Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 248

Search results for: glutathione reductase

248 Determination of the Inhibitory Effects of N-Methylpyrrole Derivatives on Glutathione Reductase Enzyme

Authors: Esma Kocaoglu, Oktay Talaz, Huseyin Cavdar, Murat Senturk, Deniz Eki̇nci̇

Abstract:

Glutathione reductase (GR) is a crucial antioxidant enzyme which is responsible for the maintenance of the antioxidant GSH (glutathione) molecule. Antimalarial effects of some chemical molecules are attributed to their inhibition of GR; thus inhibitors of this enzyme are expected to be promising candidates for the treatment of malaria. In this work, GR inhibitory properties of N-Methylpyrrole derivatives are reported. Firstly, GR was purified by means of affinity chromatography using 2’,5’-ADP-Sepharose 4B as ligand. Enzymatic activity was measured by Beutler’s method. Synthesis of the compounds was approved by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Different inhibitor concentrations were used and all compounds were tested in triplicate at each concentration used. It was found that all compounds have better inhibitory activity than the strong GR inhibitor N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea, especially three molecules, 8m, 8n, and 8q, are the best among them with low micromolar I₅₀ values. Findings of our study indicate that these Schiff base derivatives are strong GR inhibitors which can be used as leads for designation of novel antimalaria candidates.

Keywords: glutathione reductase, antimalaria, inhibitor, enzyme

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247 Effect of Oxidative Stress on Glutathione Reductase Activity of Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Sabrina Mahboob, Anamika Saha, Afrin Jahan, Mohammad Nurul Islam

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequently experienced by the female population where the prevalence increases with aging. Escherichia coli, one of the most common UTI causing organisms, retains glutathione defense mechanism that aids the organism to withstand the harsh physiological environment of urinary tract, host oxidative immune response and even to affect antibiotic-mediated cell death and the emergence of resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the glutathione reductase activity of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) by observing the reduced glutathione (GSH) level alteration under stressful condition. Urine samples of 58 patients with UTI were collected. Upon isolation and identification, 88% of the samples presented E. coli as UTI causing organism among which randomly selected isolates (n=9), obtained from urine samples of female patients, were considered for this study. E. coli isolates were grown under normal and stressful conditions where H₂O₂ was used as the stress-inducing agent. GSH level estimation of the isolates in both conditions was carried out based on the colorimetric measurement of 5,5'-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and GSH reaction product using microplate reader assay. The GSH level of isolated E. coli sampled from adult patients decreased under stress compared to normal condition (p = 0.011). On the other hand, GSH production increased markedly in samples that were collected from elderly subjects (p = 0.024). A significant partial correlation between age and change of GSH level was found as well (p = 0.007). This study may help to reveal ways for better understanding of E. coli pathogenesis of UTI prevalence in elderly patients.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, glutathione reductase activity, oxidative stress, reduced glutathione (GSH), urinary tract infection (UTI)

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
246 Serum Anti-Oxidation Enzymes Response to L-Carnitine Supplementation

Authors: Farah Nameni, Hamidreza Poursadra, Maasumeh Nurani Pilehrud

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Exercise training induced Inflammation and stress. Antioxidant, for example L- Carnitine has beneficial effects in immune system and increased antioxidant enzymes activity. L- Carnitine protects the tissue against the oxidative side effect and helps the body to protect against stress during and after acute exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L-Carnitine on the blood enzymes: GPX SOD, CAT and GR response. In this study, 20 basketball players girls participated. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; placebo and supplementation. Antioxidadision enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase) evaluated. L-Carnitine supplement group orally daily received 3000 mg powder for 14 dys. Then all participates trained basketball exercise acute. Blood samples were drawn vein before and immediately after exercise. Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase were measured, and data was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA, Bonferroni and t-test. Our results showed: SOD, GPX and GPX (P < 0.05) have a significant increase. These results suggest L-Carnitine supplementation may increase GPX SOD, CAT, and basal anti oxidative capacity. L-Carnitine can modulate the alterations of exercise oxidative damage in girl basketball players.

Keywords: l-carnitine, GPX, SOD, CAT, exercise, GR, anti-oxidant

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
245 Effect of Auraptene on the Enzymatic Glutathione Redox-System in Nrf2 Knockout Mice

Authors: Ludmila A. Gavriliuc, Jerry McLarty, Heather E. Kleiner, J. Michael Mathis

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Abstract -- Background: The citrus coumarine Auraptene (Aur) is an effective chemopreventive agent, as manifested in many models of diseases and cancer. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is an important regulator of genes induced by oxidative stress, such as glutathione S-transferases, heme oxygenase-1, and peroxiredoxin 1, by activating the antioxidant response element (ARE). Genetic and biochemical evidence has demonstrated that glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-dependent enzymes, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidases (GPs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are responsible for the control of intracellular reduction-oxidation status and participate in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress. The effect of Aur on the activity of GR, GPs (Se-GP and Se-iGP), and content of GSH in the liver, kidney, and spleen is insufficiently explored. Aim: Our goal was the examination of the Aur influence on the redox-system of GSH in Nrf2 wild type and Nrf2 knockout mice via activation of Nrf2 and ARE. Methods: Twenty female mice, 10 Nrf2 wild-type (WT) and 10 Nrf2 (-/-) knockout (KO), were bred and genotyped for our study. The activity of GR, Se-GP, Se-iGP, GST, G6PD, CytP450 reductase, catalase (Cat), and content of GSH were analyzed in the liver, kidney, and spleen using Spectrophotometry methods. The results of the specific activity of enzymes and the amount of GSH were analyzed with ANOVA and Spearman statistical methods. Results: Aur (200 mg/kg) treatment induced hepatic GST, GR, Se-GP activity and inhibited their activity in the spleen of mice, most likely via activation of the ARE through Nrf2. Activation in kidney Se-GP and G6PD by Aur is also controlled, apparently through Nrf2. Results of the non-parametric Spearman correlation analysis indicated the strong positive correlation between GR and G6PD only in the liver in WT control mice (r=+0.972; p < 0.005) and in the kidney KO control mice (r=+0.958; p < 0.005). The observed low content of GSH in the liver of KO mice indicated an increase in its participation in the neutralization of toxic substances with the absence of induction of GSH-dependent enzymes, such as GST, GR, Se-GP, and Se-iGP. Activation of CytP450 in kidney and spleen and Cat in the liver in KO mice probably revealed another regulatory mechanism for these enzymes. Conclusion: Thereby, obtained results testify that Aur can modulate the activity of genes and antioxidant enzymatic redox-system of GSH, responsible for the control of intracellular reduction-oxidation status.

Keywords: auraptene, glutathione, GST, Nrf2

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244 Effect of Oral Administration of "Gadagi" Tea on Activities of Some Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats

Authors: A. M. Gadanya, M. S. Sule

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Effect of oral administration of Gadagi tea on some antioxidant enzymes was assessed in healthy male albino rats. The rats were grouped and administered with standard doses of the 3 types of Gadagi tea i.e. Sak, Sada and Magani for a period of four weeks. Animals that were not administered with the tea constituted the control group. At the end of fourth week, the animals were sacrificed and their serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined. The activities of the enzymes were also determined in the brain, liver, kidney and intestine homogenates of the rats. Mean SOD activity in brain of rats orally administered with “sada” was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the control group. Mean CAT activity in the intestine of rats orally administered with “magani” was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the control group and the experimental groups of Sak and Sada at standard dose level. Thus, all the “Gadagi” tea preparations studied at standard dose level could stimulate antioxidant enzymes, especially SOD in brain and CAT in intestine (by Sada) and CAT in intestine (by Magani).

Keywords: “Gadagi” tea, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
243 Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms in Murine Epidermis and Dermis and Their Responses to Ultraviolet Light

Authors: Ben Abderrahmane Ayoub El Fateh, Bnina Rachid

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A comprehensive comparison of antioxidant defenses in the dermis and epidermis and their response to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has not previously been attempted. In this study, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of hairless mice were compared. Enzyme activities are presented both as units/gram of skin and units/milligram of protein; arguments are presented for the superiority of skin wet weight as a reference base. Catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase (units/gram of skin) were higher in the epidermis than dermis by 49%, 86%, and 74%, respectively. Superoxide dismutase did not follow this pattern. Lipophilic antioxidants ( -tocopherol, ubiquinol 9, and ubiquinone 9) and hydrophilic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, and glutathione) were 24–95% higher in the epidermis than in dermis. In contrast, oxidized glutathione was 60% lower in the epidermis than in dermis. Mice were irradiated with solar light to examine the response of these cutaneous layers to UV irradiation. After irradiation with 25 J/cm2 (UVA + UVB, from a solar simulator), 10 times the minimum erythemal dose, epidermal and dermal catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were greatly decreased. Tocopherol, ubiquinol 9, ubiquinone 9, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione decreased in both epidermis and dermis by 26-93%. Oxidizedgiutathione showed a slight, non-significant increase. Because the reduction in total ascorbate and catalase was much more severe in the epidermis than dermis, it can be concluded that UV light is more damaging to the antioxidant defenses in the epidermis than in the dermis.

Keywords: antioxidant defenses, enzymic, epidermis, oxidizedgiutathione

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
242 Effect of Zinc Nanoparticles on Oxidative Stress-Related Genes and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in the Brain of Oreochromis Niloticus and Tilapia Zillii

Authors: Salina Saddick, Mohamed Afifi, Osama Abuznadah

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This study was carried out to determine the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) on Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii. The biochemical and molecular potential effects of ZnNPs (500 and 2000 μg L−1) on the antioxidant system in the brain tissue of O. niloticus and T. zillii were investigated. Four hundred fish were used for acute and sub-acute studies. ZnNP LC50 concentrations were investigated in O. niloticus and T. zillii. The effect of 500 and 2000 μg L−1 ZnNPs on brain antioxidants of O. niloticus and T. zillii was investigated. The result indicated that 69 h LC50 was 5.5 ± 0.6 and 5.6 ± 0.4 for O. nilotica and T. zillii, respectively. Fish exposed to 500 μg L−1 ZnNPs showed a significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), total glutathione (tGSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and gene expression. On the contrary, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly decreased. Meanwhile, fish exposed to 2000 μg L−1 ZnNPs showed a significant decrease of GSH, tGSH levels, SOD, CAT, GR, GPx and GST activity and gene expression. On the contrary, MDA levels significantly increased. It was concluded that, the 96 h LC50 of ZnNPs was 5.5 ± 0.6 and 5.6 ± 0.4 for O. nilotica and T. zillii, respectively. ZnNPs in exposure concentrations of 2000 μg/L induced a deleterious effect on the brain antioxidant system of O. nilotica and T. zillii. In contrast, ZnNPs in exposure concentrations of 500 μg L−1 produced an inductive effect on the brain antioxidant system of O. nilotica and T. zillii.

Keywords: ZnNPs, LC50, antioxidants, O. nilotica

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241 Effects of Irrigation Intervals on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Black Carrot Leaves (Daucus carota L.)

Authors: Hakan Arslan, Deniz Ekinci, Alper Gungor, Gurkan Bilir, Omer Tas, Mehmet Altun

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Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the agricultural production worldwide. In this study, Leaf samples were taken from the carrot plants grown under drought stress conditions during the harvesting period. The plants were irrigated in three irrigation interval (4, 6 and 8 days) and Irrigation water regime was set up in pots. The changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in leaves of black carrot were investigated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, SOD) were varied significantly with irrigation intervals. The highest value of GR, GST and SOD were determined in the irrigation interval of 6 days. All antioxidant activity values were decreased in 8 days of irrigation interval. As a result of the study, it has been suggested that optimum irrigation intervals for plants can be used in antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant enzyme, carrot, drought, irrigation interval

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240 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling of Detoxication Properties of Some 1,2-Dithiole-3-Thione Derivatives

Authors: Nadjib Melkemi, Salah Belaidi

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Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have been performed on nineteen molecules of 1,2-dithiole-3-thione analogues. The compounds used are the potent inducers of enzymes involved in the maintenance of reduced glutathione pools as well as phase-2 enzymes important to electrophile detoxication. A multiple linear regression (MLR) procedure was used to design the relationships between molecular descriptor and detoxication properties of the 1,2-dithiole-3-thione derivatives. The predictivity of the model was estimated by cross-validation with the leave-one-out method. Our results suggest a QSAR model based of the following descriptors: qS2, qC3, qC5, qS6, DM, Pol, log P, MV, SAG, HE and EHOMO for the specific activity of quinone reductase; qS1, qS2, qC3, qC4, qC5, qS6, DM, Pol, logP, MV, SAG, HE and EHOMO for the production of growth hormone. To confirm the predictive power of the models, an external set of molecules was used. High correlation between experimental and predicted activity values was observed, indicating the validation and the good quality of the derived QSAR models.

Keywords: QSAR, quinone reductase activity, production of growth hormone, MLR

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239 Enzymatic Biomonitoring of Aquatic Pollution at Jeddah Southern Red Sea Shore

Authors: Saleh Mohamed, Mohamed El-Shal, Taha Kumosani, Ahmad Mal, Youssri Ahmed, Yasser Almulaiky

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The marine environment of the Jeddah southern red sea shore is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities as sewage sludge draining and desalting processes. The objective of this study is to compare the quantitative responses of enzymatic biomarkers in fish from polluted area with the responses of organism from reference area. Enzymatic biomarkers as neurotoxic, antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were evaluated in the brain and liver from Variola louti as a sentinel species sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Jeddah southern red sea shore during four months January, April, July and October in 2014 and 2015. In brain of V. louti, the activity of acetylcholinestease (AChE) collected from reference area significantly increased 8.8 and 10.5 folds than that from polluted area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from liver of V. louti in polluted area significantly increased 1.4, 1.27 and 3, 4.5 and 4.37, 2 and 5, 4.5 folds than that from reference area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The levels of examined enzymes are approximately similar in the four seasons detected in 2014 and 2015 indicating that the similar components of sewage were draining in red sea. In conclusion, these findings suggest the important of enzymatic biomarkers in monitoring the pollution in Jeddah red sea shore.

Keywords: Variola louti, enzymatic biomarkers, pollution, Red sea

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238 Meld of Lactobacillus and Rangiferinus for Emendation of Endotoxemia in Alcoholic Liver Damage in Rats

Authors: Shukla Ila, Azmi Lubna, S. S. Gupta, Ch. V. Rao

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Oxidative stress has been increasingly associated with the induction and progression of liver damage. The current study was conducted to record the effect of combination of Lactobacillus and Lichen rangiferinus extract (LRE + Lac) on the severity of injury in experimental alcoholic liver disease and how it affects plasma levels of prostaglandin E2, endotoxin, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4. Male Wistar rats were grouped into five comprising six animals in each group. Group 1 served as negative control. Groups 2-5 were administered 10% ethanol for six weeks. Group 3 was administered with extract (200 mg/kg), group 4 received the diet containing 10% ethanol plus a bolus of lactobacilli GG (1010 CFU), and group 5 animals were given silymarin along with alcohol and it served as positive control. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein content, γ-glutamyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase, oxidative stress markers, glutathione, malondialdehyde and glutathione reductase were determined using standard diagnostic kits. Histopathological analysis of liver tissue was also made. A positive relation was found between plasma endotoxin levels and degree of liver injury. The pathology records were also related positively with leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2. But a negative correlation was obtained with PgE2 levels. This study led us to hypothesize that the increased endotoxin levels modulate liver metabolism of eicosanoid, which gradually leads to liver injury. Endotoxemia increases leukotriene and thromboxane levels in plasma.

Keywords: lactobacillus, Lichen rangiferinus, endotoxemia, silymarin

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237 Histopathological and Biochemical Investigations of Protective Role of Honey in Rats with Experimental Aflatoxicosis

Authors: Turan Yaman, Zabit Yener, Ismail Celik

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The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties and protective role of honey, considered a part of traditional medicine, against carcinogen chemical aflatoxin (AF) exposure in rats, which were evaluated by histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring level of serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamil transpeptidase (GGT)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)], and lipid peroxidation content in liver, erythrocyte, brain, kidney, heart and lungs. For this purpose, a total of eighteen healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three experimental groups: A (Control), B (AF-treated) and C (AF+honey-treated). While rats in group A were fed with a diet without AF, B, and C groups received 25 µg of AF/rat/day, where C group additionally received 1 mL/kg of honey by gavage for 90 days. At the end of the 90-day experimental period, we found that the honey supplementation decreased the lipid peroxidation and the levels of enzyme associated with liver damage, increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the AF+honey-treated rats. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of honey is further substantiated by showing almost normal histological architecture in AF+honey-treated group, compared to degenerative changes in the liver and kidney of AF-treated rats. Additionally, honey supplementation ameliorated antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation content in other tissues of AF+honey-treated rats. In conclusion, the present study indicates that honey has a hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect in rats with experimental aflatoxicosis due to its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: aflatoxicosis, honey, histopathology, malondialdehyde, antioxidant, rat

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
236 Neuroprotective Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Hanan F. Aly, Fateheya M. Metwally, Hanaa H. Ahmed

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The current study is undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) against the development of Alzheimer’s disease in experimental rat model. Alzheimer’s disease was produced in young female ovariectomized rats by intraperitoneal administration of AlCl3 (4.2 mg/kg body weight) daily for 12 weeks. Half of these animals also received orally DHEA (250 mg/kg body weight, three times weekly) for 18 weeks. Control groups of animals received either DHAE alone, or no DHEA, or were not ovariectomized. After such treatment the animals were analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, antiapoptotic marker Bcl-2 and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Also, brain cholinergic markers (acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine) were determined. The results revealed significant increase in oxidative stress parameters associated with significant decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities in Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats. Significant depletion in brain Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were also detected. Moreover, significant elevations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity accompanied with significant reduction in acetylcholine level were recorded. Significant amelioration in all investigated parameters was detected as a result of treatment of Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats with DHEA. These results were confirmed by histological examination of brain sections. These results clearly indicate a neuroprotective effect of DHEA against Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, oxidative stress, apoptosis, dehydroepiandrosterone

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
235 Chronic Toxicity of Halofenozide on a Larvivorous Fish, Gambusia affinis: Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione S-transferase Activities and Glutathione

Authors: Chouahda Salima, Soltani Noureddine

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The present study is a part of biological control against mosquitoes. It aims to assess the impact of a selective insect growth regulator: halofenozide in mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) used in assessing of environmental stress were measured in juveniles and adults males and females. The response of these biomarkers reveals an inhibition of AChE specific activity, an induction of GST activity, and decrease of GSH rates in juveniles in the end of experiment and during chronic treatment adult males and females. The effect of these biomarkers is more pronounced in females compared to males and juveniles. These different biomarkers have a similar profile for the duration of exposure.

Keywords: biomarkers, chronic toxicity, insecticide, halofenozide, Gambusia affinis, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
234 Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Mycelial Polysaccharides from Calocybe indica in Hyperlipidemic Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

Authors: Govindan Sudha, Mathumitha Subramaniam, Alamelu Govindasamy, Sasikala Gunasekaran

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The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Hypsizygus ulmarius polysaccharides (HUP) on reducing oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity in D-galactose induced aging mice. Mice were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (150 mg/kg per day) for 6 weeks and were administered HUP simultaneously. Aged mice receiving vitamin E (100 mg/kg) served as positive control. Chronic administration of D-galactose significantly impaired cognitive performance oxidative defence and mitochondrial enzymes activities as compared to control group. The results showed that HUP (200 and 400 mg/kg) treatment significantly improved the learning and memory ability in Morris water maze test. Biochemical examination revealed that HUP significantly increased the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial enzymes-NADH dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), Na+K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ATPase activities, elevated the lowered total anti-oxidation capability (TAOC), glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and decreased the raised acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxide (HPO), protein carbonyls (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels in brain of aging mice induced by D-gal in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, present study highlights the potential role of HUP against D-galactose induced cognitive impairment, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. In vitro studies on the effect of HUP on scavenging DPPH, ABTS, DMPD, OH radicals, reducing power, B-carotene bleaching and lipid peroxidation inhibition confirmed the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of HUP. The results suggest that HUP possesses anti-aging efficacy and may have potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: aging, antioxidants, mushroom, neurotoxicity

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233 Antioxidative Potential of Aqueous Extract of Ocimum americanum L. Leaves: An in vitro and in vivo Evaluation

Authors: Bukola Tola Aluko, Omotade Ibidun Oloyede

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Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb that is native to tropical Africa. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract was carefully investigated by assessing the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. The reducing power, total phenol, total flavonoids and flavonols content of the extract were also evaluated. The data obtained revealed that the extract is rich in polyphenolic compounds and scavenged the radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. This was done in comparison with the standard antioxidants such as BHT and Vitamin C. Also, the induction of oxidative damage with paracetamol (2000 mg/kg) resulted in the elevation of lipid peroxides and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase in the liver and kidney of rats. However, the pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of O. americanum leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg), and silymarin (100 mg/kg) caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the values of lipid peroxides and restored the levels of antioxidant parameters in these organs. These findings suggest that the leaves of O. americanum have potent antioxidant properties which may be responsible for its acclaimed folkloric uses.

Keywords: antioxidants, free radicals, ocimum americanum, scavenging activity

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232 Anthocyanins as Markers of Enhanced Plant Defence in Maize (Zea Mays L.) Exposed to Copper Stress

Authors: Fadime Eryılmaz Pehlivan

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Anthocyanins are important plant pigments having roles in many physiological and ecological functions; that are controlled by numerous regulatory factors. The accumulation of anthocyanins in Z. mays cause the plants stems to exhibit red coloration when encountering gradually increasing copper treatments (1, 5, and 10 mM of Cu in a period of 5 days) on maize seedlings. Stress injury was measured in terms of chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Carotenoid and anthocyanin contents dramatically increased by increasing concentrations of Cu stress. MDA and H2O2 levels were found to significantly increase at high Cu treatments (5 and 10 mM of Cu). Chlorophyll content was observed to be highest at 1 mM Cu and then decreased at 5 and 10 mM of Cu. In addition, significant increases were determined in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under high Cu concentrations, while glutathione S-transferase (GST) and peroxidase (POX) activities showed no change. Treatments above 5 and 10 mM of Cu triggered copper stress in maize seedlings. The results of this study provide evidence that maize seedlings represent a high tolerance to gradually increasing copper treatments. Improved copper tolerance may relate to high anthocyanin, and carotenoid content besides antioxidant enzyme activity may improve the metal chelating ability of anthocyanin pigments. Data presented in this study may also contribute to a better understanding of phytoremediation studies in maize exposed to high copper contenting soils.

Keywords: anthocyanin, copper, maize , antioxidant

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
231 Effects of Cassia tora Seeds Extract on Type 2 Diabetes Induced Mice

Authors: Min-Ju Jo, Min-Young Um, Moonsung Choi, Sooim Shin

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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance, the inability of β-cell and the dysfunction of mitochondria. To characterize effects of Cassia tora extract on mitochondrial dysfunction related T2D, the reduced glutathione level, amount of mitochondrial complexes and activities of mitochondrial complexes were measured. Three groups of mice were modeled; a control group was fed a normal diet, a diabetic group was fed a diabetic diet high in fat and carbohydrates, and a third group was fed a diabetic diet + 70% ethanol extracted Cassia tora seeds for 12 weeks. The amount of mitochondria was determined by Bradford assay after isolation of mitochondria in liver from each group. During isolation of mitochondria, cytosolic fractions of the tissue were collected to measure the reduced glutathione level. Interestingly, high level of the reduced glutathione was observed in Cassia tora treated group and decreased activities of mitochondrial complexes in Cassia tora treated group compared to the diabetic diet group. It indicates that Cassia tora has the potential to increase the reduced form of glutathione functioned as an important antioxidant in cells, and to reduce mitochondrial metabolic compensatory mechanism.

Keywords: antioxidant, Cassia tora, diabetes, electron transport chain, glutathione, mitochondria, spectrophotometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
230 Down Regulation of Smad-2 Transcription and TGF-B1 Signaling in Nano Sized Titanium Dioxide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Potent Antioxidants

Authors: Maha Z. Rizk, Sami A. Fattah, Heba M. Darwish, Sanaa A. Ali, Mai O. Kadry

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Although it is known that nano-TiO2 and other nanoparticles can induce liver toxicity, the mechanisms and the molecular pathogenesis are still unclear. The present study investigated some biochemical indices of nano-sized Titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPS) toxicity in mice liver and the ameliorative efficacy of individual and combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E. Nano-anatase TiO2 (21 nm) was administered as a total oral dose of 2.2 gm/Kg daily for 2 weeks followed by the afore-mentioned antioxidants daily either individually or in combination for 1month. TiO2-NPS induced a significant elevation in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and hepatic oxidative stress biomarkers [lipid peroxides (LP), and nitric oxide levels (NOX), while it significantly reduced glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase(GPX) levels. Moreover the quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that nano-anatase TiO2 can significantly alter the mRNA and protein expressions of the fibrotic factors TGF-B1, VEGFand Smad-2. Histopathological examination of hepatic tissue reinforced the previous biochemical results. Our results also implied that inflammatory responses and liver injury may be involved in nano-anatase TiO2-induced liver toxicity Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin -6 (IL-6) and increased the percent of DNA damage which was assessed by COMET assay in addition to the apoptotic marker Caspase-3. Moreover mRNA gene expression observed by RT-PCR showed a significant overexpression in nuclear factor relation -2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-Kβ) and the apoptotic factor (bax), and a significant down regulation in the antiapoptotic factor (bcl2) level. In conclusion idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated previously mentioned parameters with variable degrees with the most pronounced role in alleviating the hazardous effect of TiO2 NPS toxicity following the combination regimen.

Keywords: Nano-anatase TiO2, TGF-B1, SMAD-2

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229 Aloe vera Prevents Injuries Induced by Whole Body X-ray Irradiation in Rodents

Authors: Shashi Bala, Neha A. Chugh, Subhash C. Bansal, Mohal L. Garg, Ashwani Koul

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Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera from whole body X-ray exposure in rodents. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, after on week’s acclimatization, male balb/c mice procured from Central Animal House, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India), were divided into four groups: Group I mice served as control. Group II mice were orally administrated Aloe vera pulp extract (50 mg/ kg body weight) on alternate days for 30 days. Group III mice were subjected to whole body X-ray irradiation to cumulative dose of 2Gy (0.258Gy twice a day for four days in the last week). Group IV animals were pretreated with Aloe vera pulp extract on alternate days as in Group II and in the last week of the study, they were exposed to X-ray as in Group III. Results: Spleen of X-ray irradiated mice showed histopathological alterations accompanied with enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), enhanced activities in Glutathione based enzymes such as Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Glutathione reductase (GR), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) associated with depletion in reduced Glutathione (GSH) concentration were observed after X-ray exposure in blood plasma and spleen.. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α) and Inteleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were also found to be enhanced in serum of irradiated mice. Irradiation-induced significant elevation in Total leucocyte counts (TLC), neutrophil counts and decline in platelet counts, associated with unaltered levels of red blood cell counts (RBC’s) and haemoglobin (Hb) in various treatment groups. Clastogenic damage and apoptosis was also found to be increase in splenic tissue of X-ray exposed mice as assessed by micronucleus and TUNEL assay. However, X-ray irradiated animals administered with Aloe vera revealed significant improvement in levels of ROS/ LPO, LDH activity, and antioxidant mechanism. Aloe vera pretreated animals exhibited less severe damage, and early recovery in micronucleated cells, hematological parameters, apoptotic cells and inflammatory markers as compared to X-ray exposed mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that the radioprotective potential of Aloe vera against X-ray induced damage. This may be due to its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Keywords: aloe vera, antioxidant defense system, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), micronucleus assay, x-ray

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228 Titanium Dioxide Modified with Glutathione as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Toxic Properties

Authors: Olga Długosz, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Marcin Banach

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The paper presents a process to obtain glutathione-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The processes were carried out in a microwave radiation field. The influence of the molar ratio of glutathione to titanium oxide and the effect of the fold of NaOH vs. stoichiometric amount on the size of the formed TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope- energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopy methods. The size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was characterized from 30 to 336 nm. The release of titanium ions from the prepared products was evaluated. These studies were carried out using different media in which the powders were incubated for a specific time. These were water, SBF and Ringer's solution. The release of titanium ions from modified products is weaker compared to unmodified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The reduced release of titanium ions may allow the use of such modified materials as substances in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, drug carrier, glutathione

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227 Titanium Dioxide Modified with Glutathione as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Toxic Properties

Authors: Olga Długosz, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Marcin Banach

Abstract:

The paper presents a process to obtain glutathione-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The processes were carried out in a microwave radiation field. The influence of the molar ratio of glutathione to titanium oxide and the effect of the fold of NaOH vs. stoichiometric amount on the size of the formed TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope- energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopy methods. The size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was characterized from 30 to 336 nm. The release of titanium ions from the prepared products was evaluated. These studies were carried out using different media in which the powders were incubated for a specific time. These were: water, SBF, and Ringer's solution. The release of titanium ions from modified products is weaker compared to unmodified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The reduced release of titanium ions may allow the use of such modified materials as substances in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, drug carrier, glutathione

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226 Exercise and Aging Process Related to Oxidative Stress

Authors: B. Dejanova, S. Petrovska, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, S. Mancevska, V. Antevska, E. Sivevska, I. Karagjozova

Abstract:

Introduction: Aging process is mainly related to endothelial function which may be impaired by oxidative stress (OS). Exercise is known to be beneficial to aging process, which may improve health and prevent appearance of chronic diseases in elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate the OS markers related to exercise. Methods: A number of 80 subjects (healthy volunteers) were examined (38 male and 32 female), divided in 3 age groups: group I ≤ 30 years (n=24); group II – 31-50 years (n=24); group III - ≥ 51 year (n=32). Each group was divided to subgroups of sedentary subjects (SS) and subjects who exercise (SE). Group I: SS (n=11), SE (n=13); group II: SS (n=13), SE (n=10); group III: SS (n=23) SE (n=9). Lipid peroxidation (LP) as a fluorimetric method with thiobarbituric acid was used to estimate OS. Antioxidative status was determined by cell antioxidants such as enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glucose 6 phosphate (G-6-PD); and by extra cell antioxidants such as glutathione reductase (GR), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results: Increased values of LP were noticed along the aging process: group I – 3.30±0.3 µmol/L; group II – 3.91±0.2 µmol/L; group III – 3.94±0.8 µmol/L (p<0.05), while no statistical significance was found between male and female subjects. Statistical significance for OS was not found between SS and SE in group I as it was found in group II (p<0.05) and in group III (p<0.01). No statistical significance was found for all cell antioxidants and GR within the groups, while NO and TAC showed lower values in SS compared to SE in II (p<0.05) and in group III (p<0.05). Discussion and conclusion: Aging process showed increased OS which may be either due to impaired function of scavengers of free radicals or due to their enormous production. Well balanced exercise might be one of the factors that keep the integrity of blood vessel endothelium which slows down the aging process. Possible mechanism of exercise beneficial influence is shear stress by upregulation of genes coding for nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, due to obtained results we may conclude that OS is found to be diminished in the subject groups who perform exercise.

Keywords: oxidative stress, aging process, exercise, endothelial function

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225 The Hair Growth Effects of Undariopsis peterseniana

Authors: Jung-Il Kang, Jeon Eon Park, Yu-Jin Moon, Young-Seok Ahn, Eun-Sook Yoo, Hee-Kyoung Kang

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Undariopsis peterseniana, a seaweed native to Jeju Island, Korea, on the growth of hair. The dermal papilla cells (DPCs) have known to regulate hair growth cycle and length of hair follicle through interact with epithelial cells. When immortalized vibrissa DPCs were treated with the U. peterseniana extract, the U. peterseniana extract significantly increased the proliferation of DPCs. The effect of U. peterseniana extract on the growth of vibrissa follicles was also examined. U. peterseniana extract significantly increased the hair-fiber lengths of the vibrissa follicles. Hair loss is partly caused by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding to androgen receptor in hair follicles, and the inhibition of 5α-reductase activity can prevent hair loss through the decrease of DHT level. The U. peterseniana extract inhibited 5α-reductase activity. Minoxidil, a potent hair-growth agent, can induce proliferation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts by opening KATP channels. We thus examined the proliferative effects of U. peterseniana extract in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. U. peterseniana extract significantly increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a K+ channel blocker, inhibited U. peterseniana-induced proliferation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. These results suggest that U. peterseniana could have the potential to treat alopecia through the proliferation of DPCs, the inhibition of 5α-reductase activity and the opening of KATP channels. [Acknowledgement] This research was supported by The Leading Human Resource Training Program of Regional Neo industry through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning (2016H1D5A1908786).

Keywords: hair growth, Undariopsis peterseniana, vibrissa follicles, dermal papilla cells, 5α-reductase, KATP channels

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224 Prevalence of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase A1298C Variant in Tunisian Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Authors: Rim Frikha, Maha Ben Jema, Moez Elloumi, Tarek Rebai

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Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); a common blood cancer characterized by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an essential folate metabolic enzyme in the processes of DNA synthesis and methylation. A common functional variant of the MTHFR gene, the A1298C, which induces disturbances in folate metabolism, may affect susceptibility to ALL. Objective: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of MTHFR polymorphism A1298 > C in Tunisian children with ALL. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 Tunisian ALL children were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole venous blood collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Genotyping was carried out with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using MboII restriction enzyme. Genotype distribution and allele frequency of MTHFR A1298C was calculated in ALL patients. Results: The A1298C variant of MTHFR was found in 11(19.6%) heterozygous and one homozygous patient (3.5%). Conclusions: This result highlights that A1298C polymorphism of MTHFR is common in Tunisian childhood ALL and suggests that this variant may have a potential role in leukemogenesis. Genotyping of large samples and different ethnicities are required to validate these findings.

Keywords: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, A1298C variant, prevalence

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223 Antioxidant Defence Systems, Lipid Peroxidation, and Photosynthetic Variables in Salt-Sensitive and Salt-Tolerant Soybean Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

Authors: Faheema Khan

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We have investigated the effects of salt stress on the stability of plant growth, water relations, photosynthetic variables, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant (PK-327) and salt-sensitive (PK-471) soybean genotypes. Ten-day-old salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybean plants were subjected to 0-150 mM NaCl for 15 days. While the growth of genotype PK-327 was not affected significantly up to 75 mM NaCl treatment, the growth of the PK-471 was reduced significantly beyond 25 mM NaCl treatments. Salt stress caused severe impairments in photosynthetic variables like photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content, being more pronounced in salt-sensitive genotype than in salt-tolerant.The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were higher in PK-327 than in PK-471 at various levels of salt treatments.It is concluded that tolerance capacity of PK-327 against salinity can be associated with the ability of this genotype in keeping an active photosynthetic system and strong antioxidant defence system.

Keywords: salt stress, soybean, antioxidant, photosynthesis

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222 The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress Generate by Dietary Zn-Deficiency in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid

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This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by dietary Zn-deficiency in albino diabetic rats. Thirty two males alloxan-diabetic rats divided into two groups of 16 individuals each; the first group was fed a zinc adequate diet (54 mg zinc/kg). The second group had given low zinc diet (1 mg zinc/kg). Then, half of each group was treated with vitamin C (1 g/l) in drinking water. After four weeks, animals were sacrificed and different parameters were determined. The findings showed that dietary deficiency zinc intake significantly increased serum glucose. Zn-deficiency was also led to an increase in oxidative stress, which was indicated by an increase of MDA level and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Meanwhile it was result in a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px and catalase activities in liver. However, the administration of vitamin C restored all the previous parameters approximately to their normal values. In conclusion, vitamin C probably played a key role strong as antioxidant factor against oxidative stress provoked by dietary zinc inadequate. Therefore, it might be contributed in reduction diabetes complications.

Keywords: vitamin C, oxidative stress, zinc, experimental diabetes, rats

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221 Docking and Dynamic Molecular Study of Isoniazid Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Candidate

Authors: Richa Mardianingrum, Srie R. N. Endah

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In this research, we have designed four isoniazid derivatives i.e., isonicotinohydrazide (1-isonicotinoyl semicarbazide, 1-thiosemi isonicotinoyl carbazide, N '-(1,3-dimethyl-1 h-pyrazole-5-carbonyl) isonicotino hydrazide, and N '-(1,2,3- 4-thiadiazole-carbonyl) isonicotinohydrazide. The docking and molecular dynamic have performed to them in order to study its interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (InhA). Based on this research, all of the compounds were predicted to have a stable interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (INHA) receptor, so they could be used as an anti-tuberculosis drug candidate.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis, docking, Inhibin alpha subunit, InhA, inhibition, synthesis, isonicotinohydrazide

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220 Structural Investigation of the GAF Domain Protein BPSL2418 from Burkholderia pseudomallei

Authors: Mona G. Alharbi

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A new family of methionine-sulfoxide reductase (Msr) was recently discovered and was named free methionine sulfoxide reductase (fRMsr). This family includes enzymes with a reductase activity toward the free R isomer of a methionine sulfoxide substrate. The fRMsrs have a GAF domain topology, a domain, which was previously identified as having in some cases a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity. The classification of fRMsrs as GAF domains revealed a new function can be added to the GAF domain family. Interestingly the four members identified in the fRMsr family share the GAF domain structure and the presence of three conserved cysteines in the active site with free R methionine sulfoxide substrate specificity. This thesis presents the crystal structures of reduced, free Met-SO substrate-bound and MES-bound forms of a new fRMsr from Burkholderia pseudomallei (BPSL2418). BPSL2418 was cloned, overexpressed and purified to enable protein crystallization. The crystallization trials for reduced, Met-SO-bound and MES-bound forms of BPSL2418 were prepared and reasonable crystals of each form were produced. The crystal structures of BPSL2418MES, BPSL2418Met-SO and BPSL2418Reduced were solved at 1.18, 1.4 and 2.0Å, respectively by molecular replacement. The BPSL2418MES crystal belongs to space group P 21 21 21 while BPSL2418Met-SO and BPSL2418Reduced crystals belong to space group P 1 21 1. All three forms share the GAF domain structure of six antiparallel β-strands and four α-helices with connecting loops. The antiparallel β-strands (β1, β2, β5 and β6) are located in the center of the BPSL2418 structure flanked on one side by a three α-helices (α1, α2 and α4) and on the other side by a (loop1, β3, loop2, α3, β4 loop4) unit where loop4 forms a capping flap and covers the active site. The structural comparison of the three forms of BPSL2418 indicates that the catalytically important cysteine is CYS109, where the resolving cysteine is CYS75, which forms a disulfide bond with CYS109. They also suggest that the third conserved cysteine in the active site, CYS85, which is located in α3, is a non-essential cysteine for the catalytic function but it may play a role in the binding of the substrate. The structural comparison of the three forms reveals that conformational changes appear in the active site particularly involving loop4 and CYS109 during catalysis. The 3D structure of BPSL2418 shows strong structure similarity to fRMsrs enzymes, which further suggests that BPSL2418 acts as a free Met-R-SO reductase and shares the catalytic mechanism of fRMsr family.

Keywords: Burkholderia pseudomallei, GAF domain protein, methionine sulfoxide reductase, protein crystallization

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219 Effects of Purslane Shoot and Seed Ethanolic Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Walaa G. Hozayen, Osama M. Ahmed, Haidy T. Abo Sree

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The clinical usefulness of anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic, doxorubicin (DOX) is restricted since it has several acute and chronic side effects. The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w/week) without or with oral administration of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot ethanolic extract (50mg/kg b.w./day) and purslane seed ethanolic extract (50mg/kg b.w./day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum testosterone luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level were assayed. Testis lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants like glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) levels in testis were assessed. The data revealed a significant decrease in serum levels concentration of testosterone, LH and FSH levels in doxorubicin-injected rats. In addition, testis glutathione, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD and CAT levels were decreased while lipid peroxidation concentration in the testis was increased as a result of doxorubicin injection. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts potentially improved the adverse changes in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels with an increase in testis antioxidants levels and reduction in lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, it can be suggested that dietary purslane extract supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DOX testicular toxicity without harmful side effects.

Keywords: doxorubicin, purslane, testis function, antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 251