Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12368

Search results for: bystander effect

12368 Factors That Promote Bystander Intervention in Cases of Sexual Violence

Authors: Avigail Moor

Abstract:

Sexual violence against women occurs at alarmingly high rates, which have remained steady irrespective of the increased societal awareness of this problem, affecting an upward of 20% of women. It appears that all the public discourse on this topic, including research, prevention programs, and public campaigns have not made a noticeable dent in this prevalence. This calls for new course of action. Raising awareness regarding the preventive role of bystanders might be it. To that end, the present study sought to establish what promotes bystander intervention and what hinders it. Three hundred and twenty-four men and women, ranging in age from 20-40, participated in this study, completing self-report questionnaires on the topics under investigation. Results indicated that the proclivity to intervene as a bystander is impacted by various factors. The most consequential among them is gender, with twice as many women as men, 70% vs 38% respectively, being positively inclined to take action in such cases. Other significant factors included belief in rape myths and having empathy towards perpetrators, which reduced the likelihood of bystander intervention. Holding the attitude that it is possible to freely consent to sex while intoxicated had a similar impact. The discussion addresses various preventive implications.

Keywords: bystander intervention, sexual assault, rape prevention, rape myths

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
12367 Analysis of Cell Cycle Status in Radiation Non-Targeted Hepatoma Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Evidence of Dose Dependent Response

Authors: Sharmi Mukherjee, Anindita Chakraborty

Abstract:

Cellular irradiation incites complex responses including arrest of cell cycle progression. This article accentuates the effects of radiation on cell cycle status of radiation non-targeted cells. Human Hepatoma HepG2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of γ radiations (1, 2, 4, 6 Gy) and their cell culture media was transferred to non-targeted HepG2 cells cultured in other Petri plates. These radiation non-targeted cells cultured in the ICCM (Irradiated cell conditioned media) were the bystander cells on which cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. An apparent decrease in the distribution of bystander cells at G0/G1 phase was observed with increased radiation doses upto 4 Gy representing a linear relationship. This was accompanied by a gradual increase in cellular distribution at G2/M phase. Interestingly the number of cells in G2/M phase at 1 and 2 Gy irradiation was not significantly different from each other. However, the percentage of G2 phase cells at 4 and 6 Gy doses were significantly higher than 2 Gy dose indicating the IC50 dose to be between 2 and 4 Gy. Cell cycle arrest is an indirect indicator of genotoxic damage in cells. In this study, bystander stress signals through the cell culture media of irradiated cells disseminated the radiation induced DNA damages in the non-targeted cells which resulted in arrest of the cell cycle progression at G2/M phase checkpoint. This implies that actual radiation biological effects represent a penumbra with effects encompassing a larger area than the actual beam. This article highlights the existence of genotoxic damages as bystander effects of γ rays in human Hepatoma cells by cell cycle analysis and opens up avenues for appraisal of bystander stress communications between tumor cells. Contemplation of underlying signaling mechanisms can be manipulated to maximize damaging effects of radiation with minimum dose and thus has therapeutic applications.

Keywords: bystander effect, cell cycle, genotoxic damage, hepatoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
12366 Bystander Perceived Severity on Traditional versus Cyber Bullying

Authors: C. Smith, T. Goga, T. Hancock

Abstract:

Bullying has been an increasingly prevalent problem among society for decades. Approximately one out of every four students report being bullied at least once during the school year. Additionally, these instances of bullying are often witnessed but not reported by the bystanders, which could be dependent on the type of bullying situation. Thus, the present study aims to investigate any possible perceptual differences which may exist between traditional bullying (i.e., face to face) and cyberbullying from the bystander’s point of view. Undergraduate students were given a bullying scenario to read from either the traditional condition or the cyber condition. They were then asked to rate how severe they perceived this behavior on a Likert based scale. Participants were also asked if they would intervene (yes or no) and what their individual response would be to the witnessed behavior (report/ignore/confront/other). Results indicated that, while there was no significant difference in perceived severity between the two bullying conditions, there was a significant difference in whether or not participants would intervene between the two types of scenarios. A significant effect was also found between the scenarios for response type. Together, these findings suggest that even though individuals may not be aware of how severe they perceive certain bullying behaviors, the responses they exhibit might suggest otherwise.

Keywords: bullying, bystander, cyber, severity, traditional

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
12365 Bystanders' Behavior during Emergencies

Authors: Alan (Avi) Kirschenbaum, Carmit Rapaport

Abstract:

The behavior of bystanders in emergencies and disasters have been examined for over 50 years. Such acts have been cited as contributing to saving lives in terms of providing first responder help until official emergency units can arrive. Several reasons have been suggested for this type of behavior but most focused on a broad segment of individual psychological decision-making processes. Recent theoretical evidence suggests that the external factors for such bystander decisions, mainly disaster community based social contexts factors, are also important. We aim to test these competing arguments. Specifically, we examine alternative explanatory perspectives by focusing on self-efficacy as a proxy for the accepted individual psychological case and contrast it with potential bystander characteristics of the individual as well factors as embedded in the social context of the disaster community. To do so, we will utilize a random sampling of the population from a field study of an urban community in Israel that experienced five years of continuous terror attacks. The results strongly suggest that self-efficacy, as well as external factors: preparedness and having skills for intervention during emergencies along with gender best, predict potential helping behaviors. These results broaden our view of bystander behavior and open a window for enhancing this phenomenon as another element in disaster and crisis management.

Keywords: bystander behavior, disasters emergencies, psychological motivation to help, social context for helping

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
12364 Compassion Fade: Effects of Mass Perception and Intertemporal Choice on Non-Volunteering Behavior

Authors: Mariel L. Alonzo, Patricia Mae T. Chi, Juliana Patrice P. Mayormita, Sanjana A. Sorio

Abstract:

Compassion fade proposes an inverse relationship between the magnitude of stimuli to elicited compassion. This phenomenon is viewed within a framework that integrates a 3-Act Compassion structure with Latané and Darley’s Unresponsive Bystander Model and Prospect Theory of Decision-making under risk. Students (N=211) from Ateneo de Davao were sampled to examine the effects of mass perception (increasing number of needy persons) and intertemporal choice (soon versus later) on volunteering behavior. Collegiate classes in their natural setting were randomly assigned to five different treatment groups and were presented with audiovisual presentations featuring an increasing number of needy persons. The students were deceived to believe that two hypothetical feeding programs for Marawi refugees, taking place in 1 month and 6 months, were in need of volunteers for its preparatory phase. Results show a statistically significant (p=0.000; p=0.013) non-linear trend consistently for both feeding programs. There was a decrease in volunteered time means as identifiable victims increased from 0-47 and an increase as it progressed towards 267 non-identifiable victims. Highest interest was expressed for the 0 needy people shown and least for 47. The 0 hours volunteered was consistently the mode and median in all treatments. There was no statistically significant temporal discounting effect.

Keywords: compassion, group perception, identifiable victim, intertemporal choice, prosocial behavior, unresponsive bystander

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
12363 Disrupting Microaggressions in the Academic Workplace: The Role of Bystanders

Authors: Tugba Metinyurt

Abstract:

Microaggressions are small, everyday verbal and behavioral slights that communicate derogatory messages to individuals on the basis of their group membership. They are often unintentional and not intended to do harm, and yet research has shown that their cumulative effect can be quite detrimental. The current pilot study focuses on the role of bystanders disrupting gender microaggressions and potential barriers of challenging them in the academic workplace at University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML). The participants in this study included 9 male and 20 female from faculty of different disciplines at UML. A Barriers to Intervening Questionnaire asks respondents 1) to rate barriers to intervening in situations described in three short vignettes and 2) to identify more general factors that make it more or less likely that UML faculty will intervene in microaggressions as bystanders through response to an open-ended question. Responses to the questionnaire scales that ask about respondents’ own reactions to the vignettes indicated that faculty may hesitate to interrupt gender microaggressions to avoid being perceived as offensive, losing their relationship with their coworkers, and engaging possible arguments. Responses to the open-ended question, which asked more generally about perceived barriers, revealed a few additional barriers; lack of interpersonal and institutional support, repercussion to self, personal orientation/personality, and privilege. Interestingly, participants tended to describe the obstacles presented in the questionnaire as unlikely to prevent them from intervening, yet the same barriers were suggested to be issues for others on the open-ended questions. Limitations and future directions are discussed. The barriers identified in this research can inform efforts to create bystander trainings to interrupt microaggressions in the academic workplaces.

Keywords: academic workplace, bystander behavior, implicit bias, microaggressions

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
12362 The Key Role of a Bystander Improving the Effectiveness of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed in Extra-Urban Areas

Authors: Leszek Szpakowski, Daniel Celiński, Sławomir Pilip, Grzegorz Michalak

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to analyse the usefulness of the 'E-rescuer' pilot project planned to be implemented in a chosen area of Eastern Poland in the cases of suspected sudden cardiac arrests in the extra-urban areas. Inventing an application allowing to dispatch simultaneously both Medical Emergency Teams and the E-rescuer to the place of the accident is the crucial assumption of the mentioned pilot project. The E-rescuer is defined to be the trained person able to take effective basic life support and to use automated external defibrillator. Having logged in using a smartphone, the E-rescuer's readiness is reported online to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation exactly at the given location. Due to the accurately defined location of the E-rescuer, his arrival time is possible to be precisely fixed, and the substantive support through the displayed algorithms is capable of being provided as well. Having analysed the medical records in the years 2015-2016, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was considered to be effective when an early indication of circulation was provided, and the patient was taken to hospital. In the mentioned term, there were 2.291 cases of a sudden cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was taken in 621 patients in total including 205 people in the urban area and 416 in the extra-urban areas. The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the extra-urban areas was much lower (33,8%) than in the urban (50,7%). The average ambulance arrival time was respectively longer in the extra-urban areas, and it was 12,3 minutes while in the urban area 3,3 minutes. There was no significant difference in the average age of studied patients - 62,5 and 64,8 years old. However, the average ambulance arrival time was 7,6 minutes for effective resuscitations and 10,5 minutes for ineffective ones. Hence, the ambulance arrival time is a crucial factor influencing on the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, especially in the extra-urban areas where it is much longer than in the urban. The key role of trained E-rescuers being nearby taking basic life support before the ambulance arrival can effectively support Emergency Medical Services System in Poland.

Keywords: basic life support, bystander, effectiveness, resuscitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
12361 Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Pakistan: A Decomposition Analysis Using LMDI

Authors: Arsalan Khan, Faisal Jamil

Abstract:

The unprecedented increase in anthropogenic gases in recent decades has led to climatic changes worldwide. CO2 emissions are the most important factors responsible for greenhouse gases concentrations. This study decomposes the changes in overall CO2 emissions in Pakistan for the period 1990-2012 using Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI). LMDI enables to decompose the changes in CO2 emissions into five factors namely; activity effect, structural effect, intensity effect, fuel-mix effect, and emissions factor effect. This paper confirms an upward trend of overall emissions level of the country during the period. The study finds that activity effect, structural effect and intensity effect are the three major factors responsible for the changes in overall CO2 emissions in Pakistan with activity effect as the largest contributor to overall changes in the emissions level. The structural effect is also adding to CO2 emissions, which indicates that the economic activity is shifting towards more energy-intensive sectors. However, intensity effect has negative sign representing energy efficiency gains, which indicate a good relationship between the economy and environment. The findings suggest that policy makers should encourage the diversification of the output level towards more energy efficient sub-sectors of the economy.

Keywords: energy consumption, CO2 emissions, decomposition analysis, LMDI, intensity effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
12360 Yarkovsky Effect on the Orbital Dynamics of the Asteroid (101955) Bennu

Authors: Sanjay Narayan Deo, Badam Singh Kushvah

Abstract:

Bennu(101955) is a half kilometer potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid. We analyze the influence of Yarkovsky effect and relativistic effect of the Sun on the motion of the asteroid Bennu. The transverse model is used to compute Yarkovsky force on asteroid Bennu. Our dynamical model includes Newtonian perturbations of eight planets, the Moon, the Sun and three massive asteroid (1Ceres, 2Palas and 4Vesta). We showed the variation in orbital elements of nominal orbit of the asteroid. In the presence of Yarkovsky effect, the Semi-major axis of the orbit of the asteroid is decreases by 350 m over one period of orbital motion. The magnitude of Yarkovsky force is computed. We find that maximum magnitude of Yarkovsky force is 0.09 N at the perihelion . We also found that the magnitude of the Sun relativity effect is greater than the Yarkovsky effect on the motion the asteroid Bennu.

Keywords: Bennu, orbital elements, relativistic effect, Yarkovsky effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
12359 Payment for Pain: Differences between Hypothetical and Real Preferences

Authors: J. Trarbach, S. Schosser, B. Vogt

Abstract:

Decision-makers tend to prefer the first alternative over subsequent alternatives which is called the primacy effect. To reliably measure this effect, we conducted an experiment with real consequences for preference statements. Therefore, we elicit preferences of subjects using a rating scale, i.e. hypothetical preferences, and willingness to pay, i.e. real preferences, for two sequences of pain. Within these sequences, both overall intensity and duration of pain are identical. Hence, a rational decision-maker should be indifferent, whereas the primacy effect predicts a stronger preference for the first sequence. What we see is a primacy effect only for hypothetical preferences. This effect vanishes for real preferences.

Keywords: decision making, primacy effect, real incentives, willingness to pay

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
12358 Modelling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Cell

Authors: Fouad Berrabeh, Sabir Messalti

Abstract:

The performances of the photovoltaic systems are very dependent on different conditions, such as solar irradiation, temperature, etc. Therefore, it is very important to provide detailed studies for different cases in order to provide continuously power, so the photovoltaic system must be properly sized. This paper presents the modelling and simulation of the photovoltaic cell using single diode model. I-V characteristics and P-V characteristics are presented and it verified at different conditions (irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect).

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, BP SX 150 BP solar photovoltaic module, irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect, I–V characteristics, P–V characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
12357 BOX Effect Sensitivity to Fin Width in SOI-Multi-FinFETs

Authors: A. N. Moulai Khatir

Abstract:

SOI-Multifin-FETs are placed to be the workhorse of the industry for the coming few generations, and thus, in a few years because their excellent transistor characteristics, ideal sub-threshold swing, low drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) without pocket implantation, and negligible body bias dependency. The corner effect may also exist in the two lower corners; this effect is called the BOX effect, which can also occur in the direction X-Z. The electric field lines from the source and drain cross the bottom oxide and arrive in the silicon. This effect is also called DIVSB (Drain Induced Virtual Substrate Basing). The potential in the silicon film in particular near the drain is increased by the drain bias. It is similar to DIBL and result in a decrease of the threshold voltage. This work provides an understanding of the limitation of this effect by reducing the fin width for components with increased fin number.

Keywords: SOI, finFET, corner effect, dual-gate, tri-gate, BOX, multi-finFET

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
12356 Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Razali Ismail

Abstract:

Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.

Keywords: graphene nanoribbon, field effect transistors, short channel effects, channel length modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
12355 Study of Radiation Response in Lactobacillus Species

Authors: Kanika Arora, Madhu Bala

Abstract:

The small intestine epithelium is highly sensitive and major targets of ionizing radiation. Radiation causes gastrointestinal toxicity either by direct deposition of energy or indirectly (inflammation or bystander effects) generating free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress generated as a result of radiation causes active inflammation within the intestinal mucosa leading to structural and functional impairment of gut epithelial barrier. As a result, there is a loss of tolerance to normal dietary antigens and commensal flora together with exaggerated response to pathogens. Dysbiosis may therefore thought to play a role in radiation enteropathy and can contribute towards radiation induced bowel toxicity. Lactobacilli residing in the gut shares a long conjoined evolutionary history with their hosts and by doing so these organisms have developed an intimate and complex symbiotic relationships. The objective behind this study was to look for the strains with varying resistance to ionizing radiation and to see whether the niche of the bacteria is playing any role in radiation resistance property of bacteria. In this study, we have isolated the Lactobacillus spp. from probiotic preparation and murine gastrointestinal tract, both of which were supposed to be the important source for its isolation. Biochemical characterization did not show a significant difference in the properties, while a significant preference was observed in carbohydrate utilization capacity by the isolates. Effect of ionizing radiations induced by Co60 gamma radiation (10 Gy) on lactobacilli cells was investigated. A cellular survival curve versus absorbed doses was determined. Radiation resistance studies showed that the response of isolates towards cobalt-60 gamma radiation differs from each other and significant decrease in survival was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Thus the present study revealed that the property of radioresistance in Lactobacillus depends upon the source from where they have been isolated.

Keywords: dysbiosis, lactobacillus, mitigation, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
12354 Effect of Shrinkage on Heat and Mass Transfer Parameters of Solar Dried Potato Samples of Variable Diameter

Authors: Kshanaprava Dhalsamant, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy, Shanker L. Shrivastava

Abstract:

Potato is chosen as the food product for carrying out the natural convection mixed-mode solar drying experiments since they are easily available and globally consumed. The convective heat and mass transfer coefficients along with effective diffusivity were calculated considering both shrinkage and without shrinkage for the potato cylinders of different geometry (8, 10 and 13 mm diameters and a constant length of 50 mm). The convective heat transfer coefficient (hc) without considering shrinkage effect were 24.28, 18.69, 15.89 W/m2˚C and hc considering shrinkage effect were 37.81, 29.21, 25.72 W/m2˚C for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively. Similarly, the effective diffusivity (Deff) without considering shrinkage effect were 3.20×10-9, 4.82×10-9, 2.48×10-8 m2/s and Deff considering shrinkage effect were 1.68×10-9, 2.56×10-9, 1.34×10-8 m2/s for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively and the mass transfer coefficient (hm) without considering the shrinkage effect were 5.16×10-7, 2.93×10-7, 2.59×10-7 m/s and hm considering shrinkage effect were 3.71×10-7, 2.04×10-7, 1.80×10-7 m/s for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively. Increased values of hc were obtained by considering shrinkage effect in all diameter samples because shrinkage results in decreasing diameter with time achieving in enhanced rate of water loss. The average values of Deff determined without considering the shrinkage effect were found to be almost double that with shrinkage effect. The reduction in hm values is due to the fact that with increasing sample diameter, the exposed surface area per unit mass decreases, resulting in a slower moisture removal. It is worth noting that considering shrinkage effect led to overestimation of hc values in the range of 55.72-61.86% and neglecting the shrinkage effect in the mass transfer analysis, the values of Deff and hm are overestimated in the range of 85.02-90.27% and 39.11-45.11%, respectively, for the range of sample diameter investigated in the present study.

Keywords: shrinkage, convective heat transfer coefficient, effectivive diffusivity, convective mass transfer coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
12353 Direct Measurements of the Electrocaloric Effect in Solid Ferroelectric Materials via Thermoreflectance

Authors: Layla Farhat, Mathieu Bardoux, Stéphane Longuemart, Ziad Herro, Abdelhak Hadj Sahraoui

Abstract:

Electrocaloric (EC) effect refers to the isothermal entropy or adiabatic temperature changes of a dielectric material induced by an external electric field. This phenomenon has been largely ignored for application because only modest EC effects (2.6

Keywords: electrocaloric effect, thermoreflectance, ferroelectricity, cooling system

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
12352 Effect of Aggregate Size on Mechanical Behavior of Passively Confined Concrete Subjected to 3D Loading

Authors: Ibrahim Ajani Tijani, C. W. Lim

Abstract:

Limited studies have examined the effect of size on the mechanical behavior of confined concrete subjected to 3-dimensional (3D) test. With the novel 3D testing system to produce passive confinement, concrete cubes were tested to examine the effect of size on stress-strain behavior of the specimens. The effect of size on 3D stress-strain relationship was scrutinized and compared to the stress-strain relationship available in the literature. It was observed that the ultimate stress and the corresponding strain was related to the confining rigidity and size. The size shows a significant effect on the intersection stress and a new model was proposed for the intersection stress based on the conceptual design of the confining plates.

Keywords: concrete, aggregate size, size effect, 3D compression, passive confinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
12351 Behavioral Finance: Anomalies at Real Markets, Weekday Effect

Authors: Vera Jancurova

Abstract:

The financial theory is dominated by the believe that weekday effect has disappeared from current markets. The purpose of this article is to study anomalies, especially weekday effect, at real markets that disrupt the efficiency of financial markets. The research is based on the analyses of historical daily exchange rates of significant world indices to determine the presence of weekday effects on financial markets. The methodology used for the study is based on the analyzes of daily averages of particular indexes for different time periods. Average daily gains were analyzed for their whole time interval and then for particular five and ten years periods with the aim to detect the presence on current financial markets. The results confirm the presence of weekday effect at the most significant indices - for example: Nasdaq, S & P 500, FTSE 100 and the Hang Seng. It was confirmed that in the last ten years, the weekend effect disappeared from financial markets. However in last year’s the indicators show that weekday effect is coming back. The study shows that weekday effect has to be taken into consideration on financial markets, especially in the past years.

Keywords: indices, anomalies, behavioral finance, weekday effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
12350 Economic Stability in a Small Open Economy with Income Effect on Leisure Demand

Authors: Yu-Shan Hsu

Abstract:

This paper studies a two-sector growth model with a technology of social constant returns and with a utility that features either a zero or a positive income effect on the demand for leisure. The purpose is to investigate how the existence of aggregate instability or equilibrium indeterminacy depends on both the intensity of the income effect on the demand for leisure and the value of the labor supply elasticity. The main finding is that when there is a factor intensity reversal between the private perspective and the social perspective, indeterminacy arises even if the utility has a positive income effect on leisure demand. Moreover, we find that a smaller value of the labor supply elasticity increases the range of the income effect on leisure demand and thus increases the possibility of equilibrium indeterminacy. JEL classification: E3; O41

Keywords: indeterminacy, non-separable preferences, income effect, labor supply elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
12349 Study of Inhibition of the End Effect Based on AR Model Predict of Combined Data Extension and Window Function

Authors: Pan Hongxia, Wang Zhenhua

Abstract:

In this paper, the EMD decomposition in the process of endpoint effect adopted data based on AR model to predict the continuation and window function method of combining the two effective inhibition. Proven by simulation of the simulation signal obtained the ideal effect, then, apply this method to the gearbox test data is also achieved good effect in the process, for the analysis of the subsequent data processing to improve the calculation accuracy. In the end, under various working conditions for the gearbox fault diagnosis laid a good foundation.

Keywords: gearbox, fault diagnosis, ar model, end effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
12348 Epicatechin Metabolites and Its Effect on ROS Production in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan

Abstract:

The action of (-)-epicatechin, a cocoa (Theobroma cacao) flavanol that modulates redox/oxidative stress are contributed mainly to their antioxidant properties. The present study investigates the concentration and time dependent effect of (-)-epicatechin metabolites 3MeEc, 4MeEc, and 4SulEc on the production of ROS on BAEC using L-012, Lucigenin as chemiluminescence dye and XO/HX system. Our result demonstrates that 3MeEc shows significant (P <0.05) lowering effect of ROS production in BAEC with increasing concentration of metabolite while L-012 was used as chemiluminescence dye but not in the case of Lucigenin. In XO/HX system, using L-012 as chemiluminescence dye, 3MeEc and 4MeEc showed significant lowering effect on ROS production with increasing concentration from 100-500nM as compared to the positive control (SOD). When Lucigenin was used as chemiluminescence dye, 3MeEc exerted significant lowering effect with increasing concentration when compared to the positive control (SOD) whereas 4MeEc showed significant lowering effect in ROS production from 250 nM on as compared to positive control. For 4SulEc, a significant lowering effect of ROS production was only observed at 100 and 250 nM. Overall, although each metabolite shows considerable effect, 3MeEc exhibited more pronounced effect on decreasing the production of ROS as compared to other two metabolites.

Keywords: epicatechin metabolites, HO-1, Nrf2, ROS

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
12347 Many-Body Effect on Optical Gain of n+ Doping Tensile-Strained Ge/GeSiSn Quantum Wells

Authors: W. J. Fan, B. S. Ma

Abstract:

The many-body effect on band structure and optical gain of n+ doping tensile-strained Ge/GeSiSn quantum wells are investigated by using an 8-band k•p method. Phase diagram of Ge/GeSiSn quantum well is obtained. The E-k dispersion curves, band gap renormalization and optical gain spectra including many-body effect will be calculated and discussed. We find that the k.p method without many-body effect will overestimate the optical gain and transition energy.

Keywords: Si photonics, many-body effect, optical gain, Ge-on-Si, Quantum well

Procedia PDF Downloads 652
12346 Study of Residents' Perception of Tourism: The Case Study of Chabahar City, Iran

Authors: Majid Omidikhankahdani, Maryam Omidikhankahdani

Abstract:

Chabahar city located southeast of Iran and is one of strategic regional port in Oman sea aim of this study was measuring Chabahar city resident perceptions about tourism positive and negative effect. 322 participants selected via random sampling and fill questionnaire about their attitude toward tourism economic, social cultural and environment positive and negative impact. the result showed perspective of resident tourism have more positive effect than negative effect, also pair sample t test showed significant difference between positive and negative effect of tourism in favor positive effect.

Keywords: tourism economic effect, tourism environment, residents attitude, tourism social-cultural

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
12345 Teaching College Classes with Virtual Reality

Authors: Penn P. Wu

Abstract:

Recent advances in virtual reality (VR) technologies have made it possible for students to experience a virtual on-the-scene or virtual in-person observation of an educational event. In an experimental class, the author uses VR, particularly 360° videos, to virtually engage students in an event, through a wide spectrum of educational resources, such s a virtual “bystander.” Students were able to observe the event as if they were physically on site, although they could not intervene with the scene. The author will describe the adopted equipment, specification, and cost of building them as well as the quality of VR. The author will discuss (a) feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of using VR as a supplemental technology to teach college students and criteria and methodologies used by the authors to evaluate them; (b) barriers and issues of technological implementation; and (c) pedagogical practices learned through this experiment. The author also attempts to explore (a) how VR could provide an interactive virtual in-person learning experience; (b) how VR can possibly change traditional college education and online education; (c) how educators and balance six critical factors: cost, time, technology, quality, result, and content.

Keywords: learning with VR, virtual experience of learning, virtual in-person learning, virtual reality for education

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
12344 The Effect of Arms Embargoes on Ongoing Armed Conflict: Are They Really Reducing Conflict Duration?

Authors: Mustafa Kirisci

Abstract:

Arms embargoes have not been adequately examined in terms of their effects on conflict duration. Prior research on arms embargoes has generally investigated the effect of arms embargoes on arms import/export practices and violations in arms embargoes, but it says little about the effect on conflict duration. This paper attempts to fill this gap and aims to investigate the effect of arms embargoes on conflict duration throughout the world. More precisely, the purpose of the paper is to understand how arms embargoes affect the duration of both internal and interstate conflicts. Given the theoretical framework, the main hypothesis of the paper is arms embargoes will have no reduction effect on conflict duration when arms transfer and region are controlled. This hypothesis is tested by using OLS regression. Results indicate that arms embargoes have no effect on both internal and interstate conflict duration. Another crucial result is that both small and major arms transfers made by the embargoed countries during the internal conflict increase the duration of the conflict, but no effect on interstate conflict duration. The final part concludes and provide explanations on what these results imply for finishing the conflict and bringing the peace.

Keywords: arms embargo, arms transfer, internal conflict, international conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
12343 Is There a Month Effect on the Deposits Interest Rates? Evidence from the Greek Banking Industry during the Period 2003-13

Authors: Konstantopoulos N., Samitas A., E. Vasileiou, Kinias I.

Abstract:

This article introduces a new view on the month effect study. Applying a Markov Switching Regime model on data from the Greek Time Deposits (TDs) market for the time span January 2003 to October 2013, we examine if there is a month effect on the Greek banking industry. The empirical findings provide convincing evidence for a new king of monthly anomaly. The explanation for the specific abnormality may be the upward deposits window dressing. Further research should be done in order to examine if the specific calendar effect exists in other countries or it is only a Greek phenomenon.

Keywords: calendar anomalies, banking crisis, month effect, Greek banking industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
12342 Finding the Reaction Constant between Humic Acid and Aluminum Ion by Fluorescence Quenching Effect

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chen Zhao Feng, Ruey Fang Yu, Lin Jia Jun, Lin Ji Ye, Chen Yuan Wei

Abstract:

Humic acid was used as the removal target for evaluating the coagulation efficiency in this study. When the coagulant ions mix with a humic acid solution, a Fluorescence quenching effect may be observed conditionally. This effect can be described by Stern-Volmer linear equation which can be used for quantifying the quenching value (Kq) of the Fluorescence quenching effect. In addition, a Complex-Formation Titration (CFT) theory was conducted and the result was used to explain the electron-neutralization capability of the coagulant (AlCl₃) at different pH. The results indicated that when pH of the ACl₃ solution was between 6 and 8, fluorescence quenching effect obviously occurred. The maximum Kq value was found to be 102,524 at pH 6. It means that the higher the Kq value is, the better complex reaction between a humic acid and aluminum salts will be. Through the Kq value study, the optimum pH can be quantified when the humic acid solution is coagulated with aluminum ions.

Keywords: humic acid, fluorescence quenching effect, complex reaction, titration

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
12341 Empirical Investigation of Bullwhip Effect with Sensitivity Analysis in Supply Chain

Authors: Shoaib Yousaf

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to the empirical investigation of the bullwhip effect under sensitivity analysis in the two-tier supply chain. The simulation modeling technique has been applied in this research as a research methodology to see the sensitivity analysis of the bullwhip effect in the rice industry of Pakistan. The research comprises two case studies that have been chosen as a sample. The results of this research have confirmed that reduction in production delay reduces the bullwhip effect, which conforms to the time compressing paradigm and the significance of the reduction in production delay to lessen demand amplification. The result of this research also indicates that by increasing the value of time to adjust inventory decreases the bullwhip effect. Furthermore, by decreasing the value of alpha increases the damping effect of the exponential smoother, it is not surprising that it also reduces the bullwhip effect. Moreover, by reducing the value of time to work in progress also reduces the bullwhip effect. This research will help practitioners and operation managers to reduces the major costs of their products in three ways. They can reduce their i) inventory levels, ii) better utilize their capacity and iii) improve their forecasting techniques. However, this study is based on two tier supply chain, while in reality the supply chain has got many tiers. Hence, future work will be extended across more than two-tier supply chains.

Keywords: bullwhip effect, rice industry, supply chain dynamics, simulation, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
12340 Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene

Authors: Kostandinos Katsamangas, Fawad Inam

Abstract:

Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on de-wrinkling graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has a significant effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the de-wrinkling of graphene.

Keywords: Graphene, de-wrinkling, dispersion, surfactants, scanning electronic microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
12339 The Effect of Circuit Training on Aerobic Fitness and Body Fat Percentage

Authors: Presto Tri Sambodo, Suharjana, Galih Yoga Santiko

Abstract:

Having an ideal body shape healthy body are the desire of everyone, both young and old. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the effect of block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, (2) the effect of non-block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, and (3) differences in the effect of exercise on block and non-circuit training block against aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. This research is an experimental research with the prestest posttest design Two groups design. The population in this study were 57 members of fat loss at GOR UNY Fitness Center. The retrieval technique uses purposive random sampling with a sample of 20 people. The instruments with rockport test (1.6 KM) and body fat percentage with a scale of bioelectrical impedance analysis omron (BIA). So it can be concluded the circuit training between block and non-block has a significant effect on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. And for differences in the effect of circuit training between blocks and non-blocks, it is more influential on aerobic fitness than the percentage of body fat.

Keywords: circuit training, aerobic fitness, body fat percentage, healthy body

Procedia PDF Downloads 103