Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: hacking

24 Approaches to Ethical Hacking: A Conceptual Framework for Research

Authors: Lauren Provost

Abstract:

The digital world remains increasingly vulnerable, making the development of effective cybersecurity approaches even more critical in supporting the success of the digital economy and national security. Although approaches to cybersecurity have shifted and improved in the last decade with new models, especially with cloud computing and mobility, a record number of high severity vulnerabilities were recorded in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and its National Vulnerability Database (NVD) in 2020. This is due, in part, to the increasing complexity of cyber ecosystems. Security must be approached with a more comprehensive, multi-tool strategy that addresses the complexity of cyber ecosystems, including the human factor. Ethical hacking has emerged as such an approach: a more effective, multi-strategy, comprehensive approach to cyber security's most pressing needs, especially understanding the human factor. Research on ethical hacking, however, is limited in scope. The two main objectives of this work are to (1) provide highlights of case studies in ethical hacking, (2) provide a conceptual framework for research in ethical hacking that embraces and addresses both technical and nontechnical security measures. Recommendations include an improved conceptual framework for research centered on ethical hacking that addresses many factors and attributes of significant attacks that threaten computer security; a more robust, integrative multi-layered framework embracing the complexity of cybersecurity ecosystems.

Keywords: ethical hacking, literature review, penetration testing, social engineering

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23 Client Hacked Server

Authors: Bagul Abhijeet

Abstract:

Background: Client-Server model is the backbone of today’s internet communication. In which normal user can not have control over particular website or server? By using the same processing model one can have unauthorized access to particular server. In this paper, we discussed about application scenario of hacking for simple website or server consist of unauthorized way to access the server database. This application emerges to autonomously take direct access of simple website or server and retrieve all essential information maintain by administrator. In this system, IP address of server given as input to retrieve user-id and password of server. This leads to breaking administrative security of server and acquires the control of server database. Whereas virus helps to escape from server security by crashing the whole server. Objective: To control malicious attack and preventing all government website, and also find out illegal work to do hackers activity. Results: After implementing different hacking as well as non-hacking techniques, this system hacks simple web sites with normal security credentials. It provides access to server database and allow attacker to perform database operations from client machine. Above Figure shows the experimental result of this application upon different servers and provides satisfactory results as required. Conclusion: In this paper, we have presented a to view to hack the server which include some hacking as well as non-hacking methods. These algorithms and methods provide efficient way to hack server database. By breaking the network security allow to introduce new and better security framework. The terms “Hacking” not only consider for its illegal activities but also it should be use for strengthen our global network.

Keywords: Hacking, Vulnerabilities, Dummy request, Virus, Server monitoring

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22 Hacking's 'Between Goffman and Foucault': A Theoretical Frame for Criminology

Authors: Tomás Speziale

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This paper aims to analyse how Ian Hacking states the theoretical basis of his research on the classification of people. Although all his early philosophical education had been based in Foucault, it is also true that Erving Goffman’s perspective provided him with epistemological and methodological tools for understanding face-to-face relationships. Hence, all his works must be thought of as social science texts that combine the research on how the individuals are constituted ‘top-down’ (as in Foucault), with the inquiry into how people renegotiate ‘bottom-up’ the classifications about them. Thus, Hacking´s proposal constitutes a middle ground between the French Philosopher and the American Sociologist. Placing himself between both authors allows Hacking to build a frame that is expected to adjust to Social Sciences’ main particularity: the fact that they study interactive kinds. These are kinds of people, which imply that those who are classified can change in certain ways that prompt the need for changing previous classifications themselves. It is all about the interaction between the labelling of people and the people who are classified. Consequently, understanding the way in which Hacking uses Foucault’s and Goffman’s theories is essential to fully comprehend the social dynamic between individuals and concepts, what Bert Hansen had called dialectical realism. His theoretical proposal, therefore, is not only valuable because it combines diverse perspectives, but also because it constitutes an utterly original and relevant framework for Sociological theory and particularly for Criminology.

Keywords: classification of people, Foucault's archaeology, Goffman's interpersonal sociology, interactive kinds

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21 A Study on Automotive Attack Database and Data Flow Diagram for Concretization of HEAVENS: A Car Security Model

Authors: Se-Han Lee, Kwang-Woo Go, Gwang-Hyun Ahn, Hee-Sung Park, Cheol-Kyu Han, Jun-Bo Shim, Geun-Chul Kang, Hyun-Jung Lee

Abstract:

In recent years, with the advent of smart cars and the expansion of the market, the announcement of 'Adventures in Automotive Networks and Control Units' at the DEFCON21 conference in 2013 revealed that cars are not safe from hacking. As a result, the HEAVENS model considering not only the functional safety of the vehicle but also the security has been suggested. However, the HEAVENS model only presents a simple process, and there are no detailed procedures and activities for each process, making it difficult to apply it to the actual vehicle security vulnerability check. In this paper, we propose an automated attack database that systematically summarizes attack vectors, attack types, and vulnerable vehicle models to prepare for various car hacking attacks, and data flow diagrams that can detect various vulnerabilities and suggest a way to materialize the HEAVENS model.

Keywords: automotive security, HEAVENS, car hacking, security model, information security

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20 Terrorist Financing through Ilegal Fintech Hacking: Case Study of Rizki Gunawan

Authors: Ishna Indika Jusi, Rifana Meika

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Terrorism financing method in Indonesia is developing at an alarming rate, to the point, it is now becoming more complex than before. Terrorists traditionally use conventional methods like robberies, charities, and courier services to fund their activities; today terrorists are able to utilize modern methods in financing their activities due to the rapid development in financial technology nowadays; one example is by hacking an illegal Fintech Company. Therefore, this research is conducted in order to explain and analyze the consideration behind the usage of an illegal fintech company to finance terrorism activities and how to prevent it. The analysis in this research is done by using the theory that is coined by Michael Freeman about the reasoning of terrorists when choosing their financing method. The method used in this research is a case study, and the case that is used for this research is the terrorism financing hacking of speedline.com in 2011 by Rizki Gunawan. Research data are acquired from interviews with the perpetrators, experts from INTRAC (PPATK), Special Detachment 88, reports, and journals that are relevant to the research. As a result, this study found that the priority aspects in terms of terrorist financing are security, quantity, and simplicity while obtaining funds.

Keywords: Fintech, illegal, Indonesia, technology, terrorism financing

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19 Understanding the Basics of Information Security: An Act of Defense

Authors: Sharon Q. Yang, Robert J. Congleton

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Information security is a broad concept that covers any issues and concerns about the proper access and use of information on the Internet, including measures and procedures to protect intellectual property and private data from illegal access and online theft; the act of hacking; and any defensive technologies that contest such cybercrimes. As more research and commercial activities are conducted online, cybercrimes have increased significantly, putting sensitive information at risk. Information security has become critically important for organizations and private citizens alike. Hackers scan for network vulnerabilities on the Internet and steal data whenever they can. Cybercrimes disrupt our daily life, cause financial losses, and instigate fear in the public. Since the start of the pandemic, most data related cybercrimes targets have been either financial or health information from companies and organizations. Libraries also should have a high interest in understanding and adopting information security methods to protect their patron data and copyrighted materials. But according to information security professionals, higher education and cultural organizations, including their libraries, are the least prepared entities for cyberattacks. One recent example is that of Steven’s Institute of Technology in New Jersey in the US, which had its network hacked in 2020, with the hackers demanding a ransom. As a result, the network of the college was down for two months, causing serious financial loss. There are other cases where libraries, colleges, and universities have been targeted for data breaches. In order to build an effective defense, we need to understand the most common types of cybercrimes, including phishing, whaling, social engineering, distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, malware and ransomware, and hacker profiles. Our research will focus on each hacking technique and related defense measures; and the social background and reasons/purpose of hacker and hacking. Our research shows that hacking techniques will continue to evolve as new applications, housing information, and data on the Internet continue to be developed. Some cybercrimes can be stopped with effective measures, while others present challenges. It is vital that people understand what they face and the consequences when not prepared.

Keywords: cybercrimes, hacking technologies, higher education, information security, libraries

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18 Stochastic Analysis of Linux Operating System through Copula Distribution

Authors: Vijay Vir Singh

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This work is focused studying the Linux operating system connected in a LAN (local area network). The STAR topology (to be called subsystem-1) and BUS topology (to be called subsystem-2) are taken into account, which are placed at two different locations and connected to a server through a hub. In the both topologies BUS topology and STAR topology, we have assumed n clients. The system has two types of failures i.e. partial failure and complete failure. Further, the partial failure has been categorized as minor and major partial failure. It is assumed that the minor partial failure degrades the sub-systems and the major partial failure make the subsystem break down mode. The system may completely fail due to failure of server hacking and blocking etc. The system is studied using supplementary variable technique and Laplace transform by using different types of failure and two types of repair. The various measures of reliability for example, availability of system, reliability of system, MTTF, profit function for different parametric values have been discussed.

Keywords: star topology, bus topology, blocking, hacking, Linux operating system, Gumbel-Hougaard family copula, supplementary variable

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17 Performance Analysis of LINUX Operating System Connected in LAN Using Gumbel-Hougaard Family Copula Distribution

Authors: V. V. Singh

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In this paper we have focused on the study of a Linux operating system connected in a LAN (local area network). We have considered two different topologies STAR topology (subsystem-1) and BUS topology (subsystem-2) which are placed at two different places and connected to a server through a hub. In both topologies BUS topology and STAR topology, we have assumed 'n' clients. The system has two types of failure partial failure and complete failure. Further the partial failure has been categorized as minor partial failure and major partial failure. It is assumed that minor partial failure degrades the subsystem and the major partial failure brings the subsystem to break down mode. The system can completely failed due to failure of server hacking and blocking etc. The system is studied by supplementary variable technique and Laplace transform by taking different types of failure and two types of repairs. The various measures of reliability like availability of system, MTTF, profit function for different parametric values has been discussed.

Keywords: star topology, bus topology, hacking, blocking, linux operating system, Gumbel-Hougaard family copula, supplementary variable

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16 Refining Scheme Using Amphibious Epistemologies

Authors: David Blaine, George Raschbaum

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The evaluation of DHCP has synthesized SCSI disks, and current trends suggest that the exploration of e-business that would allow for further study into robots will soon emerge. Given the current status of embedded algorithms, hackers worldwide obviously desire the exploration of replication, which embodies the confusing principles of programming languages. In our research we concentrate our efforts on arguing that erasure coding can be made "fuzzy", encrypted, and game-theoretic.

Keywords: SCHI disks, robot, algorithm, hacking, programming language

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15 Analysis of Security Vulnerabilities for Mobile Health Applications

Authors: Yuli Paola Cifuentes Sanabria, Lina Paola Beltrán Beltrán, Leonardo Juan Ramírez López

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The availability to deploy mobile applications for healthcare is increasing daily thru different mobile app stores. But within these capabilities the number of hacking attacks has also increased, in particular into medical mobile applications. The security vulnerabilities in medical mobile apps can be triggered by errors in code, incorrect logic, poor design, among other parameters. This is usually used by malicious attackers to steal or modify the users’ information. The aim of this research is to analyze the vulnerabilities detected in mobile medical apps according to risk factor standards defined by OWASP in 2014.

Keywords: mHealth apps, OWASP, protocols, security vulnerabilities, risk factors

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14 Ethereum Based Smart Contracts for Trade and Finance

Authors: Rishabh Garg

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Traditionally, business parties build trust with a centralized operating mechanism, such as payment by letter of credit. However, the increase in cyber-attacks and malicious hacking has jeopardized business operations and finance practices. Emerging markets, owing to their higher banking risks and bigger presence of digital financing, are looking forward to technology-driven solutions, financial inclusion and innovative working paradigms. Blockchain has the potential to enhance transaction transparency and supply chain traceability. It has captured a vast landscape with 200 million crypto users worldwide. Fintech and blockchain products are popping up across brokerage, digital wallets, exchanges, post-trade clearance, settlement, middleware, infrastructure, and base protocols.

Keywords: blockchain, distributed ledger technology, decentralized applications, ethereum, smart contracts, trade finance

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13 Digital Cinema Watermarking State of Art and Comparison

Authors: H. Kelkoul, Y. Zaz

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Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.

Keywords: digital cinema, watermarking, wavelet DWT, spread spectrum, JPEG2000 MPEG4

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12 Existential Affordances and Psychopathology: A Gibsonian Analysis of Dissociative Identity Disorder

Authors: S. Alina Wang

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A Gibsonian approach is used to understand the existential dimensions of the human ecological niche. Then, this existential-Gibsonian framework is applied to rethinking Hacking’s historical analysis of multiple personality disorder. This research culminates in a generalized account of psychiatric illness from an enactivist lens. In conclusion, reflections on the implications of this account on approaches to psychiatric treatment are mentioned. J.J. Gibson’s theory of affordances centered on affordances of sensorimotor varieties, which guide basic behaviors relative to organisms’ vital needs and physiological capacities (1979). Later theorists, notably Neisser (1988) and Rietveld (2014), expanded on the theory of affordances to account for uniquely human activities relative to the emotional, intersubjective, cultural, and narrative aspects of the human ecological niche. This research shows that these affordances are structured by what Haugeland (1998) calls existential commitments, which draws on Heidegger’s notion of dasein (1927) and Merleau-Ponty’s account of existential freedom (1945). These commitments organize the existential affordances that fill an individual’s environment and guide their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. This system of a priori existential commitments and a posteriori affordances is called existential enactivism. For humans, affordances do not only elicit motor responses and appear as objects with instrumental significance. Affordances also, and possibly primarily, determine so-called affective and cognitive activities and structure the wide range of kinds (e.g., instrumental, aesthetic, ethical) of significances of objects found in the world. Then existential enactivism is applied to understanding the psychiatric phenomenon of multiple personality disorder (precursor of the current diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder). A reinterpretation of Hacking’s (1998) insights into the history of this particular disorder and his generalizations on the constructed nature of most psychiatric illness is taken on. Enactivist approaches sensitive to existential phenomenology can provide a deeper understanding of these matters. Conceptualizing psychiatric illness as strictly a disorder in the head (whether parsed as a disorder of brain chemicals or meaning-making capacities encoded in psychological modules) is incomplete. Rather, psychiatric illness must also be understood as a disorder in the world, or in the interconnected networks of existential affordances that regulate one’s emotional, intersubjective, and narrative capacities. All of this suggests that an adequate account of psychiatric illness must involve (1) the affordances that are the sources of existential hindrance, (2) the existential commitments structuring these affordances, and (3) the conditions of these existential commitments. Approaches to treatment of psychiatric illness would be more effective by centering on the interruption of normalized behaviors corresponding to affordances targeted as sources of hindrance, the development of new existential commitments, and the practice of new behaviors that erect affordances relative to these reformed commitments.

Keywords: affordance, enaction, phenomenology, psychiatry, psychopathology

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11 Trace Network: A Probabilistic Relevant Pattern Recognition Approach to Attribution Trace Analysis

Authors: Jian Xu, Xiaochun Yun, Yongzheng Zhang, Yafei Sang, Zhenyu Cheng

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Network attack prevention is a critical research area of information security. Network attack would be oppressed if attribution techniques are capable to trace back to the attackers after the hacking event. Therefore attributing these attacks to a particular identification becomes one of the important tasks when analysts attempt to differentiate and profile the attacker behind a piece of attack trace. To assist analysts in expose attackers behind the scenes, this paper researches on the connections between attribution traces and proposes probabilistic relevance based attribution patterns. This method facilitates the evaluation of the plausibility relevance between different traceable identifications. Furthermore, through analyzing the connections among traces, it could confirm the existence probability of a certain organization as well as discover its affinitive partners by the means of drawing relevance matrix from attribution traces.

Keywords: attribution trace, probabilistic relevance, network attack, attacker identification

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10 Hackers’ Artwork in Search for a Name: An Analysis of Hackers’ Artwork

Authors: Sultana Ismet Jerin, Md. Waseq Ur Rahman

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Artworks of hacker artists are one of the new trends in the field of new media arts. When someone hears a name of hacker or anything related to hacking, what comes to one’s mind is usually not connected to art due to its divisive meaning. While it is fascinating that every year a number of hacker summits and hacker art fest are being organized among the respective community, it is at the same time true that people are yet to understand what hacker art really is. However, this new phenomenon of artwork under the title ‘hacker art’ has little been studied. Understanding this new form of art is important as the artists of hacker art belong to the era of digital revolution which is a very significant part of our history. Therefore, it is important to find out the challenges in defining them and find out solutions to preserve them. In this paper, the key question that has been addressed is why artworks of hacker artists are facing the complicacies to be defined or categorized. Content analysis of the hacker manifesto (a short historical essay written by a hacker) and two hacker art projects has been conducted to find out the issues surrounding the key research questions. The paper ends with discussing the findings and possible solutions to the challenges hacker artists facing.

Keywords: media art, hacker art, hacker artist, new media

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9 The Analysis of Computer Crimes Act 1997 in the Circumvention and Prevention of Computer Crimes in Malaysia

Authors: Nooraneda Mutalip Laidey

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Computer Crimes Act 1997 (CCA 1997) was conceded by Malaysia’s legislative body in 1997 and the Act was enforced in June 2000. The purpose of CCA 1997 is to provide for offences related to misuse of computers such as hacking, cracking and phishing. CCA 1997 was modelled after United Kingdom’s Computer Misuses Act 1990 as a response to the emerging computer crimes. This legislation is divided into three parts and 12 Sections. The first part outlines preliminary matters that include short title and relevant definitions, second part provides for the offenses related to misuse of computers and specifies penalties for each offences, and the last part deals with ancillary provisions such as jurisdictional and investigational issues of cybercrime. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the development of computer crimes and its deterrence in Malaysia. Specific sections of CCA 1997 will be analysed in details and detail assessment on the prevention and prosecution of computer crimes in Malaysia will be accessed to determine whether CCA 1997 is so far adequate in preventing computer crimes in Malaysia.

Keywords: computer, computer crimes, CCA 1997, circumvention, deterrence

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8 Lessons Learned from Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) Organized Campaigns

Authors: Vitali Kremez

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The researcher monitored an organized ransomware campaign in order to gain significant visibility into the tactics, techniques, and procedures employed by a campaign boss operating a ransomware scheme out of Russia. As the Russian hacking community lowered the access requirements for unsophisticated Russian cybercriminals to engage in ransomware campaigns, corporations and individuals face a commensurately greater challenge of effectively protecting their data and operations from being held ransom. This report discusses two notorious ransomware campaigns. Though the loss of data can be devastating, the findings demonstrate that sending ransom payments does not always help obtain data. Key learnings: 1. From the ransomware affiliate perspective, such campaigns have significantly lowered the barriers for entry for low-tier cybercriminals. 2. Ransomware revenue amounts are not as glamorous and fruitful as they are often publicly reported. Average ransomware crime bosses make only $90K per year on average. 3. Data gathered indicates that sending ransom payments does not always help obtain data. 4. The talk provides the complete payout structure and Bitcoin laundering operation related to the ransomware-as-a-service campaign.

Keywords: bitcoin, cybercrime, ransomware, Russia

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7 Cybercrimes in Nigeria: Its Causes, Effects and Solutions

Authors: Uzoma Igboji

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Cybercrimes involves crimes committed on the internet using the computer as a tool or targeted victim. In Nigeria today, there are many varieties of crimes that are committed on the internet daily, some are directed to the computers while the others are directed to the computer users. Cyber terrorism, identity theft, internet chat room, piracy and hacking are identified as types of cyber crimes. Usually, these crimes are perpetrated in forms of like sending of fraudulent and bogus financial proposals from cyber crimes to innocent internet users. The increasing rates of cyber crimes have become strong threats to the society, organizations and country’s reputation, E-commerce growth, denial of innocent Nigerian opportunity abroad and reduced productivity. This study identified some of the causes of cybercrimes to include urbanization, high rate of unemployment, corruption, easy accessibility to internet and weak implementation of cyber crimes in Nigeria. Therefore, internet users should inculcate the habit of continuously updating their knowledge about the ever changing ICTs through this, they can be well informed about the current trends in cybercrimes and how the cybercrimes carryout their dubious activities. Thus, how they can devise means of protecting their information from cyber criminals. Internet users should be security conscious at all times .Recommendations were proposed on how these crimes can be minimized if not completely eradicated.

Keywords: cyber-crimes, cyber-terrorism, cyber-criminals, Nigeria

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6 Machines Hacking Humans: Performances Practices in Electronic Music during the 21st Century

Authors: Zimasa Siyasanga Gysman

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This paper assesses the history of electronic music and its performance to illustrate that machines and technology have largely influenced how humans perform electronic music. The history of electronic music mainly focuses on the composition and production of electronic music with little to no attention paid to its performance by the majority of scholars in this field. Therefore, establishing a history of performance involves investigating what compositions of electronic music called for in the production of electronic music performance. This investigation into seminal works in the history of electronic music, therefore, illustrates the aesthetics of electronic music performance and the aesthetics established in the very beginnings of electronic music performance demonstrate the aesthetics of electronic music which are still prevalent today. The key aesthetics are the repurposing of technology and the hybridisation of technology. Performers take familiar technology (technology that society has become accustomed to using in daily life), not necessarily related to music or performance and use it as an instrument in their performances, such as a rotary dial telephone. Likewise, since the beginnings of electronic music, producers have always experimented with the latest technologies available to them in their compositions and performances. The spirit of performers of electronic music, therefore, revolves around repurposing familiar technologies and using them in new ways, whilst similarly experimenting with new technologies in their performances. This process of hybridisation plays a key role in the production and performance of electronic music in the twentieth century. Through various interviews with performers of electronic music, it is shown that these aesthetics are driving performance practices in the twenty-first century.

Keywords: body, hybridisation, performance, sound

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5 The Impact of Cybercrime on Youth Development in Nigeria

Authors: Christiana Ebobo

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Cybercrime consists of numerous crimes that are perpetrated on the internet on daily basis. The forms include but not limited to Identity theft, Pretentious dating, Desktop counterfeiting, Internet chat room, Cyber harassment, Fraudulent electronic mails, Automated Teller Machine Spoofing, Pornography, Piracy, Hacking, Credit card frauds, Phishing and Spamming. The general term used among the youths for this type of crime in Nigeria is ‘Yahoo Yahoo’. Cybercrime is on the increase among the youths at all levels as such this study aims at examining the impact of cybercrime on youth development in Nigeria. The study examines the impact of cybercrime on youths’ academic performance, integrity, employment and religious practices. The study is a survey which made use of questionnaire and focus group discussion among 150 randomly selected youths in Gwagwalada LCDA, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. The study adopts the systems theory as its theoretical framework. The study also adopts the simple frequency table and percentage for its data analysis. The study reveals that cybercrime has eaten deep into the minds of some youths and some of them are practicing diabolic means to succeed in it. It is also reveals that majority (68%) of the respondents believe that cybercrime impacts negatively on youths’ academic performance in Nigeria. The major recommendation of this study is that cybercrime offenders should be treated like armed robbers in order to discourage other youths from getting involved in it.

Keywords: armed robber, cybercrime, integrity, youth

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4 Hacking the Spatial Limitations in Bridging Virtual and Traditional Teaching Methodologies in Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

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Having moved into the 21st century, it is way past being arguable that innovative technology needs to be incorporated into conventional classroom teaching. Though the Western world has found presumable success in achieving this, it is still a concept under battle in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. Reaching the acme of implementing interactive virtual learning within classrooms is a struggling idealistic fascination within the island. In order to overcome this problem, this study is set to reveal facts that limit the implementation of virtual, interactive learning within the school classrooms and provide hacks that could prove the augmented use of the Virtual World to enhance teaching and learning experiences. As each classroom moves along with the usage of technology to fulfill its functionalities, a few intense hacks provided will build the administrative onuses on a virtual system. These hacks may divulge barriers based on social conventions, financial boundaries, digital literacy, intellectual capacity of the staff, and highlight the impediments in introducing students to an interactive virtual learning environment and thereby provide the necessary actions or changes to be made to succeed and march along in creating an intellectual society built on virtual learning and lifestyle. This digital learning environment will be composed of multimedia presentations, trivia and pop quizzes conducted on a GUI, assessments conducted via a virtual system, records maintained on a database, etc. The ultimate objective of this study could enhance every child's basic learning environment; hence, diminishing the digital divide that exists in certain communities.

Keywords: digital divide, digital learning, digitization, Sri Lanka, teaching methodologies

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3 Security Report Profiling for Mobile Banking Applications in Indonesia Based on OWASP Mobile Top 10-2016

Authors: Bambang Novianto, Rizal Aditya Herdianto, Raphael Bianco Huwae, Afifah, Alfonso Brolin Sihite, Rudi Lumanto

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The mobile banking application is a type of mobile application that is growing rapidly. This is caused by the ease of service and time savings in making transactions. On the other hand, this certainly provides a challenge in security issues. The use of mobile banking can not be separated from cyberattacks that may occur which can result the theft of sensitive information or financial loss. The financial loss and the theft of sensitive information is the most avoided thing because besides harming the user, it can also cause a loss of customer trust in a bank. Cyberattacks that are often carried out against mobile applications are phishing, hacking, theft, misuse of data, etc. Cyberattack can occur when a vulnerability is successfully exploited. OWASP mobile Top 10 has recorded as many as 10 vulnerabilities that are most commonly found in mobile applications. In the others, android permissions also have the potential to cause vulnerabilities. Therefore, an overview of the profile of the mobile banking application becomes an urgency that needs to be known. So that it is expected to be a consideration of the parties involved for improving security. In this study, an experiment has been conducted to capture the profile of the mobile banking applications in Indonesia based on android permission and OWASP mobile top 10 2016. The results show that there are six basic vulnerabilities based on OWASP Mobile Top 10 that are most commonly found in mobile banking applications in Indonesia, i.e. M1:Improper Platform Usage, M2:Insecure Data Storage, M3:Insecure Communication, M5:Insufficient Cryptography, M7:Client Code Quality, and M9:Reverse Engineering. The most permitted android permissions are the internet, status network access, and telephone read status.

Keywords: mobile banking application, OWASP mobile top 10 2016, android permission, sensitive information, financial loss

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2 The Ecosystem of Food Allergy Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review

Authors: Eimar Yadir Quintero Tapias

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Background: Science is not generally self-correcting; many clinical studies end with the same conclusion "more research is needed." This study hypothesizes that first, we need a better appraisal of the available (and unavailable) evidence instead of creating more of the same false inquiries. Methods: Systematic review of ClinicalTrials.gov study records using the following Boolean operators: (food OR nut OR milk OR egg OR shellfish OR wheat OR peanuts) AND (allergy OR allergies OR hypersensitivity OR hypersensitivities). Variables included the status of the study (e g., active and completed), availability of results, sponsor type, sample size, among others. To determine the rates of non-publication in journals indexed by PubMed, an advanced search query using the specific Number of Clinical Trials (e.g., NCT000001 OR NCT000002 OR...) was performed. As a prophylactic measure to prevent P-hacking, data analyses only included descriptive statistics and not inferential approaches. Results: A total of 2092 study records matched the search query described above (date: September 13, 2019). Most studies were interventional (n = 1770; 84.6%) and the remainder observational (n = 322; 15.4%). Universities, hospitals, and research centers sponsored over half of these investigations (n = 1208; 57.7%), 308 studies (14.7%) were industry-funded, and 147 received NIH grants; the remaining studies got mixed sponsorship. Regarding completed studies (n = 1156; 55.2%), 248 (21.5%) have results available at the registry site, and 417 (36.1%) matched NCT numbers of journal papers indexed by PubMed. Conclusions: The internal and external validity of human research is critical for the appraisal of medical evidence. It is imperative to analyze the entire dataset of clinical studies, preferably at a patient-level anonymized raw data, before rushing to conclusions with insufficient and inadequate information. Publication bias and non-registration of clinical trials limit the evaluation of the evidence concerning therapeutic interventions for food allergy, such as oral and sublingual immunotherapy, as well as any other medical condition. Over half of the food allergy human research remains unpublished.

Keywords: allergy, clinical trials, immunology, systematic reviews

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1 Reliable and Error-Free Transmission through Multimode Polymer Optical Fibers in House Networks

Authors: Tariq Ahamad, Mohammed S. Al-Kahtani, Taisir Eldos

Abstract:

Optical communications technology has made enormous and steady progress for several decades, providing the key resource in our increasingly information-driven society and economy. Much of this progress has been in finding innovative ways to increase the data carrying capacity of a single optical fiber. In this research article we have explored basic issues in terms of security and reliability for secure and reliable information transfer through the fiber infrastructure. Conspicuously, one potentially enormous source of improvement has however been left untapped in these systems: fibers can easily support hundreds of spatial modes, but today’s commercial systems (single-mode or multi-mode) make no attempt to use these as parallel channels for independent signals. Bandwidth, performance, reliability, cost efficiency, resiliency, redundancy, and security are some of the demands placed on telecommunications today. Since its initial development, fiber optic systems have had the advantage of most of these requirements over copper-based and wireless telecommunications solutions. The largest obstacle preventing most businesses from implementing fiber optic systems was cost. With the recent advancements in fiber optic technology and the ever-growing demand for more bandwidth, the cost of installing and maintaining fiber optic systems has been reduced dramatically. With so many advantages, including cost efficiency, there will continue to be an increase of fiber optic systems replacing copper-based communications. This will also lead to an increase in the expertise and the technology needed to tap into fiber optic networks by intruders. As ever before, all technologies have been subject to hacking and criminal manipulation, fiber optics is no exception. Researching fiber optic security vulnerabilities suggests that not everyone who is responsible for their networks security is aware of the different methods that intruders use to hack virtually undetected into fiber optic cables. With millions of miles of fiber optic cables stretching across the globe and carrying information including but certainly not limited to government, military, and personal information, such as, medical records, banking information, driving records, and credit card information; being aware of fiber optic security vulnerabilities is essential and critical. Many articles and research still suggest that fiber optics is expensive, impractical and hard to tap. Others argue that it is not only easily done, but also inexpensive. This paper will briefly discuss the history of fiber optics, explain the basics of fiber optic technologies and then discuss the vulnerabilities in fiber optic systems and how they can be better protected. Knowing the security risks and knowing the options available may save a company a lot embarrassment, time, and most importantly money.

Keywords: in-house networks, fiber optics, security risk, money

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