Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7608

Search results for: plant genetic resources

7608 Biodiversity and Biotechnology: Some Considerations about the International Regulation of Agriculture and the International Legal System on Access to Genetic Resources

Authors: Leandro Moura da Silva

Abstract:

The international community has strived to create legal mechanisms to protect their biodiversity, but this can represent, sometimes, particularly in the case of regulatory regime on access to genetic resources, an excessive nationalism which transforms itself into a significant obstacle to scientific progress causing damages to the country and to local farmers. Although it has been poorly publicized in the media, the international legal system was marked, in 2014, by the entry into force of the Nagoya Protocol, which regulates the access and benefit sharing of genetic resources of the States Party to that legal instrument. However, it’s not reasonable to think of regulating access to genetic resources without reflecting on the links of this important subject with other related issues, such as family farming and agribusiness, food safety, food security, intellectual property rights (on seeds, genetic material, new plant varieties, etc.), environmental sustainability, biodiversity, and biosafety.

Keywords: international law, regulation on agriculture, agronomy techniques, sustainability, genetic resources and new crop varieties, CBD, Nagoya Protocol, ITPGRFA

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7607 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Multiple Resources for Multi-Projects

Authors: A. Samer Ezeldin, Sarah A. Fotouh

Abstract:

Optimization of resources is very important in all fields, as in construction management. Project managers have to face problems regarding management of cost, time and available resources of single projects and more problems arise when managing multiple projects. Most of the studies focused on optimization of resources for a single project, but, this paper will discuss the design and modeling of multiple resources optimization for multiple projects using Genetic Algorithm. Most of the companies in construction industry optimize the resources for single projects only, but with the presence of several mega projects in several developing countries running at the same time, there is a need for a model to enhance the efficiency of available resources and decreases the fluctuation as much as possible. The proposed model calculates the cost of each resource, tries to minimize the cost of extra resources as much as possible and generates the schedule of each project within a selected program.

Keywords: construction management, genetic algorithm, multiple projects, multiple resources, optimization

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7606 Variability Parameters for Growth and Yield Characters in Fenugreek, Trigonella spp. Genotypes

Authors: Anita Singh, Richa Naula, Manoj Raghav

Abstract:

India is a leading producer and consumer of fenugreek for its culinary uses and medicinal application. In India, most of the people are of vegetarian class. In such a situation, a leafy vegetable, such as fenugreek is of chief concern due to its high nutritional property, medicinal values and industrial uses. One of the most important factors restricting their large scale production and development of superior varieties is that very scanty knowledge about their genetic diversity, inter and intraspecific variability and genetic relationship among the species. Improvement of the crop depends upon the magnitude of genetic variability for economic characters. Therefore, the present research work was carried out to analyse the variability parameters for growth and yield character in twenty-eight fenugreek genotypes along with two standard checks Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunching. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replication during rabi season 2015-2016 at Pantnagar Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among all the genotypes for all traits. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient variation were observed for characters, namely the number of primary branches per plant, number of leaves at 30, 45 and 60 DAS, green leaf yield per plant, green leaf yield q/ha . The genetic advance recorded highest in green leaf yield q/ha (33.93) followed by green leaf yield per plant (21.20g). Highest percent of heritability were shown by 1000 seed weight (99.12%) followed by the number of primary branches per plant (97.18%). Green leaf yield q/ha showed high heritability and high genetic advance. These superior genotypes can be further used in crop improvement programs of fenugreek.

Keywords: genetic advance, genotypic coefficient variation, heritability, phenotypic coefficient variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
7605 A Novel Algorithm for Production Scheduling

Authors: Ali Mohammadi Bolban Abad, Fariborz Ahmadi

Abstract:

Optimization in manufacture is a method to use limited resources to obtain the best performance and reduce waste. In this paper a new algorithm based on eurygaster life is introduced to obtain a plane in which task order and completion time of resources are defined. Evaluation results show our approach has less make span when the resources are allocated with some products in comparison to genetic algorithm.

Keywords: evolutionary computation, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, NP-Hard problems, production scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
7604 Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Sorghum Accessions Using Agro-Mophological and Nutritional Traits

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Nemera Shargie

Abstract:

Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown as a source of calories for many people in tropics and sub-tropics of the world. Proper characterisation and evaluation of crop germplasm is an important component for effective management of genetic resources and their utilisation in the improvement of the crop through plant breeding. The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity present in sorghum accessions grown in South Africa using agro-morphological traits and some nutritional contents. The experiment was carried out in Potchefstroom. Data were subjected to correlations, principal components analysis, and hierarchical clustering using GenStat statistical software. There were highly significance differences among the accessions based on agro-morphological and nutritional quality traits. Grain yield was highly positively correlated with panicle weight. Plant height was highly significantly correlated with internode length, leaf length, leaf number, stem diameter, the number of nodes and starch content. The Principal component analysis revealed three most important PCs with a total variation of 78.6%. The protein content ranged from 7.7 to 14.7%, and starch ranged from 58.52 to 80.44%. The accessions that had high protein and starch content were AS16cyc and MP4277. There was vast genetic diversity observed among the accessions assessed that can be used by plant breeders to improve yield and nutritional traits.

Keywords: accessions, genetic diversity, nutritional quality, sorghum

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7603 Optimizing Boiler Combustion System in a Petrochemical Plant Using Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Yul Y. Nazaruddin, Anas Y. Widiaribowo, Satriyo Nugroho

Abstract:

Boiler is one of the critical unit in a petrochemical plant. Steam produced by the boiler is used for various processes in the plant such as urea and ammonia plant. An alternative method to optimize the boiler combustion system is presented in this paper. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) approach is applied to model the boiler using real-time operational data collected from a boiler unit of the petrochemical plant. Nonlinear equation obtained is then used to optimize the air to fuel ratio using Genetic Algorithm, resulting an optimal ratio of 15.85. This optimal ratio is then maintained constant by ratio controller designed using inverse dynamics based on ANFIS. As a result, constant value of oxygen content in the flue gas is obtained which indicates more efficient combustion process.

Keywords: ANFIS, boiler, combustion process, genetic algorithm, optimization.

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7602 Agro Morphological Characterization of Vicia faba L. Accessions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Zia Amjad, Salem Safar Alghamdi

Abstract:

This experiment was carried out at student educational farm College of Food and Agriculture, KSU, kingdom of Saudi Arabia; in order to characterize 154 Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity. Icia faba L. accessions were based on ipove and ibpgr descriptors. 24 agro-morphological characters including 11 quantitative and 13 qualitative were observed for genetic variation. All the results were analyzed using multivariate analysis i.e. principle component analysis. First 6 principle components with eigenvalue greater than one; accounted for 72% of available Vicia faba genetic diversity. However, first three components revealed more than 10% of genetic diversity each i.e. 22.36%, 15.86%, and 10.89% respectively. PCA distributed the V. faba accessions into different groups based on their performance for the characters under observation. PC-1 which represented 22.36% of the genetic diversity was positively associated with stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks, pod degree of curvature and to some extent with 100 seed weight. PC-2 covered 15.86 of the genetic diversity and showed positive association for average seed weight per plant, pod length, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks (same as in PC-1), and to some extent for pod degree of curvature and number of pods per plant. PC-3 revealed 10.89% of genetic diversity and expressed positive association for number of pods per plant and number of leaflets per plant.

Keywords: Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity

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7601 Integrated Management System of Plant Genetic Resources: Collection, Conservation, Regeneration and Characterization of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae of DOA Genebank, Thailand

Authors: Kunyaporn Pipithsangchan, Alongkorn Korntong, Assanee Songserm, Phatchara Piriyavinit, Saowanee Dechakampoo

Abstract:

The Kingdom of Thailand is one of the South East Asian countries. From its area of 514,000 square kilometers (51 million ha), at least 18,000 plant species (8% of the world total) have been estimated to be found in the country. As a result, the conservation of plant genetic diversity, particularly food crops, is becoming important and is an assurance for the national food security. Department of Agriculture Genebank or DOA Genebank, Thailand is responsible for the conservation of plant germplasm by participating and accomplishing several collaborative projects both at national and international levels. Integrated Management System of Plant Genetic Resources or IMPGR is one of the most outstandingly successful cooperation. It is a multilateral project under the Asian Food and Agriculture Cooperation Initiative (AFACI) supported by the Rural Development Administration (RDA) of South Korea. The member countries under the project consist of 11 nations namely Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and South Korea. The project enabled the members to jointly address the global issues in plant genetic resource (PGR) conservation and strengthen their network in this aspect. The 1st phase of IMPGR project, entitled 'Collection, Conservation, Regeneration and Characterization of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae 2012-2014', comprises three main objectives that are: 1) To improve management in storage facilities, collection, and regeneration, 2) To improve linkage between Genebank and material sources (for regeneration), and 3) To improve linkage between Genebank and other field crop or/and horticultural research centers. The project was done for three years from 2012 to 2014. The activities of the project can be described as following details: In the 1st year, there were 9 target provinces for completing plant genetic resource survey and collection. 108 accessions of PGR were collected. In the 2nd year, PGR were continuously surveyed and collected from 9 provinces. The total number of collection was 140 accessions. In addition, the process of regeneration of 237 accessions collected from 1st and 2nd year was started at several sites namely Biotechnology Research and Development Office, Sukothai Horticultural Research Center, Tak Research, and Development Center and Nakhon Ratchasima Research and Development Center. In the 3rd year, besides survey and collection of 115 accessions from 9 target provinces, PGR characterization and evaluation were done for 206 accessions. Moreover, safety duplication of 253 PGR at the World Seed Vault, RDA, was also done according to Standard Agreement on Germplasm Safety Duplication between Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, the Kingdom of Thailand and the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Rural Development Administration of the Republic of Korea. The success of the 1st phase project led to the second phase which entitled 'Collection and Characterization for Effective Conservation of Local Capsicum spp., Solanum spp. and Lycopersicon spp. in Thailand 2015-2017'.

Keywords: characterization, conservation, DOA genebank, plant genetic resources

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7600 Nectariferous Plant Genetic Resources for Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Prerequisite for Conservation, Sustainable Management and Policy

Authors: C. V. Nnamani, O. L. Adedeji

Abstract:

The contemporary global economic meltdown has devastating effect on the Nigerian’s economy and its frantic search for alternative source of national revenue aside from oil and gas has become imperative for economic emancipation for Nigerians. Apicultural entrepreneurship could provide a source of livelihood if the basic knowledge of those plant genetic resources needed by bees is made available. A palynological evaluation of those palynotaxa which honey bees forage for pollen and nectar was carried out after standard acetolysis method. Results showed that the honey samples were highly diversified and rich in honey plants. A total of 9544.3 honey pollen, consisting of 39 honey plants belonging to 21 plant families and distributed within 38 genera were identified excluding 238 unidentified pollen grains. Data from the analysis equally revealed that Elaeis guineensis Jacq, Anacardium occidentale L, Diospyros mespiliformis Hochist xe ADC, Alchornea cordifolia Muell, Arg, Daniella oliveri (Rolfe) Hutch & Dalz, Irvingia wombolu Okafor ex Baill, Treculia africana Decne, Nauclea latifolia Smith and Crossopteryx febrifuga Afzil ex Benth were the predominant honey plants. It provided a guide to the optimal utilization of floral resources by honeybees in these regions, showing the opportunity and amazing potentials for apiculture entrepreneurship of these palytaxa. Most of these plants are rare, threatened and endangered. It calls for urgent conservation techniques and step by all players. Critical awareness creation to ensure farmers knowledge of these palynotaxa to ensure proper understanding and attendance boost from them as economic empowerment is needed.

Keywords: palynotaxa, acetolysis, enterprise, livelihood, Nigeria

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7599 Genetic Variation of Shvicezebuvides Cattle in Tajikistan Based on Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Norezzine Abdelaziz, Rebouh Nazih Yacer, Kezimana Parfait, Parpura D. I., Gadzhikurbanov A., Anastasios Dranidis

Abstract:

The genetic variation of Shvicezebuvides cattle from three different farms in the Tajikistan Republic was studied using 10 microsatellite markers (SSR). The trials were laid out using a multi- locus analysis system for the analysis of cattle microsatellite locus. An estimated genetic variability of the examined livestock is given in the article. The results of our SSR analysis as well as the numbers and frequencies of common alleles in studied samples, we established a high genetic similarity of studied samples. These results can also be furthermore useful in the decision making for preservation and rational genetic resources usage of the Tajik Shvicezebuvides cattle.

Keywords: genetic characteristic, frequencies of the occurrence alleles, microsatellite markers, Swiss cattle

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7598 Using Genetic Algorithms to Outline Crop Rotations and a Cropping-System Model

Authors: Nicolae Bold, Daniel Nijloveanu

Abstract:

The idea of cropping-system is a method used by farmers. It is an environmentally-friendly method, protecting the natural resources (soil, water, air, nutritive substances) and increase the production at the same time, taking into account some crop particularities. The combination of this powerful method with the concepts of genetic algorithms results into a possibility of generating sequences of crops in order to form a rotation. The usage of this type of algorithms has been efficient in solving problems related to optimization and their polynomial complexity allows them to be used at solving more difficult and various problems. In our case, the optimization consists in finding the most profitable rotation of cultures. One of the expected results is to optimize the usage of the resources, in order to minimize the costs and maximize the profit. In order to achieve these goals, a genetic algorithm was designed. This algorithm ensures the finding of several optimized solutions of cropping-systems possibilities which have the highest profit and, thus, which minimize the costs. The algorithm uses genetic-based methods (mutation, crossover) and structures (genes, chromosomes). A cropping-system possibility will be considered a chromosome and a crop within the rotation is a gene within a chromosome. Results about the efficiency of this method will be presented in a special section. The implementation of this method would bring benefits into the activity of the farmers by giving them hints and helping them to use the resources efficiently.

Keywords: chromosomes, cropping, genetic algorithm, genes

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7597 Improvement of the Melon (Cucumis melo L.) through Genetic Gain and Discriminant Function

Authors: M. R. Naroui Rad, H. Fanaei, A. Ghalandarzehi

Abstract:

To find out the yield of melon, the traits are vital. This research was performed with the objective to assess the impact of nine different morphological traits on the production of 20 melon landraces in the sistan weather region. For all the traits genetic variation was noted. Minimum genetical variance (9.66) along with high genetic interaction with the environment led to low heritability (0.24) of the yield. The broad sense heritability of the traits that were included into the differentiating model was more than it was in the production. In this study, the five selected traits, number of fruit, fruit weight, fruit width, flesh diameter and plant yield can differentiate the genotypes with high or low production. This demonstrated the significance of these 5 traits in plant breeding programs. Discriminant function of these 5 traits, particularly, the weight of the fruit, in case of the current outputs was employed as an all-inclusive parameter for pointing out landraces with the highest yield. 75% of variation in yield can be explained with this index, and the weight of fruit also has substantial relation with the total production (r=0.72**). This factor can be highly beneficial in case of future breeding program selections.

Keywords: melon, discriminant analysis, genetic components, yield, selection

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7596 A Survey of Grammar-Based Genetic Programming and Applications

Authors: Matthew T. Wilson

Abstract:

This paper covers a selection of research utilizing grammar-based genetic programming, and illustrates how context-free grammar can be used to constrain genetic programming. It focuses heavily on grammatical evolution, one of the most popular variants of grammar-based genetic programming, and the way its operators and terminals are specialized and modified from those in genetic programming. A variety of implementations of grammatical evolution for general use are covered, as well as research each focused on using grammatical evolution or grammar-based genetic programming on a single application, or to solve a specific problem, including some of the classically considered genetic programming problems, such as the Santa Fe Trail.

Keywords: context-free grammar, genetic algorithms, genetic programming, grammatical evolution

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7595 Improving the Genetic Diversity of Soybean Seeds and Tolerance to Drought Irradiated with Gamma Rays

Authors: Aminah Muchdar

Abstract:

To increase the genetic diversity of soybean in order to adapt to agroecology in Indonesia conducted ways including introduction, cross, mutation and genetic transformation. The purpose of this research is to obtain early maturity soybean mutant lines, large seed tolerant to drought with high yield potential. This study consisted of two stages: the first is sensitivity of gamma rays carried out in the Laboratory BATAN. The genetic variety used is Anjasmoro. The method seeds irradiated with gamma rays at a rate of activity with the old ci 1046.16976 irradiation 0-71 minutes. Irradiation doses of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000gy. The results indicated all seeds irradiated with doses of 0 - 1000gy, just a dose of 200 and 300gy are able to show the percentage of germination, plant height, number of leaves, number of normal sprouts and green leaves of the best and can be continued for a second trial in order to assemble and to get mutants which is expected. The result of second stage of soybean M2 Population irradiated with diversity Gamma Irradiation performed that in the form of soybean planting, the seed planted is the first derivative of the M2 irradiated seeds. The result after the age of 30ADP has already showing growth and development of plants that vary when compared to its parent, both in terms of plant height, number of leaves, leaf shape and leaf forage level. In the generative phase, a plant that has been irradiated 200 and 300 gy seen some plants flower form packs, but not formed pods, there is also a form packs of flowers, but few pods produce soybean morphological characters such as plant height, number of branches, pods, days to flowering, harvesting, seed weight and seed number.

Keywords: gamma ray, genetic mutation, irradiation, soybean

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7594 Effect in Animal Nutrition of Genetical Modified Plant(GM)

Authors: Abdullah Özbilgin, Oguzhan Kahraman, Mustafa Selçuk Alataş

Abstract:

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The land area devoted to the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants has increased in recent years: in 2012 such plants were grown on over 170 million hectares globally, in 28 different countries, and are at resent used by 17.3 million farmers worldwide. The majority of GM plants are used as feed material for food-producing farm animals. Despite the facts that GM plants have been used as feed for years and a number of feeding studies have proved their safety for animals, they still give rise to emotional public discussion.

Keywords: crops, genetical modified plant(GM), plant, safety

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7593 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity Through RAPD Markers Among Melia azedarach L (Chinabery)

Authors: Nadir Ali Rind, Özlem Aksoy, Muhammad Umar Dahot, Salih Dikilitaş, Muhammad Rafiq, Burçak Tütünoğlu

Abstract:

Melia azedarach L. is freshly fruited small to medium sized tree native to China and North western India. It is growing in Pakistan and Turkey in various areas facing great environmental changes to maintain its survival. The species is valued for its high quality wood, medicinal, ornamental and shade purposes. The present work was aimed to estimate the genetic variation among the populations of Melia azedarach L. leaf samples that were collected from five different locations of Turkey and three different areas of Pakistan. These populations were chosen on the random bases by applying RAPD primers in order to construct a dendogram using UPGMA method to show genetic diversity. After that appropriate conservation strategies were suggested. 14 primers producing polymorphic and monomorphic bands were analyzed. Genetic distances were calculated for all the species studied by RAPD-PCR methods. According to the results the lowest genetic identity values and the highest genetic polymorphic values were determined. It is observed that there was a clear split among populations from different areas in Turkey and Pakistan. These differences may be due to eco-geographical association with genetic variation and should be conserved to retain the genetic variation of the species.

Keywords: melia azedarach L., genetic diversity, conservation, RAPD-PCR, medicinal plant

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7592 Investigation of Genetic Variation for Agronomic Traits among the Recombinant Inbred Lines of Wheat from the Norstar × Zagross Cross under Water Stress Condition

Authors: Mohammad Reza Farzami Pour

Abstract:

Determination of genetic variation is useful for plant breeding and hence production of more efficient plant species under different conditions, like drought stress. In this study, a sample of 28 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat developed from the cross of Norstar and Zagross varieties, together with their parents, were evaluated for two years (2010-2012) under normal and water stress conditions using split plot design with three replications. Main plots included two irrigation treatments of 70 and 140 mm evaporation from Class A pan and sub-plots consisted of 30 genotypes. The effect of genotypes and interaction of genotypes with years and water regimes were significant for all characters. Significant genotypic effect implies the existence of genetic variation among the lines under study. Heritability estimates were high for 1000 grain weight (0.87). Biomass and grain yield showed the lowest heritability values (0.42 and 0.50, respectively). Highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation (GCV and PCV) belonged to harvest index. Moderate genetic advance for most of the traits suggested the feasibility of selection among the RILs under investigation. Some RILs were higher yielding than either parent at both environments.

Keywords: wheat, genetic gain, heritability, recombinant inbred lines

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7591 Level of Awareness of Genetic Counselling in Benue State Nigeria: Its Advocacy on the Inheritance of Sickle Cell Disease

Authors: Agi Sunday

Abstract:

A descriptive analysis of reported cases of sickle cell disease and the level of awareness about genetic counselling in 30 hospitals were carried out. Additionally, 150 individuals between ages 16-45 were randomly selected for evaluation of genetic counselling awareness. The main tools for this study were questionnaires which were taken to hospitals, and individuals completed the others. The numbers of reported cases of sickle cell disease recorded in private, public and teaching hospitals were 14 and 57; 143 and 89; 272 and 57 for the periods of 1995-2000 and 2001-2005, respectively. A general informal genetic counselling took place mostly in the hospitals visited. 122 (86%) individuals had the knowledge of genetic disease and only 43 (30.3%) individuals have been exposed to genetic counselling. 64% of individuals agreed that genetic counselling would help in the prevention of genetic disease.

Keywords: sickle disease, genetic counseling, genetic testing, advocacy

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7590 Ethnomedicinal Assets of Plants Collected from Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Enock E. Goler, Emmanuel H. Kwon-Ndung, Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Terna T. Paul, Markus Musa, Joshua I. Waya, James H. Okogbaa

Abstract:

An ethno-medicinal survey of plants used in treating various diseases and ailments was carried out in the study area of Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to obtain information on their uses and potentials. The ethno-medicinal survey was administered through structured questionnaires among local inhabitants from areas with high plant density and diversity within the various Local Government Areas of the State. A total of 84 (Eighty four) plant species belonging to 45 (Forty five) families were found to be useful in treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, measles, fever, asthma, jaundice, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aches, diarrhea, cough, arthritis, yellow fever, typhoid, erectile dysfunction and excessive bleeding. Different parts of the plant such as the roots, leaves and stems are used in preparing herbal remedies which could be from dry or freshly collected plants. The main methods of preparation are decoction or infusion, while in some cases the plant parts used are consumed directly. Residents in the study areas find the herbal remedy cheaper and more accessible and claimed that there are no side effects compared to orthodox medicine. This study has confirmed the need towards the conscious conservation of plant genetic resources in order to ensure sustained access to these ethno-medicinal plant materials.

Keywords: ethno-medicinal, Nasarawa, plants, survey

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7589 Genetic Diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Genotypes as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Pangirayi Tongoona

Abstract:

Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown for food, feed and bioenergy. Knowledge of genetic diversity is important for conservation of genetic resources and improvement of crop plants through breeding. The objective of this study was to assess the level of genetic diversity among sorghum genotypes using microsatellite markers. A total of 103 accessions of sorghum genotypes obtained from the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the African Centre for Crop Improvement and Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute collections in South Africa were estimated using 30 microsatellite markers. For all the loci analysed, 306 polymorphic alleles were detected with a mean value of 6.4 per locus. The polymorphic information content had an average value of 0.50 with heterozygosity mean value of 0.55 suggesting an important genetic diversity within the sorghum genotypes used. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering based on Euclidian coefficients revealed two major distinct groups without allocating genotypes based on the source of collection or origin. The genotypes 4154.1.1.1, 2055.1.1.1, 4441.1.1.1, 4442.1.1.1, 4722.1.1.1, and 4606.1.1.1 were the most diverse. The sorghum genotypes with high genetic diversity could serve as important sources of novel alleles for breeding and strategic genetic conservation.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Genotypes, Microsatellites, Sorghum

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7588 Plant Genetic Diversity in Home Gardens and Its Contribution to Household Economy in Western Part of Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse

Abstract:

Home gardens are important social and cultural spaces where knowledge related to agricultural practice is transmitted and through which households may improve their income and livelihood. High levels of inter- and intra-specific plant genetic diversity are preserved in home gardens. Plant diversity is threatened by rapid and unplanned urbanization, which increases environmental problems such as heating, pollution, loss of habitats and ecosystem disruption. Tropical home gardens have played a significant role in conserving plant diversity while providing substantial benefits to households. This research aimed to understand the relationship between household characteristics and plant diversity in western Ethiopia home gardens and the contributions of plants to the household economy. Plant diversity and different uses of plants were studied in a random sample of 111 suburban home gardens in the Ilu Ababora, Jima and Wellega suburban area, western Ethiopia, based on complete garden inventories followed by household surveys on socio-economic status during 2012. A total of 261 species of plants were observed, of which 41% were ornamental plants, 36% food plants, and 22% medicinal plants. Of these 16% were sold commercially to produce income. Avocado, bananas, and other fruits produced in excess. Home gardens contributed the equivalent of 7% of total annual household income in terms of food and commercial sales. Multiple regression analysis showed that education, time spent in gardening, land for cultivation, household expenses, primary conservation practices, and uses of special techniques explained 56% of the total plant diversity. Food, medicinal and commercial plant species had significant positive relationships with time spent gardening and land area for gardening. Education and conservation practices significantly affected food and medicinal plant diversity. Special techniques used in gardening showed significant positive relations with ornamental and commercial plants. Reassessments in different suburban and urban home gardens and proper documentation using same methodology is essential to build a firm policy for enhancing plant diversity and related values to households and surroundings.

Keywords: plant genetic diversity, urbanization, suburban home gardens, Ethiopia

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7587 Asparagus racemosus Willd for Enhanced Medicinal Properties

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Parveen Parveen

Abstract:

India is bestowed with an extremely high population of plant species with medicinal value and even has two biodiversity hotspots. Indian systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani have historically been serving humankind across the world since time immemorial. About 1500 plant species have well been documented in Ayurvedic Nighantus as official medicinal plants. Additionally, several hundred species of plants are being routinely used as medicines by local people especially tribes living in and around forests. The natural resources for medicinal plants have unscientifically been over-exploited forcing rapid depletion in their genetic diversity. Moreover, renewed global interest in herbal medicines may even lead to additional depletion of medicinal plant wealth of the country, as about 95% collection of medicinal plants for pharmaceutical preparation is being carried out from natural forests. On the other hand, huge export market of medicinal and aromatic plants needs to be seriously tapped for enhancing inflow of foreign currency. Asparagus racemosus Willd., a member of family Liliaceae, is one of thirty-two plant species that have been identified as priority species for cultivation and conservation by the National Medicinal Plant Board (NMPB), Government of India. Though attention is being focused on standardization of agro-techniques and extraction methods, little has been designed on genetic improvement and selection of desired types with higher root production and saponin content, a basic ingredient of medicinal value. The saponin not only improves defense mechanisms and controls diabetes but the roots of this species promote secretion of breast milk, improved lost body weight and considered as an aphrodisiac. There is ample scope for genetic improvement of this species for enhancing productivity substantially, qualitatively and quantitatively. It is emphasized to select desired genotypes with sufficient genetic diversity for important economic traits. Hybridization between two genetically divergent genotypes could result in the synthesis of new F1 hybrids consisting of useful traits of both the parents. The evaluation of twenty seed sources of Asparagus racemosus assembled different geographical locations of India revelled high degree of variability for traits of economic importance. The maximum genotypic and phenotypic variance was observed for shoot height among shoot related traits and for root length among root related traits. The shoot height, genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance, the phenotypic coefficient of variance was recorded to be 231.80, 3924.80, 61.26 and 1037.32, respectively, where those of the root length were 9.55, 16.80, 23.46 and 41.27, respectively. The maximum genetic advance and genetic gain were obtained for shoot height among shoot-related traits and root length among root-related traits. Index values were developed for all seed sources based on the four most important traits, and Panthnagar (Uttrakhand), Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Dehradun (Uttarakhand), Chandigarh (Punjab), Jammu (Jammu & Kashmir) and Solan (Himachal Pradesh) were found to be promising seed sources.

Keywords: asparagus, genetic, genotypes, variance

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7586 Morpho-Genetic Assessment of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Genetic Resources in Pakistan

Authors: Asim Mehmood, Abdul Karim, Muhammad J. Jaskani, Faisal S. Awan, Muhammad W. Sajid

Abstract:

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important commercial fruit crop of Pakistan. It is an allogamous crop having 25-40% cross pollination which on the one hand leads to clonal degradation and on the other hand can add variations to generated new cultivars. Morpho-genetic characterization of 37 guava accessions was carried out for study of the genetic diversity among guava accessions located in province Punjab, Pakistan. For morphological analysis, 17 morphological traits were studied, and strong positive correlation was found among the 7 morphological traits which included thickness of outer flesh in relation to core diameter, fruit length, fruit width, fruit juiciness, fruit size, fruit sweetness and number of seeds. For genetic characterization, 18 microsatellites were used, and the sizes of reproducible and scorable bands ranged from 150 to 320 bp. These 18 primer pairs amplified a total of 85 alleles in P. guajava, with an average total number of 4.7 alleles per locus and no more than two displayed bands (nuclear SSR loci). The phylogenetic tree based on the morphological and genetic traits showed the diversity of these 37 guava genotypes into two major groups. These results indicated that Pakistani guava is quite diverse and a more detail study is needed to define the level of genetic variability.

Keywords: Psidium guajava L, genetic diversity, SSR markers, polymorphism, dendrogram

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7585 Evaluation of Genetic Fidelity and Phytochemical Profiling of Micropropagated Plants of Cephalantheropsis obcordata: An Endangered Medicinal Orchid

Authors: Gargi Prasad, Ashiho A. Mao, Deepu Vijayan, S. Mandal

Abstract:

The main objective of the present study was to optimize and develop an efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of a medicinally important orchid Cephalantheropsis obcordata (Lindl.) Ormerod along with genetic stability analysis of regenerated plants. This plant has been traditionally used in Chinese folk medicine and the decoction of whole plant is known to possess anticancer activity. Nodal segments used as explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of isopentenyl adenine (2iP). The rooted plants were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse with 100% survival rate. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used to assess the genetic fidelity of in vitro raised plants and the mother plant. It was revealed that monomorphic bands showing the absence of polymorphism in all in vitro raised plantlets analyzed, confirming the genetic uniformity among the regenerants. Phytochemical analysis was done to compare the antioxidant activities and HPLC fingerprinting assay of 80% aqueous ethanol extract of the leaves and stem of in vitro and in vivo grown C. obcordata. The extracts of the plants were examined for their antioxidant activities by using free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method, 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability, reducing power capacity, estimation of total phenolic content, flavonoid content and flavonol content. A simplified method for the detection of ascorbic acid, phenolic acids and flavonoids content was also developed by using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This is the first report on the micropropagation, genetic integrity study and quantitative phytochemical analysis of in vitro regenerated plants of C. obcordata.

Keywords: Cephalantheropsis obcordata, genetic fidelity, ISSR markers, HPLC

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7584 Impact of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystem Services: In situ Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Forest Resources in Tropical Forests

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Forest genetic resources not only represent regional biodiversity but also have immense value as the wealth for securing livelihood of poor people. These are vulnerable to ecological due to depletion/deforestation and /or impact of climate change. These resources of various plant categories are vulnerable on the floor of natural tropical forests, and leading to the threat on the growth and development of future forests. More than 170 species, including NTFPs, are in critical condition for their survival in natural tropical forests of Central India. Forest degradation, commensurate with biodiversity loss, is now pervasive, disproportionately affecting the rural poor who directly depend on forests for their subsistence. Looking ahead the interaction between forest and water, soil, precipitation, climate change, etc. and its impact on biodiversity of tropical forests, it is inevitable to develop co-operation policies and programmes to address new emerging realities. Forests ecosystem also known as the 'wealth of poor' providing goods and ecosystem services on a sustainable basis, are now recognized as a stepping stone to move poor people beyond subsistence. Poverty alleviation is the prime objective of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, environmental sustainability including other MDGs, is essential to ensure successful elimination of poverty and well being of human society. Loss and degradation of ecosystem are the most serious threats to achieving development goals worldwide. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) was an attempt to identify provisioning and regulating cultural and supporting ecosystem services to provide livelihood security of human beings. Climate change may have a substantial impact on ecological structure and function of forests, provisioning, regulations and management of resources which can affect sustainable flow of ecosystem services. To overcome these limitations, policy guidelines with respect to planning and consistent research strategy need to be framed for conservation and sustainable development of forest genetic resources.

Keywords: climate change, forest ecosystem services, sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation

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7583 In Vitro Propagation of Aloe vera and Aloe littoralis Plants: Gamma Radiation, Biochemical and Genetic Changes

Authors: Z. Nourmohammadi, F. Farahani, M. Shaker

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Aloe is an important commercial crop available in a wide range of species and varieties in international markets. The applications of this plant have been recorded in the ancient cultures of India, Egypt, Greece, Rome and China. Aloe has been used for centuries and is currently being actively studied for medicinal purposes. Aloe is propagated through lateral buds, which is slow, very expensive and low income practice. Nowadays, it has been cultured by in vitro propagation for rapid multiplication of plants, genetic improvement of crops, obtaining disease-free clones and for progressive valuable germplasm. The present study focused on the influence of different phytohormones on rapid in vitro propagation of Aloe plants. We also investigated the effect of gamma radiation on biochemical characters as well as genetic changes. Shoot tip of 2-3 cm were collected from offshoot of Aloe barbadensis and Aloe littoralis, and were inoculated with MS medium containing various concentrations of BA (0.5, 1, 2 mg/l), IAA (0.5, 1 mg/l). The best treatment for a highest shoot number and bud proliferation was MS medium containing 2 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l IAA in A. barbadensis and A. littoralis. Maximum percentage of proliferated shoot buds (90% and 95%) from a single explant were obtained in MS medium after 4-5 weeks of the second and the first subcultures, respectively. Different genome sizes were also indicated among treatments and subcultures. The mixoploids identified in flow cytometery histograms in different treatments. The effect of gamma radiation on A. littoralis showed that by increasing the dose of gamma radiation, amounts of chlorophyll A, B, carotenoids, total protein content and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased compared to control plants. Genetic variation analysis also revealed significant genetic differences between control and gamma radiation treated regenerated plants by AMOVA test. Higher genetic heterozygocity was observed in radiation treated plants. Our findings may provide useful method for improving of Aloe plant proliferation with increasing of useful material such as antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: aloe, antioxidant enzyme, micropropagation, gamma radiation, genetic variation

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7582 Heritability and Diversity Analysis of Blast Resistant Upland Rice Genotypes Based on Quantitative Traits

Authors: Mst. Tuhina-Khatun, Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Mohd Rafii Yosup, Wong Mui Yun, Md. Aktar-Uz-Zaman, Mahbod Sahebi

Abstract:

Rice is a staple crop of economic importance of most Asian people, and blast is the major constraints for its higher yield. Heritability of plants traits helps plant breeders to make an appropriate selection and to assess the magnitude of genetic improvement through hybridization. Diversity of crop plants is necessary to manage the continuing genetic erosion and address the issues of genetic conservation for successfully meet the future food requirements. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to estimate heritability and to determine the diversity of 27 blast resistant upland rice genotypes based on 18 quantitative traits using randomized complete block design. Heritability value was found to vary from 38 to 93%. The lowest heritability belonged to the character total number of tillers/plant (38%). In contrast, number of filled grains/panicle, and yield/plant (g) was recorded for their highest heritability value viz. 93 and 91% correspondingly. Cluster analysis based on 18 traits grouped 27 rice genotypes into six clusters. Cluster I was the biggest, which comprised 17 genotypes, accounted for about 62.96% of total population. The multivariate analysis suggested that the genotype ‘Chokoto 14’ could be hybridized with ‘IR 5533-55-1-11’ and ‘IR 5533-PP 854-1’ for broadening the gene pool of blast resistant upland rice germplasms for yield and other favorable characters.

Keywords: blast resistant, diversity analysis, heritability, upland rice

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7581 Ethical Discussions on Prenatal Diagnosis: Iranian Case of Thalassemia Prevention Program

Authors: Sachiko Hosoya

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Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the social policy of preventive genetic medicine in Iran, by following the legalization process of abortion law and the factors affecting the process in wider Iranian contexts. In this paper, ethical discussions of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion in Iran will be presented, by exploring Iranian social policy to control genetic diseases, especially a genetic hemoglobin disorder called Thalassemia. The ethical dilemmas in application of genetic medicine into social policy will be focused. Method: In order to examine the role of the policy for prevention of genetic diseases and selective abortion in Iran, various resources have been sutudied, not only academic articles, but also discussion in the Parliament and documents related to a court case, as well as ethnographic data on living situation of Thalassemia patients. Results: Firstly, the discussion on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion is overviewed from the viewpoints of ethics, disability rights activists, and public policy for lower-resources countries. As a result, it should be noted that the point more important in the discussion on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion in Iran is the allocation of medical resources. Secondly, the process of implementation of national thalassemia screening program and legalization of ‘Therapeutic Abortion Law’ is analyzed, through scrutinizing documents such as the Majlis record, government documents and related laws and regulations. Although some western academics accuse that Iranian policy of selective abortion seems to be akin to eugenic public policy, Iranian government carefully avoid to distortions of the policy as ‘eugenic’. Thirdly, as a comparative example, discussions on an Iranian court case of patient’s ‘right not to be born’ will be introduced. Along with that, restrictive living environments of people with Thalassemia patients and the carriers are depicted, to understand some disabling social factors for people with genetic diseases in the local contexts of Iran.

Keywords: abortion, Iran, prenatal diagnosis, public health ethics, Thalassemia prevention program

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7580 A Review Paper on Data Mining and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Sikander Singh Cheema, Jasmeen Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, the concept of data mining is summarized and its one of the important process i.e KDD is summarized. The data mining based on Genetic Algorithm is researched in and ways to achieve the data mining Genetic Algorithm are surveyed. This paper also conducts a formal review on the area of data mining tasks and genetic algorithm in various fields.

Keywords: data mining, KDD, genetic algorithm, descriptive mining, predictive mining

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7579 Genomic and Proteomic Variation in Glycine Max Genotypes towards Salinity

Authors: Faheema Khan

Abstract:

In order to investigate the influence of genetic background on salt tolerance in Soybean (Glycine max) ten soybean genotypes released/notified in India were selected. (Pusa-20, Pusa-40, Pusa-37, Pusa-16, Pusa-24, Pusa-22, BRAGG, PK-416, PK-1042, and DS-9712). The 10-day-old seedlings were subjected to 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mM NaCl for 15 days. Plant growth, leaf osmotic adjustment, and RAPD analysis were studied. In comparison to control plants, the plant growth in all genotypes was decreased by salt stress, respectively. Salt stress decreased leaf osmotic potential in all genotypes however the maximum reduction was observed in genotype Pusa-24 followed by PK-416 and Pusa-20. The difference in osmotic adjustment between all the genotypes was correlated with the concentrations of ion examined such as Na+ and the leaf proline concentration. These results suggest that the genotypic variation for salt tolerance can be partially accounted for by plant physiological measures. The genetic polymorphisms between soybean genotypes differing in response to salt stress were characterized using 25 RAPD primers. These primers generated a total of 1640 amplification products, among which 1615 were found to be polymorphic. A very high degree of polymorphism (98.30%) was observed. UPGMA cluster analysis of genetic similarity indices grouped all the genotypes into two major clusters. Intra-clustering within the two clusters precisely grouped the 10 genotypes in sub-cluster as expected from their physiological findings. Our results show that RAPD technique is a sensitive, precise and efficient tool for genomic analysis in soybean genotypes.

Keywords: glycine max, NaCl, RAPD, proteomics

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