Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: grading

121 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, R. Zakaria, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro

Abstract:

In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: electrophoretic mobility, essential oil, nanoemulsion, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tween 80, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
120 Prediction of Changes in Optical Quality by Tissue Redness after Pterygium Surgery

Authors: Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Azrin Esmady Ariffin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd Tamrin, Norfazrina Abdul Gaffur, Tengku Mohd Tengku Sembok

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to predict optical quality changes after pterygium surgery using tissue redness grading. Methods: Sixty-eight primary pterygium participants were selected from patients who visited an ophthalmology clinic. We developed a semi-automated computer program to measure the pterygium fibrovascular redness from digital pterygium images. The outcome of this software is a continuous scale grading of 1 (minimum redness) to 3 (maximum redness). The region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the software. Reliability was determined by repeat grading of all 68 images and its association with contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and visual acuity (VA) was examined. Results: The mean and standard deviation of redness of the pterygium fibrovascular images was 1.88 ± 0.55. Intra- and inter-grader reliability estimates were high with intraclass correlation ranging from 0.97 to 0.98. The new grading was positively associated with CSF (p<0.01) and VA (p<0.01). The redness grading was able to predict 25% and 23% of the variance in the CSF and the VA respectively. Conclusions: The new grading of pterygium fibrovascular redness can be reliably measured from digital images and show a good correlation with CSF and VA. The redness grading can be used in addition to the existing pterygium grading.

Keywords: contrast sensitivity, pterygium, redness, visual acuity

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
119 Developing a Grading System for Restaurants

Authors: Joseph Roberson, Carina Kleynhans, Willie Coetzee

Abstract:

The low entry barriers of the restaurant industry lead to an extremely competitive business environment. In this volatile business sector it is of the utmost importance to implement a strategy of quality differentiation. Vital aspects of a quality differentiation strategy are total quality management, benchmarking and service quality management. Ultimately, restaurant success depends on the continuous support of customers. Customers select restaurants based on their expectations of quality. If the customers' expectations are met, they perceive quality service and will re-patronize the restaurant. The restaurateur can manage perceptions of quality by influencing expectations while ensuring that those expectations are not inflated. The management of expectations can be done by communicating service quality to customers. The aim of this research paper is to describe the development of a grading process for restaurants. An assessment of the extensive body of literature on grading was conducted through content analysis. A standardized method for developing a grading system would assist in successful grading systems that could inform both customers and restaurateurs of restaurant quality.

Keywords: benchmarking, restaurants, grading, service quality, total quality management

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
118 Assessing Student Collaboration in Music Ensemble Class: From the Formulation of Grading Rubrics to Their Effective Implementation

Authors: Jason Sah

Abstract:

Music ensemble class is a non-traditional classroom in the sense that it is always a group effort during rehearsal. When measuring student performance ability in class, it is imperative that the grading rubric includes a collaborative skill component. Assessments that stop short of testing students' ability to make music with others undermine the group mentality by elevating individual prowess. Applying empirical and evidence-based methodology, this research develops a grading rubric that defines the criteria for assessing collaborative skill, and then explores different strategies for implementing this rubric in a timely and effective manner. Findings show that when collaborative skill is regularly tested, students gradually shift their attention from playing their own part well to sharing their part with others.

Keywords: assessment, ensemble class, grading rubric, student collaboration

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
117 Exploring Faculty Attitudes about Grades and Alternative Approaches to Grading: Pilot Study

Authors: Scott Snyder

Abstract:

Grading approaches in higher education have not changed meaningfully in over 100 years. While there is variation in the types of grades assigned across countries, most use approaches based on simple ordinal scales (e.g, letter grades). While grades are generally viewed as an indication of a student's performance, challenges arise regarding the clarity, validity, and reliability of letter grades. Research about grading in higher education has primarily focused on grade inflation, student attitudes toward grading, impacts of grades, and benefits of plus-minus letter grade systems. Little research is available about alternative approaches to grading, varying approaches used by faculty within and across colleges, and faculty attitudes toward grades and alternative approaches to grading. To begin to address these gaps, a survey was conducted of faculty in a sample of departments at three diverse colleges in a southeastern state in the US. The survey focused on faculty experiences with and attitudes toward grading, the degree to which faculty innovate in teaching and grading practices, and faculty interest in alternatives to the point system approach to grading. Responses were received from 104 instructors (21% response rate). The majority reported that teaching accounted for 50% or more of their academic duties. Almost all (92%) of respondents reported using point and percentage systems for their grading. While all respondents agreed that grades should reflect the degree to which objectives were mastered, half indicated that grades should also reflect effort or improvement. Over 60% felt that grades should be predictive of success in subsequent courses or real life applications. Most respondents disagreed that grades should compare students to other students. About 42% worried about their own grade inflation and grade inflation in their college. Only 17% disagreed that grades mean different things based on the instructor while 75% thought it would be good if there was agreement. Less than 50% of respondents felt that grades were directly useful for identifying students who should/should not continue, identify strengths/weaknesses, predict which students will be most successful, or contribute to program monitoring of student progress. Instructors were less willing to modify assessment than they were to modify instruction and curriculum. Most respondents (76%) were interested in learning about alternative approaches to grading (e.g., specifications grading). The factors that were most associated with willingness to adopt a new grading approach were clarity to students and simplicity of adoption of the approach. Follow-up studies are underway to investigate implementations of alternative grading approaches, expand the study to universities and departments not involved in the initial study, examine student attitudes about alternative approaches, and refine the measure of attitude toward adoption of alternative grading practices within the survey. Workshops about challenges of using percentage and point systems for determining grades and workshops regarding alternative approaches to grading are being offered.

Keywords: alternative approaches to grading, grades, higher education, letter grades

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
116 Discussion as a Means to Improve Peer Assessment Accuracy

Authors: Jung Ae Park, Jooyong Park

Abstract:

Writing is an important learning activity that cultivates higher level thinking. Effective and immediate feedback is necessary to help improve students' writing skills. Peer assessment can be an effective method in writing tasks because it makes it possible for students not only to receive quick feedback on their writing but also to get a chance to examine different perspectives on the same topic. Peer assessment can be practiced frequently and has the advantage of immediate feedback. However, there is controversy about the accuracy of peer assessment. In this study, we tried to demonstrate experimentally how the accuracy of peer assessment could be improved. Participants (n=76) were randomly assigned to groups of 4 members. All the participant graded two sets of 4 essays on the same topic. They graded the first set twice, and the second set or the posttest once. After the first grading of the first set, each group in the experimental condition 1 (discussion group), were asked to discuss the results of the peer assessment and then to grade the essays again. Each group in the experimental condition 2 (reading group), were asked to read the assessment on each essay by an expert and then to grade the essays again. In the control group, the participants were asked to grade the 4 essays twice in different orders. Afterwards, all the participants graded the second set of 4 essays. The mean score from 4 participants was calculated for each essay. The accuracy of the peer assessment was measured by Pearson correlation with the scores of the expert. The results were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANOVA. The main effect of grading was observed: Grading accuracy got better as the number of grading experience increased. Analysis of posttest accuracy revealed that the score variations within a group of 4 participants decreased in both discussion and reading conditions but not in the control condition. These results suggest that having students discuss their grading together can be an efficient means to improve peer assessment accuracy. By discussing, students can learn from others about what to consider in grading and whether their grading is too strict or lenient. Further research is needed to examine the exact cause of the grading accuracy.

Keywords: peer assessment, evaluation accuracy, discussion, score variations

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
115 Quality Assessment of Hollow Sandcrete Blocks in Minna, Nigeria

Authors: M. Abdullahi, S. Sadiku, Bashar S. Mohammed, J. I. Aguwa

Abstract:

The properties of hollow sandcrete blocks produced in Minna, Nigeria are presented. Sandcrete block is made of cement, water and sand bound together in certain mix proportions. For the purpose of this work, fifty (50) commercial sandcrete block industries were visited in Minna, Nigeria to obtain block samples and aggregates used for the manufacture, and to also take inventory of the mix composition and the production process. Sieve analysis tests were conduction on the soil sample from various block industries to ascertain their quality to be used for block making. The mix ratios were also investigated. Five (5) nine inches (9’’ or 225mm) blocks were obtained from each block industry and tested for dimensional compliance and compressive strength. The result of test shows that the grading of the sand falls within the limit required by BS 882: 1990. The sand particles generally satisfy the grading requirement of overall grading and also fall in at least one of the classification of coarse grading, medium grading or fine grading. This clearly indicates that the quality of the aggregates used for the production of sandcrete blocks in Minna, Nigeria are of good quality in terms of grading and workable mix can easily be achieved to obtain high quality product. Physical examinations of the block sizes show slight deviation from the standard requirement in NIS 87:2000. Compressive strength of hollow sandcrete blocks in range of 0.12 N/mm2 to 0.54 N/mm2 was obtained which is below the recommendable value of 3.45 N/mm2 for load bearing hollow sandcrete blocks. This indicates that these blocks are below the standard for load-bearing sandcrete blocks and cannot be used as load bearing walling units. The mix composition also indicated low cement content resulting in low compressive strength. Most of the commercial block industries visited do not take curing very serious. Water were only sprinkled ones or twice before the blocks were stacked and made readily available for sale. It is recommended that a mix ratio of 1:4 to 1:6 should be used for the production of sandcrete blocks and proper curing practice should be adhered to. Blocks should also be cured for 14 days before making them available for consumers.

Keywords: compressive strength, dimensions, mix proportions, sandcrete blocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
114 Experimental Investigation on Utility and Suitability of Lateritic Soil as a Pavement Material

Authors: J. Hemanth, B. G. Shivaprakash, S. V. Dinesh

Abstract:

The locally available Lateritic soil in Dakshina Kanadda and Udupi districts are traditionally being used as building blocks for construction purpose but they do not meet the conventional requirements (L L ≤ 25% & P I ≤6%) and desired four days soaked CBR value to be used as a sub-base course material in pavements. In order to improve its properties to satisfy the Atterberg’s Limits, the soil is blended with sand, cement and quarry dust at various percentages and also to meet the CBR strength requirements, individual and combined gradation of various sized aggregates along with Laterite soil and other filler materials has been done for coarse graded granular sub-base materials (Grading II and Grading III). The effect of additives blended with lateritic soil and aggregates are studied in terms of Atterberg’s limits, compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), and permeability. It has been observed that the addition of sand, cement and quarry dust are found to be effective in improving Atterberg’s limits, CBR values, and permeability values. The obtained CBR and permeability values of Grading III, and Grading II materials found to be sufficient to be used as sub-base course for low volume roads and high volume roads respectively.

Keywords: lateritic soil, sand, quarry dust, gradation, sub-base course, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
113 Tenure Track System and Its Impact on Grading Leniency and Student Effort: A Quasi-Experimental Approach

Authors: Shao-Hsun Keng, Hwang-Ruey Song

Abstract:

This paper examines the causal effect of the tenure track system on instructors’ grading practices and teaching effectiveness by taking advantage of a natural experiment in Taiwan. The results show that assistant professors subject to the tenure track policy are more likely to grade leniently and fail fewer students. The course grade is 5% higher in classes taught by assistant professors subject to the tenure system. However, the tendency to grade leniently is reversed after assistant professors subject to the tenure system are promoted to a higher rank. Our findings are consistent with the exchange theory. We also show that teaching and student efforts are adversely affected by the tenure policy, which could reduce student learning and the quality of the workforce in the long run.

Keywords: tenure track system, grading leniency, study time, grade inflation

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
112 The Effect of Grading Characteristics on the Shear Strength and Mechanical Behavior of Granular Classes of Sand-Silt

Authors: Youssouf Benmeriem

Abstract:

Shear strength of sandy soils has been considered as the important parameter to study the stability of different civil engineering structures when subjected to monotonic, cyclic and earthquake loading conditions. The proposed research investigated the effect of grading characteristics on the shear strength and mechanical behavior of granular classes of sands mixed with silt in loose and dense states (Dr = 15% and 90%). The laboratory investigation aimed at understanding the extent or degree at which shear strength of sand-silt mixture soil is affected by its gradation under static loading conditions. For the purpose of clarifying and evaluating the shear strength characteristics of sandy soils, a series of Casagrande shear box tests were carried out on different reconstituted samples of sand-silt mixtures with various gradations. The soil samples were tested under different normal stresses (100, 200 and 300 kPa). The results from this laboratory investigation were used to develop insight into the shear strength response of sand and sand-silt mixtures under monotonic loading conditions. The analysis of the obtained data revealed that the grading characteristics (D10, D50, Cu, ESR, and MGSR) have significant influence on the shear strength response. It was found that shear strength can be correlated to the grading characteristics for the sand-silt mixture. The effective size ratio (ESR) and mean grain size ratio (MGSR) appear as pertinent parameters to predict the shear strength response of the sand-silt mixtures for soil gradation under study.

Keywords: grading characteristics, granular classes of sands, mechanical behavior, sand-silt, shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
111 A Combined Approach Based on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Vision for Qualitative Grading of Rice Grains

Authors: Hemad Zareiforoush, Saeed Minaei, Ahmad Banakar, Mohammad Reza Alizadeh

Abstract:

The quality inspection of rice (Oryza sativa L.) during its various processing stages is very important. In this research, an artificial intelligence-based model coupled with computer vision techniques was developed as a decision support system for qualitative grading of rice grains. For conducting the experiments, first, 25 samples of rice grains with different levels of percentage of broken kernels (PBK) and degree of milling (DOM) were prepared and their qualitative grade was assessed by experienced experts. Then, the quality parameters of the same samples examined by experts were determined using a machine vision system. A grading model was developed based on fuzzy logic theory in MATLAB software for making a relationship between the qualitative characteristics of the product and its quality. Totally, 25 rules were used for qualitative grading based on AND operator and Mamdani inference system. The fuzzy inference system was consisted of two input linguistic variables namely, DOM and PBK, which were obtained by the machine vision system, and one output variable (quality of the product). The model output was finally defuzzified using Center of Maximum (COM) method. In order to evaluate the developed model, the output of the fuzzy system was compared with experts’ assessments. It was revealed that the developed model can estimate the qualitative grade of the product with an accuracy of 95.74%.

Keywords: machine vision, fuzzy logic, rice, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
110 Battery Grading Algorithm in 2nd-Life Repurposing LI-Ion Battery System

Authors: Ya L. V., Benjamin Ong Wei Lin, Wanli Niu, Benjamin Seah Chin Tat

Abstract:

This article introduces a methodology that improves reliability and cyclability of 2nd-life Li-ion battery system repurposed as an energy storage system (ESS). Most of the 2nd-life retired battery systems in the market have module/pack-level state-of-health (SOH) indicator, which is utilized for guiding appropriate depth-of-discharge (DOD) in the application of ESS. Due to the lack of cell-level SOH indication, the different degrading behaviors among various cells cannot be identified upon reaching retired status; in the end, considering end-of-life (EOL) loss and pack-level DOD, the repurposed ESS has to be oversized by > 1.5 times to complement the application requirement of reliability and cyclability. This proposed battery grading algorithm, using non-invasive methodology, is able to detect outlier cells based on historical voltage data and calculate cell-level historical maximum temperature data using semi-analytic methodology. In this way, the individual battery cell in the 2nd-life battery system can be graded in terms of SOH on basis of the historical voltage fluctuation and estimated historical maximum temperature variation. These grades will have corresponding DOD grades in the application of the repurposed ESS to enhance system reliability and cyclability. In all, this introduced battery grading algorithm is non-invasive, compatible with all kinds of retired Li-ion battery systems which lack of cell-level SOH indication, as well as potentially being embedded into battery management software for preventive maintenance and real-time cyclability optimization.

Keywords: battery grading algorithm, 2nd-life repurposing battery system, semi-analytic methodology, reliability and cyclability

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
109 Early Recognition and Grading of Cataract Using a Combined Log Gabor/Discrete Wavelet Transform with ANN and SVM

Authors: Hadeer R. M. Tawfik, Rania A. K. Birry, Amani A. Saad

Abstract:

Eyes are considered to be the most sensitive and important organ for human being. Thus, any eye disorder will affect the patient in all aspects of life. Cataract is one of those eye disorders that lead to blindness if not treated correctly and quickly. This paper demonstrates a model for automatic detection, classification, and grading of cataracts based on image processing techniques and artificial intelligence. The proposed system is developed to ease the cataract diagnosis process for both ophthalmologists and patients. The wavelet transform combined with 2D Log Gabor Wavelet transform was used as feature extraction techniques for a dataset of 120 eye images followed by a classification process that classified the image set into three classes; normal, early, and advanced stage. A comparison between the two used classifiers, the support vector machine SVM and the artificial neural network ANN were done for the same dataset of 120 eye images. It was concluded that SVM gave better results than ANN. SVM success rate result was 96.8% accuracy where ANN success rate result was 92.3% accuracy.

Keywords: cataract, classification, detection, feature extraction, grading, log-gabor, neural networks, support vector machines, wavelet

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
108 Evaluation of Gingival Hyperplasia Caused by Medications

Authors: Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Greta Plaka, Vera Ostreni

Abstract:

Purpose: Drug gingival hyperplasia is an uncommon pathology encountered during routine work in dental units. The purpose of this paper is to present the clinical appearance of gingival hyperplasia caused by medications. There are already three classes of medications that cause hyperplasia and based on data from the literature, the clinical cases encountered and included in this study have been compared. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a total of 311 patients, out of which 182 patients were included in our study, meeting the inclusion criteria. After each patient's history was recorded and it was found that patients were in their knowledge of chronic illness, undergoing treatment of gingivitis hypertrophic drugs was performed with a clinical examination of oral cavity and assessment by vertical and horizontal evaluation according to the periodontal indexes. Results: Of the data collected during the study, it was observed that 97% of patients with gingival hyperplasia are treated with nifedipine. 84% of patients treated with selected medicines and gingival hyperplasia in the oral cavity has been exposed at time period for more than 1 year and 1 month. According to the GOI, in the first rank of this index are about 21% of patients, in the second rank are 52%, in the third rank are 24% and in the fourth grade are 3%. According to the horizontal growth index of gingival hyperplasia, grade 1 included about 61% of patients and grade 2 included about 39% of patients with gingival hyperplasia. Bacterial index divides patients by degrees: grading 0 - 8.2%, grading 1 - 32.4%, grading 2 - 14% and grading 3 - 45.1%. Conclusions: The highest percentage of gingival hyperplasia caused by drugs is due to dosing of nifedipine for a duration of dosing and application for systemic healing for more than 1 year.

Keywords: drug gingival hyperplasia, horizontal growth index, vertical growth index

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
107 The Effect of Grading Characteristics on the Shear Strength and Mechanical Behavior of Granular Classes of Sands

Authors: Salah Brahim Belakhdar, Tari Mohammed Amin, Rafai Abderrahmen, Amalsi Bilal

Abstract:

Shear strength of sandy soils has been considered as the important parameter to study the stability of different civil engineering structures when subjected to monotonic, cyclic, and earthquake loading conditions. The proposed research investigated the effect of grading characteristics on the shear strength and mechanical behaviour of granular classes of sands mixed with salt in loose and dense states (Dr=15% and 90%). The laboratory investigation aimed at understanding the extent or degree at which shear strength of sand-silt mixture soil is affected by its gradation under static loading conditions. For the purpose of clarifying and evaluating the shear strength characteristics of sandy soils, a series of Casagrande shear box tests were carried out on different reconstituted samples of sand-silt mixtures with various gradations. The soil samples were tested under different normal stresses (100, 200, and 300 kPa). The results from this laboratory investigation were used to develop insight into the shear strength response of sand and sand-silt mixtures under monotonic loading conditions. The analysis of the obtained data revealed that the grading characteristics (D10, D50, Cu, ESR, and MGSR) have a significant influence on the shear strength response. It was found that shear strength can be correlated to the grading characteristics for the sand-silt mixture. The effective size ratio (ESR) and mean grain size ratio (MGSR) appear as pertinent parameters to predict the shear strength response of the sand-silt mixtures for soil gradation under study.

Keywords: mechanical behavior, silty sand, friction angle, cohesion, fines content

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
106 Deep Learning Approach for Colorectal Cancer’s Automatic Tumor Grading on Whole Slide Images

Authors: Shenlun Chen, Leonard Wee

Abstract:

Tumor grading is an essential reference for colorectal cancer (CRC) staging and survival prognostication. The widely used World Health Organization (WHO) grading system defines histological grade of CRC adenocarcinoma based on the density of glandular formation on whole slide images (WSI). Tumors are classified as well-, moderately-, poorly- or un-differentiated depending on the percentage of the tumor that is gland forming; >95%, 50-95%, 5-50% and <5%, respectively. However, manually grading WSIs is a time-consuming process and can cause observer error due to subjective judgment and unnoticed regions. Furthermore, pathologists’ grading is usually coarse while a finer and continuous differentiation grade may help to stratifying CRC patients better. In this study, a deep learning based automatic differentiation grading algorithm was developed and evaluated by survival analysis. Firstly, a gland segmentation model was developed for segmenting gland structures. Gland regions of WSIs were delineated and used for differentiation annotating. Tumor regions were annotated by experienced pathologists into high-, medium-, low-differentiation and normal tissue, which correspond to tumor with clear-, unclear-, no-gland structure and non-tumor, respectively. Then a differentiation prediction model was developed on these human annotations. Finally, all enrolled WSIs were processed by gland segmentation model and differentiation prediction model. The differentiation grade can be calculated by deep learning models’ prediction of tumor regions and tumor differentiation status according to WHO’s defines. If multiple WSIs were possessed by a patient, the highest differentiation grade was chosen. Additionally, the differentiation grade was normalized into scale between 0 to 1. The Cancer Genome Atlas, project COAD (TCGA-COAD) project was enrolled into this study. For the gland segmentation model, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) reached 0.981 and accuracy reached 0.932 in validation set. For the differentiation prediction model, ROC reached 0.983, 0.963, 0.963, 0.981 and accuracy reached 0.880, 0.923, 0.668, 0.881 for groups of low-, medium-, high-differentiation and normal tissue in validation set. Four hundred and one patients were selected after removing WSIs without gland regions and patients without follow up data. The concordance index reached to 0.609. Optimized cut off point of 51% was found by “Maxstat” method which was almost the same as WHO system’s cut off point of 50%. Both WHO system’s cut off point and optimized cut off point performed impressively in Kaplan-Meier curves and both p value of logrank test were below 0.005. In this study, gland structure of WSIs and differentiation status of tumor regions were proven to be predictable through deep leaning method. A finer and continuous differentiation grade can also be automatically calculated through above models. The differentiation grade was proven to stratify CAC patients well in survival analysis, whose optimized cut off point was almost the same as WHO tumor grading system. The tool of automatically calculating differentiation grade may show potential in field of therapy decision making and personalized treatment.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, differentiation, survival analysis, tumor grading

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105 The Legal Nature of Grading Decisions and the Implications for Handling of Academic Complaints in or out of Court: A Comparative Legal Analysis of Academic Litigation in Europe

Authors: Kurt Willems

Abstract:

This research examines complaints against grading in higher education institutions in four different European regions: England and Wales, Flanders, the Netherlands, and France. The aim of the research is to examine the correlation between the applicable type of complaint handling on the one hand, and selected qualities of the higher education landscape and of public law on the other hand. All selected regions report a rising number of complaints against grading decisions, not only as to internal complaint handling within the institution but also judicially if the dispute persists. Some regions deem their administrative court system appropriate to deal with grading disputes (France) or have even erected a specialty administrative court to facilitate access (Flanders, the Netherlands). However, at the same time, different types of (governmental) dispute resolution bodies have been established outside of the judicial court system (England and Wales, and to lesser extent France and the Netherlands). Those dispute procedures do not seem coincidental. Public law issues such as the underlying legal nature of the education institution and, eventually, the grading decision itself, have an impact on the way the academic complaint procedures are developed. Indeed, in most of the selected regions, contractual disputes enjoy different legal protection than administrative decisions, making the legal qualification of the relationship between student and higher education institution highly relevant. At the same time, the scope of competence of government over different types of higher education institutions; albeit direct or indirect (o.a. through financing and quality control) is relevant as well to comprehend why certain dispute handling procedures have been established for students. To answer the above questions, the doctrinal and comparative legal method is used. The normative framework is distilled from the relevant national legislative rules and their preparatory texts, the legal literature, the (published) case law of academic complaints and the available governmental reports. The research is mainly theoretical in nature, examining different topics of public law (mainly administrative law) and procedural law in the context of grading decisions. The internal appeal procedure within the education institution is largely left out of the scope of the research, as well as different types of non-governmental-imposed cooperation between education institutions, given the public law angle of the research questions. The research results in the categorization of different academic complaint systems, and an analysis of the possibility to introduce each of those systems in different countries, depending on their public law system and higher education system. By doing so, the research also adds to the debate on the public-private divide in higher education systems, and its effect on academic complaints handling.

Keywords: higher education, legal qualification of education institution, legal qualification of grading decisions, legal protection of students, academic litigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
104 Relationship between Matrilin-3 (MATN-3) Gene Single Nucleotide Six Polymorphism, Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2 and Radiographic Grading in Primary Osteoarthritis

Authors: Heba Esaily, Rawhia Eledl, Daila Aboelela, Rasha Noreldin

Abstract:

Objective: Assess serum level of Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) and Matrilin-3 (MATN3) SNP6 polymorphism in osteoarthritic patients Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a musculoskeletal disease characterized by pain and joint stiffness. TGF-β 2 is involved in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, It has found that MATN3 gene and protein expression was correlated with the extent of tissue damage in OA. Findings suggest that regulation of MATN3 expression is essential for maintenance of the cartilage extracellular matrix microenvironment Subjects and Methods: 72 cases of primary OA (56 with knee OA and 16 with generalized OA were compared with that of 18 healthy controls. Radiographs were scored with the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Serum TGF-β2 was measured by using (ELISA), levels of marker were correlated to radiographic grading of disease and MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism was determined by (PCR-RFLP). Results: MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism and serum level of TGF-β2 were higher in OA compared with controls. Genotype, NN and N allele frequency were higher in patients with OA compared with controls. NN genotype and N allele frequency were higher in knee osteoarthritis than generalized OA. Significant positive correlation between level of TGFβ2 and radiographic grading in group with knee OA, but no correlation between serum level of TGFβ2 and radiographic grading in generalized OA. Conclusion: MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism and TGF-β2 implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Association of N/N genotype with primary osteoarthritis emphasizes on the need for prospective study include larger sample size to confirm the results of the present study.

Keywords: Matrilin-3, transforming growth factor beta 2, primary osteoarthritis, knee osteoarthritis

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
103 Short Answer Grading Using Multi-Context Features

Authors: S. Sharan Sundar, Nithish B. Moudhgalya, Nidhi Bhandari, Vineeth Vijayaraghavan

Abstract:

Automatic Short Answer Grading is one of the prime applications of artificial intelligence in education. Several approaches involving the utilization of selective handcrafted features, graphical matching techniques, concept identification and mapping, complex deep frameworks, sentence embeddings, etc. have been explored over the years. However, keeping in mind the real-world application of the task, these solutions present a slight overhead in terms of computations and resources in achieving high performances. In this work, a simple and effective solution making use of elemental features based on statistical, linguistic properties, and word-based similarity measures in conjunction with tree-based classifiers and regressors is proposed. The results for classification tasks show improvements ranging from 1%-30%, while the regression task shows a stark improvement of 35%. The authors attribute these improvements to the addition of multiple similarity scores to provide ensemble of scoring criteria to the models. The authors also believe the work could reinstate that classical natural language processing techniques and simple machine learning models can be used to achieve high results for short answer grading.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, intelligent systems, natural language processing, text mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
102 Computer-Aided Diagnosis System Based on Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in the Classification of Brain Tumor

Authors: Chih Jou Hsiao, Chung Ming Lo, Li Chun Hsieh

Abstract:

Brain tumor is not the cancer having high incidence rate, but its high mortality rate and poor prognosis still make it as a big concern. On clinical examination, the grading of brain tumors depends on pathological features. However, there are some weak points of histopathological analysis which can cause misgrading. For example, the interpretations can be various without a well-known definition. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of malignant tumors is a challenge to extract meaningful tissues under surgical biopsy. With the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tumor grading can be accomplished by a noninvasive procedure. To improve the diagnostic accuracy further, this study proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on MRI features to provide suggestions of tumor grading. Gliomas are the most common type of malignant brain tumors (about 70%). This study collected 34 glioblastomas (GBMs) and 73 lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) from The Cancer Imaging Archive. After defining the region-of-interests in MRI images, multiple quantitative morphological features such as region perimeter, region area, compactness, the mean and standard deviation of the normalized radial length, and moment features were extracted from the tumors for classification. As results, two of five morphological features and three of four image moment features achieved p values of <0.001, and the remaining moment feature had p value <0.05. Performance of the CAD system using the combination of all features achieved the accuracy of 83.18% in classifying the gliomas into LGG and GBM. The sensitivity is 70.59% and the specificity is 89.04%. The proposed system can become a second viewer on clinical examinations for radiologists.

Keywords: brain tumor, computer-aided diagnosis, gliomas, magnetic resonance imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
101 Characterization and Design of a Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Mix Formulation

Authors: H. Al-Baghli

Abstract:

Laboratory trial results of mixing crumb rubber produced from discarded tires with 60/70 pen grade Kuwaiti bitumen are presented on this paper. PG grading and multiple stress creep recovery tests were conducted on Kuwaiti bitumen blended with 15% and 18% crumb rubber at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 °C. The results from elastic recovery and non-recoverable creep presented optimum performance at 18% rubber content. The optimum rubberized-bitumen mix was next transformed into a pelletized form (PelletPave®), and was used as a partial replacement to the conventional bitumen in the manufacture of continuously graded hot mix asphalts at a number of binder contents. The trialed PelletPave® contents were at 2.5%, 3.0%, and 3.5% by mass of asphalt mix. In this investigation, it was not possible to utilize the results of standard Marshall method of mix design (i.e. volumetric, stability and flow tests) and subsequently additional assessment of mix compactability was carried out using gyratory compactor in order to determine the optimum PelletPave® and total binder contents.

Keywords: crumb rubber, Marshall mix design, PG grading, rubberized-bitumen

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100 Prognostic Value in Meningioma Patients’: A Clinical-Histopathological Study

Authors: Ilham Akbar Rahman, Aflah Dhea Bariz Yasta, Iin Fadhilah Utami Tamasse, Devina Juanita

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Meningioma is adult brain tumors originating from the meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. The females have approximately twice higher 2:1 than male in the incidence of meningioma. This study aimed to analyze the histopathological grading and clinical aspect in predicting the prognosis of meningioma patients. An observational study with cross sectional design was used on 53 meningioma patients treated at Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo hospital in 2016. The data then were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Of 53 patients, mostly 41 (77,4%) were female and 12 (22,6%) were male. The distribution of histopathology patients showed the meningothelial meningioma of 18 (43,9%) as the most type found. Fibroplastic meningioma were 8 (19,5%), while atypical meningioma and psammomatous meningioma were 6 (14,6%) each. The rest were malignant meningioma and angiomatous meningioma which found in respectively 2 (4,9%) and 1 (2,4%). Our result found significant finding that mostly male were fibroblastic meningioma (50%), however meningothelial meningioma were found in the majority of female (54,8%) and also seizure comprised only in higher grade meningioma. On the outcome of meningioma patient treated operatively, histopathological grade remained insignificant (p > 0,05). This study can be used as prognostic value of meningioma patients based on gender, histopathological grade, and clinical manifestation. Overall, the outcome of the meningioma’s patients is good and promising as long as it is well managed.

Keywords: meningioma, prognostic value, histopathological grading, clinical manifestation

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99 Understanding ASPECTS of Stroke: Interrater Reliability between Emergency Medicine Physician and Radiologist in a Rural Setup

Authors: Vineel Inampudi, Arjun Prakash, Joseph Vinod

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Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the interrater reliability in grading ASPECTS score, between emergency medicine physician at first contact and radiologist among patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 86 acute ischemic stroke cases referred to the Department of Radiodiagnosis during November 2014 to January 2016. The imaging (plain CT scan) was performed using GE Bright Speed Elite 16 Slice CT Scanner. ASPECTS score was calculated separately by an emergency medicine physician and radiologist. Interrater reliability for total and dichotomized ASPECTS (≥ 6 and < 6) scores were assessed using statistical analysis (ICC and Cohen ĸ coefficients) on SPSS software (v17.0). Results: Interrater agreement for total and dichotomized ASPECTS was substantial (ICC 0.79 and Cohen ĸ 0.68) between the emergency physician and radiologist. Mean difference in ASPECTS between the two readers was only 0.15 with standard deviation of 1.58. No proportionality bias was detected. Bland Altman plot was constructed to demonstrate the distribution of ASPECT differences between the two readers. Conclusion: Substantial interrater agreement was noted in grading ASPECTS between emergency medicine physician at first contact and radiologist thereby confirming its robustness even in a rural setting.

Keywords: ASPECTS, computed tomography, MCA territory, stroke

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98 Management of Facial Nerve Palsy Following Physiotherapy

Authors: Bassam Band, Simon Freeman, Rohan Munir, Hisham Band

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Objective: To determine efficacy of facial physiotherapy provided for patients with facial nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective study Subjects: 54 patients diagnosed with Facial nerve palsy were included in the study after they met the selection criteria including unilateral facial paralysis and start of therapy twelve months after the onset of facial nerve palsy. Interventions: Patients received the treatment offered at a facial physiotherapy clinic consisting of: Trophic electrical stimulation, surface electromyography with biofeedback, neuromuscular re-education and myofascial release. Main measures: The Sunnybrook facial grading scale was used to evaluate the severity of facial paralysis. Results: This study demonstrated the positive impact of physiotherapy for patient with facial nerve palsy with improvement of 24.2% on the Sunnybrook facial grading score from a mean baseline of 34.2% to 58.2%. The greatest improvement looking at different causes was seen in patient who had reconstructive surgery post Acoustic Neuroma at 31.3%. Conclusion: The therapy shows significant improvement for patients with facial nerve palsy even when started 12 months post onset of paralysis across different causes. This highlights the benefit of this non-invasive technique in managing facial nerve paralysis and possibly preventing the need for surgery.

Keywords: facial nerve palsy, treatment, physiotherapy, bells palsy, acoustic neuroma, ramsey-hunt syndrome

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97 Response of First Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) Students to Integrated Learning Program

Authors: Raveendranath Veeramani, Parkash Chand, H. Y. Suma, A. Umamageswari

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Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate students’ perception of Integrated Learning Program[ILP]. Settings and Design: A questionnaire was used to survey and evaluate the perceptions of 1styear MBBS students at the Department of Anatomy at our medical college in India. Materials and Methods: The first MBBS Students of Anatomy were involved in the ILP on the Liver and extra hepatic biliary apparatus integrating the Departments of Anatomy, Biochemistry and Hepato-biliary Surgery. The evaluation of the ILP was done by two sets of short questionnaire that had ten items using the Likert five-point grading scale. The data involved both the students’ responses and their grading. Results: A majority of students felt that the ILP was better in as compared to the traditional lecture method of teaching.The integrated teaching method was better at fulfilling learning objectives (128 students, 83%), enabled better understanding (students, 94%), were more interesting (140 students, 90%), ensured that they could score better in exams (115 students, 77%) and involved greater interaction (100 students, 66%), as compared to traditional teaching methods. Most of the students (142 students, 95%) opined that more such sessions should be organized in the future. Conclusions: Responses from students show that the integrated learning session should be incorporated even at first phase of MBBS for selected topics so as to create interest in the medical sciences at the entry level and to make them understand the importance of basic science.

Keywords: integrated learning, students response, vertical integration, horizontal integration

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96 Grading Fourteen Zones of Isfahan in Terms of the Impact of Globalization on the Urban Fabric of the City, Using the TOPSIS Model

Authors: A. Zahedi Yeganeh, A. Khademolhosseini, R. Mokhtari Malekabadi

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Undoubtedly one of the most far-reaching and controversial topics considered in the past few decades, has been globalization. Globalization lies in the essence of the modern culture. It is a complex and rapidly expanding network of links and mutual interdependence that is an aspect of modern life; though some argue that this link existed since the beginning of human history. If we consider globalization as a dynamic social process in which the geographical constraints governing the political, economic, social and cultural relationships have been undermined, it might not be possible to simply describe its impact on the urban fabric. But since in this phenomenon the increase in communications of societies (while preserving the main cultural - regional characteristics) with one another and the increase in the possibility of influencing other societies are discussed, the need for more studies will be felt. The main objective of this study is to grade based on some globalization factors on urban fabric applying the TOPSIS model. The research method is descriptive - analytical and survey. For data analysis, the TOPSIS model and SPSS software were used and the results of GIS software with fourteen cities are shown on the map. The results show that the process of being influenced by the globalization of the urban fabric of fourteen zones of Isfahan was not similar and there have been large differences in this respect between city zones; the most affected areas are zones 5, 6 and 9 of the municipality and the least impact has been on the zones 4 and 3 and 2.

Keywords: grading, globalization, urban fabric, 14 zones of Isfahan, TOPSIS model

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95 Concrete Mix Design Using Neural Network

Authors: Rama Shanker, Anil Kumar Sachan

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Basic ingredients of concrete are cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. To produce a concrete of certain specific properties, optimum proportion of these ingredients are mixed. The important factors which govern the mix design are grade of concrete, type of cement and size, shape and grading of aggregates. Concrete mix design method is based on experimentally evolved empirical relationship between the factors in the choice of mix design. Basic draw backs of this method are that it does not produce desired strength, calculations are cumbersome and a number of tables are to be referred for arriving at trial mix proportion moreover, the variation in attainment of desired strength is uncertain below the target strength and may even fail. To solve this problem, a lot of cubes of standard grades were prepared and attained 28 days strength determined for different combination of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. An artificial neural network (ANN) was prepared using these data. The input of ANN were grade of concrete, type of cement, size, shape and grading of aggregates and output were proportions of various ingredients. With the help of these inputs and outputs, ANN was trained using feed forward back proportion model. Finally trained ANN was validated, it was seen that it gave the result with/ error of maximum 4 to 5%. Hence, specific type of concrete can be prepared from given material properties and proportions of these materials can be quickly evaluated using the proposed ANN.

Keywords: aggregate proportions, artificial neural network, concrete grade, concrete mix design

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94 Implementation of Project-Based Learning with Peer Assessment in Large Classes under Consideration of Faculty’s Scare Resources

Authors: Margit Kastner

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To overcome the negative consequences associated with large class sizes and to support students in developing the necessary competences (e.g., critical thinking, problem-solving, or team-work skills) a marketing course has been redesigned by implementing project-based learning with peer assessment (PBL&PA). This means that students can voluntarily take advantage of this supplementary offer and explore -in addition to attending the lecture where clicker questions are asked- a real-world problem, find a solution, and assess the results of peers while working in small collaborative groups. In order to handle this with little further effort, the process is technically supported by the university’s e-learning system in such a way that students upload their solution in form of an assignment which is then automatically distributed to peer groups who have to assess the work of three other groups. Finally, students’ work is graded automatically considering both, students’ contribution to the project and the conformity of the peer assessment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate students’ perception of PBL&PA using an online-questionnaire to collect the data. More specifically, it aims to discover students’ motivations for (not) working on a project and the benefits and problems students encounter. In addition to the survey, students’ performance was analyzed by comparing the final grades of those who participated in PBL&PA with those who did not participate. Among the 260 students who filled out the questionnaire, 47% participated in PBL&PA. Besides extrinsic motivations (bonus credits), students’ participation was often motivated by learning and social benefits. Reasons for not working on a project were connected to students’ organization and management of their studies (e.g., time constraints, no/wrong information) and teamwork concerns (e.g., missing engagement of peers, prior negative experiences). In addition, high workload and insufficient extrinsic motivation (bonus credits) were mentioned. With regards to benefits and problems students encountered during the project, students provided more positive than negative comments. Positive aspects most often stated were learning and social benefits while negative ones were mainly attached to the technical implementation. Interestingly, bonus credits were hardly named as a positive aspect meaning that intrinsic motivations have become more important when working on the project. Team aspects generated mixed feelings. In addition, students who voluntarily participated in PBL&PA were, in general, more active and utilized further course offers such as clicker questions. Examining students’ performance at the final exam revealed that students without participating in any of the offered active learning tasks performed poorest in the exam while students who used all activities were best. In conclusion, the goals of the implementation were met in terms of students’ perceived benefits and the positive impact on students’ exam performance. Since the comparison of the automatic grading with faculty grading showed valid results, it is possible to rely only on automatic grading in the future. That way, the additional workload for faculty will be within limits. Thus, the implementation of project-based learning with peer assessment can be recommended for large classes.

Keywords: automated grading, large classes, peer assessment, project-based learning

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93 Efficacy of Learning: Digital Sources versus Print

Authors: Rahimah Akbar, Abdullah Al-Hashemi, Hanan Taqi, Taiba Sadeq

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As technology continues to develop, teaching curriculums in both schools and universities have begun adopting a more computer/digital based approach to the transmission of knowledge and information, as opposed to the more old-fashioned use of textbooks. This gives rise to the question: Are there any differences in learning from a digital source over learning from a printed source, as in from a textbook? More specifically, which medium of information results in better long-term retention? A review of the confounding factors implicated in understanding the relationship between learning from the two different mediums was done. Alongside this, a 4-week cohort study involving 76 1st year English Language female students was performed, whereby the participants were divided into 2 groups. Group A studied material from a paper source (referred to as the Print Medium), and Group B studied material from a digital source (Digital Medium). The dependent variables were grading of memory recall indexed by a 4 point grading system, and total frequency of item repetition. The study was facilitated by advanced computer software called Super Memo. Results showed that, contrary to prevailing evidence, the Digital Medium group showed no statistically significant differences in terms of the shift from Remember (Episodic) to Know (Semantic) when all confounding factors were accounted for. The shift from Random Guess and Familiar to Remember occurred faster in the Digital Medium than it did in the Print Medium.

Keywords: digital medium, print medium, long-term memory recall, episodic memory, semantic memory, super memo, forgetting index, frequency of repetitions, total time spent

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92 Risk Assessment of Flood Defences by Utilising Condition Grade Based Probabilistic Approach

Authors: M. Bahari Mehrabani, Hua-Peng Chen

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Management and maintenance of coastal defence structures during the expected life cycle have become a real challenge for decision makers and engineers. Accurate evaluation of the current condition and future performance of flood defence structures is essential for effective practical maintenance strategies on the basis of available field inspection data. Moreover, as coastal defence structures age, it becomes more challenging to implement maintenance and management plans to avoid structural failure. Therefore, condition inspection data are essential for assessing damage and forecasting deterioration of ageing flood defence structures in order to keep the structures in an acceptable condition. The inspection data for flood defence structures are often collected using discrete visual condition rating schemes. In order to evaluate future condition of the structure, a probabilistic deterioration model needs to be utilised. However, existing deterioration models may not provide a reliable prediction of performance deterioration for a long period due to uncertainties. To tackle the limitation, a time-dependent condition-based model associated with a transition probability needs to be developed on the basis of condition grade scheme for flood defences. This paper presents a probabilistic method for predicting future performance deterioration of coastal flood defence structures based on condition grading inspection data and deterioration curves estimated by expert judgement. In condition-based deterioration modelling, the main task is to estimate transition probability matrices. The deterioration process of the structure related to the transition states is modelled according to Markov chain process, and a reliability-based approach is used to estimate the probability of structural failure. Visual inspection data according to the United Kingdom Condition Assessment Manual are used to obtain the initial condition grade curve of the coastal flood defences. The initial curves then modified in order to develop transition probabilities through non-linear regression based optimisation algorithms. The Monte Carlo simulations are then used to evaluate the future performance of the structure on the basis of the estimated transition probabilities. Finally, a case study is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method under no-maintenance and medium-maintenance scenarios. Results show that the proposed method can provide an effective predictive model for various situations in terms of available condition grading data. The proposed model also provides useful information on time-dependent probability of failure in coastal flood defences.

Keywords: condition grading, flood defense, performance assessment, stochastic deterioration modelling

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