Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Sayan Panma

7 Undirected Endo-Cayley Digraphs of Cyclic Groups of Order Primes

Authors: Chanon Promsakon, Sayan Panma

Abstract:

Let S be a finite semigroup, A a subset of S and f an endomorphism on S. The endo-Cayley digraph of a semigroup S corresponding to a connecting set A and an endomorphism f, denoted by endo − Cayf (S, A) is a digraph whose vertex set is S and a vertex u is adjacent to a vertex v if and only if v = f(u)a for some a ∈ A. A digraph D is called undirected if any edge uv in D, there exists an edge vu in D. We consider the undirectedness of an endo-Cayley of a cyclic group of order prime, Zp. In this work, we investigate conditions for connecting sets and endomorphisms to make endo-Cayley digraphs of cyclic groups of order primes be undirected. Moreover, we give some conditions for an undirected endo-Cayley of cycle group of any order.

Keywords: endo-Cayley graph, undirected digraphs, cyclic groups, endomorphism

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6 Independence and Path Independence on Cayley Digraphs of Left Groups and Right Groups

Authors: Nuttawoot Nupo, Sayan Panma

Abstract:

A semigroup S is said to be a left (right) zero semigroup if S satisfies the equation xy=x (xy=y) for all x,y in S. In addition, the semigroup S is called a left (right) group if S is isomorphic to the direct product of a group and a left (right) zero semigroup. The Cayley digraph Cay(S,A) of a semigroup S with a connection set A is defined to be a digraph with the vertex set S and the arc set E(Cay(S,A))={(x,xa) | x∈S, a∈A} where A is any subset of S. All sets in this research are assumed to be finite. Let D be a digraph together with a vertex set V and an arc set E. Let u and v be two different vertices in V and I a nonempty subset of V. The vertices u and v are said to be independent if (u,v)∉E and (v,u)∉E. The set I is called an independent set of D if any two different vertices in I are independent. The independence number of D is the maximum cardinality of an independent set of D. Moreover, the vertices u and v are said to be path independent if there is no dipath from u to v and there is no dipath from v to u. The set I is called a path independent set of D if any two different vertices in I are path independent. The path independence number of D is the maximum cardinality of a path independent set of D. In this research, we describe a lower bound and an upper bound of the independence number of Cayley digraphs of left groups and right groups. Some examples corresponding to those bounds are illustrated here. Furthermore, the exact value of the path independence number of Cayley digraphs of left groups and right groups are also presented.

Keywords: Cayley digraphs, independence number, left groups, path independence number, right groups

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5 Gestalt in Music and Brain: A Non-Linear Chaos Based Study with Detrended/Adaptive Fractal Analysis

Authors: Shankha Sanyal, Archi Banerjee, Sayan Biswas, Sourya Sengupta, Sayan Nag, Ranjan Sengupta, Dipak Ghosh

Abstract:

The term ‘gestalt’ has been widely used in the field of psychology which defined the perception of human mind to group any object not in part but as a 'unified' whole. Music, in general, is polyphonic - i.e. a combination of a number of pure tones (frequencies) mixed together in a manner that sounds harmonious. The study of human brain response due to different frequency groups of the acoustic signal can give us an excellent insight regarding the neural and functional architecture of brain functions. Hence, the study of music cognition using neuro-biosensors is becoming a rapidly emerging field of research. In this work, we have tried to analyze the effect of different frequency bands of music on the various frequency rhythms of human brain obtained from EEG data. Four widely popular Rabindrasangeet clips were subjected to Wavelet Transform method for extracting five resonant frequency bands from the original music signal. These frequency bands were initially analyzed with Detrended/Adaptive Fractal analysis (DFA/AFA) methods. A listening test was conducted on a pool of 100 respondents to assess the frequency band in which the music becomes non-recognizable. Next, these resonant frequency bands were presented to 20 subjects as auditory stimulus and EEG signals recorded simultaneously in 19 different locations of the brain. The recorded EEG signals were noise cleaned and subjected again to DFA/AFA technique on the alpha, theta and gamma frequency range. Thus, we obtained the scaling exponents from the two methods in alpha, theta and gamma EEG rhythms corresponding to different frequency bands of music. From the analysis of music signal, it is seen that loss of recognition is proportional to the loss of long range correlation in the signal. From the EEG signal analysis, we obtain frequency specific arousal based response in different lobes of brain as well as in specific EEG bands corresponding to musical stimuli. In this way, we look to identify a specific frequency band beyond which the music becomes non-recognizable and below which in spite of the absence of other bands the music is perceivable to the audience. This revelation can be of immense importance when it comes to the field of cognitive music therapy and researchers of creativity.

Keywords: AFA, DFA, EEG, gestalt in music, Hurst exponent

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4 Capacity Building for Tourism Infrastructure: A Case of Tourism Influenced Regions in Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Sayan Munshi, Subrajit Banerjee, Indrani Chakraborty

Abstract:

Tourism is a prime sector in the economic development of many countries in particular the Indian sub-continent. Tourism is considered an integral pillar in the Make in India Program under the Government of India. The statistics of tourism in India had evolved from a past with the formation of History. The sector had shown dynamic changes in the statistics since 1980. With the evolving tourism along with destinations, this sector has been converted into the prime industry, as it not only impacts the destination but on the other hand supports the periphery of the destination. Tourism boost revenue and creates varied economic possibilities for the residents. Due to the influx of tourism in the cities, a load on the infrastructure and services can be observed, specifically in the Physical Infrastructure sectors. Due to the floating population in the designated tourism core of the Urban / Peri-Urban area, issues pertaining to Solid waste management and Transportation are highly observed. Thus, a need for capacity building arises for the infrastructure impacted by tourism, which may result in the upgradation of the lifestyle of the city and its permanent users. As tourism of a region has a dependency on the infrastructure, the paper here focuses on the relationship between tourism potential of a region and the infrastructural determinants of the city or region and hence to derive a structural equation supporting the relationship, further determine a coefficient and suggest the domain of in need of upgradation or retrofitting possibilities. The outcome of the paper is to suggest possible recommendations towards the formation of policies on an urban level to support the tourism potential of the region.

Keywords: urban planning, tourism planning, infrastructure, transportation, solid waste management

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3 Gamified App Interventions on Behaviour Change in Patients at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Authors: Sayan Mitra, Cynthia M. Kroeger, Tian Wang, Sophie A. Cassidy, Robin Huang, Luigi Fontana, Na Liu

Abstract:

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and largely avoidable with lifestyle behavioural change. However, it is challenging to intervene on lifestyle, as classical reward-based systems lose their efficacy over time. Gamification is thought to improve intervention compliance and health outcomes by maintaining intrinsic motivation yet has not been reviewed systematically in patients at risk of CVD. Thus, we aim to determine whether gamification in smartphone apps improves lifestyle and cardiometabolic profile in this population compared to apps or non-app interventions without gamification. Six databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) were searched from inception until 31st March 2022 for randomised controlled trials of smartphone app-based interventions in adults with or at risk of CVD. Population demographics, study design, behaviour change theory, gamification description, and health outcomes (LDL-C, HbA1c, SBP, and body weight) were independently extracted by two reviewers. The Cochrane RoB2 tool was used to estimate the risk-of-bias. A random-effects model will be used to assess differences in the mean changes in health outcomes over time between the gamification and control groups. We registered the protocol (PROSPERO registration CRD42021239220) prior to commencing the review. This study will investigate the effects of gamified versus standard smartphone app-based (or non-app) approach in improving cardiovascular health. We also aim to obtain a better understanding of whether gamification influences behaviour change and retention time within the apps.

Keywords: app-based education, behaviour change, cardiovascular health, gamification, smartphone

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2 Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solutions by Leaf and Stem Biochar Derived from Lantana camara: Adsorption Kinetics, Equilibrium, Thermodynamics and Possible Mechanism

Authors: Deepa Kundu, Prabhakar Sharma, Sayan Bhattacharya, Jianying Shang

Abstract:

The discharge of dye-containing effluents in the water bodies has raised concern due to the potential hazards related to their toxicity in the environment. There are various treatment technologies available for the removal of dyes from wastewaters. The use of biosorbent to remove dyes from wastewater is one of the effective and inexpensive techniques. In the study, the adsorption of phenothiazine dye methylene blue onto biosorbent prepared from Lantana camara L. has been studied in aqueous solutions. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted and the effects of various parameters such as pH (3-12), contact time, adsorbent dose (100-400 mg/L), initial dye concentration (5-20 mg/L), and temperature (303, 313 and 323 K) were investigated. The prepared leaf (BCL600) and shoot (BCS600) biochar of Lantana were characterized using FTIR, SEM, elemental analysis, and zeta potential (pH~7). A comparison between the adsorption potential of both the biosorbent was also evaluated. The results indicated that the amount of methylene blue dye (mg/g) adsorbed onto the surface of biochar was highly dependent on the pH of the dye solutions as it increased with an increase in pH from 3 to 12. It was observed that the dye treated with BCS600 and BCL600 attained an equilibrium within 60 and 100 minutes, respectively. The rate of the adsorption process was determined by performing the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics. It was found that dye treated with both BCS600 and BCL600 followed pseudo-second-order kinetics implying the multi-step nature of the adsorption process involving external adsorption and diffusion of dye molecules into the interior of the adsorbents. The data obtained from batch experiments were fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms (R² > 0.98) to indicate the multilayer adsorption of dye over the biochar surfaces. The thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process is favourable, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature. Based on the results, the inexpensive and easily available Lantana camara biomass can be used to remove methylene blue dye from wastewater. It can also help in managing the growth of the notorious weed in the environment.

Keywords: adsorption kinetics, biochar, Lantana camara, methylene blue dye, possible mechanism, thermodynamics

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1 Still Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Despite Proper Treatment of Chronic Viral Hepatitis

Authors: Sila Akhan, Muge Toygar, Murat Sayan, Simge Fidan

Abstract:

Chronic viral hepatitis B, C, and D can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis and death. The proper treatment reduce the risk of development of HCC importantly, but not to zero point. Materials and Methods: We analysed retrospectively our chronic viral hepatitis B, C and D patients who attended to our Infectious Diseases policlinic between 2004-2018. From 589 biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis patients 3 have hepatocellular carcinoma on our follow up. First case is 74 years old patient. His HCV infection diagnosis was made 8 years ago. First treatment was pegylated interferon plus ribavirin only 28 weeks, because of HCV RNA breakthrough under treatment. In 2013 he was retreated with telaprevir, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin 24 weeks. But at the end of the therapy HCV RNA was found 1.290.000 IU/mL. He has abdominal ultrasonography (US) controls and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 6 months intervals. All seemed normal until 2015 then he has an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and found HCC by chance. His treatment began in Oncology Clinic after verified with biopsy of HCC. And then sofosbuvir/ledipasvir was given to him for HCV 24 weeks. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was obtained. He is on cure for HCV infection and under control of Oncology for HCC. Second patient is 36 years old man. He knows his HBV infection since 2008. HBsAg and HBeAg positive; HDV RNA negative. Liver biopsy revealed grade:4, stage 3-4 according modified Knodell scoring system. In 2010 tenofovir treatment was began. His abdominal US and AFP were normal. His controls took place at 6 months intervals and HBV DNA negative, US, and AFP were normal until 2016 continuously. AFP found 37 above the normal range and then HCC was found in MRI. Third patient is 57 years old man. As hepatitis B infection was first diagnosed; he has cirrhosis and was began tenofovir as treatment. In short time he has HCC despite normal AFP values. Conclusion: In Mediterranian countries including Turkey naturally occurring pre-S/S variants are more than 75% of all chronic hepatitis B patients. This variants may contribute to the development of progressive liver damage and hepatocarcinogenesis. HCV-induced development of HCC is a gradual process and is affected by the duration of disease and viral genotype. All the chronic viral hepatitis patients should be followed up in 6 months intervals not only with US and AFP for HCC. Despite they have proper treatment there is always the risk development of HCC. Chronic hepatitis patients cannot be dropped from follow up even treated well.

Keywords: HCC, HCV, HBV, DAA

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