Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14437

Search results for: in vitro model

14437 A Gastro-Intestinal Model for a Rational Design of in vitro Systems to Study Drugs Bioavailability

Authors: Pompa Marcello, Mauro Capocelli, Vincenzo Piemonte

Abstract:

This work focuses on a mathematical model able to describe the gastro-intestinal physiology and providing a rational tool for the design of an artificial gastro-intestinal system. This latter is mainly devoted to analyse the absorption and bioavailability of drugs and nutrients through in vitro tests in order to overcome (or, at least, to partially replace) in vivo trials. The provided model realizes a conjunction ring (with extended prediction capability) between in vivo tests and mechanical-laboratory models emulating the human body. On this basis, no empirical equations controlling the gastric emptying are implemented in this model as frequent in the cited literature and all the sub-unit and the related system of equations are physiologically based. More in detail, the model structure consists of six compartments (stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and blood) interconnected through pipes and valves. Paracetamol, Ketoprofen, Irbesartan and Ketoconazole are considered and analysed in this work as reference drugs. The mathematical model has been validated against in vivo literature data. Results obtained show a very good model reliability and highlight the possibility to realize tailored simulations for different couples patient-drug, including food adsorption dynamics.

Keywords: gastro-intestinal model, drugs bioavailability, paracetamol, ketoprofen

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14436 The Effects of in vitro Digestion on Cheese Bioactivity; Comparing Adult and Elderly Simulated in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Models

Authors: A. M. Plante, F. O’Halloran, A. L. McCarthy

Abstract:

By 2050 it is projected that 2 billion of the global population will be more than 60 years old. Older adults have unique dietary requirements and aging is associated with physiological changes that affect appetite, sensory perception, metabolism, and digestion. Therefore, it is essential that foods recommended and designed for older adults promote healthy aging. To assess cheese as a functional food for the elderly, a range of commercial cheese products were selected and compared for their antioxidant properties. Cheese from various milk sources (bovine, goats, sheep) with different textures and fat content, including cheddar, feta, goats, brie, roquefort, halloumi, wensleydale and gouda, were initially digested with two different simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) models. One SGID model represented a validated in vitro adult digestion system and the second model, an elderly SGID, was designed to consider the physiological changes associated with aging. The antioxidant potential of all cheese digestates was investigated using in vitro chemical-based antioxidant assays, (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC)). All adult model digestates had high antioxidant activity across both DPPH ( > 70%) and FRAP ( > 700 µM Fe²⁺/kg.fw) assays. Following in vitro digestion using the elderly SGID model, full-fat red cheddar, low-fat white cheddar, roquefort, halloumi, wensleydale, and gouda digestates had significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) DPPH radical scavenging properties compared to the adult model digestates. Full-fat white cheddar had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity following elderly SGID digestion compared to the adult model digestate, but the difference was not significant. All other cheese digestates from the elderly model were comparable to the digestates from the adult model in terms of radical scavenging activity. The FRAP of all elderly digestates were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the adult digestates. Goats cheese was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in FRAP (718 µM Fe²/kg.fw) compared to all other digestates in the elderly model. TPC levels in the soft cheeses (feta, goats) and low-fat cheeses (red cheddar, white cheddar) were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the elderly digestates compared to the adult digestates. There was no significant difference in TPC levels, between the elderly and adult model for full-fat cheddar (red, white), roquefort, wensleydale, gouda, and brie digestates. Halloumi cheese was the only cheese that was significantly higher in TPC levels following elderly digestion compared to adult digestates. Low fat red cheddar had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) TPC levels compared to all other digestates for both adult and elderly digestive systems. Findings from this study demonstrate that aging has an impact on the bioactivity of cheese, as antioxidant activity and TPC levels were lower, following in vitro elderly digestion compared to the adult model. For older adults, soft cheese, particularly goats cheese, was associated with high radical scavenging and reducing power, while roquefort cheese had low antioxidant activity. Also, elderly digestates of halloumi and low-fat red cheddar were associated with high TPC levels. Cheese has potential as a functional food for the elderly, however, bioactivity can vary depending on the cheese matrix. Funding for this research was provided by the RISAM Scholarship Scheme, Cork Institute of Technology, Ireland.

Keywords: antioxidants, cheese, in-vitro digestion, older adults

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14435 In vitro Skin Model for Enhanced Testing of Antimicrobial Textiles

Authors: Steven Arcidiacono, Robert Stote, Erin Anderson, Molly Richards

Abstract:

There are numerous standard test methods for antimicrobial textiles that measure activity against specific microorganisms. However, many times these results do not translate to the performance of treated textiles when worn by individuals. Standard test methods apply a single target organism grown under optimal conditions to a textile, then recover the organism to quantitate and determine activity; this does not reflect the actual performance environment that consists of polymicrobial communities in less than optimal conditions or interaction of the textile with the skin substrate. Here we propose the development of in vitro skin model method to bridge the gap between lab testing and wear studies. The model will consist of a defined polymicrobial community of 5-7 commensal microbes simulating the skin microbiome, seeded onto a solid tissue platform to represent the skin. The protocol would entail adding a non-commensal test organism of interest to the defined community and applying a textile sample to the solid substrate. Following incubation, the textile would be removed and the organisms recovered, which would then be quantitated to determine antimicrobial activity. Important parameters to consider include identification and assembly of the defined polymicrobial community, growth conditions to allow the establishment of a stable community, and choice of skin surrogate. This model could answer the following questions: 1) is the treated textile effective against the target organism? 2) How is the defined community affected? And 3) does the textile cause unwanted effects toward the skin simulant? The proposed model would determine activity under conditions comparable to the intended application and provide expanded knowledge relative to current test methods.

Keywords: antimicrobial textiles, defined polymicrobial community, in vitro skin model, skin microbiome

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14434 Factors Affecting the Results of in vitro Gas Production Technique

Authors: O. Kahraman, M. S. Alatas, O. B. Citil

Abstract:

In determination of values of feeds which, are used in ruminant nutrition, different methods are used like in vivo, in vitro, in situ or in sacco. Generally, the most reliable results are taken from the in vivo studies. But because of the disadvantages like being hard, laborious and expensive, time consuming, being hard to keep the experiment conditions under control and too much samples are needed, the in vitro techniques are more preferred. The most widely used in vitro techniques are two-staged digestion technique and gas production technique. In vitro gas production technique is based on the measurement of the CO2 which is released as a result of microbial fermentation of the feeds. In this review, the factors affecting the results obtained from in vitro gas production technique (Hohenheim Feed Test) were discussed. Some factors must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings obtained in these studies and also comparing the findings reported by different researchers for the same feeds. These factors were discussed in 3 groups: factors related to animal, factors related to feeds and factors related with differences in the application of method. These factors and their effects on the results were explained. Also it can be concluded that the use of in vitro gas production technique in feed evaluation routinely can be contributed to the comprehensive feed evaluation, but standardization is needed in this technique to attain more reliable results.

Keywords: In vitro, gas production technique, Hohenheim feed test, standardization

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14433 Validation of a Fluid-Structure Interaction Model of an Aortic Dissection versus a Bench Top Model

Authors: K. Khanafer

Abstract:

The aim of this investigation was to validate the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of type B aortic dissection with our experimental results from a bench-top-model. Another objective was to study the relationship between the size of a septectomy that increases the outflow of the false lumen and its effect on the values of the differential of pressure between true lumen and false lumen. FSI analysis based on Galerkin’s formulation was used in this investigation to study flow pattern and hemodynamics within a flexible type B aortic dissection model using boundary conditions from our experimental data. The numerical results of our model were verified against the experimental data for various tear size and location. Thus, CFD tools have a potential role in evaluating different scenarios and aortic dissection configurations.

Keywords: aortic dissection, fluid-structure interaction, in vitro model, numerical

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14432 Feed Value of Selected Nigerian Browse Plants: Chemical Composition and in vitro Digestibility

Authors: Isaac Samuel

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the in-vitro degradation of selected Nigerian browse plants consumed by small ruminants on free range in northern guinea savannah region of Nigeria using in vitro gas production, proximate composition, fibre components, methane gas production and dry matter degradation as tools. The leaves samples of the selected browse plants were collected, processed and incubated using in vitro gas dry matter degradation techniques. Results obtained showed variation in the rate of degradation. The result obtained from chemical analysis showed that the CP content of A. occidentale (26.49%) was higher than F. thonningi (23.58%), M. indica (20.58%) and T. catappa (18.61%). Both ADF and NDF of A. occidentale (40.00 and 50.00) were as well higher than F. thonningi (20.00 and 40.00), M. indica (20.00 and 40.00) and T.catappa (20.00 and 42.00). Results from in vitro gas production however showed that T. catappa (23.67ml/DM) has a significantly higher (p<0.05) value than F.thonningi (20.67ml/DM), A. occidentale (16.67ml/DM), and M. indica(14.00ml/DM) at 72 hours of incubation. Methane gas production and in vitro gas production can be used to predict dry matter degradation and nutritive value of feedstuff for small ruminants. A. occidentale with the least methane gas production and highest crude protein (CP) content might have the most nutritive value among the browse plants investigated.

Keywords: in vitro, degradation, browse, gas production

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14431 Investigating the Successes of in vitro Embryogenesis

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

The in vitro isolated microspore culture is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce doubled haploid plants in the short time. To deviate a microspore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the microspore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of microspore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. As haploid single cells, microspore became a strategy to achieve various objectives particularly in genetic engineering. In this communication we would show the most recent advances in the producing haploid embryos via in vitro isolated microspore culture.

Keywords: in vitro isolated microspore culture, success, haploid cells, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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14430 Design, Synthesis and in-vitro Antitumor Evaluation of Some Novel Substituted Quinazoline Derivatives

Authors: Adel S. El-Azab, Alaa A. M. Abdel-Aziz, Ibrahim A. Al-Suwaidan, Amer M. Alanazi

Abstract:

A novel series of 2,3,6-trisubstitute quinazolinone were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in-vitro antitumor activity. 3 (Benzylideneamino)-6-chloro-2-p-tolylquinazolin-4(3H)-One, 2-[(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)thio]-N-(3,4;5-trimethoxyphenyl) acetamide and 3-(3-benzyl-6-methyl-4-oxo-3, 4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) propanamide have shown amazing broad spectrum antitumor activity with mean GI50; 15.8, 3.16, and 7.4 μM respectively compared to known Quinazoline Derivatives antitumor drug 5-FU mean GI50=22.6 μM.

Keywords: quinazoline derivatives, in vitro antitumor, synthesis, 5-FU, NCI

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14429 Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Potent Antioxidant Fraction from Urtica dioica L.: In vitro and In vivo Studies

Authors: Bhuwan C. Joshi, Atish Prakash, Ajudhia N. Kalia

Abstract:

Ethnopharmacological relevance: The plant Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in various diseases including hepatic ailments. Traditionally, the leaves and roots of the plant are used in jaundice. Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate hepatoprotective potential of potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica L. against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo model. Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butanol fraction (NBF) and aqueous fraction (AF) were determined by DPPH radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro cell line study. Further, the most potent fraction (EAF) was subjected to in-vivo study. The in-vivo hepatoprotective active fraction was chromatographed on silica column to isolate the bioactive constituent(s). Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopy. Results and conclusion: The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Urtica. dioica L. possessed the potent antioxidant activity viz. DPPH (IC50 78.99 ± 0.17 µg/ml). The in-vitro cell line study showed EAF prevented the cell damage. The EAF significantly attenuated the increased liver enzymes activities in serum and tissue. Column chromatography of most potent antioxidant fraction (EAF) leads to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid which is responsible for its hepatoprotective potential. Hence, the present study suggests that EAF has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo.

Keywords: Urtica dioica L., antioxidant, HepG2 cell line, hepatoprotective

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14428 Effect of IGF-I on Ovine Oocytes Maturation and Subsequent Embryo Development following in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

Authors: Babak Qasemi-Panahi, Gholamali Moghaddam, Seyed-Abbas Rafat, Hossein Daghigh Kia, Mansoureh Movahedin, Reza Hadavi

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of IGF-I on ovine oocytes maturation and subsequent development of embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF). In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes and in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos was conducted with or without 100 ng/mL IGF-1. In the IGF-I treated group, mean percentage of oocyte maturation was significantly higher than the control group (57.67 ± 3.04 versus 49.81 ± 3.04%, respectively, P < 0.05). However, in comparison with control group, there was no significant effect of IGF-1 on rates of cleavage, morula, and blastocyst formation (85% versus 84%; 63% versus 65%, and 40% to 39%, respectively). These data demonstrate that IGF-I has a positive effect on ovine oocyte maturation rate, but it has not the significant outcome on embryo development.

Keywords: ovine, IGF-I, IVM, ICSI

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14427 Successes on in vitro Isolated Microspores Embryogenesis

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

The In Vitro isolated micro spore culture is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce doubled haploid plants in the short time. To deviate a micro spore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the micro spore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of micro spore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. As haploid single cells, micro spore became a strategy to achieve various objectives particularly in genetic engineering. In this study we would show the most recent advances in the producing haploid embryos via In Vitro isolated micro spore culture.

Keywords: haploid cells, In Vitro isolated microspore culture, success

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14426 Role of Autophagic Lysosome Reformation for Cell Viability in an in vitro Infection Model

Authors: Muhammad Awais Afzal, Lorena Tuchscherr De Hauschopp, Christian Hübner

Abstract:

Introduction: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-dependent degradation pathway, which can be induced by extrinsic and intrinsic stressors in living systems to adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. In the context of inflammatory stress, autophagy contributes to the elimination of invading pathogens, the regulation of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, and regulation of inflammasome activity as well as tissue damage repair. Lysosomes can be recycled from autolysosomes by the process of autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), which depends on the presence of several proteins including Spatacsin. Thus ALR contributes to the replenishment of lysosomes that are available for fusion with autophagosomes in situations of increased autophagic turnover, e.g., during bacterial infections, inflammatory stress or sepsis. Objectives: We aimed to assess whether ALR plays a role for cell survival in an in-vitro bacterial infection model. Methods: Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from wild-type mice and Spatacsin (Spg11-/-) knockout mice. Wild-type MEFs and Spg11-/- MEFs were infected with Staphylococcus aureus (multiplication of infection (MOI) used was 10). After 8 and 16 hours of infection, cell viability was assessed on BD flow cytometer through propidium iodide intake. Bacterial intake by cells was also calculated by plating cell lysates on blood agar plates. Results: in-vitro infection of MEFs with Staphylococcus aureus showed a marked decrease of cell viability in ALR deficient Spatacsin knockout (Spg11-/-) MEFs after 16 hours of infection as compared to wild-type MEFs (n=3 independent experiments; p < 0.0001) although no difference was observed for bacterial intake by both genotypes. Conclusion: Suggesting that ALR is important for the defense of invading pathogens e.g. S. aureus, we observed a marked increase of cell death in an in-vitro infection model in cells with compromised ALR.

Keywords: autophagy, autophagic lysosome reformation, bacterial infections, Staphylococcus aureus

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14425 In vitro and in vivo Antiangiogenic Activity of Girinimbine Isolated from Murraya koenigii

Authors: Venoos Iman, Suzita Mohd Noor, Syam Mohan, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin

Abstract:

Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid was isolated from the stem bark and root of Murraya koenigii and its structure and purity was identified by HPLC and LC-MS. Here we report that Girinimbine strongly inhibit angiogenesis activity both in vitro and in vivo. MTT result showed that girinimbine inhibits cell proliferation of the HUVECS cell line in vitro. Result of endothelial cell invasion, migration, tube formation and wound healing assays also demonstrated significant time and does dependent inhibition by girinimbine. Moreover, girinibine mediates its anti-angiogenic activity through up- and down-regulation of angiogenic and anti-aniogenic proteins. Furthermore, anti-angiogenic potential of girinimbine was evidenced in vivo on zebrafish model. Girinimbine inhibited neo-vessels formation in zebrafish embryos during 24 hours exposure time. Together, these results demonstrated for the first time that girinimbine could effectively suppress angiogenesis and strongly suggest that it might be a novel angiogenesis inhibitor.

Keywords: anti-angiogenic, carbazole alkaloid, girinimbine, zebrafish

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14424 On In vitro Durum Wheat Isolated Microspore Culture

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

Since its creation in 1964 by Guha and Maheshwari in India on Datura innoxia Mill, in vitro androgenesis has become the method of choice in the production of doubled haploid in many species. However, in durum wheat, the Doubled haploid plant breeding programs remained limited due to the low production of androgenetic embryos and converting them into fertile green plants. We describe here an efficient method for inducing embryos and regenerating green plants directly from isolated microspores of durum wheat.

Keywords: durum wheat, haploid embryos, on in vitro, pretreatment

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14423 A Comparative Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of in vivo and in vitro Raised Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn.

Authors: Gayatri Nahak, Satyajit Kanungo, Rajani Kanta Sahu

Abstract:

Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn. (Apocynaceae) is a typical Indian medicinal plant popularly known as “Indrajav”. Traditionally the plant has been considered a popular remedy for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, intestinal worms and the seeds of this plant are also used as an anti-diabetic remedy. In the present study axillary shoot multiplication, callus induction and shoot regeneration from callus culture were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. Then in vivo and in vitro grown healthy plants were selected for study of antioxidant activity through DPPH and OH methods. Significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenol contents were observed in vitro raised plant in comparison to in vivo plants. The findings indicated the greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown in in vitro raised plant in comparison to in vivo plants which showed the ability to utilize tissue culture techniques towards development of desired bioactive metabolites from in vitro culture as an alternative way to avoid using endangered plants in pharmaceutical purposes.

Keywords: Holarrhena antidysenterica, in vitro, in vivo, antioxidant activity

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14422 Effects of Fenugreek Seed Extract on in vitro Maturation and Subsequent Development of Sheep Oocytes

Authors: Ibrahim A. H. Barakat, Ahmed R. Al-Himaidi

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to determine the role and optimum concentration of fenugreek seed extract during in-vitro maturation on in-vitro maturation and developmental competence of Neaimi sheep oocytes following in-vitro fertilization. The Cumulus Oocyte Complexes (COCs) collected from sheep slaughterhouse ovaries were randomly divided into three groups, and they were matured for 24 hrs. in maturation medium containing fenugreek seed extract (0, 1 and 10 µg ml-1). Oocytes of a control group were matured in a medium containing 1 µg ml-1 estradiol 17β. After maturation, half of oocytes were fixed and stained for evaluation of nuclear maturation. The rest of oocytes were fertilized in vitro with fresh semen, then cultured for 9 days for the assessment of the developmental capacity of the oocytes. The results showed that the mean values of oocytes with expanded cumulus cells percentage were not significantly different among all groups (P < 0.05). But nuclear maturation rate of oocytes matured with 10 µg ml-1 fenugreek seed extract was significantly higher than that of the control group. The maturation rate and development to morula and blastocyst stage for oocytes matured at 10 µg ml-1 fenugreek seed extract was significantly higher than those matured at 1µg ml-1 of fenugreek seed extract and the control group. In conclusion, better maturation and developmental capacity rate to morula and blastocyst stage were obtained by the addition of 10 µg ml-1 fenugreek seed extract to maturation medium than addition of 1 µg ml-1 estradiol-17β (P < 0.05).

Keywords: fenugreek seed extract, in vitro maturation, sheep oocytes, in vitro fertilization, embryo development

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14421 Bio-Functional Polymeric Protein Based Materials Utilized for Soft Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Er-Yuan Chuang

Abstract:

Bio-mimetic matters have biological functionalities. This might be valuable in the development of versatile biomaterials. At biological fields, protein-based materials might be components to form a 3D network of extracellular biomolecules, containing growth factors. Also, the protein-based biomaterial provides biochemical and structural assistance of adjacent cells. In this study, we try to prepare protein based biomaterial, which was harvested from living animal. We analyzed it’s chemical, physical and biological property in vitro. Besides, in vivo bio-interaction of the prepared biomimetic matrix was tested in an animal model. The protein-based biomaterial has degradability and biocompatibility. This development could be used for tissue regenerations and be served as platform technologies.

Keywords: protein based, in vitro study, in vivo study, biomaterials

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14420 Understanding Neuronal and Glial Cell Behaviour in Multi-Layer Nanofibre Systems to Support the Development of an in vitro Model of Spinal Cord Injury and Personalised Prostheses for Repair

Authors: H. Pegram, R. Stevens, L. De Girolamo

Abstract:

Aligned electrospun nanofibres act as effective neuronal and glial cell scaffolds that can be layered to contain multiple sheets harboring different cell populations. This allows personalised biofunctional prostheses to be manufactured with both acellular and cellularised layers for the treatment of spinal cord injury. Additionally, the manufacturing route may be configured to produce in-vitro 3D cell based model of spinal cord injury to aid drug development and enhance prosthesis performance. The goal of this investigation was to optimise the multi-layer scaffold design parameters for prosthesis manufacture, to enable the development of multi-layer patient specific implant therapies. The work has also focused on the fabricating aligned nanofibre scaffolds that promote in-vitro neuronal and glial cell population growth, cell-to-cell interaction and long-term survival following trauma to mimic an in-vivo spinal cord lesion. The approach has established reproducible lesions and has identified markers of trauma and regeneration marked by effective neuronal migration across the lesion with glial support. The investigation has advanced the development of an in-vitro model of traumatic spinal cord injury and has identified a route to manufacture prostheses which target the repair spinal cord injury. Evidence collated to investigate the multi-layer concept suggests that physical cues provided by nanofibres provide both a natural extra-cellular matrix (ECM) like environment and controls cell proliferation and migration. Specifically, aligned nanofibre layers act as a guidance system for migrating and elongating neurons. On a larger scale, material type in multi-layer systems also has an influence in inter-layer migration as cell types favour different material types. Results have shown that layering nanofibre membranes create a multi-level scaffold system which can enhance or prohibit cell migration between layers. It is hypothesised that modifying nanofibre layer material permits control over neuronal/glial cell migration. Using this concept, layering of neuronal and glial cells has become possible, in the context of tissue engineering and also modelling in-vitro induced lesions.

Keywords: electrospinning, layering, lesion, modeling, nanofibre

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14419 In vitro and invivo Antioxidant Studies of Grewia crenata Leaves Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: A. N.Ukwuani, A. K. Abdulfatah

Abstract:

G. crenata is used locally for the treatment of fractured bones, wound healing and inflammatory conditions. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of hydromethanolic extracts of the leaves of G. crenata were assessed. The phytochemical analysis shows the presence of phenols, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and tannins. An in vitro quantitative analysis of phenols, flavonoids and tannins respectively were (164±1.20, 199±0.88 and 88.67±0.88 mg/100g FW). In vivo studies of hydromethanolic extract demonstrated a dose dependent increase in hepatic superoxide dismutase (1.14±0.14, 2.13±0.11, 2.55±0.11 U/mg Protein) with improvement in hepatic glutathione (6.98±0.42, 8.91±0.37, 11.07±0.46 µM/mg Protein) and Catalase (4.47±0.05, 6.24±0.02, 7.17±0.04 U/mg Protein) and Total protein (6.18±0.08, 6.69±0.18, 7.27±0.16 mg/ml) respectively at 100-300mg/kg body weight Grewia crenata leaves when compared to the control and standard drug. It can be concluded from the present findings of that G. crenata leaves possess antioxidant potential.

Keywords: Grewia crenata, antioxidant, hydromethanolic extract, in vivo, in vitro

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14418 Biofertilization of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Using Trichoderma longibrachiatum

Authors: Kehinde T. Kareem

Abstract:

The need to increase the production of cucumber has led to the use of inorganic fertilizers. This chemical affects the ecological balance of nature by increasing the nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the soil. Surface runoffs into rivers and streams cause eutrophication which affects aquatic organisms as well as the consumers of aquatic animals. Therefore, this study was carried out in the screenhouse to investigate the use of a plant growth-promoting fungus; Trichoderma longibrachiatum for the growth promotion of conventional and in-vitro propagated Ashley and Marketmoor cucumber. Before planting of cucumber, spore suspension (108 cfu/ml) of Trichoderma longibrachiatum grown on Potato dextrose agar (PDA) was inoculated into the soil. Fruits were evaluated for the presence of Trichoderma longibrachiatum using a species-specific primer. Results revealed that the highest significant plant height produced by in-vitro propagated Ashley was 19 cm while the highest plant height of in-vitro propagated Marketmoor was 19.67 cm. The yield of the conventional propagated Ashley cucumber showed that the number of fruit/plant obtained from T. longibrachiatum-fertilized plants were significantly more than those of the control. The in-vitro Ashely had 7 fruits/plant while the control produced 4 fruits/plant. In-vitro Marketmoor had ten fruits/plant, and the control had a value of 4 fruits/plant. There were no traces of Trichoderma longibrachiatum genes in the harvested cucumber fruits. Therefore, the use of Trichoderma longibrachiatum as a plant growth-promoter is safe for human health as well as the environment.

Keywords: biofertilizer, cucumber, genes, growth-promoter, in-vitro, propagation

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14417 Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds Modified with Collagen-I and Fibronectin with LX-2 Cells to Study Liver Fibrosis in vitro

Authors: Prativa Das, Lay Poh Tan

Abstract:

Three-dimensional microenvironment is a need to study the event cascades of liver fibrosis in vitro. Electrospun nanofibers modified with essential extracellular matrix proteins can closely mimic the random fibrous structure of native liver extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we fabricate a series of 3D electrospun scaffolds by wet electrospinning process modified with different ratios of collagen-I to fibronectin to achieve optimized distribution of these two ECM proteins on the fiber surface. A ratio of 3:1 of collagen-I to fibronectin was found to be optimum for surface modification of electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibers by chemisorption process. In 3:1 collagen-I to fibronectin modified scaffolds the total protein content increased by ~2 fold compared to collagen-I modified and ~1.5 fold compared to 1:1/9:1 collagen-I to fibronectin modified scaffolds. We have cultured LX-2 cells on this scaffold over 14 days and found that LX-2 cells acquired more quiescent phenotype throughout the culture period and shown significantly lower expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and collagen-I. Thus, this system can be used as a model to study liver fibrosis by using different fibrogenic mediators in vitro.

Keywords: electrospinning, collagen-I and fibronectin, surface modification of fiber, LX-2 cells, liver fibrosis

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14416 In vitro Antioxidant and DNA Protectant Activity of Different Skin Colored Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

Authors: K. M. Somawathie, V. Rizliya, H. A. M. Wickrmasinghe, Terrence Madhujith

Abstract:

The main objective of our study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant and DNA protectant activity of aqueous extract of S. melongena with different skin colors; dark purple (DP), moderately purple (MP), light purple (LP) and purple and green (PG). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and the egg yolk model. The effectiveness of eggplant extracts against radical induced DNA damage was also determined. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the skin color and antioxidant activity. TPC and FRAP values of eggplant extracts ranged from 48.67±0.27-61.11±0.26 (mg GAE/100 g fresh weight) and 4.19±0.11-7.46±0.26 (mmol of FeS04/g of fresh weight) respectively. MP displayed the highest percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity while, DP demonstrated the strongest total antioxidant capacity. In the FTC and egg yolk model, DP and MP showed better antioxidant activity than PG and LP. All eggplant extracts showed potent antioxidant activity in retaining DNA against AAPH mediated radical damage. DP and MP demonstrated better antioxidant activity which may be attributed to the higher phenolic content since a positive correlation was observed between the TPC and the antioxidant parameters.

Keywords: Solanum melongena, skin color, antioxidant, DNA protection, lipid peroxidation

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14415 Selection of Developmental Stages of Bovine in vitro-Derived Blastocysts Prior to Vitrification and Embryo Transfer: Implications for Cattle Breeding Programs

Authors: Van Huong Do, Simon Walton, German Amaya, Madeline Batsiokis, Sally Catt, Andrew Taylor-Robinson

Abstract:

Identification of the most suitable stages of bovine in vitro-derived blastocysts (early, expanded and hatching) prior to vitrification is a straightforward process that facilitates the decision as to which blastocyst stage to use for transfer of fresh and vitrified embryos. Research on in vitro evaluation of suitable stages has shown that the more advanced developmental stage of blastocysts is recommended for fresh embryo transfer while the earlier stage is proposed for embryo transfer following vitrification. There is, however, limited information on blastocyst stages using in vivo assessment. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine the optimal stage of a blastocyst for vitrification and embryo transfer through a two-step procedure of embryo transfer followed by pregnancy testing at 35, 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. 410 good quality oocytes aspirated by the ovum pick-up technique from 8 donor cows were subjected to in vitro embryo production, vitrification and embryo transfer. Good quality embryos were selected, subjected to vitrification and embryo transfer. Subsequently, 77 vitrified embryos at different blastocyst stages were transferred to synchronised recipient cows. The overall cleavage and blastocyst rates of oocytes were 68.8% and 41.7%, respectively. In addition, the fertility and blastocyst production of 6 bulls used for in vitro fertilization was examined and shown to be statistically different (P<0.05). Results of ongoing pregnancy trials conducted at 35 days, 60 days and 90 days will be discussed. However, preliminary data indicate that individual bulls demonstrate distinctly different fertility performance in vitro. Findings from conception rates would provide a useful tool to aid selection of bovine in vitro-derived embryos for vitrification and embryo transfer in commercial settings.

Keywords: blastocyst, embryo transfer, in vitro-derived embryos, ovum pick-up, vitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
14414 The Evaluation of Substitution of Acacia villosa in Ruminants Ration

Authors: Hadriana Bansi, Elizabeth Wina, Toto Toharmat

Abstract:

Acacia villosa is thornless shrub legume which contents high crude protein. However, the utilization of A. villosa as ruminant feed is limited by its secondary compounds. The aim of this article is to find out the maximum of substitution A. villosa in sheep ration. The nutritional evaluation consisted of in vitro two stages, in vivo, and in vitro gas production trials. The secondary compounds of A. villosa also were analyzed. Evaluating digestibility of increasing level of substitution A. villosa replacing Pennisetum purpureum was using in vitro two stages. The substitution of 30% A. villosa was compared to 100% P. purpureum by in vitro gas production technique and in vivo digestibility. The results of two stages in vitro showed that total phenol, condensed tannin, and non-protein amino acid (NPAA) were high. Substitution 15% A. villosa reached the highest digestibility for both dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) which were 67% and 86% respectively, but it was shown that DM and CP digestibility of substitution 30% of A. villosa was still high which were 61.82% and 75-67% respectively. The pattern of gas production showed that first 8 hours total gas production substitution of 30% A. villosa was higher than 100% P. purpureum and declined after 10 hours incubation. In vivo trials showed that substitution of 30% A. villosa significantly increased CP intake, CP digestibility, and nitrogen retention. It can be concluded that substitution A. villosa until 30% still gave the good impact even though it has high secondary compounds.

Keywords: Acacia villosa, digestibility, gas production, secondary compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
14413 In-vitro Antioxidant Activity of Two Selected Herbal Medicines

Authors: S. Vinotha, I. Thabrew, S. Sri Ranjani

Abstract:

Hot aqueous and methanol extracts of the two selected herbal medicines such are Vellarugu Chooranam (V.C) and Amukkirai Chooranam (A.C) were examined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant activity using four different methods. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in methanol extract of V.C were found to be higher (44.41±1.26 mg GAE⁄g; 174.44±9.32 mg QE⁄g) than in the methanol extract of A.C (20.56±0.67 mg GAE⁄g;7.21±0.85 mg QE⁄g). Hot methanol and aqueous extracts of both medicines showed low antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods and Iron chelating activity not found at highest possible concentration. V.C contains higher concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoid contents than A.C and can also exert greater antioxidant activity than A.C, although the activities demonstrated were lower than the positive control Trolox. The in-vitro antioxidant activity was not related with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanol and aqueous extracts of both herbal medicines (A.C and V.C).

Keywords: activity, different extracts, herbal medicines, in-vitro antioxidant

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14412 Superiority of Bone Marrow Derived-Osteoblastic Cells (ALLOB®) over Bone Marrow Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Sandra Pietri, Helene Dubout, Sabrina Ena, Candice Hoste, Enrico Bastianelli

Abstract:

Bone Therapeutics is a bone cell therapy company addressing high unmet medical needs in the field of bone fracture repair, more specifically in non-union and delayed-union fractures where the bone repair process is impaired. The company has developed a unique allogeneic osteoblastic cell product (ALLOB®) derived from bone marrow which is currently tested in humans in the indication of delayed-union fractures. The purpose of our study was to directly compare ALLOB® vs. non-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for their in vitro osteogenic characteristics and their in vivo osteogenic potential in order to determine which cellular type would be the most adapted for bone fracture repair. Methods: Healthy volunteers’ bone marrow aspirates (n=6) were expended (i) into BM-MSCs using a complete MSC culture medium or (ii) into ALLOB® cells according to its manufacturing process. Cells were characterized in vitro by morphology, immunophenotype, gene expression and differentiation potential. Additionally, their osteogenic potential was assessed in vivo in the subperiosteal calvaria bone formation model in nude mice. Results: The in vitro side-by-side comparison studies showed that although ALLOB® and BM-MSC shared some common general characteristics such as the 3 minimal MSC criteria, ALLOB® expressed significantly higher levels of chondro/osteoblastic genes such as BMP2 (fold change (FC) > 100), ALPL (FC > 12), CBFA1 (FC > 3) and differentiated significantly earlier than BM-MSC toward the osteogenic lineage. Moreover the bone formation model in nude mice demonstrated that used at the same cellular concentration, ALLOB® was able to induce significantly more (160% vs.107% for control animals) bone formation than BM-MSC (118% vs. 107 % for control animals) two weeks after administration. Conclusion: Our side-by-side comparison studies demonstrated that in vitro and in vivo, ALLOB® displays superior osteogenic capacity to BM-MScs and is therefore a better candidate for the treatment of bone fractures.

Keywords: gene expression, histomorphometry, mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenic differentiation potential, preclinical

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
14411 Growth of Albizia in vitro: Endophytic Fungi as Plant Growth Promote of Albizia

Authors: Reine Suci Wulandari, Rosa Suryantini

Abstract:

Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) is a woody plant species that has a high economic value and multifunctional. Albizia is important timber, medicinal plants and can also be used as a plant to rehabilitate critical lands. The demand value of Albizia is increased so that the large quantities and high quality of seeds are required. In vitro propagation techniques are seed propagation that can produce more seeds and quality in a short time. In vitro cultures require growth regulators that can be obtained from biological agents such as endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi are micro fungi that colonize live plant tissue without producing symptoms or other negative effects on host plants and increase plant growth. The purposes of this research were to isolate and identify endophytic fungi isolated from the root of Albizia and to study the effect of endophytic fungus on the growth of Albizia in vitro. The methods were root isolation, endophytic fungal identification, and inoculation of endophytic fungi to Albizia plants in vitro. Endophytic fungus isolates were grown on PDA media before being inoculated with Albizia sprouts. Incubation is done for 4 (four) weeks. The observed growth parameters were live explant percentage, percentage of explant shoot, and percentage of explant rooted. The results of the research showed that 6 (six) endophytic fungal isolates obtained from the root of Albizia, namely Aspergillus sp., Verticillium sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., and Acremonium sp. Statistical analysis found that Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium sp. affect in vitro growth of Albizia. Endophytic fungi from the results of this research were potential as plant growth promoting. It can be applied to increase productivity either through increased plant growth and increased endurance of Albizia seedlings to pests and diseases.

Keywords: Albizia, endophytic fungi, propagation, in vitro

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
14410 A New Nonlinear State-Space Model and Its Application

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei

Abstract:

In this work, a new nonlinear model will be introduced. The model is in the state-space form. The nonlinearity of this model is in the state equation where the state vector is multiplied by its self. This technique makes our model generalizes many famous models as Lotka-Volterra model and Lorenz model which have many applications in the real life. We will apply our new model to estimate the wind speed by using a new nonlinear estimator which suitable to work with our model.

Keywords: nonlinear systems, state-space model, Kronecker product, nonlinear estimator

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14409 The Effect of Ethylene Glycol on Cryopreserved Bovine Oocytes

Authors: Sri Wahjuningsih, Nur Ihsan, Hadiah

Abstract:

In the embryo transfer program, to address the limited production of embryos in vivo, in vitro embryo production has become an alternative approach that is relatively inexpensive. One potential source of embryos that can be developed is to use immature oocytes then conducted in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization. However, obstacles encountered were oocyte viability mammals have very limited that it cannot be stored for a long time, so we need oocyte cryopreservation. The research was conducted to know the optimal concentration use of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant on oocytes freezing.Material use in this research was immature oocytes; taken from abbatoir which was aspirated from follicle with diameter 2-6 mm. Concentration ethylen glycol used were 0,5 M, I M, 1,5 M and 2M. The freezing method used was conventional method combined with a five-step protocol washing oocytes from cryoprotectant after thawing. The result showed that concentration ethylen glycol have the significant effect (P<0.05) on oocytes quality after thawing and in vitro maturation. It was concluded that concentration 1,5 M was the best concentration for freezing oocytes using conventional method.

Keywords: bovine, conventional freezing, ethylen glycol, oocytes

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
14408 Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activity in in vivo and in vitro Samples of Purple Greater Yam (Dioscorea alata L).

Authors: Sakinah Abdullah, Rosna Mat Taha

Abstract:

Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite which result in oxidative stress leading to cellular damage. Natural antioxidant are in high demand because of their potential in health promotion and disease prevention and their improved safety and consumer acceptability. Plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant. Dioscorea alata L. known as 'ubi badak' in Malaysia were well known for their antioxidant content, but this plant was seasonal. Thus, tissue culture technique was used to mass propagate this plant. In the present work, a comparative study between in vitro (from tissue culture) and in vivo (from intact plant) samples of Dioscorea alata L. for their antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenil -1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were carried out. All samples had better radical scavenging activity but in vivo samples had the strongest radical scavenging activity compared to in vitro samples. Furthermore, tubers from in vivo samples showed the greatest free radical scavenging effect and comparatively greater phenolic content than in vitro samples.

Keywords: Dioscorea alata, tissue culture, antioxidant, in vivo, in vitro, DPPH

Procedia PDF Downloads 369