Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: weldability

15 Hot Cracking Susceptibility Evaluation of the Advanced UNS S31035 Austenitic Stainless Steel by Varestraint Weldability Testing

Authors: Mikael M. Johansson, Peter Stenvall, Leif Karlsson, Joel Andersson


Sandvik Sanicro 25, UNS S31035, is an advanced high temperature austenitic stainless steel that potentially can be used in super-heaters and reheaters in the next generation of advanced ultra-super critical power plants. The material possesses both high creep strength and good corrosion resistance at temperatures up to 700°C. Its high temperature properties are positioned between other commercially available high temperature austenitic stainless steels and nickel-based alloys. It is, however, well known that an austenitic solidification mode combined with a fully austenitic microstructure exacerbate susceptibility towards hot cracking. The problem increases even more for thick walled material in multipass welding and could compromise the integrity of the welded component. Varestraint weldability testing is commonly used to evaluate susceptibility towards hot cracking of materials. In this paper, Varestraint test results are evaluated for base material of both UNS S31035 steel and are compared to those of the well-known and well-characterized UNS S31008 grade. The more creep resistant alloy, UNS S31035, is metallurgically more complicated than the UNS S31008 grade and has additions of several alloying elements to improve its high temperature properties. It benefits from both solid solution hardening as well as precipitation hardening. This investigation therefore attempts, based on the Varestraint weldability test, to understand if there are any differences in cracking mechanisms between these two grades due to the additional alloying elements used in UNS S31035. Results from Varestraint testing and crack type investigations will be presented and discussed in some detail. It is shown that hot cracking susceptibility of the UNS S31035 steel is only slightly higher than that of UNS S31008 despite the more complicated metallurgy. Weldability of the two alloys is therefore judged to be comparable making the newer alloy well suited also for critical applications.

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, hot cracking susceptibility, UNS S31035, UNS S31008, varestraint weldability testing

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14 Dissimilar Welding Of New High Oxidation Material – Thor™ 115 With Vm-12 Shc

Authors: Michal Urzynicok, Krzysztof Kwiecinski


The development of materials used in the power generation industry for the production of boilers and their parts is characterized by high steam parameters, which present new challenges. Implementation of new combinations of alloying elements that lead to the best possible mechanical properties, including creep resistance, greatly affects new steels' weldability. All new grades have to undergo many different examinations, in regards to bending and welding, in order to enable the development of fabrication technologies, ensuring failure-free production and assembly of boiler components. 12% Cr martensitic steels like THOR™ 115 or VM-12 SHC are characterized by high oxidation resistance in high-temperature environments. At the moment, VM-12 SHC can be found in many boilers where both headers and superheater coils were produced. As this material is very difficult to obtain, a search for a proper replacement has begun. A new creep strength-enhanced ferritic steel for service in supercritical and ultra-supercritical boiler applications was developed by Tenaris in Italy and it is designated as Thor™115 (Tenaris High Oxidation Resistance). As high demand in power plants occurred to replace some parts of existing installations fabricated from VM12-SHC with other alternatives, a new development of welding procedures has begun to prepare fabricators for the challenges of joining old components with new THOR™ 115 material. This paper covers the first research of welding of dissimilar joints made out of VM12-SHC and THOR™ 115.

Keywords: thor, vm12, dissimilar welding, weldability

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13 Study the Effect of Sensitization on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded AISI 304 Stainless Steel Joints

Authors: Viranshu Kumar, Hitesh Arora, Pradeep Joshi


SS 304 is Austenitic stainless steel with Chromium and Nickel as basic constituents. It has excellent corrosion resistance properties and very good weldability. Austenitic stainless steels have superior mechanical properties at high temperatures and are used extensively in a range of applications. SS 304L has wide applications in various industries viz. Nuclear, Pharmaceutical, marine, chemical etc. due to its excellent applications and ease of joining this material has become very popular for fabrication as well as weld surfacing. Austenitic stainless steels have a tendency to form chromium depleted zones at the grain boundaries during welding and heat treatment, where chromium combines with available carbon in the vicinity of the grain boundaries, to produce an area depleted in chromium, and thus becomes susceptible to intergranular corrosion. This phenomenon is known as sensitization.

Keywords: sensitization, SS 304, GTAW, mechanical properties, carbideprecipitationHAZ, microstructure, micro hardness, tensile strength

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12 Mathematical Models for GMAW and FCAW Welding Processes for Structural Steels Used in the Oil Industry

Authors: Carlos Alberto Carvalho Castro, Nancy Del Ducca Barbedo, Edmilsom Otoni Côrrea


With increase the production oil and lines transmission gases that are in ample expansion, the industries medium and great transport they had to adapt itself to supply the demand manufacture in this fabrication segment. In this context, two welding processes have been more extensively used: the GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) and the FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding). In this work, welds using these processes were carried out in flat position on ASTM A-36 carbon steel plates in order to make a comparative evaluation between them concerning to mechanical and metallurgical properties. A statistical tool based on technical analysis and design of experiments, DOE, from the Minitab software was adopted. For these analyses, the voltage, current, and welding speed, in both processes, were varied. As a result, it was observed that the welds in both processes have different characteristics in relation to the metallurgical properties and performance, but they present good weldability, satisfactory mechanical strength e developed mathematical models.

Keywords: Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Design of Experiments (DOE), mathematical models

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11 Experimental Research of Corrosion Resistance Desalination Plant Pipe According to Weld Overlay Layers

Authors: Ryu Wonjin, Choi Hyeok, Park Joonhong


Overlay welding for improving surface properties is a method of the surface treatments which improve surface properties of material by welding materials of alloy having corrosion resistance on the basic material surface. Overlay welding affects contents of chemical components and weld hardness from different parts by dilution of the lamination layer thickness, and it determines surface properties. Therefore, overlay welding has to take into account thickness of the lamination layers with the process. As a result in this study examined contents of Fe, weldability of the base metal and monel materials, hardness and surface flatness from different parts according to each the lamination layer parameters by overlay welding monel materials with corrosion resources to the base material of carbon steel. Through this, evaluated effect by the lamination layer parameters of welding and presented decision methods of the lamination layer parameters of the overlay welding by the purpose of use.

Keywords: clad pipe, lamination layer parameters, monel, overlay welding

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10 Studies on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone in a Micro Alloyed Steel

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, S. K. Nath


Proper selection of welding parameters for getting excellent weld is a challenge. HAZ simulation helps in identifying suitable welding parameters like heating rate, cooling rate, peak temperature, and energy input. In this study, the influence of weld thermal cycle of heat affected zone (HAZ) is simulated for Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) using Gleeble ® 3800 thermomechanical simulator. A (Micro-alloyed) MA steel plate of thickness 18 mm having yield strength 450MPa is used for making test specimens. Determination of the mechanical properties of weld simulated specimens including Charpy V-notch toughness and hardness is performed. Peak temperatures of 1300°C, 1150°C, 1000°C, 900°C, 800°C, heat energy input of 22KJ/cm and preheat temperatures of 30°C have been used with Rykalin-3D simulation model. It is found that the impact toughness (75J) is the best for the simulated HAZ specimen at the peak temperature 900ºC. For parent steel, impact toughness value is 26.8J at -50°C in transverse direction.

Keywords: HAZ simulation, mechanical properties, peak temperature, ship hull steel, weldability

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9 Application of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems Technique for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process of Pressure Vessel Steel AASTM A516 Grade 70

Authors: Omar Al Denali, Abdelaziz Badi


The ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel is a suitable material used for the fabrication of boiler pressure vessels working in moderate and lower temperature services, and it has good weldability and excellent notch toughness. The post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) or stress-relieving heat treatment has significant effects on avoiding the martensite transformation and resulting in high hardness, which can lead to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was implemented to predict the material tensile strength of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) experiments. The ANFIS models presented excellent predictions, and the comparison was carried out based on the mean absolute percentage error between the predicted values and the experimental values. The ANFIS model gave a Mean Absolute Percentage Error of 0.556 %, which confirms the high accuracy of the model.

Keywords: prediction, post-weld heat treatment, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, mean absolute percentage error

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8 Advantages of Vibration in the GMAW Process for Improving the Quality and Mechanical Properties

Authors: C. A. C. Castro, D. C. Urashima, E. P. Silva, P. M. L. Silva


Since 1920, the industry has almost completely changed the rivets production techniques for the manufacture of permanent welding join production of structures and manufacture of other products. The welding arc is the process more widely used in industries. This is accomplished by the heat of an electric arc which melts the base metal while the molten metal droplets are transferred through the arc to the welding pool, protected from the atmosphere by a gas curtain. The GMAW (Gas metal arc welding) process is influenced by variables such as: Current, polarity, welding speed, electrode, extension, position, moving direction; type of joint, welder's ability, among others. It is remarkable that the knowledge and control of these variables are essential for obtaining satisfactory quality welds, knowing that are interconnected so that changes in one of them requiring changes in one or more of the other to produce the desired results. The optimum values are affected by the type of base metal, the electrode composition, the welding position and the quality requirements. Thus, this paper proposes a new methodology, adding the variable vibration through a mechanism developed for GMAW welding, in order to improve the mechanical and metallurgical properties which does not affect the ability of the welder and enables repeatability of the welds made. For confirmation metallographic analysis and mechanical tests were made.

Keywords: vibration, joining, weldability, GMAW

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7 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang


Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationship

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6 Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks

Authors: Dario Basile, Manuela De Maddis, Raffaella Sesana, Pasquale Russo Spena, Roberto Maiorano


Nowadays, the reduction of CO₂ emissions and the decrease in energy consumption are the main aims of several industries, especially in the automotive sector. To comply with the increasingly restrictive regulations, the automotive industry is constantly looking for innovative techniques to produce lighter, more efficient, and less polluting vehicles. One of the latest technologies, and still developing, is based on the fabrication of the body-in-white and car parts through the stamping of Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks. Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) are generally the combination of two/three metal sheets with different thicknesses and/or mechanical strengths, which are commonly butt-welded together by laser sources. The use of aluminum TWBs has several advantages such as low density and corrosion resistance adequate. However, their use is still limited by the lower formability with respect to the parent materials and the more intrinsic difficulty of laser welding of aluminum sheets (i.e., internal porosity) that, although its use in automated industries is constantly growing, remains a process to be further developed and improved. This study has investigated the effect of the main laser welding process parameters (laser power, welding speed, and focal distance) on the mechanical properties of aluminum TWBs made of 6xxx series. The research results show that a narrow weldability window can be found to ensure welded joints with high strength and limited or no porosity.

Keywords: aluminum sheets, automotive industry, laser welding, mechanical properties, tailor welded blanks

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5 Feasibility Study of Friction Stir Welding Application for Kevlar Material

Authors: Ahmet Taşan, Süha Tirkeş, Yavuz Öztürk, Zafer Bingül


Friction stir welding (FSW) is a joining process in the solid state, which eliminates problems associated with the material melting and solidification, such as cracks, residual stresses and distortions generated during conventional welding. Among the most important advantages of FSW are; easy automation, less distortion, lower residual stress and good mechanical properties in the joining region. FSW is a recent approach to metal joining and although originally intended for aluminum alloys, it is investigated in a variety of metallic materials. The basic concept of FSW is a rotating tool, made of non-consumable material, specially designed with a geometry consisting of a pin and a recess (shoulder). This tool is inserted as spinning on its axis at the adjoining edges of two sheets or plates to be joined and then it travels along the joining path line. The tool rotation axis defines an angle of inclination with which the components to be welded. This angle is used for receiving the material to be processed at the tool base and to promote the gradual forge effect imposed by the shoulder during the passage of the tool. This prevents the material plastic flow at the tool lateral, ensuring weld closure on the back of the pin. In this study, two 4 mm Kevlar® plates which were produced with the Kevlar® fabrics, are analyzed with COMSOL Multiphysics in order to investigate the weldability via FSW. Thereafter, some experimental investigation is done with an appropriate workbench in order to compare them with the analysis results.

Keywords: analytical modeling, composite materials welding, friction stir welding, heat generation

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4 Optimized Design, Material Selection, and Improvement of Liners, Mother Plate, and Stone Box of a Direct Charge Transfer Chute in a Sinter Plant: A Computational Approach

Authors: Anamitra Ghosh, Neeladri Paul


The present work aims at investigating material combinations and thereby improvising an optimized design of liner-mother plate arrangement and that of the stone box, such that it has low cost, high weldability, sufficiently capable of withstanding the increased amount of corrosive shear and bending loads, and having reduced thermal expansion coefficient at temperatures close to 1000 degrees Celsius. All the above factors have been preliminarily examined using a computational approach via ANSYS Thermo-Structural Computation, a commercial software that uses the Finite Element Method to analyze the response of simulated design specimens of liner-mother plate arrangement and the stone box, to varied bending, shear, and thermal loads as well as to determine the temperature gradients developed across various surfaces of the designs. Finally, the optimized structural designs of the liner-mother plate arrangement and that of the stone box with improved material and better structural and thermal properties are selected via trial-and-error method. The final improvised design is therefore considered to enhance the overall life and reliability of a Direct Charge Transfer Chute that transfers and segregates the hot sinter onto the cooler in a sinter plant.

Keywords: shear, bending, thermal, sinter, simulated, optimized, charge, transfer, chute, expansion, computational, corrosive, stone box, liner, mother plate, arrangement, material

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3 Metallograpy of Remelted A356 Aluminium following Squeeze Casting

Authors: Azad Hussain, Andrew Cobley


The demand for lightweight parts with high mechanical strength(s) and integrity, in sectors such as the aerospace and automotive is ever increasing, motivated by the need for weight reduction in order to increase fuel efficiency with components usually manufactured using a high grade primary metal or alloy. For components manufactured using the squeeze casting process, this alloy is usually A356 aluminium (Al), it is one of the most versatile Al alloys; and is used extensively in castings for demanding environments. The A356 castings provide good strength to weight ratio making it an attractive option for components where strength has to be maintained, with the added advantage of weight reduction. In addition, the versatility in castabilitiy, weldability and corrosion resistance are other attributes that provide for the A356 cast alloy to be used in a large array of industrial applications. Conversely, it is rare to use remelted Al in these cases, due the nature of the applications of components in demanding environments, were material properties must be defined to meet certain specifications for example a known strength or ductility. However the use of remelted Al, especially primary grade Al such as A356, would offer significant cost and energy savings for manufacturers using primary alloys, provided that remelted aluminium can offer similar benefits in terms of material microstructure and mechanical properties. This study presents the results of the material microstructure and properties of 100% primary A356 Al and 100% remelt Al cast, manufactured via the direct squeeze cast method. The microstructures of the castings made from remelted A356 Al were then compared with the microstructures of primary A356 Al. The outcome of using remelting Al on the microstructure was examined via different analytical techniques, optical microscopy of polished and etched surfaces, and scanning electron microscopy. Microstructural analysis of the 100% remelted Al when compared with primary Al show similar α-Al phase, primary Al dendrites, particles and eutectic constituents. Mechanical testing of cast samples will elucidate further information as to the suitability of utilising 100% remelt for casting.

Keywords: A356, microstructure, remelt, squeeze casting

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2 Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

Authors: Bijit Kalita


Additive manufacturing (AM) is a novel manufacturing method that provides more freedom in design, manufacturing near net-shaped parts as per demand, lower cost of production and expedition in delivery time to market. Among various metals, AM techniques, Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) is the most prominent one that provides higher accuracy and powder proficiency in comparison to other methods. Particularly, 17-4 PH alloy is martensitic precipitation hardened (PH) stainless steel characterized by resistance to corrosion up to 300 °C and tailorable strengthening by copper precipitates. Additively manufactured 17-4 PH stainless steel exhibited a dendritic/cellular solidification microstructure in the as-built condition. It is widely used as a structural material in marine environments, power plants, aerospace and chemical industries. The excellent weldability of 17-4 PH stainless steel and its ability to be heat-treated to improve mechanical properties make it a good material choice for L-PBF. In this study, the microstructures of martensitic stainless steels in the as-built state, as well as the effects of process parameters, building atmosphere, and heat treatments on the microstructures, are reviewed. Mechanical properties of fabricated parts are studied through micro-hardness and tensile tests. Tensile tests are carried out under different strain rates at room temperature. In addition, the effect of process parameters and heat treatment conditions on mechanical properties are critically reviewed. These studies revealed the performance of L-PBF fabricated 17–4 PH stainless-steel parts under cyclic loading, and the results indicated that fatigue properties were more sensitive to the defects generated by L-PBF (e.g., porosity, microcracks), leading to the low fracture strains and stresses under cyclic loading. Rapid melting, solidification, and re-melting of powders during the process and different combinations of processing parameters result in a complex thermal history and heterogeneous microstructure and is necessary to better control the microstructures and properties of L-PBF PH stainless steels through high-efficiency and low-cost heat treatments.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, FEM, tensile, LPBF

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1 A Technology of Hot Stamping and Welding of Carbon Reinforced Plastic Sheets Using High Electric Resistance

Authors: Tomofumi Kubota, Mitsuhiro Okayasu


In recent years, environmental problems and energy problems typified by global warming are intensifying, and transportation devices are required to reduce the weight of structural materials from the viewpoint of strengthening fuel efficiency regulations and energy saving. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) used in this research is attracting attention as a structural material to replace metallic materials. Among them, thermoplastic CFRP is expected to expand its application range in terms of recyclability and cost. High formability and weldability of the unidirectional CFRP sheets conducted by a proposed hot stamping process were proposed, in which the carbon fiber reinforced plastic sheets are heated by a designed technique. In this case, the CFRP sheets are heated by the high electric voltage applied through carbon fibers. In addition, the electric voltage was controlled by the area ratio of exposed carbon fiber on the sample surfaces. The lower exposed carbon fiber on the sample surface makes high electric resistance leading to the high sample temperature. In this case, the CFRP sheets can be heated to more than 150 °C. With the sample heating, the stamping and welding technologies can be carried out. By changing the sample temperature, the suitable stamping condition can be detected. Moreover, the proper welding connection of the CFRP sheets was proposed. In this study, we propose a fusion bonding technique using thermoplasticity, high current flow, and heating caused by electrical resistance. This technology uses the principle of resistance spot welding. In particular, the relationship between the carbon fiber exposure rate and the electrical resistance value that affect the bonding strength is investigated. In this approach, the mechanical connection using rivet is also conducted to make a comparison of the severity of welding. The change of connecting strength is reflected by the fracture mechanism. The low and high connecting strength are obtained for the separation of two CFRP sheets and fractured inside the CFRP sheet, respectively. In addition to the two fracture modes, micro-cracks in CFRP are also detected. This approach also includes mechanical connections using rivets to compare the severity of the welds. The change in bond strength is reflected by the destruction mechanism. Low and high bond strengths were obtained to separate the two CFRP sheets, each broken inside the CFRP sheets. In addition to the two failure modes, micro cracks in CFRP are also detected. In this research, from the relationship between the surface carbon fiber ratio and the electrical resistance value, it was found that different carbon fiber ratios had similar electrical resistance values. Therefore, we investigated which of carbon fiber and resin is more influential to bonding strength. As a result, the lower the carbon fiber ratio, the higher the bonding strength. And this is 50% better than the conventional average strength. This can be evaluated by observing whether the fracture mode is interface fracture or internal fracture.

Keywords: CFRP, hot stamping, weliding, deforamtion, mechanical property

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