Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7208

Search results for: distributed ledger technology

7208 A Modeling Approach for Blockchain-Oriented Information Systems Design

Authors: Jiaqi Yan, Yani Shi

Abstract:

The blockchain technology is regarded as the most promising technology that has the potential to trigger a technological revolution. However, besides the bitcoin industry, we have not yet seen a large-scale application of blockchain in those domains that are supposed to be impacted, such as supply chain, financial network, and intelligent manufacturing. The reasons not only lie in the difficulties of blockchain implementation, but are also root in the challenges of blockchain-oriented information systems design. As the blockchain members are self-interest actors that belong to organizations with different existing information systems. As they expect different information inputs and outputs of the blockchain application, a common language protocol is needed to facilitate communications between blockchain members. Second, considering the decentralization of blockchain organization, there is not any central authority to organize and coordinate the business processes. Thus, the information systems built on blockchain should support more adaptive business process. This paper aims to address these difficulties by providing a modeling approach for blockchain-oriented information systems design. We will investigate the information structure of distributed-ledger data with conceptual modeling techniques and ontology theories, and build an effective ontology mapping method for the inter-organization information flow and blockchain information records. Further, we will study the distributed-ledger-ontology based business process modeling to support adaptive enterprise on blockchain.

Keywords: blockchain, ontology, information systems modeling, business process

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7207 Model of Application of Blockchain Technology in Public Finances

Authors: M. Vlahovic

Abstract:

This paper presents a model of public finances, which combines three concepts: participatory budgeting, crowdfunding and blockchain technology. Participatory budgeting is defined as a process in which community members decide how to spend a part of community’s budget. Crowdfunding is a practice of funding a project by collecting small monetary contributions from a large number of people via an Internet platform. Blockchain technology is a distributed ledger that enables efficient and reliable transactions that are secure and transparent. In this hypothetical model, the government or authorities on local/regional level would set up a platform where they would propose public projects to citizens. Citizens would browse through projects and support or vote for those which they consider justified and necessary. In return, they would be entitled to a tax relief in the amount of their monetary contribution. Since the blockchain technology enables tracking of transactions, it can be used to mitigate corruption, money laundering and lack of transparency in public finances. Models of its application have already been created for e-voting, health records or land registries. By presenting a model of application of blockchain technology in public finances, this paper takes into consideration the potential of blockchain technology to disrupt governments and make processes more democratic, secure, transparent and efficient. The framework for this paper consists of multiple streams of research, including key concepts of direct democracy, public finance (especially the voluntary theory of public finance), information and communication technology, especially blockchain technology and crowdfunding. The framework defines rules of the game, basic conditions for the implementation of the model, benefits, potential problems and development perspectives. As an oversimplified map of a new form of public finances, the proposed model identifies primary factors, that influence the possibility of implementation of the model, and that could be tracked, measured and controlled in case of experimentation with the model.

Keywords: blockchain technology, distributed ledger, participatory budgeting, crowdfunding, direct democracy, internet platform, e-government, public finance

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7206 Reimagine and Redesign: Augmented Reality Digital Technologies and 21st Century Education

Authors: Jasmin Cowin

Abstract:

Augmented reality digital technologies, big data, and the need for a teacher workforce able to meet the demands of a knowledge-based society are poised to lead to major changes in the field of education. This paper explores applications and educational use cases of augmented reality digital technologies for educational organizations during the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The Fourth Industrial Revolution requires vision, flexibility, and innovative educational conduits by governments and educational institutions to remain competitive in a global economy. Educational organizations will need to focus on teaching in and for a digital age to continue offering academic knowledge relevant to 21st-century markets and changing labor force needs. Implementation of contemporary disciplines will need to be embodied through learners’ active knowledge-making experiences while embracing ubiquitous accessibility. The power of distributed ledger technology promises major streamlining for educational record-keeping, degree conferrals, and authenticity guarantees. Augmented reality digital technologies hold the potential to restructure educational philosophies and their underpinning pedagogies thereby transforming modes of delivery. Structural changes in education and governmental planning are already increasing through intelligent systems and big data. Reimagining and redesigning education on a broad scale is required to plan and implement governmental and institutional changes to harness innovative technologies while moving away from the big schooling machine.

Keywords: fourth industrial revolution, artificial intelligence, big data, education, augmented reality digital technologies, distributed ledger technology

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7205 Safe and Scalable Framework for Participation of Nodes in Smart Grid Networks in a P2P Exchange of Short-Term Products

Authors: Maciej Jedrzejczyk, Karolina Marzantowicz

Abstract:

Traditional utility value chain is being transformed during last few years into unbundled markets. Increased distributed generation of energy is one of considerable challenges faced by Smart Grid networks. New sources of energy introduce volatile demand response which has a considerable impact on traditional middlemen in E&U market. The purpose of this research is to search for ways to allow near-real-time electricity markets to transact with surplus energy based on accurate time synchronous measurements. A proposed framework evaluates the use of secure peer-2-peer (P2P) communication and distributed transaction ledgers to provide flat hierarchy, and allow real-time insights into present and forecasted grid operations, as well as state and health of the network. An objective is to achieve dynamic grid operations with more efficient resource usage, higher security of supply and longer grid infrastructure life cycle. Methods used for this study are based on comparative analysis of different distributed ledger technologies in terms of scalability, transaction performance, pluggability with external data sources, data transparency, privacy, end-to-end security and adaptability to various market topologies. An intended output of this research is a design of a framework for safer, more efficient and scalable Smart Grid network which is bridging a gap between traditional components of the energy network and individual energy producers. Results of this study are ready for detailed measurement testing, a likely follow-up in separate studies. New platforms for Smart Grid achieving measurable efficiencies will allow for development of new types of Grid KPI, multi-smart grid branches, markets, and businesses.

Keywords: autonomous agents, Distributed computing, distributed ledger technologies, large scale systems, micro grids, peer-to-peer networks, Self-organization, self-stabilization, smart grids

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7204 Ethereum Based Smart Contracts for Trade and Finance

Authors: Rishabh Garg

Abstract:

Traditionally, business parties build trust with a centralized operating mechanism, such as payment by letter of credit. However, the increase in cyber-attacks and malicious hacking has jeopardized business operations and finance practices. Emerging markets, owing to their higher banking risks and bigger presence of digital financing, are looking forward to technology-driven solutions, financial inclusion and innovative working paradigms. Blockchain has the potential to enhance transaction transparency and supply chain traceability. It has captured a vast landscape with 200 million crypto users worldwide. Fintech and blockchain products are popping up across brokerage, digital wallets, exchanges, post-trade clearance, settlement, middleware, infrastructure, and base protocols.

Keywords: blockchain, distributed ledger technology, decentralized applications, ethereum, smart contracts, trade finance

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7203 A Lightweight Blockchain: Enhancing Internet of Things Driven Smart Buildings Scalability and Access Control Using Intelligent Direct Acyclic Graph Architecture and Smart Contracts

Authors: Syed Irfan Raza Naqvi, Zheng Jiangbin, Ahmad Moshin, Pervez Akhter

Abstract:

Currently, the IoT system depends on a centralized client-servant architecture that causes various scalability and privacy vulnerabilities. Distributed ledger technology (DLT) introduces a set of opportunities for the IoT, which leads to practical ideas for existing components at all levels of existing architectures. Blockchain Technology (BCT) appears to be one approach to solving several IoT problems, like Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum, which offer multiple possibilities. Besides, IoTs are resource-constrained devices with insufficient capacity and computational overhead to process blockchain consensus mechanisms; the traditional BCT existing challenge for IoTs is poor scalability, energy efficiency, and transaction fees. IOTA is a distributed ledger based on Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) that ensures M2M micro-transactions are free of charge. IOTA has the potential to address existing IoT-related difficulties such as infrastructure scalability, privacy and access control mechanisms. We proposed an architecture, SLDBI: A Scalable, lightweight DAG-based Blockchain Design for Intelligent IoT Systems, which adapts the DAG base Tangle and implements a lightweight message data model to address the IoT limitations. It enables the smooth integration of new IoT devices into a variety of apps. SLDBI enables comprehensive access control, energy efficiency, and scalability in IoT ecosystems by utilizing the Masked Authentication Message (MAM) protocol and the IOTA Smart Contract Protocol (ISCP). Furthermore, we suggest proof-of-work (PoW) computation on the full node in an energy-efficient way. Experiments have been carried out to show the capability of a tangle to achieve better scalability while maintaining energy efficiency. The findings show user access control management at granularity levels and ensure scale up to massive networks with thousands of IoT nodes, such as Smart Connected Buildings (SCBDs).

Keywords: blockchain, IOT, direct acyclic graphy, scalability, access control, architecture, smart contract, smart connected buildings

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7202 An Experimental Testbed Using Virtual Containers for Distributed Systems

Authors: Parth Patel, Ying Zhu

Abstract:

Distributed systems have become ubiquitous, and they continue their growth through a range of services. With advances in resource virtualization technology such as Virtual Machines (VM) and software containers, developers no longer require high-end servers to test and develop distributed software. Even in commercial production, virtualization has streamlined the process of rapid deployment and service management. This paper introduces a distributed systems testbed that utilizes virtualization to enable distributed systems development on commodity computers. The testbed can be used to develop new services, implement theoretical distributed systems concepts for understanding, and experiment with virtual network topologies. We show its versatility through two case studies that utilize the testbed for implementing a theoretical algorithm and developing our own methodology to find high-risk edges. The results of using the testbed for these use cases have proven the effectiveness and versatility of this testbed across a range of scenarios.

Keywords: distributed systems, experimental testbed, peer-to-peer networks, virtual container technology

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7201 The Primitive Code-Level Design Patterns for Distributed Programming

Authors: Bing Li

Abstract:

The primitive code-level design patterns (PDP) are the rudimentary programming elements to develop any distributed systems in the generic distributed programming environment, GreatFree. The PDP works with the primitive distributed application programming interfaces (PDA), the distributed modeling, and the distributed concurrency for scaling-up. They not only hide developers from underlying technical details but also support sufficient adaptability to a variety of distributed computing environments. Programming with them, the simplest distributed system, the lightweight messaging two-node client/server (TNCS) system, is constructed rapidly with straightforward and repeatable behaviors, copy-paste-replace (CPR). As any distributed systems are made up of the simplest ones, those PDAs, as well as the PDP, are generic for distributed programming.

Keywords: primitive APIs, primitive code-level design patterns, generic distributed programming, distributed systems, highly patterned development environment, messaging

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7200 A Survey on Concurrency Control Methods in Distributed Database

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Jameii

Abstract:

In the last years, remarkable improvements have been made in the ability of distributed database systems performance. A distributed database is composed of some sites which are connected to each other through network connections. In this system, if good harmonization is not made between different transactions, it may result in database incoherence. Nowadays, because of the complexity of many sites and their connection methods, it is difficult to extend different models in distributed database serially. The principle goal of concurrency control in distributed database is to ensure not interfering in accessibility of common database by different sites. Different concurrency control algorithms have been suggested to use in distributed database systems. In this paper, some available methods have been introduced and compared for concurrency control in distributed database.

Keywords: distributed database, two phase locking protocol, transaction, concurrency

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7199 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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7198 Internet of Assets: A Blockchain-Inspired Academic Program

Authors: Benjamin Arazi

Abstract:

Blockchain is the technology behind cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. It revolutionizes the meaning of trust in the sense of offering total reliability without relying on any central entity that controls or supervises the system. The Wall Street Journal states: “Blockchain Marks the Next Step in the Internet’s Evolution”. Blockchain was listed as #1 in Linkedin – The Learning Blog “most in-demand hard skills needed in 2020”. As stated there: “Blockchain’s novel way to store, validate, authorize, and move data across the internet has evolved to securely store and send any digital asset”. GSMA, a leading Telco organization of mobile communications operators, declared that “Blockchain has the potential to be for value what the Internet has been for information”. Motivated by these seminal observations, this paper presents the foundations of a Blockchain-based “Internet of Assets” academic program that joins under one roof leading application areas that are characterized by the transfer of assets over communication lines. Two such areas, which are pillars of our economy, are Fintech – Financial Technology and mobile communications services. The next application in line is Healthcare. These challenges are met based on available extensive professional literature. Blockchain-based assets communication is based on extending the principle of Bitcoin, starting with the basic question: If digital money that travels across the universe can ‘prove its own validity’, can this principle be applied to digital content. A groundbreaking positive answer here led to the concept of “smart contract” and consequently to DLT - Distributed Ledger Technology, where the word ‘distributed’ relates to the non-existence of reliable central entities or trusted third parties. The terms Blockchain and DLT are frequently used interchangeably in various application areas. The World Bank Group compiled comprehensive reports, analyzing the contribution of DLT/Blockchain to Fintech. The European Central Bank and Bank of Japan are engaged in Project Stella, “Balancing confidentiality and auditability in a distributed ledger environment”. 130 DLT/Blockchain focused Fintech startups are now operating in Switzerland. Blockchain impact on mobile communications services is treated in detail by leading organizations. The TM Forum is a global industry association in the telecom industry, with over 850 member companies, mainly mobile operators, that generate US$2 trillion in revenue and serve five billion customers across 180 countries. From their perspective: “Blockchain is considered one of the digital economy’s most disruptive technologies”. Samples of Blockchain contributions to Fintech (taken from a World Bank document): Decentralization and disintermediation; Greater transparency and easier auditability; Automation & programmability; Immutability & verifiability; Gains in speed and efficiency; Cost reductions; Enhanced cyber security resilience. Samples of Blockchain contributions to the Telco industry. Establishing identity verification; Record of transactions for easy cost settlement; Automatic triggering of roaming contract which enables near-instantaneous charging and reduction in roaming fraud; Decentralized roaming agreements; Settling accounts per costs incurred in accordance with agreement tariffs. This clearly demonstrates an academic education structure where fundamental technologies are studied in classes together with these two application areas. Advanced courses, treating specific implementations then follow separately. All are under the roof of “Internet of Assets”.

Keywords: blockchain, education, financial technology, mobile telecommunications services

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7197 Implementation of Distributed Randomized Algorithms for Resilient Peer-to-Peer Networks

Authors: Richard Tanaka, Ying Zhu

Abstract:

This paper studies a few randomized algorithms in application-layer peer-to-peer networks. The significant gain in scalability and resilience that peer-to-peer networks provide has made them widely used and adopted in many real-world distributed systems and applications. The unique properties of peer-to-peer networks make them particularly suitable for randomized algorithms such as random walks and gossip algorithms. Instead of simulations of peer-to-peer networks, we leverage the Docker virtual container technology to develop implementations of the peer-to-peer networks and these distributed randomized algorithms running on top of them. We can thus analyze their behaviour and performance in realistic settings. We further consider the problem of identifying high-risk bottleneck links in the network with the objective of improving the resilience and reliability of peer-to-peer networks. We propose a randomized algorithm to solve this problem and evaluate its performance by simulations.

Keywords: distributed randomized algorithms, peer-to-peer networks, virtual container technology, resilient networks

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7196 Advanced Simulation and Enhancement for Distributed and Energy Efficient Scheduling for IEEE802.11s Wireless Enhanced Distributed Channel Access Networks

Authors: Fisayo G. Ojo, Shamala K. Subramaniam, Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain

Abstract:

As technology is advancing and wireless applications are becoming dependable sources, while the physical layer of the applications are been embedded into tiny layer, so the more the problem on energy efficiency and consumption. This paper reviews works done in recent years in wireless applications and distributed computing, we discovered that applications are becoming dependable, and resource allocation sharing with other applications in distributed computing. Applications embedded in distributed system are suffering from power stability and efficiency. In the reviews, we also prove that discrete event simulation has been left behind untouched and not been adapted into distributed system as a simulation technique in scheduling of each event that took place in the development of distributed computing applications. We shed more lights on some researcher proposed techniques and results in our reviews to prove the unsatisfactory results, and to show that more work still have to be done on issues of energy efficiency in wireless applications, and congestion in distributed computing.

Keywords: discrete event simulation (DES), distributed computing, energy efficiency (EE), internet of things (IOT), quality of service (QOS), user equipment (UE), wireless mesh network (WMN), wireless sensor network (wsn), worldwide interoperability for microwave access x (WiMAX)

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7195 A Preliminary Conceptual Scale to Discretize the Distributed Manufacturing Continuum

Authors: Ijaz Ul Haq, Fiorenzo Franceschini

Abstract:

The distributed manufacturing methodology brings a new concept of decentralized manufacturing operations close to the proximity of end users. A preliminary scale, to measure distributed capacity and evaluate positioning of firms, is developed in this research. In the first part of the paper, a literature review has been performed which highlights the explorative nature of the studies conducted to present definitions and classifications due to novelty of this topic. From literature, five dimensions of distributed manufacturing development stages have been identified: localization, manufacturing technologies, customization and personalization, digitalization and democratization of design. Based on these determinants a conceptual scale is proposed to measure the status of distributed manufacturing of a generic firm. A multiple case study is then conducted in two steps to test the conceptual scale and to identify the corresponding level of distributed potential in each case study firm.

Keywords: distributed manufacturing, distributed capacity, localized production, ordinal scale

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7194 Blockchain Technology Applications in Patient Tracking Systems Regarding Privacy-Preserving Concerns and COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Farbod Behnaminia, Saeed Samet

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has paralyzed many lives until a vaccine has been available, which caused the so-called “new normal”. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), COVID-19 is an infectious disease. It can cause significant illness or death in anyone. Governments and health officials tried to impose rules and regulations to avoid and slow down transmission. Therefore, software engineers worldwide developed applications to trace and track patients’ movements and notify others, mainly using Bluetooth. In this way, everyone could be informed whether they came in close contact with someone who has COVID-19 and takes proper safety precautions. Because most of the applications use technologies that can potentially reveal the user’s identity and location, researchers have debated privacy preservation and how to improve user privacy during such pandemics. Thanks to the distributed ledger technology (DLT), there have been some proposed methods to develop privacy-preserving patient tracking systems in the last two years. As an instance of the DLT, blockchain is like a decentralized peer-to-peer database that maintains a record of transactions. Transactions are immutable, transparent, and anonymous in this system. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the literature by looking for papers in the relevant field and dividing them into pre- and post-pandemic systems. Additionally, we discussed the many uses of blockchain technology in pandemic control. We found that two major obstacles facing blockchain implementation across many healthcare systems are scalability and privacy. The Polkadot platform is presented, along with a review of its efficacy in tackling current concerns. A more scalable healthcare system is achievable in the near future using Polkadot as well as a much more privacy-preserving environment.

Keywords: blockchain, electronic record management, EHR, privacy-preserving, patient tracking, COVID-19, trust and confidence, Polkadot

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7193 CRYPTO COPYCAT: A Fashion Centric Blockchain Framework for Eliminating Fashion Infringement

Authors: Magdi Elmessiry, Adel Elmessiry

Abstract:

The fashion industry represents a significant portion of the global gross domestic product, however, it is plagued by cheap imitators that infringe on the trademarks which destroys the fashion industry's hard work and investment. While eventually the copycats would be found and stopped, the damage has already been done, sales are missed and direct and indirect jobs are lost. The infringer thrives on two main facts: the time it takes to discover them and the lack of tracking technologies that can help the consumer distinguish them. Blockchain technology is a new emerging technology that provides a distributed encrypted immutable and fault resistant ledger. Blockchain presents a ripe technology to resolve the infringement epidemic facing the fashion industry. The significance of the study is that a new approach leveraging the state of the art blockchain technology coupled with artificial intelligence is used to create a framework addressing the fashion infringement problem. It transforms the current focus on legal enforcement, which is difficult at best, to consumer awareness that is far more effective. The framework, Crypto CopyCat, creates an immutable digital asset representing the actual product to empower the customer with a near real time query system. This combination emphasizes the consumer's awareness and appreciation of the product's authenticity, while provides real time feedback to the producer regarding the fake replicas. The main findings of this study are that implementing this approach can delay the fake product penetration of the original product market, thus allowing the original product the time to take advantage of the market. The shift in the fake adoption results in reduced returns, which impedes the copycat market and moves the emphasis to the original product innovation.

Keywords: fashion, infringement, blockchain, artificial intelligence, textiles supply chain

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7192 Optimizing Communications Overhead in Heterogeneous Distributed Data Streams

Authors: Rashi Bhalla, Russel Pears, M. Asif Naeem

Abstract:

In this 'Information Explosion Era' analyzing data 'a critical commodity' and mining knowledge from vertically distributed data stream incurs huge communication cost. However, an effort to decrease the communication in the distributed environment has an adverse influence on the classification accuracy; therefore, a research challenge lies in maintaining a balance between transmission cost and accuracy. This paper proposes a method based on Bayesian inference to reduce the communication volume in a heterogeneous distributed environment while retaining prediction accuracy. Our experimental evaluation reveals that a significant reduction in communication can be achieved across a diverse range of dataset types.

Keywords: big data, bayesian inference, distributed data stream mining, heterogeneous-distributed data

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7191 Method of Successive Approximations for Modeling of Distributed Systems

Authors: A. Torokhti

Abstract:

A new method of mathematical modeling of the distributed nonlinear system is developed. The system is represented by a combination of the set of spatially distributed sensors and the fusion center. Its mathematical model is obtained from the iterative procedure that converges to the model which is optimal in the sense of minimizing an associated cost function.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, non-linear system, spatially distributed sensors, fusion center

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7190 Optimal Sizing and Placement of Distributed Generators for Profit Maximization Using Firefly Algorithm

Authors: Engy Adel Mohamed, Yasser Gamal-Eldin Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper presents a firefly based algorithm for optimal sizing and allocation of distributed generators for profit maximization. Distributed generators in the proposed algorithm are of photovoltaic and combined heat and power technologies. Combined heat and power distributed generators are modeled as voltage controlled nodes while photovoltaic distributed generators are modeled as constant power nodes. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and tested the unbalanced IEEE 37-node feeder. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in optimal selection of distributed generators size and site in order to maximize the total system profit.

Keywords: distributed generators, firefly algorithm, IEEE 37-node feeder, profit maximization

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7189 Sensitivity Analysis for 14 Bus Systems in a Distribution Network with Distributed Generators

Authors: Lakshya Bhat, Anubhav Shrivastava, Shiva Rudraswamy

Abstract:

There has been a formidable interest in the area of Distributed Generation in recent times. A wide number of loads are addressed by Distributed Generators and have better efficiency too. The major disadvantage in Distributed Generation is voltage control- is highlighted in this paper. The paper addresses voltage control at buses in IEEE 14 Bus system by regulating reactive power. An analysis is carried out by selecting the most optimum location in placing the Distributed Generators through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile rises. MATLAB programming is used for simulation of voltage profile in the respective buses after introduction of DG’s. A tolerance limit of +/-5% of the base value has to be maintained. To maintain the tolerance limit, 3 methods are used. Sensitivity analysis of 3 methods for voltage control is carried out to determine the priority among the methods.

Keywords: distributed generators, distributed system, reactive power, voltage control, sensitivity analysis

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7188 Firm's Growth Leading Dimensions of Blockchain Empowered Information Management System: An Empirical Study

Authors: Umang Varshney, Amit Karamchandani, Rohit Kapoor

Abstract:

Practitioners and researchers have realized that Blockchain is not limited to currency. Blockchain as a distributed ledger can ensure a transparent and traceable supply chain. Due to Blockchain-enabled IoTs, a firm’s information management system can now take inputs from other supply chain partners in real-time. This study aims to provide empirical evidence of dimensions responsible for blockchain implemented firm’s growth and highlight how sector (manufacturing or service), state's regulatory environment, and choice of blockchain network affect the blockchain's usefulness. This post-adoption study seeks to validate the findings of pre-adoption studies done on the blockchain. Data will be collected through a survey of managers working in blockchain implemented firms and analyzed through PLS-SEM.

Keywords: blockchain, information management system, PLS-SEM, firm's growth

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7187 Distributed Leadership: An Alternative at Higher Education Institutions in Turkey

Authors: Sakine Sincer

Abstract:

In today’s world, which takes further steps towards globalization each and every day, societies and cultures are re-shaped while the demands of the changing world are described once more. In this atmosphere, where the speed of change sometimes reaches a terrifying point, it is possible to state that effective leaders are needed more than ever in order to meet the above-stated needs and demands. The question of what effective leadership is keeping its importance on the agenda. Most of the answers to this question has mostly focused on the approach of distributed leadership recently. This study aims at analyzing the applicability of distributed leadership, which is accepted to be an example of effective leadership that can meet the needs of global world, which is changing more and more rapidly nowadays, at higher education institutions in Turkey. Within the framework of this study, first of all, the historical development of distributed leadership is addressed, and then a theoretical framework is drawn for this approach by means of underlying what distributed leadership is and is not. After that, different points of view about the approach are laid out within the borders of opinions expressed by Gronn and Spillane, who are accepted to be the most famous advocators of distributed leadership. Then, exemplar practices of distributed leadership are included in the study before drawing attention to the strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Lastly, the applicability of distributed leadership at higher education institutions in Turkey is analyzed. This study is carried out with the method of literature review by resorting to first- and second-hand sources on distributed leadership.

Keywords: globalization, school leadership, distributed leadership, higher education, management

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7186 Distributed Minimum Spanning Forest

Authors: Ahmad Shahzad, Frans Coenen

Abstract:

Minimum spanning forest (MSF) is widely studied in graph related problems due to its importance in various applications from collaborative filtering as used in recommender engines to coarsening of graphs for Multilevel graph partitioning. However, with advent to data becoming larger enough to be handled in a single machine it has increasingly becoming important to distribute the data over a cluster of machine. That requires re-engineering and implementation of classical algorithms to be used in distributed environment and gain efficiency in terms of lower run time costs. In this paper a distributed approach of MSF is been presented which is based on classical algorithm of Kruskal to calculate Minimum Spanning Trees (MST). The presented approach is cross compared with current state of the art distributed algorithms and it has shown to outperform existing algorithms.

Keywords: distributed algorithms, distributed Kruskal’s Algorithm, minimum spanning forest, minimum spanning tree

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7185 A Research Using Remote Monitoring Technology for Pump Output Monitoring in Distributed Fuel Stations in Nigeria

Authors: Ofoegbu Ositadinma Edward

Abstract:

This research paper discusses a web based monitoring system that enables effective monitoring of fuel pump output and sales volume from distributed fuel stations under the domain of a single company/organization. The traditional method of operation by these organizations in Nigeria is non-automated and accounting for dispensed product is usually approximated and manual as there is little or no technology implemented to presently provide information relating to the state of affairs in the station both to on-ground staff and to supervisory staff that are not physically present in the station. This results in unaccountable losses in product and revenue as well as slow decision making. Remote monitoring technology as a vast research field with numerous application areas incorporating various data collation techniques and sensor networks can be applied to provide information relating to fuel pump status in distributed fuel stations reliably. Thus, the proposed system relies upon a microcontroller, keypad and pump to demonstrate the traditional fuel dispenser. A web-enabled PC with an accompanying graphic user interface (GUI) was designed using virtual basic which is connected to the microcontroller via the serial port which is to provide the web implementation.

Keywords: fuel pump, microcontroller, GUI, web

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7184 A Novel Probablistic Strategy for Modeling Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generators

Authors: Engy A. Mohamed, Y. G. Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm for modeling photovoltaic based distributed generators for the purpose of optimal planning of distribution networks. The proposed algorithm utilizes sequential Monte Carlo method in order to accurately consider the stochastic nature of photovoltaic based distributed generators. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

Keywords: comulative distribution function, distributed generation, Monte Carlo

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7183 Genetic Algorithm Based Node Fault Detection and Recovery in Distributed Sensor Networks

Authors: N. Nalini, Lokesh B. Bhajantri

Abstract:

In Distributed Sensor Networks, the sensor nodes are prone to failure due to energy depletion and some other reasons. In this regard, fault tolerance of network is essential in distributed sensor environment. Energy efficiency, network or topology control and fault-tolerance are the most important issues in the development of next-generation Distributed Sensor Networks (DSNs). This paper proposes a node fault detection and recovery using Genetic Algorithm (GA) in DSN when some of the sensor nodes are faulty. The main objective of this work is to provide fault tolerance mechanism which is energy efficient and responsive to network using GA, which is used to detect the faulty nodes in the network based on the energy depletion of node and link failure between nodes. The proposed fault detection model is used to detect faults at node level and network level faults (link failure and packet error). Finally, the performance parameters for the proposed scheme are evaluated.

Keywords: distributed sensor networks, genetic algorithm, fault detection and recovery, information technology

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7182 Coordinated Voltage Control in Radial Distribution System with Distributed Generators Using Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: Anubhav Shrivastava Shivarudraswamy, Bhat Lakshya

Abstract:

Distributed generation has indeed become a major area of interest in recent years. Distributed generation can address a large number of loads in a power line and hence has better efficiency over the conventional methods. However, there are certain drawbacks associated with it, an increase in voltage being the major one. This paper addresses the voltage control at the buses for an IEEE 30 bus system by regulating reactive power. For carrying out the analysis, the suitable location for placing distributed generators (DG) is identified through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile is dipping. MATLAB programming is used to regulate the voltage at all buses within +/- 5% of the base value even after the introduction of DGs. Three methods for regulation of voltage are discussed. A sensitivity based analysis is then carried out to determine the priority among the various methods listed in the paper.

Keywords: distributed generators, distributed system, reactive power, voltage control, sensitivity analysis

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7181 A Query Optimization Strategy for Autonomous Distributed Database Systems

Authors: Dina K. Badawy, Dina M. Ibrahim, Alsayed A. Sallam

Abstract:

Distributed database is a collection of logically related databases that cooperate in a transparent manner. Query processing uses a communication network for transmitting data between sites. It refers to one of the challenges in the database world. The development of sophisticated query optimization technology is the reason for the commercial success of database systems, which complexity and cost increase with increasing number of relations in the query. Mariposa, query trading and query trading with processing task-trading strategies developed for autonomous distributed database systems, but they cause high optimization cost because of involvement of all nodes in generating an optimal plan. In this paper, we proposed a modification on the autonomous strategy K-QTPT that make the seller’s nodes with the lowest cost have gradually high priorities to reduce the optimization time. We implement our proposed strategy and present the results and analysis based on those results.

Keywords: autonomous strategies, distributed database systems, high priority, query optimization

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7180 Business-Intelligence Mining of Large Decentralized Multimedia Datasets with a Distributed Multi-Agent System

Authors: Karima Qayumi, Alex Norta

Abstract:

The rapid generation of high volume and a broad variety of data from the application of new technologies pose challenges for the generation of business-intelligence. Most organizations and business owners need to extract data from multiple sources and apply analytical methods for the purposes of developing their business. Therefore, the recently decentralized data management environment is relying on a distributed computing paradigm. While data are stored in highly distributed systems, the implementation of distributed data-mining techniques is a challenge. The aim of this technique is to gather knowledge from every domain and all the datasets stemming from distributed resources. As agent technologies offer significant contributions for managing the complexity of distributed systems, we consider this for next-generation data-mining processes. To demonstrate agent-based business intelligence operations, we use agent-oriented modeling techniques to develop a new artifact for mining massive datasets.

Keywords: agent-oriented modeling (AOM), business intelligence model (BIM), distributed data mining (DDM), multi-agent system (MAS)

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7179 Big Data Analysis with Rhipe

Authors: Byung Ho Jung, Ji Eun Shin, Dong Hoon Lim

Abstract:

Rhipe that integrates R and Hadoop environment made it possible to process and analyze massive amounts of data using a distributed processing environment. In this paper, we implemented multiple regression analysis using Rhipe with various data sizes of actual data. Experimental results for comparing the performance of our Rhipe with stats and biglm packages available on bigmemory, showed that our Rhipe was more fast than other packages owing to paralleling processing with increasing the number of map tasks as the size of data increases. We also compared the computing speeds of pseudo-distributed and fully-distributed modes for configuring Hadoop cluster. The results showed that fully-distributed mode was faster than pseudo-distributed mode, and computing speeds of fully-distributed mode were faster as the number of data nodes increases.

Keywords: big data, Hadoop, Parallel regression analysis, R, Rhipe

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