Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: subgroup

81 Characterization of Number of Subgroups of Finite Groups

Authors: Khyati Sharma, A. Satyanarayana Reddy

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The topic of how many subgroups exist within a certain finite group naturally arises in the study of finite groups. Over the years, different researchers have investigated this issue from a variety of angles. The significant contributions of the key mathematicians over the time have been summarized in this article. To this end, we classify finite groups into three categories viz. (a) Groups for which the number of subgroups is less than |G|, (b) equals to |G|, and finally, (c) greater than |G|. Because every element of a finite group generates a cyclic subgroup, counting cyclic subgroups is the most important task in this endeavor. A brief survey on the number of cyclic subgroups of finite groups is also conducted by us. Furthermore, we also covered certain arithmetic relations between the order of a finite group |G| and the number of its distinct cyclic subgroups |C(G)|. In order to provide pertinent context and possibly reveal new novel areas of potential research within the field of research on finite groups, we finally pose and solicit a few open questions.

Keywords: abstract algebra, cyclic subgroup, finite group, subgroup

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80 Possible Reasons for and Consequences of Generalizing Subgroup-Based Measurement Results to Populations: Based on Research Studies Conducted by Elementary Teachers in South Korea

Authors: Jaejun Jong

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Many teachers in South Korea conduct research to improve the quality of their instruction. Unfortunately, many researchers generalize the results of measurements based on one subgroup to other students or to the entire population, which can cause problems. This study aims to determine two things: (1) examples of possible problems resulting from generalizing measurements based on one subgroup to an entire population or another group and (2) reasons teachers often generalize the results of measurements based on subgroups to entire populations or other students. This study is needed as teachers’ instruction and class quality significantly affect the overall quality of education, but the quality of research conducted by teachers can become questionable due to overgeneralization. Thus, finding potential problems and understanding why teachers generalize subgroup-based results can improve the overall quality of education. The data in this study were gathered from 145 sixth-grade elementary school students in South Korea. In addition, interviews were conducted with 14 elementary school teachers in South Korea. The results showed that students in different classes could differ significantly in various ways; thus, generalizing the results of subgroups to an entire population can engender erroneous student predictions and evaluations, which can lead to inappropriate instruction plans. The main reason for using such unsound generalization stems from teachers’ lack of knowledge of research methodologies. The interview showed that none of the teachers had the opportunity to take research methodology classes when they attended university as undergraduate students and there were no online research methodology courses available for teachers. This result shows that providing teachers with research methodology classes and revising teacher education programs in South Korea can significantly improve the quality of education.

Keywords: generalization, measurement, research methodology, teacher education

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79 Effect of Insulin versus Green Tea on the Parotid Gland of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: H. El-Messiry, M. El-Zainy, D. Ghazy

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Diabetes is a metabolic disease that results in a variety of oral health complications. Green tea is a natural antioxidant proved to have powerful effects against diabetes. The aim of this study was to compare between the effect of insulin and green tea on the Parotid gland of streptozotocin induced diabetic Albino rats by using light and transmission electron microscopy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into control group and diabetic groups. The diabetic group received a single injection of 40 mg/kg of streptozotocin intra-peritoneal under anesthesia and was further subdivided into three subgroups: The diabetic untreated subgroup which was untreated for two weeks, the insulin treated subgroup which has received insulin subcutaneously in a daily dose of 5 IU/kg body weight/day for two weeks and a green tea treated subgroup received a daily dose of 1 ml/ 100 gm body weight intragastrically for two weeks. Rats were terminated and parotid glands were dissected and processed for light and transmission electron microscopic examination. Histological examination of the diabetic untreated subgroup revealed acinar cells with pyknotic and hyperchromatic nuclei with cytoplasmic vacuolations. Ultrastructurally, acinar cells showed nuclear pleomorphism, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and swollen mitochondria with damaged cristae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was detected both histologically and ultrastructurally. Ducts showed signs of degeneration with loss of their normal outline and stagnated secretion within the lumen. However, insulin and green tea treated subgroups showed minimal degenerative damage and were almost similar to the control with minimal changes. Treatment of the parotid gland of the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats with GT was closely comparable to the traditional insulin therapy in reducing signs of histological and ultrastructural damage.

Keywords: diabetes, green tea, insulin, parotid

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78 Effects of Virtual Reality on Relieving Postoperative Pain in Surgical Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Lingyu Ding, Hongxia Hua, Hanfei Zhu, Jinling Lu, Qin Xu

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Background: Postoperative pain is a prevalent problem leading to many adverse outcomes in surgical patients. Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging non-pharmacological method of postoperative pain relief, but the effects of it are not clear. This review aimed to explore the effects of VR on relieving postoperative pain. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and other databases from inception to November 2019 to get the eligible studies. Meta-analyses were conducted to compare VR and usual care for relieving postoperative pain. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were performed to explain the heterogeneity. Results: Overall, 8 randomized control trials (RCTs) enrolling 723 participants were included. Our results demonstrated that the patients receiving the VR intervention had lower postoperative pain scores than those receiving the usual care. One subgroup analysis revealed that VR could relieve postoperative pain both in minor surgery and major surgery. Another subgroup analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in postoperative pain among patients receiving VR during the intraoperative and the postoperative periods. However, there was no significant postoperative pain relief when receiving VR during the preoperative period. Additionally, significant improvements in postoperative satisfaction were reported in two studies. However, another two studies included found that VR could not affect physiological parameters related to pain. Conclusion: Applying VR can relieve postoperative pain effectively. The type of surgery and timing of using VR are the main sources of heterogeneity. More rigorous studies about the relationship between VR and postoperative pain relief will be needed.

Keywords: meta-analysis, postoperative pain, systematic review, virtual reality

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77 Obstetric Outcome after Hysteroscopic Septum Resection in Patients with Uterine Septa of Various Sizes

Authors: Nilanchali Singh, Alka Kriplani, Reeta Mahey, Garima Kachhawa

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Objective: Resection of larger uterine septa does improve obstetric performance but whether smaller septa need resection and their impact on obstetric outcome is not clear. We wanted to evaluate the role of septal resection of septa of various sizes in obstetric performance. Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised of 107 patients with uterine septum. The patients were categorized on the basis of extent of uterine septum into four groups: a) Subsepta (< 1/3rd), b) Septum > 1/3 to ½, c) Septum>1/2 to whole uterine cervix, d) Septum traversing whole of uterine cavity and cervix. Out of these 107 patients, 74 could be contacted telephonically and outcomes recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of investigative modalities were calculated. Results: Infertility was seen in maximum number of cases in complete septa (100%), whereas abortions were seen more commonly, in subsepta (18%). MRI had maximum sensitivity and positive predictive value, followed by hysteron-salpingography. Tubal block, fibroid, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, ovarian pathologies were seen in some but no definite association of these pathologies was seen with any subgroup of septa. Almost five-year follow-up was recorded in all the subgroups. Significant reduction in infertility was seen in all septal subgroup (p=0.046, 0.032 & 0.05) patients except in subsepta (< 1/3rd uterine cavity) after septum resection. Abortions were significantly reduced (p=0.048) in third subgroup (i.e. septum > ½ to upto internal os) after hysteroscopic septum resection. Take home baby rate was 33% in subsepta and around 50% in the remaining subgroups of septa. Conclusions: Septal resection improves obstetric performance in patients with uterine septa of various sizes. Whether septal resection improves obstetric performance in patients with subsepta or very small septa, is controversial. Larger studies addressing this issue need to be planned.

Keywords: septal resection, obstetric outcome, infertility, septum size

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76 Impact on the Results of Sub-Group Analysis on Performance of Recommender Systems

Authors: Ho Yeon Park, Kyoung-Jae Kim

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The purpose of this study is to investigate whether friendship in social media can be an important factor in recommender system through social scientific analysis of friendship in popular social media such as Facebook and Twitter. For this purpose, this study analyzes data on friendship in real social media using component analysis and clique analysis among sub-group analysis in social network analysis. In this study, we propose an algorithm to reflect the results of sub-group analysis on the recommender system. The key to this algorithm is to ensure that recommendations from users in friendships are more likely to be reflected in recommendations from users. As a result of this study, outcomes of various subgroup analyzes were derived, and it was confirmed that the results were different from the results of the existing recommender system. Therefore, it is considered that the results of the subgroup analysis affect the recommendation performance of the system. Future research will attempt to generalize the results of the research through further analysis of various social data.

Keywords: sub-group analysis, social media, social network analysis, recommender systems

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75 New Isolate of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Infecting Banana

Authors: Abdelsabour G. A. Khaled, Ahmed W. A. Abdalla And Sabry Y. M. Mahmoud

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Banana plants showing typical mosaic and yellow stripes on leaves as symptoms were collected from Assiut Governorate in Egypt. The causal agent was identified as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of symptoms, transmission, serology, transmission electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Coat protein (CP) gene was amplified using gene specific primers for coat protein (CP), followed by cloning into desired cloning vector for sequencing. In this study the CMV was transmitted into propagation host either by aphid or mechanically. The transmission was confirmed through Direct Antigen Coating Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (DAC-ELISA). Analysis of the 120 deduced amino acid sequence of the coat protein gene revealed that the EG-A strain of CMV shared from 97.50 to 98.33% with those strains belonging to subgroup IA. The cluster analysis grouped the Egyptian isolate with strains Fny and Ri8 belonging sub-group IA. It appears that there occurs a high incidence of CMV infecting banana belonging to IA subgroup in most parts of Egypt.

Keywords: banana, CMV, transmission, CP gene, RT-PCR

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74 Fatal Road Accident Causer's Driving Aptitude in Hungary

Authors: A. Juhász, M. Fogarasi

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Those causing fatal traffic accidents are traumatized, which negatively influences their cognitive functions and their personality. In order to clarify how much the trauma of causing a fatal accident effects their driving skills and personality traits, the results of a psychological aptitude and a personality test of drivers carelessly causing fatal accidents and of drivers not causing any accidents were compared separately. The sample (N = 354) consists of randomly selected drivers from the Transportation Aptitude and Examination Centre database who caused fatal accidents (Fatal group, n = 177) or did not cause accidents (Control group, n = 177). The aptitude tests were taken between 2014 and 2019. The comparison of the 2 groups was done according to 3 aspects: 1. Categories of aptitude (suitable, restricted, unsuited); 2. Categories of causes (ability, personality, ability and personality) within the restricted or unsuited (altogether: non-suitable subgroups); 3. Categories of ability and personality within the non-suitable subgroups regardless of the cause-category. Within ability deficiency, the two groups include those, whose ability factor is impaired or limited. This is also true in case of personality failure. Compared to the control group, the number of restricted drivers causing fatal accidents is significantly higher (p < .000) and the number of unsuited drivers is higher on a tendency-level (p = .06). Compared to the control group in the fatal non-suitable subgroup, the ratio of restricted suitability and the unsuitability due to ability factors is exclusively significantly lower (p < .000). The restricted suitability and the unsuitability due to personality factors are more significant in the fatal non-suitable subgroup (p < .000). Incapacity due to combination of ability and personality is also significantly higher in the fatal group (p = .002). Compared to the control group both ability and personality factors are also significantly higher in the fatal non-suitable subgroup (p < .000). Overall, the control group is more eligible for driving than drivers who have caused fatalities. The ability and personality factors are significantly higher in the case of fatal accident causers who are non-suitable for driving. Moreover the concomitance of ability and personality factors occur almost exclusively to drivers who caused fatal accidents. Further investigation is needed to understand the causes and how the aptitude test results for the fatal group could improve over time.

Keywords: aptitude, unsuited, fatal accident, ability, personality

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73 The Influence of Superordinate Identity and Group Size on Group Decision Making through Discussion

Authors: Lin Peng, Jin Zhang, Yuanyuan Miao, Quanquan Zheng

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Group discussion and group decision-making have long been a topic of research interest. Traditional research on group decision making typically focuses on the strategies or functional models of combining members’ preferences to reach an optimal consensus. In this research, we want to explore natural process group decision making through discussion and examine relevant, influential factors--common superordinate identity shared by group and size of the groups. We manipulated the social identity of the groups into either a shared superordinate identity or different subgroup identities. We also manipulated the size to make it either a big (6-8 person) group or small group (3-person group). Using experimental methods, we found members of a superordinate identity group tend to modify more of their own opinions through the discussion, compared to those only identifying with their subgroups. Besides, members of superordinate identity groups also formed stronger identification with group decision--the results of group discussion than their subgroup peers. We also found higher member modification in bigger groups compared to smaller groups. Evaluations of decisions before and after discussion as well as group decisions are strongly linked to group identity, as members of superordinate group feel more confident and satisfied with both the results and decision-making process. Members’ opinions are more similar and homogeneous in smaller groups compared to bigger groups. This research have many implications for further research and applied behaviors in organizations.

Keywords: group decision making, group size, identification, modification, superordinate identity

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72 Investigation of Genetic Variation among Anemone narcissiflora L. Population Using PCR-RAPD Molecular Marker

Authors: Somayeh Akrami, Habib Onsori, Elham Tahmassebian

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Species of Anemone narcissiflora is belonged to Anemone genus of Ranunculaceae family. This species has two subspecies named narcissiflora and willdenowii which the latest is recorded in Iran in 2010. Some samples of A. narcissiflora is gathered from kuhkamar-zonouz region of East -Azerbaijan province, Iran to study the genetic diversity of the species by using RAPD molecular markers, and estimation of genetic diversity were evaluated with the using 10mer RAPD primers by PCR-RAPD method. 39 polymorphic bands were produced from the six primers used in this technique that the maximum band is related to the RP1 primer, the lowest band is related to the RP7 and the average band for all primers were 6.5 polymorphic bands. Cluster analysis of samples in done by UPGMA method in NTSYSpc 2.02 software. Dendrogram resulting from migrating bands showed that the studied samples can be divided into two groups. The first group includes samples with 1-2 flowers and the second group consists of two sub-groups which the first subgroup consists of samples with 3-5 flowers, and the second subgroup consists of samples with 6-7 flowers. The results of the comparison and analysis of the data obtained from RAPD technique and similarity matrix represents the genetic variation between collected samples. This study shows that RAPD markers can determine the polymorphisms between different genotypes of A. narcissiflora and their hybrids. So RAPD technique can serve as a suitable molecular method to determine the genetic diversity of samples.

Keywords: Anemone narcissiflora, genetic diversity, RAPD-PCR

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71 Narrative Review Evaluating Systematic Reviews Assessing the Effect of Probiotic Interventions on Depressive Symptoms

Authors: Ibrahim Nadeem, Mohammed Rahman, Yasser Ad-Dab’Bagh, Mahmood Akhtar

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Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses and is often associated with various other medical disorders. In this review, we aim to evaluate existing systematic reviews that investigate the use of probiotics as a treatment for depressive symptoms. Five online databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2017. Systematic reviews that included randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of depressive symptoms were included. Seven systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. Three of these reviews conducted meta-analyses, out of which, two found probiotics to significantly improve depressive symptoms in the sample population. Two meta-analyses conducted subgroup analysis based on health status, and both found probiotics to significantly decrease depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder, but only one review found it to significantly decrease in healthy patients. Another subgroup analysis was conducted based on age, and found probiotics to produce significant effects on subjects under the age of 60, but close to no effect on patients over the age of 65. Out of the four reviews that conducted qualitative analysis, three reviews concluded that probiotics have the potential to be used as a treatment. Due to the differences in clinical trials, a definitive effect of probiotics on depressive symptoms cannot be concluded. Nonetheless, probiotics seem to produce a significant therapeutic effect for subjects with pre-existing depressive symptoms. Further studies are warranted for definitive conclusions.

Keywords: depression, gut-brain axis, gut microbiota, probiotic, psychobiotic

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70 CD133 and CD44 - Stem Cell Markers for Prediction of Clinically Aggressive Form of Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ognen Kostovski, Svetozar Antovic, Rubens Jovanovic, Irena Kostovska, Nikola Jankulovski

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Introduction:Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. The cancer stem cell (CSC) markers are associated with aggressive cancer types and poor prognosis. The aim of study was to determine whether the expression of colorectal cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD44 could be significant in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Materials and methods: Our study included ninety patients (n=90) with CRC. Patients were divided into two subgroups: with metatstatic CRC and non-metastatic CRC. Tumor samples were analyzed with standard histopathological methods, than was performed immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies against CD133 and CD44 stem cell markers. Results: High coexpression of CD133 and CD44 was observed in 71.4% of patients with metastatic disease, compared to 37.9% in patients without metastases. Discordant expression of both markers was found in 8% of the subgroup with metastatic CRC, and in 13.4% of the subgroup without metastatic CRC. Statistical analyses showed a significant association of increased expression of CD133 and CD44 with the disease stage, T - category and N - nodal status. With multiple regression analysis the stage of disease was designate as a factor with the greatest statistically significant influence on expression of CD133 (p <0.0001) and CD44 (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the coexpression of CD133 and CD44 have an important role in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Both stem cell markers can be routinely implemented in standard pathohistological diagnostics and can be useful markers for pre-therapeutic oncology screening.

Keywords: colorectal carcinoma, stem cells, CD133+, CD44+

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69 The Effect of Hesperidin on Troponin's Serum Level Changes as a Heart Tissue Damage Biomarker Due to Gamma Irradiation of Rat's Mediastinum

Authors: G. H. Haddadi, S. Sajadi, R. Fardid, Z. Haddadi

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The heart is a radiosensitive organ, and its damage is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy. Different side effects including vascular plaque and heart fibrosis occur in patients with thorax irradiation. The present study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Hesperidin (HES), a naturally occurring citrus flavanoglycone, against γ-radiation induced tissue damage in the heart of male rats. Sixty-eight rats were divided into four groups. The rats in group 1 received PBS, and those in group 2 received HES. Also, the rats in group 3 received PBS and underwent γ-irradiation, and those in group 4 received HES and underwent γ-irradiation. They were exposed to 20 Gy γ-radiation using a single fraction cobalt-60 unit, and the dose of Hesperidin was (100 mg/kg/d, orally) for 7 days prior irradiation. Each group was divided into two subgroups. Samplings of rats in subgroup A was done 4-6 hours after irradiation. The samples were sent to laboratory for determination of Troponin’s I (TnI) serum level changes as a cardiac biomarker. The remaining animals (subgroups B) were sacrificed 8 weeks after radiotherapy for histopathological evaluation. In group 3, TnI obviously increased in comparison with group 1 (p < 0.05). The comparison of groups 1 and 4 showed no significant difference. Evaluation of histopathological parameters in subgroup B showed significant differences between groups 1 and 3 in some of the cases. Inflammation (p=0.008), pericardial effusion (p=0.001) and vascular plaque (p=0.001) increased in the rats exposed to 20 Gy γ-irradiation. Using oral administration of HES significantly decreased all the above factors when compared to group 4 (P > 0.016). Administration of 100 mg/kg/day Hesperidin for 7 days resulted in decreased Troponin I and radiation heart injury. This agent may have protective effects against radiation-induced heart damage.

Keywords: hesperidin, radioprotector, troponin I, cardiac inflammation, vascular plaque

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68 Unifying RSV Evolutionary Dynamics and Epidemiology Through Phylodynamic Analyses

Authors: Lydia Tan, Philippe Lemey, Lieselot Houspie, Marco Viveen, Darren Martin, Frank Coenjaerts

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Introduction: Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of severe respiratory tract infections in infants under the age of two. Genomic substitutions and related evolutionary dynamics of hRSV are of great influence on virus transmission behavior. The evolutionary patterns formed are due to a precarious interplay between the host immune response and RSV, thereby selecting the most viable and less immunogenic strains. Studying genomic profiles can teach us which genes and consequent proteins play an important role in RSV survival and transmission dynamics. Study design: In this study, genetic diversity and evolutionary rate analysis were conducted on 36 RSV subgroup B whole genome sequences and 37 subgroup A genome sequences. Clinical RSV isolates were obtained from nasopharyngeal aspirates and swabs of children between 2 weeks and 5 years old of age. These strains, collected during epidemic seasons from 2001 to 2011 in the Netherlands and Belgium by either conventional or 454-sequencing. Sequences were analyzed for genetic diversity, recombination events, synonymous/non-synonymous substitution ratios, epistasis, and translational consequences of mutations were mapped to known 3D protein structures. We used Bayesian statistical inference to estimate the rate of RSV genome evolution and the rate of variability across the genome. Results: The A and B profiles were described in detail and compared to each other. Overall, the majority of the whole RSV genome is highly conserved among all strains. The attachment protein G was the most variable protein and its gene had, similar to the non-coding regions in RSV, more elevated (two-fold) substitution rates than other genes. In addition, the G gene has been identified as the major target for diversifying selection. Overall, less gene and protein variability was found within RSV-B compared to RSV-A and most protein variation between the subgroups was found in the F, G, SH and M2-2 proteins. For the F protein mutations and correlated amino acid changes are largely located in the F2 ligand-binding domain. The small hydrophobic phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein are the most conserved proteins. The evolutionary rates were similar in both subgroups (A: 6.47E-04, B: 7.76E-04 substitution/site/yr), but estimates of the time to the most recent common ancestor were much lower for RSV-B (B: 19, A: 46.8 yrs), indicating that there is more turnover in this subgroup. Conclusion: This study provides a detailed description of whole RSV genome mutations, the effect on translation products and the first estimate of the RSV genome evolution tempo. The immunogenic G protein seems to require high substitution rates in order to select less immunogenic strains and other conserved proteins are most likely essential to preserve RSV viability. The resulting G gene variability makes its protein a less interesting target for RSV intervention methods. The more conserved RSV F protein with less antigenic epitope shedding is, therefore, more suitable for developing therapeutic strategies or vaccines.

Keywords: drug target selection, epidemiology, respiratory syncytial virus, RSV

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67 The Effects of Shift Work on Neurobehavioral Performance: A Meta Analysis

Authors: Thomas Vlasak, Tanja Dujlociv, Alfred Barth

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Shift work is an essential element of modern labor, ensuring ideal conditions of service for today’s economy and society. Despite the beneficial properties, its impact on the neurobehavioral performance of exposed subjects remains controversial. This meta-analysis aims to provide first summarizing the effects regarding the association between shift work exposure and different cognitive functions. A literature search was performed via the databases PubMed, PsyINFO, PsyARTICLES, MedLine, PsycNET and Scopus including eligible studies until December 2020 that compared shift workers with non-shift workers regarding neurobehavioral performance tests. A random-effects model was carried out using Hedge’s g as a meta-analytical effect size with a restricted likelihood estimator to summarize the mean differences between the exposure group and controls. The heterogeneity of effect sizes was addressed by a sensitivity analysis using funnel plots, egger’s tests, p-curve analysis, meta-regressions, and subgroup analysis. The meta-analysis included 18 studies resulting in a total sample of 18,802 participants and 37 effect sizes concerning six different neurobehavioral outcomes. The results showed significantly worse performance in shift workers compared to non-shift workers in the following cognitive functions with g (95% CI): processing speed 0.16 (0.02 - 0.30), working memory 0.28 (0.51 - 0.50), psychomotor vigilance 0.21 (0.05 - 0.37), cognitive control 0.86 (0.45 - 1.27) and visual attention 0.19 (0.11 - 0.26). Neither significant moderating effects of publication year or study quality nor significant subgroup differences regarding type of shift or type of profession were indicated for the cognitive outcomes. These are the first meta-analytical findings that associate shift work with decreased cognitive performance in processing speed, working memory, psychomotor vigilance, cognitive control, and visual attention. Further studies should focus on a more homogenous measurement of cognitive functions, a precise assessment of experience of shift work and occupation types which are underrepresented in the current literature (e.g., law enforcement). In occupations where shift work is fundamental (e.g., healthcare, industries, law enforcement), protective countermeasures should be promoted for workers.

Keywords: meta-analysis, neurobehavioral performance, occupational psychology, shift work

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66 Effects of a Brisk-Walking Program on Anxiety, Depression and Self-Concept in Adolescents: A Time-Series Design

Authors: Ming Yi Hsu, Hui Jung Chao

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The anxiety and depression adolescents in Taiwan experience can cause suicide attempts and result in unfortunate deaths. An effective method for relieving anxiety and depression is brisk walking; a moderate and low intensity aerobic exercise, which uses large muscle groups rhythmically. The research purpose was to investigate the effects of a 12-week, school-based, brisk-walking program in decreasing anxiety and depression, and in improving self-concept among high school students living in central Taiwan. A quasi-experiment using the time series design (T1 T2 X T3 T4) was conducted. The Beck Youth Inventories 2 (BYI-II) Chinese version was given four times: the first time T1 was in the 4th week prior to intervention, T2 was in the intervention week, T3 was in the 6th week after the start of the intervention period and T4 was in the 12th week post intervention. The baseline phase of the time series constituted T1 and T2. The intervention phase constituted T2, T3, and T4. The amounts of brisk walking were recorded by self-report The Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to examine the effects of brisk walking on anxiety, depression, and self-concept. The independent t-test was used to compare mean scores on three dependent variables between brisk walking over and less than 90-minutes per week. Findings revealed that levels of anxiety and self-concept had nonsignificant change during the baseline phase, while the level of depression increased significantly. In contrast, the study demonstrated significant decreases in anxiety and depression as well as increases in positive self-concept (p=.001, p<.001, p=.017) during the intervention phase. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis was completed on participants who demonstrated elevated anxiety (23.4%), and depression (29.7%), and below average self-concept (18.6%) at baseline (T2). The subgroup of anxious, depressed, or low self-concept participants who received the brisk-walking intervention demonstrated significant decreases in anxiety and depression, and significant increases in self-concept scores. Participants who engaged in brisk walking over 90 minutes per week reported decreased mean scores on anxiety (t=-2.395, p=.035) and depression (t=-2.142, p=.036) in contrast with those who engaged in brisk-walking time less than 90 minutes per week. Regarding the effects on participants whose anxiety, scores were within the normal range at baseline, there was demonstrated significant decrease in the level of anxiety when they increased their time on brisk walking before each term examination. Overall, the brisk-walking program was effective and feasible to promote adolescents’ mental health by decreasing anxiety and depression as well as elevating self-concept. It also helped adolescents from anxiety before term examinations.

Keywords: adolescents, anxiety, depression, self-concept

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65 Conversion in Islam: The Case of Iranian Converts to Christianity in Malaysia

Authors: Gholamreza Nuei, Faisal Ahmad Shah

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The way religion defines people’s identity is quite important in the majority of Muslim countries. Yet, in most such countries the number of Muslims converting to other religions is not documented. The present research investigates a population of Iranians who have converted to Christianity and live in Malaysia. This article focuses on this subgroup of ex-Muslims with the aim of providing a window into how they experience and justify their conversion. The data was collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It was carried out through in-depth interviews with 13 people; also 45 people answered a questionnaire (quantitative). The research findings revealed some of the typical religious, social and personal reasons behind the conversion of this group of "ex-Muslims".

Keywords: conversion from Islam to Christianity, apostasy, Iran, Malaysia

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64 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effect on Body Weight and Body Composition in Women: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hanady Hamdallah, H. Elyse Ireland, John H. H. Williams

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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a food supplement that is reported to have multiple beneficial health effects, including being anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity. Animal studies have shown a significant anti-obesity effect of CLA, but results in humans were inconsistent, where some of the studies found an anti-obesity effect while other studies failed to find any decline in obesity markers after CLA supplementation. This meta-analysis aimed to determine if oral CLA supplementation has been shown to reduce obesity related markers in women. Pub Med, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were used to identify the eligible trials using two main searching strategies: the first one was to search eligible trials using keywords 'Conjugated linoleic acid', 'CLA', 'Women', and the second strategy was to extract the eligible trials from previously published systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The eligible trials were placebo control trials where women supplemented with CLA mixture in the form of oral capsules for 6 months or less. Also, these trials provided information about body composition expressed as body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), total body fat (TBF), percentage body fat (BF %), and/ or lean body mass (LBM). The quality of each included study was assessed using both JADAD scale and an adapted CONSERT checklist. Meta-analysis of 8 eligible trials showed that CLA supplementation was significantly associated with reduced BW (Mean ± SD, 1.2 ± 0.26 kg, p < 0.001), BMI (0.6 ± 0.13kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (0.76 ± 0.26 kg, p= 0.003) in women, when supplemented over 6-16 weeks. Subgroup meta-analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in BW (1.29 ± 0.31 kg, p < 0.001), BMI (0.60 ± 0.14 kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (0.82 ± 0.28 kg, p= 0.003) in the trials that had recruited overweight-obese women. The second subgroup meta-analysis, that considered the menopausal status of the participants, found that CLA was significantly associated with reduced BW (1.35 ± 0.37 kg, p < 0.001; 1.05 ± 0.36 kg, p= 0.003) and BMI (0.50 ± 0.17 kg/m², p= 0.003; 0.75 ± 0.2 kg/m², p < 0.001) in both pre and post-menopausal age women, respectively. A reduction in TBF (1.09 ± 0.37 kg, p= 0.003) was only significant in post-menopausal women. Interestingly, CLA supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in BW (1.05 ± 0.35 kg, p< 0.003), BMI (0.73 ± 0.2 kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (1.07 ± 0.36 kg, p= 0.003) in the trials without lifestyle monitoring or interventions. No significant effect of CLA on LBM was detected in this meta-analysis. This meta-analysis suggests a moderate anti-obesity effect of CLA on BW, BMI and TBF reduction in women, when supplemented over 6-16 weeks, particularly in overweight-obese women and post-menopausal women. However, this finding requires careful interpretation due to several issues in the designs of available CLA supplementation trials. More well-designed trials are required to confirm this meta-analysis results.

Keywords: body composition, body mass index, body weight, conjugated linoleic acid

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63 The Impact of the Length of Time Spent on the Street on Adjustment to Homelessness

Authors: Jakub Marek, Marie Vagnerova, Ladislav Csemy

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Background: The length of time spent on the street influences the degree of adjustment to homelessness. Over the years spent sleeping rough, homeless people gradually lose the ability to control their lives and their return to mainstream society becomes less and less likely. Goals: The aim of the study was to discover whether and how men who have been sleeping rough for more than ten years differ from those who have been homeless for four years or less. Methods: The research was based on a narrative analysis of in-depth interviews focused on the respondent’s entire life story, i.e. their childhood, adolescence, and the period of adulthood preceding homelessness. It also asked the respondents about how they envisaged the future. The group under examination comprised 51 homeless men aged 37 – 54. The first subgroup contained 29 men who have been sleeping rough for 10 – 21 years, the second group contained 22 men who have been homeless for four years or less. Results: Men who have been sleeping rough for more than ten years had problems adapting as children. They grew up in a problematic family or in an institution and acquired only a rudimentary education. From the start they had problems at work, found it difficult to apply themselves, and found it difficult to hold down a job. They tend to have high-risk personality traits and often a personality disorder. Early in life they had problems with alcohol or drugs and their relationships were unsuccessful. If they have children, they do not look after them. They are reckless even in respect of the law and often commit crime. They usually ended up on the street in their thirties. Most of this subgroup of homeless people lack motivation and the will to make any fundamental change to their lives. They identify with the homeless community and have no other contacts. Men who have been sleeping rough for four years or less form two subgroups. There are those who had a normal childhood, attended school and found work. They started a family but began to drink, and as a consequence lost their family and their job. Such men end up on the street between the ages of 35 and 40. And then there are men who become homeless after the age of 40 because of an inability to cope with a difficult situation, e.g. divorce or indebtedness. They are not substance abusers and do not have a criminal record. Such people can be offered effective assistance to return to mainstream society by the social services because they have not yet fully self-identified with the homeless community and most of them have retained the necessary abilities and skills. Conclusion: The length of time a person has been homeless is an important factor in respect of social prevention. It is clear that the longer a person is homeless, the worse are their chances of being reintegrated into mainstream society.

Keywords: risk factors, homelessness, chronicity, narrative analysis

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62 Pooled Analysis of Three School-Based Obesity Interventions in a Metropolitan Area of Brazil

Authors: Rosely Sichieri, Bruna K. Hassan, Michele Sgambato, Barbara S. N. Souza, Rosangela A. Pereira, Edna M. Yokoo, Diana B. Cunha

Abstract:

Obesity is increasing at a fast rate in low and middle-income countries where few school-based obesity interventions have been conducted. Results of obesity prevention studies are still inconclusive mainly due to underestimation of sample size in cluster-randomized trials and overestimation of changes in body mass index (BMI). The pooled analysis in the present study overcomes these design problems by analyzing 4,448 students (mean age 11.7 years) from three randomized behavioral school-based interventions, conducted in public schools of the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The three studies focused on encouraging students to change their drinking and eating habits over one school year, with monthly 1-h sessions in the classroom. Folders explaining the intervention program and suggesting the participation of the family, such as reducing the purchase of sodas were sent home. Classroom activities were delivered by research assistants in the first two interventions and by the regular teachers in the third one, except for culinary class aimed at developing cooking skills to increase healthy eating choices. The first intervention was conducted in 2005 with 1,140 fourth graders from 22 public schools; the second, with 644 fifth graders from 20 public schools in 2010; and the last one, with 2,743 fifth and sixth graders from 18 public schools in 2016. The result was a non-significant change in BMI after one school year of positive changes in dietary behaviors associated with obesity. Pooled intention-to-treat analysis using linear mixed models was used for the overall and subgroup analysis by BMI status, sex, and race. The estimated mean BMI changes were from 18.93 to 19.22 in the control group and from 18.89 to 19.19 in the intervention group; with a p-value of change over time of 0.94. Control and intervention groups were balanced at baseline. Subgroup analyses were statistically and clinically non-significant, except for the non-overweight/obese group with a 0.05 reduction of BMI comparing the intervention with control. In conclusion, this large pooled analysis showed a very small effect on BMI only in the normal weight students. The results are in line with many of the school-based initiatives that have been promising in relation to modifying behaviors associated with obesity but of no impact on excessive weight gain. Changes in BMI may require great changes in energy balance that are hard to achieve in primary prevention at school level.

Keywords: adolescents, obesity prevention, randomized controlled trials, school-based study

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61 Cancer Survivor’s Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours; Meeting the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research Recommendations, a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Erica James, Alexis Hurre, Meredith Tavener

Abstract:

Introduction: Lifestyle behaviours such as healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight are essential for cancer survivors to improve the quality of life and longevity. However, there is no study that synthesis cancer survivor’s adherence to healthy lifestyle recommendations. The purpose of this review was to collate existing data on the prevalence of adherence to healthy behaviours and produce the pooled estimate among adult cancer survivors. Method: Multiple databases (Embase, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar) were searched for relevant articles published since 2007, reporting cancer survivors adherence to more than two lifestyle behaviours based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations. The pooled prevalence of adherence to single and multiple behaviours (operationalized as adherence to more than 75% (3/4) of health behaviours included in a particular study) was calculated using a random effects model. Subgroup analysis adherence to multiple behaviours was undertaken corresponding to the mean survival years and year of publication. Results: A total of 3322 articles were generated through our search strategies. Of these, 51 studies matched our inclusion criteria, which presenting data from 2,620,586 adult cancer survivors. The highest prevalence of adherence was observed for smoking (pooled estimate: 87%, 95% CI: 85%, 88%) and alcohol intake (pooled estimate 83%, 95% CI: 81%, 86%), and the lowest was for fiber intake (pooled estimate: 31%, 95% CI: 21%, 40%). Thirteen studies were reported the proportion of cancer survivors (all used a simple summative index method) to multiple healthy behaviours, whereby the prevalence of adherence was ranged from 7% to 40% (pooled estimate 23%, 95% CI: 17% to 30%). Subgroup analysis suggest that short-term survivors ( < 5 years survival time) had relatively a better adherence to multiple behaviours (pooled estimate: 31%, 95% CI: 27%, 35%) than long-term ( > 5 years survival time) cancer survivors (pooled estimate: 25%, 95% CI: 14%, 36%). Pooling of estimates according to the year of publication (since 2007) also suggests an increasing trend of adherence to multiple behaviours over time. Conclusion: Overall, the adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was poor (not satisfactory), and relatively, it is a major concern for long-term than the short-term cancer survivor. Cancer survivors need to obey with healthy lifestyle recommendations related to physical activity, fruit and vegetable, fiber, red/processed meat and sodium intake.

Keywords: adherence, lifestyle behaviours, cancer survivors, WCRF/AICR

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60 A Conceptual Analysis of Teams’ Climate Role in the Intrapreneurial Process

Authors: Georgia C. Kosta, Christos S. Nicolaidis

Abstract:

The present paper discusses the role of teams’ climate in the intrapreneurial process. Intrapreneurship, which corresponds for entrepreneurship in existing organizations, puts special emphasis on climate as an influential factor of the intrapreneurial behavior. Although climate exists at every level and in every subgroup of the organizational structure, research focuses mainly on the study of climate that characterizes organization as a whole. However, the climate of a work team may differ radically from the organizational climate, and in fact it can be far more influential. The paper provides a conceptual analysis of organizational climate from the intrapreneurial point of view, and sheds light upon teams’ climate role in the intrapreneurial posture.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, innovation, intrapreneurship, organizational climate, teams’ climate

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59 The Morphological Processes of Bura Verbs

Authors: Yakubu Bitrus Gali

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Bura refers both to the kingdom, the people as well as to the language. It is a language spoken in North-Eastern Nigeria. It is also classified under the Chadic group of languages, subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic phylum. Three morphological processes were found to be operating in Bura language viz: affixation, reduplication and modification. Affixation could be prefixation, infixation and suffixation, while reduplication and modification are divided into complete and partial. Verbs as well, can be formed through various processes like affixation, reduplication and modification. The aim of this paper is to examine the morphological processes that are found in Bura language. In this study, research informants were selected by means of sampling technique. The study helps us to understand that Bura like other languages morphological processes of verbs is possible.

Keywords: Bura language, infixation, morphological processes, prefixation, suffixation

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58 Generation of Knowlege with Self-Learning Methods for Ophthalmic Data

Authors: Klaus Peter Scherer, Daniel Knöll, Constantin Rieder

Abstract:

Problem and Purpose: Intelligent systems are available and helpful to support the human being decision process, especially when complex surgical eye interventions are necessary and must be performed. Normally, such a decision support system consists of a knowledge-based module, which is responsible for the real assistance power, given by an explanation and logical reasoning processes. The interview based acquisition and generation of the complex knowledge itself is very crucial, because there are different correlations between the complex parameters. So, in this project (semi)automated self-learning methods are researched and developed for an enhancement of the quality of such a decision support system. Methods: For ophthalmic data sets of real patients in a hospital, advanced data mining procedures seem to be very helpful. Especially subgroup analysis methods are developed, extended and used to analyze and find out the correlations and conditional dependencies between the structured patient data. After finding causal dependencies, a ranking must be performed for the generation of rule-based representations. For this, anonymous patient data are transformed into a special machine language format. The imported data are used as input for algorithms of conditioned probability methods to calculate the parameter distributions concerning a special given goal parameter. Results: In the field of knowledge discovery advanced methods and applications could be performed to produce operation and patient related correlations. So, new knowledge was generated by finding causal relations between the operational equipment, the medical instances and patient specific history by a dependency ranking process. After transformation in association rules logically based representations were available for the clinical experts to evaluate the new knowledge. The structured data sets take account of about 80 parameters as special characteristic features per patient. For different extended patient groups (100, 300, 500), as well one target value as well multi-target values were set for the subgroup analysis. So the newly generated hypotheses could be interpreted regarding the dependency or independency of patient number. Conclusions: The aim and the advantage of such a semi-automatically self-learning process are the extensions of the knowledge base by finding new parameter correlations. The discovered knowledge is transformed into association rules and serves as rule-based representation of the knowledge in the knowledge base. Even more, than one goal parameter of interest can be considered by the semi-automated learning process. With ranking procedures, the most strong premises and also conjunctive associated conditions can be found to conclude the interested goal parameter. So the knowledge, hidden in structured tables or lists can be extracted as rule-based representation. This is a real assistance power for the communication with the clinical experts.

Keywords: an expert system, knowledge-based support, ophthalmic decision support, self-learning methods

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57 Phylogenetic Study of L1 Protein Human Papillomavirus Type 16 From Cervical Cancer Patients in Bandung

Authors: Fitri Rahmi Fadhilah, Edhyana Sahiratmadja, Ani Melani Maskoen, Ratu Safitri, Supartini Syarif, Herman Susanto

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. In Indonesia, the incidence of cervical cancer cases is estimated at 25-40 per 100,000 women per year. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, and HPV-16 is the most common genotype that infects the cervical tissue. The major late protein L1 may be associated with infectivity and pathogenicity and its variation can be used to classify HPV isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the phylogenetic tree of HPV 16 L1 gene from cervical cancer patient isolates in Bandung. After confirming HPV-16 by Linear Array Genotyping Test, L1 gene was amplified using specific primers and subject for sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HPV 16 from Bandung was in the subgroup of Asia and East Asia, showing the close host-agent relationship among the Asian type.

Keywords: L1 HPV 16, cervical cancer, bandung, phylogenetic

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56 Patterns of Libido, Sexual Activity and Sexual Performance in Female Migraineurs

Authors: John Farr Rothrock

Abstract:

Although migraine traditionally has been assumed to convey a relative decrease in libido, sexual activity and sexual performance, recent data have suggested that the female migraine population is far from homogenous in this regard. We sought to determine the levels of libido, sexual activity and sexual performance in the female migraine patient population both generally and according to clinical phenotype. In this single-blind study, a consecutive series of sexually active new female patients ages 25-55 initially presenting to a university-based headache clinic and having a >1 year history of migraine were asked to complete anonymously a survey assessing their sexual histories generally and as they related to their headache disorder and the 19-item Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). To serve as 2 separate control groups, 100 sexually active females with no history of migraine and 100 female migraineurs from the general (non-clinic) population but matched for age, marital status, educational background and socioeconomic status completed a similar survey. Over a period of 3 months, 188 consecutive migraine patients were invited to participate. Twenty declined, and 28 of the remaining 160 potential subjects failed to meet the inclusion criterion utilized for “sexually active” (ie, heterosexual intercourse at a frequency of > once per month in each of the preceding 6 months). In all groups younger age (p<.005), higher educational level attained (p<.05) and higher socioeconomic status (p<.025) correlated with a higher monthly frequency of intercourse and a higher likelihood of intercourse resulting in orgasm. Relative to the 100 control subjects with no history of migraine, the two migraine groups (total n=232) reported a lower monthly frequency of intercourse and recorded a lower FSFI score (both p<.025), but the contribution to this difference came primarily from the chronic migraine (CM) subgroup (n=92). Patients with low frequency episodic migraine (LFEM) and mid frequency episodic migraine (MFEM) reported a higher FSFI score, higher monthly frequency of intercourse, higher likelihood of intercourse resulting in orgasm and higher likelihood of multiple active sex partners than controls. All migraine subgroups reported a decreased likelihood of engaging in intercourse during an active migraine attack, but relative to the CM subgroup (8/92=9%), a higher proportion of patients in the LFEM (12/49=25%), MFEM (14/67=21%) and high frequency episodic migraine (HFEM: 6/14=43%) subgroups reported utilizing intercourse - and orgasm specifically - as a means of potentially terminating a migraine attack. In the clinic vs no-clinic groups there were no significant differences in the dependent variables assessed. Research subjects with LFEM and MFEM may report a level of libido, frequency of intercourse and likelihood of orgasm-associated intercourse that exceeds what is reported by age-matched controls free of migraine. Many patients with LFEM, MFEM and HFEM appear to utilize intercourse/orgasm as a means to potentially terminate an acute migraine attack.

Keywords: migraine, female, libido, sexual activity, phenotype

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55 Effectiveness of Dry Needling with and without Ultrasound Guidance in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis and Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Johnson C. Y. Pang, Amy S. N. Fu, Ryan K. L. Lee, Allan C. L. Fu

Abstract:

Dry needling (DN) is one of the puncturing methods that involves the insertion of needles into the tender spots of the human body without the injection of any substance. DN has long been used to treat the patient with knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), but the effectiveness is still inconsistent. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the intervention methods and effects of DN with and without ultrasound guidance for treating pain and dysfunctions in people with KOA and PFPS. Design: This systematic review adhered to the PRISMA reporting guidelines. The registration number of the study protocol published in the PROSPERO database was CRD42021221419. Six electronic databases were searched manually through CINAHL Complete (1976-2020), Cochrane Library (1996-2020), EMBASE (1947-2020), Medline (1946-2020), PubMed (1966-2020), and Psychinfo (1806-2020) in November 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials were included to examine the effects of DN on knee pain, including KOA and PFPS. The key concepts included were: DN, acupuncture, ultrasound guidance, KOA, and PFPS. Risk of bias assessment and qualitative analysis were conducted by two independent reviewers using the PEDro score. Results: Fourteen articles met the inclusion criteria, and eight of them were high-quality papers in accordance with the PEDro score. There were variations in the techniques of DN. These included the direction, depth of insertion, number of needles, duration of stay, needle manipulation, and the number of treatment sessions. Meta-analysis was conducted on eight articles. DN group showed positive short-term effects (from immediate after DN to less than 3 months) on pain reduction for both KOA and PFPS with the overall standardized mean difference (SMD) of -1.549 (95% CI=-0.588 to -2.511); with great heterogeneity (P=0.002, I²=96.3%). In subgroup analysis, DN demonstrated significant effects in pain reduction on PFPS (p < 0.001) that could not be found in subjects with KOA (P=0.302). At 3-month post-intervention, DN also induced significant pain reduction in both subjects with KOA and PFPS with an overall SMD of -0.916 (95% CI=-0.133 to -1.699, and great heterogeneity (P=0.022, I²=95.63%). Besides, DN induced significant short-term improvement in function with the overall SMD=6.069; 95% CI=8.595 to 3.544; with great heterogeneity (P<0.001, I²=98.56%) when analyzed was conducted on both KOA and PFPS groups. In subgroup analysis, only PFPS showed a positive result with SMD=6.089, P<0.001; while KOA showed statistically insignificant with P=0.198 in short-term effect. Similarly, at 3-month post-intervention, significant improvement in function after DN was found when the analysis was conducted in both groups with the overall SMD=5.840; 95% CI=9.252 to 2.428; with great heterogeneity (P<0.001, I²=99.1%), but only PFPS showed significant improvement in sub-group analysis (P=0.002, I²=99.1%). Conclusions: The application of DN in KOA and PFPS patients varies among practitioners. DN is effective in reducing pain and dysfunction at short-term and 3-month post-intervention in individuals with PFPS. To our best knowledge, no study has reported the effects of DN with ultrasound guidance on KOA and PFPS. The longer-term effects of DN on KOA and PFPS are waiting for further study.

Keywords: dry needling, knee osteoarthritis, patellofemoral pain syndrome, ultrasound guidance

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54 The Effects of Aging on Visuomotor Behaviors in Reaching

Authors: Mengjiao Fan, Thomson W. L. Wong

Abstract:

It is unavoidable that older adults may have to deal with aging-related motor problems. Aging is highly likely to affect motor learning and control as well. For example, older adults may suffer from poor motor function and quality of life due to age-related eye changes. These adverse changes in vision results in impairment of movement automaticity. Reaching is a fundamental component of various complex movements, which is therefore beneficial to explore the changes and adaptation in visuomotor behaviors. The current study aims to explore how aging affects visuomotor behaviors by comparing motor performance and gaze behaviors between two age groups (i.e., young and older adults). Visuomotor behaviors in reaching under providing or blocking online visual feedback (simulated visual deficiency) conditions were investigated in 60 healthy young adults (Mean age=24.49 years, SD=2.12) and 37 older adults (Mean age=70.07 years, SD=2.37) with normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Participants in each group were randomly allocated into two subgroups. Subgroup 1 was provided with online visual feedback of the hand-controlled mouse cursor. However, in subgroup 2, visual feedback was blocked to simulate visual deficiency. The experimental task required participants to complete 20 times of reaching to a target by controlling the mouse cursor on the computer screen. Among all the 20 trials, start position was upright in the center of the screen and target appeared at a randomly selected position by the tailor-made computer program. Primary outcomes of motor performance and gaze behaviours data were recorded by the EyeLink II (SR Research, Canada). The results suggested that aging seems to affect the performance of reaching tasks significantly in both visual feedback conditions. In both age groups, blocking online visual feedback of the cursor in reaching resulted in longer hand movement time (p < .001), longer reaching distance away from the target center (p<.001) and poorer reaching motor accuracy (p < .001). Concerning gaze behaviors, blocking online visual feedback increased the first fixation duration time in young adults (p<.001) but decreased it in older adults (p < .001). Besides, under the condition of providing online visual feedback of the cursor, older adults conducted a longer fixation dwell time on target throughout reaching than the young adults (p < .001) although the effect was not significant under blocking online visual feedback condition (p=.215). Therefore, the results suggested that different levels of visual feedback during movement execution can affect gaze behaviors differently in older and young adults. Differential effects by aging on visuomotor behaviors appear on two visual feedback patterns (i.e., blocking or providing online visual feedback of hand-controlled cursor in reaching). Several specific gaze behaviors among the older adults were found, which imply that blocking of visual feedback may act as a stimulus to seduce extra perceptive load in movement execution and age-related visual degeneration might further deteriorate the situation. It indeed provides us with insight for the future development of potential rehabilitative training method (e.g., well-designed errorless training) in enhancing visuomotor adaptation for our aging population in the context of improving their movement automaticity by facilitating their compensation of visual degeneration.

Keywords: aging effect, movement automaticity, reaching, visuomotor behaviors, visual degeneration

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53 Separation of Urinary Proteins with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis in Patients with Secondary Nephropathies

Authors: Irena Kostovska, Katerina Tosheska Trajkovska, Svetlana Cekovska, Julijana Brezovska Kavrakova, Hristina Ampova, Sonja Topuzovska, Ognen Kostovski, Goce Spasovski, Danica Labudovic

Abstract:

Background: Proteinuria is an important feature of secondary nephropathies. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteinuria plays an important role in determining the types of proteinuria (glomerular, tubular and mixed), in the diagnosis and prognosis of secondary nephropathies. The damage of the glomerular basement membrane is responsible for a proteinuria characterized by the presence of large amounts of protein with high molecular weights such as albumin (69 kilo Daltons-kD), transferrin (78 kD) and immunoglobulin G (150 kD). An insufficiency of proximal tubular function is the cause of a proteinuria characterized by the presence of proteins with low molecular weight (LMW), such as retinol binding protein (21 kD) and α1-microglobulin (31 kD). In some renal diseases, a mixed glomerular and tubular proteinuria is frequently seen. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is the most widely used method of analyzing urine proteins for clinical purposes. The main aim of the study is to determine the type of proteinuria in the most common secondary nephropathies such as diabetic, hypertensive nephropathy and preeclampsia. Material and methods: In this study were included 90 subjects: subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n=30), subjects with hypertensive nephropahty (n=30) and pregnant women with preeclampsia (n=30). We divided all subjects according to UM/CR into three subgroups: macroalbuminuric (UM/CR >300 mg/g), microalbuminuric (UM/CR 30-300 mg/g) and normolabuminuric (UM/CR<30 mg/g). In all subjects, we measured microalbumin and creatinine in urine with standard biochemical methods. Separation of urinary proteins was performed by SDS-PAGE, in several stages: linear gel preparation (4-22%), treatment of urinary samples before their application on the gel, electrophoresis, gel fixation, coloring with Coomassie blue, and identification of the separated protein fractions based on standards with exactly known molecular weight. Results: According to urinary microalbumin/creatinin ratio in group of subject with diabetic nephropathy, nine patients were macroalbuminuric, while 21 subject were microalbuminuric. In group of subjects with hypertensive nephropathy, we found macroalbuminuria (n=4), microalbuminuria (n=20) and normoalbuminuria (n=6). All pregnant women with preeclampsia were macroalbuminuric. Electrophoretic separation of urinary proteins showed that in macroalbuminric patients with diabetic nephropathy 56% have mixed proteinuria, 22% have glomerular proteinuria and 22% have tubular proteinuria. In subgroup of subjects with diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria, 52% have glomerular proteinuria, 8% have tubular proteinuria, and 40% of subjects have normal electrophoretic findings. All patients with maroalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy have mixed proteinuria. In subgroup of patients with microalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy, we found: 32% with mixed proteinuria, 27% with normal findings, 23% with tubular, and 18% with glomerular proteinuria. In all normoalbuminruic patiens with hypertensive nephropathy, we detected normal electrophoretic findings. In group of subjects pregnant women with preeclampsia, we found: 81% with mixed proteinuria, 13% with glomerular, and 8% with tubular proteinuria. Conclusion: By SDS PAGE method, we detected that in patients with secondary nephropathies the most common type of proteinuria is mixed proteinuria, indicating both loss of glomerular permeability and tubular function. We can conclude that SDS PAGE is high sensitive method for detection of renal impairment in patients with secondary nephropathies.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, preeclampsia, hypertensive nephropathy, SDS PAGE

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52 Ionic Liquid 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Bromide as Reaction Medium for the Synthesis of Flavanones under Solvent-Free Conditions

Authors: Cecilia Espindola, Juan Carlos Palacios

Abstract:

Flavonoids are a large group of natural compounds which are found in many fruits and vegetables. A subgroup of these called flavanones display a wide range of biological activities, and they also have an important physiological role in plants. The ionic liquid (ILs) are compounds consisting of an organic cation with an organic or inorganic anion. Due to its unique properties such as high electrical conductivity, wide temperature range of the liquid state, thermal and electrochemical stability, high ionic density and low volatility and flammability, are considered as ecological solvents in organic synthesis, catalysis, electrolytes in accumulators, and electrochemistry, non-volatile plasticizers, and chemical separation. It was synthesized ionic liquid IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide free-solvent and used as reaction medium for flavanones synthesis, under several reaction conditions of temperature, time and production. The obtained compounds were analyzed by melting point, elemental analysis, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy.

Keywords: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, flavonoids, free-solvent, IR spectroscopy

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