepreau). A fire load density survey was done for all Fire Safe Shutdown Analysis (FSSA) fire zones in all CANDU sites in Canada. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 557 proposes that a fire load survey must be conducted by either the weighing method or the inventory method or a combination of both. The combination method results in the most accurate values for fire loads. An updated CANDU Fire PRA model is demonstrated in this paper that includes the fuel survey in all Canadian CANDU stations. A qualitative screening step for the CANDU fire PRA is illustrated in this paper to include any fire events that can damage any part of the emergency power supply in addition to FSSA cables.

Keywords: fire safety, CANDU, nuclear, fuel densities, FDS, qualitative analysis, fire probabilistic risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
2721 Optimizing Fire Suppression Time In Buildings By Forming A Fire Feedback Loop

Authors: Zhdanova A.O, Volkov R.S, Kuznetsov G.V, Strizhak P.A.

Abstract:

Fires in different types of facilities are a serious problem worldwide.It is still an unaccomplished science and technology objective to establish the minimum number and type of sensors in automatic systems of compartment fire suppression which would turn the fire-extinguishing agent spraying on and off in real time depending on the state of the fire, minimize the amount of agent applied, delay time in fire suppression and system response, as well as the time of combustion suppression. Based on the results of experimental studies, the conclusion was made that it is reasonable to use a gas analysis system and heat sensors (in the event of their prior activation) to determine the effectiveness of fire suppression (fire-extinguishing composition interacts with the fire). Thus, the concentration of CO in the interaction of the firefighting liquid with the fire increases to 0.7–1.2%, which indicates a slowdown in the flame combustion, and heat sensors stop responding at a gas medium temperature below 80 ºC, which shows a gradual decrease in the heat release from the fire. The evidence from this study suggests that the information received from the video recording equipment (video camera) should be used in real time as an additional parameter confirming fire suppression. Research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No 21-19-00009, https://rscf.ru/en/project/21-19-00009/).

Keywords: compartment fires, fire suppression, continuous control of fire behavior, feedback systems

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2720 Enhance Engineering Learning Using Cognitive Simulator

Authors: Lior Davidovitch

Abstract:

Traditional training based on static models and case studies is the backbone of most teaching and training programs of engineering education. However, project management learning is characterized by dynamics models that requires new and enhanced learning method. The results of empirical experiments evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of using cognitive simulator as a new training technique are reported. The empirical findings are focused on the impact of keeping and reviewing learning history in a dynamic and interactive simulation environment of engineering education. The cognitive simulator for engineering project management learning had two learning history keeping modes: manual (student-controlled), automatic (simulator-controlled) and a version with no history keeping. A group of industrial engineering students performed four simulation-runs divided into three identical simple scenarios and one complicated scenario. The performances of participants running the simulation with the manual history mode were significantly better than users running the simulation with the automatic history mode. Moreover, the effects of using the undo enhanced further the learning process. The findings indicate an enhancement of engineering students’ learning and decision making when they use the record functionality of the history during their engineering training process. Furthermore, the cognitive simulator as educational innovation improves students learning and training. The practical implications of using simulators in the field of engineering education are discussed.

Keywords: cognitive simulator, decision making, engineering learning, project management

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2719 Broad Survey of Fine Root Traits to Investigate the Root Economic Spectrum Hypothesis and Plant-Fire Dynamics Worldwide

Authors: Jacob Lewis Watts, Adam F. A. Pellegrini

Abstract:

Prairies, grasslands, and forests cover an expansive portion of the world’s surface and contribute significantly to Earth’s carbon cycle. The largest driver of carbon dynamics in some of these ecosystems is fire. As the global climate changes, most fire-dominated ecosystems will experience increased fire frequency and intensity, leading to increased carbon flux into the atmosphere and soil nutrient depletion. The plant communities associated with different fire regimes are important for reassimilation of carbon lost during fire and soil recovery. More frequent fires promote conservative plant functional traits aboveground; however, belowground fine root traits are poorly explored and arguably more important drivers of ecosystem function as the primary interface between the soil and plant. The root economic spectrum (RES) hypothesis describes single-dimensional covariation between important fine-root traits along a range of plant strategies from acquisitive to conservative – parallel to the well-established leaf economic spectrum (LES). However, because of the paucity of root trait data, the complex nature of the rhizosphere, and the phylogenetic conservatism of root traits, it is unknown whether the RES hypothesis accurately describes plant nutrient and water acquisition strategies. This project utilizesplants grown in common garden conditions in the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and a meta-analysis of long-term fire manipulation experiments to examine the belowground physiological traits of fire-adapted and non-fire-adapted herbaceous species to 1) test the RES hypothesis and 2) describe the effect of fire regimes on fine root functional traits – which in turn affect carbon and nutrient cycling. A suite of morphological, chemical, and biological root traits (e.g. root diameter, specific root length, percent N, percent mycorrhizal colonization, etc.) of 50 herbaceous species were measuredand tested for phylogenetic conservatism and RES dimensionality. Fire-adapted and non-fire-adapted plants traits were compared using phylogenetic PCA techniques. Preliminary evidence suggests that phylogenetic conservatism may weaken the single-dimensionality of the RES, suggesting that there may not be a single way that plants optimize nutrient and water acquisition and storage in the complex rhizosphere; additionally, fire-adapted species are expected to be more conservative than non-fire-adapted species, which may be indicative of slower carbon cycling with increasing fire frequency and intensity.

Keywords: climate change, fire regimes, root economic spectrum, fine roots

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2718 The Trend of Injuries in Building Fire in Tehran from 2002 to 2012

Authors: Mohammadreza Ashouri, Majid Bayatian

Abstract:

Analysis of fire data is a way for the implementation of any plan to improve the level of safety in cities. Such an analysis is able to reveal signs of changes in a given period and can be used as a measure of safety. The information of about 66,341 fires (from 2002 to 2012) released by Tehran Safety Services and Fire-Fighting Organization and data on the population and the number of households provided by Tehran Municipality and the Statistical Yearbook of Iran were extracted. Using the data, the fire changes, the rate of injuries, and mortality rate were determined and analyzed. The rate of injuries and mortality rate of fires per one million population of Tehran were 59.58% and 86.12%, respectively. During the study period, the number of fires and fire stations increased by 104.38% and 102.63%, respectively. Most fires (9.21%) happened in the 4th District of Tehran. The results showed that the recorded fire data have not been systematically planned for fire prevention since one of the ways to reduce injuries caused by fires is to develop a systematic plan for necessary actions in emergency situations. To determine a reliable source for fire prevention, the stages, definitions of working processes and the cause and effect chains should be considered. Therefore, a comprehensive statistical system should be developed for reported and recorded fire data.

Keywords: fire statistics, fire analysis, accident prevention, Tehran

Procedia PDF Downloads 94