Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6763

Search results for: peak temperature

6763 Aging Behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC Composite in T4 and T6 Treatments

Authors: Melby Chacko, Jagannath Nayak


The aging behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC composite was investigated using Rockwell B hardness measurement. The composite was solutionized at 350°C and quenched in water. The composite was aged at room temperature (T4 treatment) and also at 140°C, 160°C, 180°C and 200°C (T6 treatment). The natural and artificial aging behaviour of composite was studied using aging curves determined at different temperatures. The aging period for peak aging for different temperatures was identified. The time required for attaining peak aging decreased with increase in the aging temperature. The peak hardness was found to increase with increase with aging temperature and the highest peak hardness was observed at 180ºC. Beyond 180ºC the peak hardness was found to be decreasing.

Keywords: 6061 Al-SiC composite, aging curve, Rockwell B hardness, T4, T6 treatments

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6762 Studies on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone in a Micro Alloyed Steel

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, S. K. Nath


Proper selection of welding parameters for getting excellent weld is a challenge. HAZ simulation helps in identifying suitable welding parameters like heating rate, cooling rate, peak temperature, and energy input. In this study, the influence of weld thermal cycle of heat affected zone (HAZ) is simulated for Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) using Gleeble ® 3800 thermomechanical simulator. A (Micro-alloyed) MA steel plate of thickness 18 mm having yield strength 450MPa is used for making test specimens. Determination of the mechanical properties of weld simulated specimens including Charpy V-notch toughness and hardness is performed. Peak temperatures of 1300°C, 1150°C, 1000°C, 900°C, 800°C, heat energy input of 22KJ/cm and preheat temperatures of 30°C have been used with Rykalin-3D simulation model. It is found that the impact toughness (75J) is the best for the simulated HAZ specimen at the peak temperature 900ºC. For parent steel, impact toughness value is 26.8J at -50°C in transverse direction.

Keywords: HAZ simulation, mechanical properties, peak temperature, ship hull steel, weldability

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6761 Spectroscopy Study of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for Pharmaceutical Applications

Authors: Bashar Mudhaffar Abdullah, Hasniza Zaman Huri, Nany Hairunisa


This study was carried out to determine the thermal properties and spectroscopy study of Malaysian Jatropha curcas seed oil. The J. curcas seed oil physicochemical properties such as free fatty acid (FFA %), acid value, saponification value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter, and viscosity (cp) gave values of 1.89±0.10%, 3.76±0.07, 203.36±0.36 mg/g, 4.90±0.25, 1.76±0.03%, and 32, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the fatty acids (FAs) composition. J. curcas seed oil is consisting of saturated FAs (19.55%) such as palmitic (13.19%), palmitoleic (0.40%), and stearic (6.36%) acids and unsaturated FAs (80.42%) such as oleic (43.32%) and linoleic (36.70%) acids. The thermal properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that crystallized TAG was observed at -6.79°C. The melting curves displayed three major exothermic regions of J. curcas seed oil, monounsaturated (lower-temperature peak) at -31.69°C, di-unsaturated (medium temperature peak) at -20.23°C and tri-unsaturated (higher temperature peak) at -12.72°C. The results of this study showed that the J. curcas seed oil is a plausible source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to be developed in the future for pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: Jatropha curcas seed oil, thermal properties, crystallization, melting, spectroscopy

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6760 Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Optical Properties of InAs Quantum Dots Grown on (100) and (311)B GaAs Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Amjad Almunyif, Amra Alhassni, Sultan Alhassan, Maryam Al Huwayz, Saud Alotaibi, Abdulaziz Almalki, Mohamed Henini


The effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown at an As overpressure of 2x 10⁻⁶ Torr by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on (100) and (311)B GaAs substrates was investigated using photoluminescence (PL) technique. PL results showed that for the as-grown samples, the QDs grown on the high index plane (311)B have lower PL intensity and lower full width at half maximum (FWHM) than those grown on the conventional (100) plane. The latter demonstrates that the (311)B QDs have better size uniformity than (100) QDs. Compared with as-grown samples, a blue-shift was observed for all samples with increasing annealing temperature from 600°C to 700°C. For (100) samples, a narrowing of the FWHM was observed with increasing annealing temperature from 600°C to 700°C. However, in (311)B samples, the FWHM showed a different behaviour; it slightly increased when the samples were annealed at 600°C and then decreased when the annealing temperature increased to 700°C. As expected, the PL peak intensity for all samples increased when the laser excitation power increased. The PL peak energy temperature dependence showed a strong redshift when the temperature was increased from 10 K to 120 K. The PL peak energy exhibited an abnormal S-shape behaviour as a function of temperature for all samples. Most samples exhibited a significant enhancement in their activation energies when annealed at 600°C and 700°C, suggesting that annealing annihilated defects created during sample growth.

Keywords: RTA, QDs, InAs, MBE

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6759 A Second Law Assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle Depending on Source Temperature

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim


Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has potential in reducing fossil fuels and relaxing environmental problems. In this work performance analysis of ORC is conducted based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of low temperature heat source from 100°C to 140°C using R134a as the working fluid. Effects of system parameters such as turbine inlet pressure or source temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as net work production or exergy efficiency. Results show that the net work or exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is low, however, increases monotonically with increasing turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is high.

Keywords: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), low temperature heat source, exergy, source temperature

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6758 X-Ray Energy Release in the Solar Eruptive Flare from 6th of September 2012

Authors: Mirabbos Mirkamalov, Zavkiddin Mirtoshev


The M 1.6 class flare occurred on 6th of September 2012. Our observations correspond to the active region NOAA 11560 with the heliographic coordinates N04W71. The event took place between 04:00 UT and 04:45 UT, and was close to the solar limb at the western region. The flare temperature correlates with flux peak, increases for a short period (between 04:08 UT and 04:12 UT), rises impulsively, attains a maximum value of about 17 MK at 04:12 UT and gradually decreases after peak value. Around the peak we observe significant emissions of X-ray sources. Flux profiles of the X-ray emission exhibit a progressively faster raise and decline as the higher energy channels are considered.

Keywords: magnetic reconnection, solar atmosphere, solar flare, X-ray emission

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6757 Experimental Study on the Effect of Storage Conditions on Thermal Hazard of Nitrocellulose

Authors: Hua Chai, Qiangling Duan, Huiqi Cao, Mi Li, Jinhua Sun


Nitrocellulose (NC), a kind of energetic material, has been widely used in the industrial and military fields. However, this material can also cause serious social disasters due to storage conditions. Thermal hazard of nitrocellulose (NC) was experimentally investigated using the CALVET heat flux calorimeter C80, and three kinds of storage conditions were considered in the experiments: (1) drying time, (2) moisture content, (3) cycles. The results showed that the heat flow curves of NC moved to the low-temperature direction firstly and then slightly moved back by increasing the drying hours. Moisture that was responsible for the appearance of small exothermic peaks was proven to be the unfavorable safety factor yet it could increase the onset temperature of the main peak to some extent. And cycles could both lower the onset temperature and the maximum heat flow but enlarged the peak temperature. Besides, relevant kinetic parameters such as the heat of reaction (ΔH) and the activation energy (Ea) were obtained and compared. It was found that all the three conditions could reduce the values of Ea and most of them produced larger reaction heat. In addition, the critical explosion temperature (Tb) of the NC samples were derived. It was clear that not only the drying time but also the cycles would increase the thermal hazard of the NC. Yet, the right amount of water helped to reduce the thermal hazard.

Keywords: C80, nitrocellulose, storage conditions, the critical explosion temperature, thermal hazard

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6756 Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice

Authors: Supat Chaiyakul, Direk Sukkasem, Patnachapa Natthapanpaisith


Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the effects of rice flour concentration and retrogradation treatment on the physical properties of instant Sinlek brown rice. The native rice flour, gelatinized rice flour, and flour gels retrograded under 4 °C for 3 and 7 days were investigated. From the statistical results, significant differences between native and retrograded flour were observed. The concentration of rice flour was the main factor influencing the swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties. With the increase in rice flour content from 10 to 15%, swelling power, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased; but, solubility, pasting temperature, peak time, breakdown, and setback increased. The peak time, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased as the storage period increased from 3 to 7 days. The retrograded rice flour powders had lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and final viscosity than the gelatinized and native flour powders. Reduction of starch viscosity by gelatinization and controlling starch retrogradation could allow for increased quantities of rice flour in instant rice beverages. Also, the treatment could increase the energy and nutrient densities of rice beverages without affecting the viscosity of this product.

Keywords: instant rice, pasting properties, pregelatinization, retrogradation

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6755 Prediction of Phonon Thermal Conductivity of F.C.C. Al by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Leila Momenzadeh, Alexander V. Evteev, Elena V. Levchenko, Tanvir Ahmed, Irina Belova, Graeme Murch


In this work, the phonon thermal conductivity of f.c.c. Al is investigated in detail in the temperature range 100 – 900 K within the framework of equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations making use of the Green-Kubo formalism and one of the most reliable embedded-atom method potentials. It is found that the heat current auto-correlation function of the f.c.c. Al model demonstrates a two-stage temporal decay similar to the previously observed for f.c.c Cu model. After the first stage of decay, the heat current auto-correlation function of the f.c.c. Al model demonstrates a peak in the temperature range 100-800 K. The intensity of the peak decreases as the temperature increases. At 900 K, it transforms to a shoulder. To describe the observed two-stage decay of the heat current auto-correlation function of the f.c.c. Al model, we employ decomposition model recently developed for phonon-mediated thermal transport in a monoatomic lattice. We found that the electronic contribution to the total thermal conductivity of f.c.c. Al dominates over the whole studied temperature range. However, the phonon contribution to the total thermal conductivity of f.c.c. Al increases as temperature decreases. It is about 1.05% at 900 K and about 12.5% at 100 K.

Keywords: aluminum, gGreen-Kubo formalism, molecular dynamics, phonon thermal conductivity

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6754 Influence of Annealing on the Mechanical αc-Relaxation of Isotactic-Polypropylene: A Study from the Intermediate Phase Perspective

Authors: Baobao Chang, Konrad Schneider, Vogel Roland, Gert Heinrich


In this work, the influence of annealing on the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was investigated. The results suggest that the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior depends strongly on the confinement force on the polymer chains in the intermediate phase and the thickness of the intermediate phase. After quenching at 10°C, abundant crystallites with a wide size distribution are formed. The polymer chains in the intermediate phase are constrained by the crystallites, giving rise to one broad αc-relaxation peak. With an annealing temperature between 60°C~105°C, imperfect lamellae melting releases part of the constraint force, which reduces the conformational ordering of the polymer chains neighboring the amorphous phase. Consequently, two separate αc-relaxation peaks could be observed which are labeled as αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation. αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation describe the relaxation behavior of polymer chains in the region close to the amorphous phase and the crystalline phase, respectively. Both relaxation peaks shift to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. With an annealing temperature higher than 105°C, the new crystalline phase is formed in the intermediate phase, which enhances the constraint force on the polymer chains. αc1-relaxation peak is broadened obviously and its position shifts to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. Moreover, αc2-relaxation is undetectable because that the polymer chains in the region between the initial crystalline phase and the newly formed crystalline phase are strongly confined.

Keywords: annealing, αc-relaxation, isotactic-polypropylene, intermediate phase

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6753 On Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Oil Sands Slurry: Electrochemical Studies

Authors: M. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera


The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of carbon steel in oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, steel, oil sands slurry, polarization

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6752 Synergistic Erosion–Corrosion Behavior of Petroleum Pipelines at Various Conditions

Authors: M. A. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera


The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of petroleum pipelines (carbon steel) in the oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in the oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size, and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, oil sands slurry, polarization, steel

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6751 Temperature Dependence of Photoluminescence Intensity of Europium Dinuclear Complex

Authors: Kwedi L. M. Nsah, Hisao Uchiki


Quantum computation is a new and exciting field making use of quantum mechanical phenomena. In classical computers, information is represented as bits, with values either 0 or 1, but a quantum computer uses quantum bits in an arbitrary superposition of 0 and 1, enabling it to reach beyond the limits predicted by classical information theory. lanthanide ion quantum computer is an organic crystal, having a lanthanide ion. Europium is a favored lanthanide, since it exhibits nuclear spin coherence times, and Eu(III) is photo-stable and has two stable isotopes. In a europium organic crystal, the key factor is the mutual dipole-dipole interaction between two europium atoms. Crystals of the complex were formed by making a 2 :1 reaction of Eu(fod)3 and bpm. The transparent white crystals formed showed brilliant red luminescence with a 405 nm laser. The photoluminescence spectroscopy was observed both at room and cryogenic temperatures (300-14 K). The luminescence spectrum of [Eu(fod)3(μ-bpm) Eu(fod)3] showed characteristic of Eu(III) emission transitions in the range 570–630 nm, due to the deactivation of 5D0 emissive state to 7Fj. For the application of dinuclear Eu3+ complex to q-bit device, attention was focused on 5D0 -7F0 transition, around 580 nm. The presence of 5D0 -7F0 transition at room temperature revealed that at least one europium symmetry had no inversion center. Since the line was unsplit by the crystal field effect, any multiplicity observed was due to a multiplicity of Eu3+ sites. For q-bit element, more narrow line width of 5D0 → 7F0 PL band in Eu3+ ion was preferable. Cryogenic temperatures (300 K – 14 K) was applicable to reduce inhomogeneous broadening and distinguish between ions. A CCD image sensor was used for low temperature Photoluminescence measurement, and a far better resolved luminescent spectrum was gotten by cooling the complex at 14 K. A red shift by 15 cm-1 in the 5D0 - 7F0 peak position was observed upon cooling, the line shifted towards lower wavenumber. An emission spectrum at the 5D0 - 7F0 transition region was obtained to verify the line width. At this temperature, a peak with magnitude three times that at room temperature was observed. The temperature change of the 5D0 state of Eu(fod)3(μ-bpm)Eu(fod)3 showed a strong dependence in the vicinity of 60 K to 100 K. Thermal quenching was observed at higher temperatures than 100 K, at which point it began to decrease slowly with increasing temperature. The temperature quenching effect of Eu3+ with increase temperature was caused by energy migration. 100 K was the appropriate temperature for the observation of the 5D0 - 7F0 emission peak. Europium dinuclear complex bridged by bpm was successfully prepared and monitored at cryogenic temperatures. At 100 K the Eu3+-dope complex has a good thermal stability and this temperature is appropriate for the observation of the 5D0 - 7F0 emission peak. Sintering the sample above 600o C could also be a method to consider but the Eu3+ ion can be reduced to Eu2+, reasons why cryogenic temperature measurement is preferably over other methods.

Keywords: Eu(fod)₃, europium dinuclear complex, europium ion, quantum bit, quantum computer, 2, 2-bipyrimidine

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6750 Tga Analysis on the Decomposition of Active Material of Aquilaria Malaccencis

Authors: Nurshafika Adira Bt Audi Ashraf, Habsah Alwi


This study describes the series of analysis conducted after the use of Vacuum far Infra Red. Parameter including the constant drying temperature at 40°C with pressure difference (-400 bar, -500 bar and -600 bar) and constant drying pressure at -400 bar with difference temperature (40°C, 50°C and 60°C). The dried leaves with constant temperature and constant pressure is compared with the fresh leaves via several analysis including TGA, FTIR and Chromameter. Results indicated that the fresh leaves shows three degradation stages while temperature constant shows four stages of degradation and at constant pressure of -400 bar, five stages of degradation is shown. However, at the temperature constant with pressure -500 bar, five degradation stages are identified and at constant pressure with temperature 40°C, three stage of degradation is presence. It is assumed that it is due to the difference size of the sample as the particle size is decrease, the peak temperature shown in TG curves is also decrease which lead to the rapid ignition. Based on the FTIR analysis, fresh leaves gives the high presence of O-H and C=O group where both of the constant parameters give the absence of those due to the drying effects. In color analysis, the constant drying parameters (pressure and temperature) both shows that as the temperature increases, the average total of color change is also increases.

Keywords: chromameter, FTIR, TGA, Vaccum far infrared dying

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6749 Characterization Study of Aluminium 6061 Hybrid Composite

Authors: U. Achutha Kini, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, P. R. Prabhu, M. C. Gowri Shankar


Aluminium matrix composites with alumina reinforcements give superior mechanical & physical properties. Their applications in several fields like automobile, aerospace, defense, sports, electronics, bio-medical and other industrial purposes are becoming essential for the last several decades. In the present work, fabrication of hybrid composite was done by Stir casting technique using Al 6061 as a matrix with alumina and silicon carbide (SiC) as reinforcement materials. The weight percentage of alumina is varied from 2 to 4% and the silicon carbide weight percentage is maintained constant at 2%. Hardness and wear tests are performed in the as cast and heat treated conditions. Age hardening treatment was performed on the specimen with solutionizing at 550°C, aging at two temperatures (150 and 200°C) for different time durations. Hardness distribution curves are drawn and peak hardness values are recorded. Hardness increase was very sensitive with respect to the decrease in aging temperature. There was an improvement in wear resistance of the peak aged material when aged at lower temperature. Also increase in weight percent of alumina, increases wear resistance at lower temperature but opposite behavior was seen when aged at higher temperature.

Keywords: hybrid composite, hardness test, wear test, heat treatment, pin on disc wear testing machine

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6748 Hot Deformation Behavior and Constitutive Modelling of a Medium-Carbon Steel

Authors: Khalil Boroumanda, Morteza Hadib, Reza Vafaeia


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature and strain rate on the hot deformation behavior of a medium-carbon structural steel. This steel is known as 30XΓCA steel in GOST standard and contains 3 wt% carbon. To investigate the hot deformation behavior of this steel, hot compression tests were performed on cylindrical samples in temperature ranges from 800 to 1000 °C and strain ranges from 0.001 to 0.1 S-1. Microstructure of samples was characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The true stress-strain curves of 30XΓCA steel obtained at various deformation conditions showed that the softening phenomenon based on recovery and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred during hot deformation tests. The results indicated that the peak stress decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. With increasing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C, the peak stress decreased by 52%, 60% and 38% at strain rates of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 S-1, respectively. According to the results, it can be claimed that the DRX was a dominate mechanism of softening in all deformation conditions. The changes of work hardening rate for 30XΓCA steel during hot deformation were analyzed to confirm the results. Accordingly, it was observed that critical stress for the initiation of DRX decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. Furthermore, constitutive equations and activation energy of deformation for 30XΓCA steel were successfully determined. Based on the hyperbolic sine equation, the activation energy of hot deformation of 30XΓCA steel was 256.11 kJ/mole.

Keywords: 30XΓCA steel, hot compression, dynamic recrystallization, constitutive equations

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6747 Enhancement of Biomass and Bioactive Compounds in Kale Subjected to UV-A LED Lights

Authors: Jin-Hui Lee, Myung-Min Oh


The application of temporary abiotic stresses before crop harvest is a potential strategy to enhance phytochemical content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various UV-A LED lights on the growth and content of bioactive compounds in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Fourteen-day-old kale seedlings were cultivated in a plant factory with artificial lighting (air temperature of 20℃, relative humidity of 60%, photosynthesis photon flux density (PPFD) of 125 µmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹) for 3 weeks. Kale plants were irradiated by four types of UV-A LEDs (peak wavelength; 365, 375, 385, and 395 nm) with 30 W/m² for 7 days. As a result, image chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) value of kale leaves was lower as the UV-A LEDs peak wavelength was shorter. Fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots of kale plants were significantly higher in the plants under UV-A than the control at 7 days of treatment. In particular, the growth was significantly increased with a longer peak wavelength of the UV-A LEDs. The results of leaf area and specific leaf weight showed a similar pattern with those of growth characteristics. Chlorophyll content was highest in kale leaves subjected to UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 3 days of treatment compared with the control. Total phenolic contents of UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 5 and 6 days of treatment were 44% and 47% higher than those of the control, respectively. Antioxidant capacity showed almost the same pattern as the results of total phenol content. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was approximately 11% and 8% higher in the UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm compared to the control at 5 and 6 days of treatment, respectively. Our results imply that the UV-A LEDs with relative longer peak wavelength were effective to improve growth as well as the content of bioactive compounds of kale plants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, growth, Kale, UV-A LEDs

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6746 2106 kA/cm² Peak Tunneling Current Density in GaN-Based Resonant Tunneling Diode with an Intrinsic Oscillation Frequency of ~260GHz at Room Temperature

Authors: Fang Liu, JunShuai Xue, JiaJia Yao, GuanLin Wu, ZuMaoLi, XueYan Yang, HePeng Zhang, ZhiPeng Sun


Terahertz spectra is in great demand since last two decades for many photonic and electronic applications. III-Nitride resonant tunneling diode is one of the promising candidates for portable and compact THz sources. Room temperature microwave oscillator based on GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diode was reported in this work. The devices, grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on free-standing c-plane GaN substrates, exhibit highly repeatable and robust negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics at room temperature. To improve the interface quality at the active region in RTD, indium surfactant assisted growth is adopted to enhance the surface mobility of metal atoms on growing film front. Thanks to the lowered valley current associated with the suppression of threading dislocation scattering on low dislocation GaN substrate, a positive peak current density of record-high 2.1 MA/cm2 in conjunction with a peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of 1.2 are obtained, which is the best results reported in nitride-based RTDs up to now considering the peak current density and PVCR values simultaneously. When biased within the NDR region, microwave oscillations are measured with a fundamental frequency of 0.31 GHz, yielding an output power of 5.37 µW. Impedance mismatch results in the limited output power and oscillation frequency described above. The actual measured intrinsic capacitance is only 30fF. Using a small-signal equivalent circuit model, the maximum intrinsic frequency of oscillation for these diodes is estimated to be ~260GHz. This work demonstrates a microwave oscillator based on resonant tunneling effect, which can meet the demands of terahertz spectral devices, more importantly providing guidance for the fabrication of the complex nitride terahertz and quantum effect devices.

Keywords: GaN resonant tunneling diode, peak current density, microwave oscillation, intrinsic capacitance

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6745 Modeling of Enthalpy and Heat Capacity of Phase-Change Materials

Authors: Igor Medved, Anton Trnik, Libor Vozar


Phase-change materials (PCMs) are of great interest in the applications where a temperature level needs to be maintained and/or where there is demand for thermal energy storage. Examples are storage of solar energy, cold, and space heating/cooling of buildings. During a phase change, the enthalpy vs. temperature plot of PCMs shows a jump and there is a distinct peak in the heat capacity plot. We present a theoretical description from which these jumps and peaks can be obtained. We apply our theoretical results to fit experimental data with very good accuracy for selected materials and changes between two phases. The development is based on the observation that PCMs are polycrystalline; i.e., composed of many single-crystalline grains. The enthalpy and heat capacity are thus interpreted as averages of the contributions from the individual grains. We also show how to determine the baseline and excess part of the heat capacity and thus the latent heat corresponding to the phase change.

Keywords: averaging, enthalpy jump, heat capacity peak, phase change

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6744 Application of Electrochromic Glazing for Reducing Peak Cooling Loads

Authors: Ranojoy Dutta


HVAC equipment capacity has a direct impact on occupant comfort and energy consumption of a building. Glazing gains, especially in buildings with high window area, can be a significant contributor to the total peak load on the HVAC system, leading to over-sized systems that mostly operate at poor part load efficiency. In addition, radiant temperature, which largely drives occupant comfort in glazed perimeter zones, is often not effectively controlled despite the HVAC being designed to meet the air temperature set-point. This is due to short wave solar radiation transmitted through windows, that is not sensed by the thermostat until much later when the thermal mass in the room releases the absorbed solar heat to the indoor air. The implication of this phenomenon is increased cooling energy despite poor occupant comfort. EC glazing can significantly eliminate direct solar transmission through windows, reducing both the space cooling loads for the building and improving comfort for occupants near glazing. This paper will review the exact mechanism of how EC glazing would reduce the peak load under design day conditions, leading to reduced cooling capacity vs regular high-performance glazing. Since glazing heat transfer only affects the sensible load, system sizing will be evaluated both with and without the availability of a DOAS to isolate the downsizing potential of the primary cooling equipment when outdoor air is conditioned separately. Given the dynamic nature of glazing gains due to the sun’s movement, effective peak load mitigation with EC requires an automated control system that can predict solar movement and radiation levels so that the right tint state with the appropriate SHGC is utilized at any given time for a given façade orientation. Such an automated EC product will be evaluated for a prototype commercial office model situated in four distinct climate zones.

Keywords: electrochromic glazing, peak sizing, thermal comfort, glazing load

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6743 Investigating Nanocrystalline CaF2:Tm for Carbon Beam and Gamma Radiation Dosimetry

Authors: Kanika Sharma, Shaila Bahl, Birendra Singh, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab, A. Pandey


In the present investigation, initially nano-particles of CaF2 were prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method and later the prepared salt was activated by thulium (0.1 mol%) using the combustion technique. The final product was characterized and confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the nanophosphor were studied by irradiating it with 1.25 MeV of gamma radiation and 65 MeV of carbon (C6+) ion beam. For gamma rays, two prominent TL peaks were observed with a low temperature peak at around 1070C and a high temperature peak at around 1570C. Furthermore, the nanophosphor maintained a linear TL response for the entire range of studied doses i.e. 10 Gy to 2000 Gy for both the temperature peaks. Moreover, when the nanophosphor was irradiated with 65 MeV of C6+ ion beam the shape and structure of the glow curves remained spectacularly similar and the nanophosphor displayed a linear TL response for the full range of studied fluences i.e. 5*1010 ions/cm2 to 1 *1012 ions/ cm2. Finally, various tests like reproducibility test and batch homogeneity were also carried out to define the final product. Thus, co-precipitation method followed by combustion technique was successful in effectively producing dosimetric grade CaF2:Tm for dosimetry of gamma as well as carbon (C6+) beam.

Keywords: gamma radiation, ion beam, nanocrystalline, radiation dosimetry

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6742 Numerical Study of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor: Longitudinal and Transverse Detection of Temperature and Strain

Authors: K. Khelil, H. Ammar, K. Saouchi


Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) structure is an periodically modulated optical fiber. It acts as a selective filter of wavelength whose reflected peak is called Bragg wavelength and it depends on the period of the fiber and the refractive index. The simulation of FBG is based on solving the Coupled Mode Theory equation by using the Transfer Matrix Method which is carried out using MATLAB. It is found that spectral reflectivity is shifted when the change of temperature and strain is uniform. Under non-uniform temperature or strain perturbation, the spectrum is both shifted and destroyed. In case of transverse loading, reflectivity spectrum is split into two peaks, the first is specific to X axis, and the second belongs to Y axis. FBGs are used in civil engineering to detect perturbations applied to buildings.

Keywords: Bragg wavelength, coupled mode theory, optical fiber, temperature measurement

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6741 Preparation of CuAlO2 Thin Films on Si or Sapphire Substrate by Sol-Gel Method Using Metal Acetate or Nitrate

Authors: Takashi Ehara, Takayoshi Nakanishi, Kohei Sasaki, Marina Abe, Hiroshi Abe, Kiyoaki Abe, Ryo Iizaka, Takuya Sato


CuAlO2 thin films are prepared on Si or sapphire substrate by sol-gel method using two kinds of sols. One is combination of Cu acetate and Al acetate basic, and the other is Cu nitrate and Al nitrate. In the case of acetate sol, XRD peaks of CuAlO2 observed at annealing temperature of 800-950 ºC on both Si and sapphire substrates. In contrast, in the case of the films prepared using nitrate on Si substrate, XRD peaks of CuAlO2 have been observed only at the annealing temperature of 800-850 ºC. At annealing temperature of 850ºC, peaks of other species have been observed beside the CuAlO2 peaks, then, the CuAlO2 peaks disappeared at annealing temperature of 900 °C with increasing in intensity of the other peaks. Intensity of the other peaks decreased at annealing temperature of 950 ºC with appearance of broad SiO2 peak. In the present, we ascribe these peaks as metal silicide.

Keywords: CuAlO2, silicide, thin Films, transparent conducting oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
6740 Electrochemical Behavior of Iron (III) Complexes with Catechol at Different pH

Authors: K. M. Salim Reza, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Aziz, M. A. Motin, M. M. Rahman, M. A. Hasem


The redox behavior of Fe (III) in presence of Catechol (Cc) has been carried out in buffer solution of different pH, scan rate, variation of Fe (III) concentration and Cc concentration. Uncoordinated Fe(III) or Cc has been found to undergo reversible electrode reaction whereas coordinated Fe-Cc is irreversible. The peak positions of the voltammogram of Fe- Cc shifted with respect to that of free Fe (III) or Cc and also developed a new peak at 0.12 V. The peak current of Fe-Cc decreases significantly compared with that of free Fe(III) or Cc in the same experimental conditions. These behaviors ascribed the formation of complex of Fe with Cc. The complex was formed either by the addition of Cc into Fe(III) or by the addition of Fe(III) into Cc. The effect of pH of Fe-Cc complex was studied by varying pH from 2 to 8.5. The electro chemical oxidation of Fe-Cc is facilitated in lower pH media. The slope of the plots of anodic peak current, Ep against pH of Fe-Cc complexe is 30 mV, indicates that the oxidation of Fe-Cc complexes proceeded via the 2e−/2H+ processes. The proportionality of the anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate of suggests that the peak current of the different complexes at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, Fe-Cc Complex, pH effect, redox interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
6739 Thermal Analysis of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Materials with Different Preheating Conditions

Authors: Prashant S. Humnabad


The objective of this work is to carry out a thermal heat transfer analysis to obtain the time dependent temperature field in welding process friction stir welded dissimilar materials with different preheating temperature. A series of joints were made on four mm thick aluminum and steel plates. The temperature used was 100ºC, 150ºC and 200ºC. The welding operation was performed with different rotational speeds and traverse speed (1000, 1400 and 2000 rmp and 16, 20 and 25 mm/min..). In numerical model, the welded plate was modeled as the weld line is the symmetric line. The work-piece has dimensions of 100x100x4 mm. The obtained result was compared with experimental result, which shows good agreement and within the acceptable limit. The peak temperature at the weld zone increases significantly with respect to increase in process time.

Keywords: FEA, thermal analysis, preheating, friction stir welding

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6738 Effect of Aging Treatment on Tensile Properties of AZ91D Mg Alloy

Authors: Ju Hyun Won, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Phase equilibria of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, which revealed that solid solution treatment, could be performed at temperatures from 400 to 450 °C. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy without Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420 °C and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. In the case of AZ91D Mg alloy with some Ca and Y, however, a little amount of intermetallic particles were observed after solid solution treatment. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200 °C for 10 hrs.

Keywords: Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, phase equilibrium, peak aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
6737 Anthocyanin Complex: Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies

Authors: Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Kedsarin Saodaeng, Aroonsri Priprem, Teerasak Damrongrungruang


Complexation of anthocyanins to mimic natural copigmentation process was investigated. Cyanidin-rich extracts from Zea mays L. CeritinaKulesh. anddelphinidin-rich extracts from ClitoriaternateaL. were used to form 4 anthocyanin complexes, AC1, AC2, AC3, and AC4, in the presence of several polyphenols and a trace metal. Characterizations of the ACs were conducted by UV, FTIR, DSC/TGA and morphological observations. Bathochromic shifts of the UV spectra of 4 formulas of ACs were observed at peak wavelengths of about 510-620 nm by 10 nm suggesting complex formation.FTIR spectra of the ACs indicate shifts of peaks from 1,733 cm-1 to 1,696 cm-1 indicating interactions and a decrease in the peak areas within the wavenumber of 3,400-3,500 cm-1 indicating changes in hydrogen bonding.Thermal analysis of all of the ACs suggests increases in melting temperature after complexation. AC with the highest melting temperature was morphologically observed by SEM and TEM to be crystal-like particles within a range of 50 to 200 nm. Particle size analysis of the AC by laser diffraction gave a range of 50-600 nm, indicating aggregation. This AC was shown to have no cytotoxic effect on cultured HGEPp0.5 and HGF (all p> 0.05) by MTT. Therefore, complexation of anthocyanins was simple and self-assembly process, potentially resulting in nanosized particles of anthocyanin complex.

Keywords: anthocyanins, complexation, purple corn cops, butterfly pea, physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
6736 Tuning of the Thermal Capacity of an Envelope for Peak Demand Reduction

Authors: Isha Rathore, Peeyush Jain, Elangovan Rajasekar


The thermal capacity of the envelope impacts the cooling and heating demand of a building and modulates the peak electricity demand. This paper presents the thermal capacity tuning of a building envelope to minimize peak electricity demand for space cooling. We consider a 40 m² residential testbed located in Hyderabad, India (Composite Climate). An EnergyPlus model is validated using real-time data. A Parametric simulation framework for thermal capacity tuning is created using the Honeybee plugin. Diffusivity, Thickness, layer position, orientation and fenestration size of the exterior envelope are parametrized considering a five-layered wall system. A total of 1824 parametric runs are performed and the optimum wall configuration leading to minimum peak cooling demand is presented.

Keywords: thermal capacity, tuning, peak demand reduction, parametric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
6735 Effect of Microstructure on Transition Temperature of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

Authors: A. Ozel


The ductile to brittle transition temperature is a very important criterion that is used for selection of materials in some applications, especially in low-temperature conditions. For that reason, in this study transition temperature of as-cast and austempered unalloyed ductile iron in the temperature interval from -60 to +100 degrees C have been investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined by light microscope. The impact energy values obtained from the experiments were found to depend on the austempering time and temperature.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Charpy test, microstructure, transition temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
6734 Monitoring CO2 and H2S Emission in Live Austrian and UK Concrete Sewer Pipes

Authors: Anna Romanova, Morteza A. Alani


Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulfuric acid is an acknowledged problem and a ticking time-bomb to sewer operators. Whilst the chemical reaction of the corrosion process is well-understood, the indirect roles of other parameters in the corrosion process which are found in sewer environment are not highly reflected on. This paper reports on a field studies undertaken in Austria and United Kingdom, where the parameters of temperature, pH, H2S and CO2 were monitored over a period of time. The study establishes that (i) effluent temperature and pH have similar daily pattern and peak times, When examined in minutes scale, (ii) H2S and CO2 have an identical hourly pattern, (iii) H2S instant or shifted relation to effluent temperature is governed by the root mean square value of CO2.

Keywords: concrete corrosion, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, sewer pipe, sulfuric acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 222