Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 393

Search results for: Yu Lung Lau

393 Calculation of Lungs Physiological Lung Motion in External Lung Irradiation

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Khalid H. Eltom

Abstract:

This is an experimental study deals with measurement of the periodic physiological organ motion during lung external irradiation in order to reduce the exposure of healthy tissue during radiation treatments. The results showed for left lung displacement reading (4.52+1.99 mm) and right lung is (8.21+3.77 mm) which the radiotherapy physician should take suitable countermeasures in case of significant errors. The motion ranged between 2.13 mm and 12.2 mm (low and high). In conclusion, the calculation of tumour mobility can improve the accuracy of target areas definition in patients undergo Sterostatic RT for stage I, II and III lung cancer (NSCLC). Definition of the target volume based on a high resolution CT scan with a margin of 3-5 mm is appropriate.

Keywords: physiological motion, lung, external irradiation, radiation medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
392 Spatio- Temporal Gender Based Patterns of Lung Cancer in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, 2008-2012

Authors: Rubab Z. Kahlon, Ibtisam Butt, Isma Younis, Aamer G. Mufti

Abstract:

Worldwide lung cancer 1.61 million cases were seen in both genders. Lung carcinoma is the major cause of both morbidity and mortality in the world. Purpose of the present study was to describe the spatio- temporal trends of lung cancer in both genders. A retrospective study was conducted. Total 1498 patients of lung carcinoma were examined. Only lung cancer patients from all over the Punjab were included in the present study. MS Excel 2010 was used for data tabulation and calculation while the Arc GIS version 9.3 was used for geographical representation of the data. 1498 cases of Lung cancer were found from 2008-2012. The number of male patients was 1236 and female was 262. Majority of the patients were from Lahore districts with 807 patients. Lung cancer was more prevalent in male as compared to female in our region. Increase in the prevalence of lung cancer was prominently seen in the most populated and industrial areas of the Punjab province. Time trend of five years showed fluctuation in the lung cancer incidence during the study period.

Keywords: districts, gender, lung cancer trends, Punjab province of Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
391 Automatic Segmentation of Lung Pleura Based On Curvature Analysis

Authors: Sasidhar B., Bhaskar Rao N., Ramesh Babu D. R., Ravi Shankar M.

Abstract:

Segmentation of lung pleura is a preprocessing step in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) which helps in reducing false positives in detection of lung cancer. The existing methods fail in extraction of lung regions with the nodules at the pleura of the lungs. In this paper, a new method is proposed which segments lung regions with nodules at the pleura of the lungs based on curvature analysis and morphological operators. The proposed algorithm is tested on 06 patient’s dataset which consists of 60 images of Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and the results are found to be satisfactory with 98.3% average overlap measure (AΩ).

Keywords: curvature analysis, image segmentation, morphological operators, thresholding

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390 Evaluation of Promoter Hypermethylation in Tissue and Blood of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients and Association with Survival

Authors: Ashraf Ali, Kriti Upadhyay, Puja Sohal, Anant Mohan, Randeep Guleria

Abstract:

Background: Gene silencing by aberrant promoter hypermethylation is common in lung cancer and is an initiating event in its development. Aim: To evaluate the gene promoter hypermethylation frequency in serum and tissue of lung cancer patients. Method: 95 newly diagnosed untreated advance stage lung cancer patients and 50 cancer free matched controls were studied. Bisulfite modification of tissue and serum DNA was done; modified DNA was used as a template for methylation-specific PCR analysis. Survival was assessed for one year. Results: Of 95 patients, 82% were non-small cell lung cancer (34% squamous cell carcinoma, 34% non-small cell lung cancer and 14% adenocarcinoma) and 18% were small cell lung cancer. Biopsy revealed that tissue of 89% and 75% of lung cancer patients and 85% and 52% of controls had promoter hypermethylated for MGMT (p=0.35) and p16(p<0.001) gene, respectively. In serum, 33% and 49% of lung cancer patients and 28% and 43% controls were positive for MGMT and p16 gene. No significant correlation was found between survival and clinico-pathological parameters. Conclusion: High gene promoter methylation frequency of p16 gene in tissue biopsy may be linked with early stages of carcinogenesis. Appropriate follow-up is required for confirmation of this finding.

Keywords: lung cancer, MS- PCR, methylation, molecular biology

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389 The Relation Between Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neopterin in the Paraquat-Induced Lung Toxicity

Authors: M. Toygar, I. Aydin, M. Agilli, F. N. Aydin, M. Oztosun, H. Gul, E. Macit, Y. Karslioglu, T. Topal, B. Uysal, M. Honca

Abstract:

Paraquat (PQ) is a well-known quaternary nitrogen herbicide. The major target organ in PQ poisoning is the lung. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation play a crucial role in the development of PQ-induced pulmonary injury. Neopterin is synthesized in macrophage by interferon g and other cytokines. We aimed to evaluate the utility of neopterin as a diagnostic marker in PQ-induced lung toxicity. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (sham and PQ), administered intraperitoneally 1 mL saline and PQ (15 mg/kg/mL) respectively. Blood samples and lungs were collected for analyses. Lung injury and fibrosis were seen in the PQ group. Serum total antioxidant capacity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lung transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1) levels were significantly higher than the sham group (in all, p< 0.001). In addition, in the PQ group, serum neopterin and lung malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also significantly higher than the sham group (in all, p 1/4 0.001). Serum neopterin levels were correlated with LDH activities, lung MDA, lung TGF-1 levels, and the degree of lung injury. These findings demonstrated that oxidative stress, reduction of antioxidant capacity, and inflammation play a crucial role in the PQ-induced lung injury. Elevated serum neopterin levels may be a prognostic parameter to determine extends of PQ-induced lung toxicity. Further studies may be performed to clarify the role of neopterin by different doses of PQ.

Keywords: paraquat, inflammation, oxidative stress, neopterin, lung toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
388 PathoPy2.0: Application of Fractal Geometry for Early Detection and Histopathological Analysis of Lung Cancer

Authors: Rhea Kapoor

Abstract:

Fractal dimension provides a way to characterize non-geometric shapes like those found in nature. The purpose of this research is to estimate Minkowski fractal dimension of human lung images for early detection of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among all types of cancer and an early histopathological analysis will help reduce deaths primarily due to late diagnosis. A Python application program, PathoPy2.0, was developed for analyzing medical images in pixelated format and estimating Minkowski fractal dimension using a new box-counting algorithm that allows windowing of images for more accurate calculation in the suspected areas of cancerous growth. Benchmark geometric fractals were used to validate the accuracy of the program and changes in fractal dimension of lung images to indicate the presence of issues in the lung. The accuracy of the program for the benchmark examples was between 93-99% of known values of the fractal dimensions. Fractal dimension values were then calculated for lung images, from National Cancer Institute, taken over time to correctly detect the presence of cancerous growth. For example, as the fractal dimension for a given lung increased from 1.19 to 1.27 due to cancerous growth, it represents a significant change in fractal dimension which lies between 1 and 2 for 2-D images. Based on the results obtained on many lung test cases, it was concluded that fractal dimension of human lungs can be used to diagnose lung cancer early. The ideas behind PathoPy2.0 can also be applied to study patterns in the electrical activity of the human brain and DNA matching.

Keywords: fractals, histopathological analysis, image processing, lung cancer, Minkowski dimension

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387 Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with an Interval of 40 Years. Report of an Autopsy Case

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

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A 75-year-old woman took thyroidectomy forty years previously. Enlarged masses were seen at autopsy just above and below the left clavicle. We proved the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and lung metastasis by histological examinations. The prognosis of PTC is excellent; the 10-year survival rate ranges between 85 and 99%. Lung metastases may be found in 10% of the patients with PTC. We report an unusual case of recurrence of PTC with metastasis to the lung.

Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer, lung metastasis, autopsy, histopathological findings

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386 The Effects of Terrein: A Secondary Metabolite from Aspergillus terreus as Anticancer and Antimetastatic Agent on Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Paiwan Buachan, Maneekarn Namsa-Aid, Suchada Jongrungruangchok, Foengchat Jarintanan, Wanlaya Uthaisang-Tanechpongtamb

Abstract:

Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both of the lungs. These abnormal cells can spread to other organs of the body through lymphatic system or bloodstream which is called metastatic stage that leading cause of cancer death. Terrein (C₈H₁₀O₃; MW= 154.06 kDa) is a secondary bioactive fungal metabolite, which was isolated from the Aspergillus terreus. In this study, we investigated the effects of terrein on the inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. The A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line was used as a model. Terrein significantly inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation measuring by a colorimetric MTT assay (IC₅₀ 0.32 mM) and significantly inhibited metastatic processes including migration, invasion, and adhesion that determined by wound healing assay, transwell assay, and adhesion assay, respectively. These findings indicate that terrein could be a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

Keywords: terrein, lung cancer, anticancer, antimetastatic

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385 Green Tea Extract: Its Potential Protective Effect on Bleomycin Induced Lung Injuries in Rats

Authors: Azza EL-Medany, Jamila EL-Medany

Abstract:

Lung fibrosis is a common side effect of the chemotherapeutic agent, bleomycin. Current evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species may play a key role in the development of lung fibrosis. The present work studied the effect of green tea extract on bleomycin–induced lung fibrosis in rats. Animals were divided into three groups: (1) Saline control group; (2) bleomycin group in which rats were injected with bleomycin (15mg/kg,i.p.) three times a week for four weeks; (3) bleomycin and green tea group in which green tea extract was given to rats (100mg/kg/day, p.o) a week prior to bleomycin and daily during bleomycin injections for 4 weeks until the end of the experiment. Bleomycin–induced pulmonary injury and lung fibrosis that was indicated by increased lung hydroxyproline content, elevated nitric oxide synthase, myeoloperoxidase (MPO), platelet activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF_α), transforming growth factor 1β (TGF1β) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in lung tissues. On the other hand, bleomycin induced a reduction in reduced glutathione concentration (GSH). Moreover, bleomycin resulted in a severe histological changes in lung tissues revealed as lymphocytes and neutrophils infiltration, increased collagen deposition and fibrosis. Co-administration of bleomycin and green tea extract reduced bleomycin–induced lung injury as evaluated by the significant reduction in hydroxyproline content, nitric oxide synthase activity, levels of MPO, PAF, TNF-α, and ACE in lung tissues. Furthermore, green tea extract ameliorated bleomycin– induced reduction in GSH concentration. Finally, histological evidence supported the ability of green tea extract to attenuate bleomycin–induced lung fibrosis and consolidation. Thus, the finding of the present study provides that green tea may serve as a novel target for potential therapeutic treatment of lung fibrosis.

Keywords: bleomycin, lung fibrosis, green tea, oxygen species

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384 Hsa-miR-329 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor through Targeting MET in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as key regulators of multiple cancers. Hsa-miR-329 (miR-329) functions as a tumor suppressor in some malignancies. However, its role on lung cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-329 on the development of lung cancer. The results indicated that miR-329 was decreased in primary lung cancer tissues compared with matched adjacent normal lung tissues and very low levels were found in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-329 in lung cancer cell lines substantially repressed cell growth as evidenced by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and BrdU staining, through inhibiting cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and up-regulatiing p57(Kip2) and p21(WAF1/CIP1). In addition, miR-329 promoted NSCLC cell apoptosis, as indicated by up-regulation of key apoptosis gene cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2. Moreover, miR-329 inhibited cellular migration and invasiveness through inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene MET was revealed to be a putative target of miR-329, which was inversely correlated with miR-329 expression. Furthermore, down-regulation of MET by siRNA performed similar effects to over-expression of miR-329. Collectively, our results demonstrated that miR-329 played a pivotal role in lung cancer through inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic MET.

Keywords: hsa-miRNA-329(miR-329), MET, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), proliferation, apoptosis

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383 Iterative Method for Lung Tumor Localization in 4D CT

Authors: Sarah K. Hagi, Majdi Alnowaimi

Abstract:

In the last decade, there were immense advancements in the medical imaging modalities. These advancements can scan a whole volume of the lung organ in high resolution images within a short time. According to this performance, the physicians can clearly identify the complicated anatomical and pathological structures of lung. Therefore, these advancements give large opportunities for more advance of all types of lung cancer treatment available and will increase the survival rate. However, lung cancer is still one of the major causes of death with around 19% of all the cancer patients. Several factors may affect survival rate. One of the serious effects is the breathing process, which can affect the accuracy of diagnosis and lung tumor treatment plan. We have therefore developed a semi automated algorithm to localize the 3D lung tumor positions across all respiratory data during respiratory motion. The algorithm can be divided into two stages. First, a lung tumor segmentation for the first phase of the 4D computed tomography (CT). Lung tumor segmentation is performed using an active contours method. Then, localize the tumor 3D position across all next phases using a 12 degrees of freedom of an affine transformation. Two data set where used in this study, a compute simulate for 4D CT using extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom and 4D CT clinical data sets. The result and error calculation is presented as root mean square error (RMSE). The average error in data sets is 0.94 mm ± 0.36. Finally, evaluation and quantitative comparison of the results with a state-of-the-art registration algorithm was introduced. The results obtained from the proposed localization algorithm show a promising result to localize alung tumor in 4D CT data.

Keywords: automated algorithm , computed tomography, lung tumor, tumor localization

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382 Cadaveric Study of Lung Anatomy: A Surgical Overview

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Rati Tandon, Saroj Kaler

Abstract:

Introduction: A thorough knowledge of variations in lung anatomy is of prime significance during surgical procedures like lobectomy, pneumonectomy, and segmentectomy of lungs. The arrangement of structures in the lung hilum act as a guide in performing such procedures. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures in the right lung is eparterial bronchus, pulmonary artery, hyparterial bronchus and pulmonary veins from above downwards. In the left lung, it is pulmonary artery, principal bronchus and pulmonary vein from above downwards. The arrangement of hilar structures from anterior to posterior in both the lungs is pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and principal bronchus. The bronchial arteries are very small and usually the posterior most structures in the hilum of lungs. Aim: The present study aims at reporting the variations in hilar anatomy (arrangement and number) of lungs. Methodology: 75 adult formalin fixed cadaveric lungs from the department of Anatomy AIIMS New Delhi were observed for variations in the lobar anatomy. Arrangement of pulmonary hilar structures was meticulously observed, and any deviation in the pattern of presentation was recorded. Results: Among the 75 adult lung specimens observed 36 specimens were of right lung and the rest of left lung. Seven right lung specimens showed only 2 lobes with an oblique fissure dividing them and one left lung showed 3 lobes. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures was seen in 22 right lungs and 23 left lungs. Rest of the lung specimens (14 right and 16 left) showed a varied pattern of arrangement of hilar structures. Some of them showed alterations in the sequence of arrangement of pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, bronchus, and others in the number of these structures. Conclusion: Alterations in the pattern of arrangement of structures in the lung hilum are quite frequent. A compromise in knowledge of such variations will result in inadvertent complications like intraoperative bleeding during surgical procedures.

Keywords: fissures, hilum, lobes, pulmonary

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381 Graph Cuts Segmentation Approach Using a Patch-Based Similarity Measure Applied for Interactive CT Lung Image Segmentation

Authors: Aicha Majda, Abdelhamid El Hassani

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Lung CT image segmentation is a prerequisite in lung CT image analysis. Most of the conventional methods need a post-processing to deal with the abnormal lung CT scans such as lung nodules or other lesions. The simplest similarity measure in the standard Graph Cuts Algorithm consists of directly comparing the pixel values of the two neighboring regions, which is not accurate because this kind of metrics is extremely sensitive to minor transformations such as noise or other artifacts problems. In this work, we propose an improved version of the standard graph cuts algorithm based on the Patch-Based similarity metric. The boundary penalty term in the graph cut algorithm is defined Based on Patch-Based similarity measurement instead of the simple intensity measurement in the standard method. The weights between each pixel and its neighboring pixels are Based on the obtained new term. The graph is then created using theses weights between its nodes. Finally, the segmentation is completed with the minimum cut/Max-Flow algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very accurate and efficient, and can directly provide explicit lung regions without any post-processing operations compared to the standard method.

Keywords: graph cuts, lung CT scan, lung parenchyma segmentation, patch-based similarity metric

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380 Hsa-miR-139-5p Acts as a Tumor Suppressor by Targeting C-Met in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Shujun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, Dejia Li

Abstract:

Hsa-miRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p) has recently been discovered having anticancer efficacy in different organs. However, the role of miR-139-5p on lung cancer is still ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-139-5p on development of lung cancer. Results indicated miR-139-5p was significantly down-regulated in primary tumor tissues and very low levels were found in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-139-5p in NSCLC cell lines significantly suppressed cell growth through inhibition of cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p57(Kip2). In addition, miR-139-5p induced apoptosis, as indicated by up-regulation of key apoptosis gene cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2. Moreover, miR-139-5p inhibited cellular metastasis through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene c-Met was revealed to be a putative target of miR-139-5p, which was inversely correlated with miR-139-5p expression. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-139-5p plays a pivotal role in lung cancer through inhibiting cell proliferation, metastasis, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic c-Met.

Keywords: hsa-miRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p), c-Met, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), proliferation, apoptosis

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379 Carvacrol Attenuates Lung Injury in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

Authors: Salim Cerig, Fatime Geyikoglu, Pınar Akpulat, Suat Colak, Hasan Turkez, Murat Bakir, Mirkhalil Hosseinigouzdagani, Kubra Koc

Abstract:

This study was designed to evaluate whether carvacrol (CAR) could provide protection against lung injury by acute pancreatitis development. The rats were randomized into groups to receive (I) no therapy; (II) 50 μg/kg cerulein at 1h intervals by four intraperitoneal injections (i.p.); (III) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p.; and (IV) cerulein+CAR after 2h of cerulein injection. 12h later, serum samples were obtained to assess pancreatic function the lipase and amylase values. The animals were euthanized and lung samples were excised. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), periodic acid–Schif (PAS), Mallory's trichrome and amyloid. Additionally, oxidative DNA damage was determined by measuring as increases in 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) adducts. The results showed that the serum activity of lipase and amylase in AP rats were significantly reduced after the therapy (p<0.05). We also found that the 100 mg/kg dose of CAR significantly decreased 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the severe pathological findings in the lung such as necrosis, inflammation, congestion, fibrosis, and thickened alveolar septum were attenuated in the AP+CAR groups when compared with AP group. Finally, the magnitude of the protective effect on lung is certain, and CAR is an effective therapy for lung injury caused by AP.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, acute pancreatitis, carvacrol, experimental, lung injury, oxidative DNA damage

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378 Assessment of Association Between Microalbuminuria and Lung Function Test Among the Community of Jimma Town

Authors: Diriba Dereje

Abstract:

Background: Cardiac and renal disease are the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) affecting the community in a significant manner. The best and recommended method in halting CNCD is by working on prevention as early as possible. This is only possible if early surrogate markers are identified. As part of the stated solution, this study will identify an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Methodology: Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 adult in Jimma town. A systematic sampling technique was used in selecting participants to the study. In searching for the possible association, binary and multivariate logistic regression and t-test was conducted. Finally, the association between microalbuminuria and lung function test was well stated in the form of figures and written description. Result and Conclusion: A significant association was found between microalbuminuria and different lung function test parameters.

Keywords: microalbuminuria, lung function, association, test

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377 Prediction of MicroRNA-Target Gene by Machine Learning Algorithms in Lung Cancer Study

Authors: Nilubon Kurubanjerdjit, Nattakarn Iam-On, Ka-Lok Ng

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA found in many different species. They play crucial roles in cancer such as biological processes of apoptosis and proliferation. The identification of microRNA-target genes can be an essential first step towards to reveal the role of microRNA in various cancer types. In this paper, we predict miRNA-target genes for lung cancer by integrating prediction scores from miRanda and PITA algorithms used as a feature vector of miRNA-target interaction. Then, machine-learning algorithms were implemented for making a final prediction. The approach developed in this study should be of value for future studies into understanding the role of miRNAs in molecular mechanisms enabling lung cancer formation.

Keywords: microRNA, miRNAs, lung cancer, machine learning, Naïve Bayes, SVM

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376 The Role of Cyfra 21-1 in Diagnosing Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

Authors: H. J. T. Kevin Mozes, Dyah Purnamasari

Abstract:

Background: Lung cancer accounted for the fourth most common cancer in Indonesia. 85% of all lung cancer cases are the Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). The indistinct signs and symptoms of NSCLC sometimes lead to misdiagnosis. The gold standard assessment for the diagnosis of NSCLC is the histopathological biopsy, which is invasive. Cyfra 21-1 is a tumor marker, which can be found in the intermediate protein structure in the epitel. The accuracy of Cyfra 21-1 in diagnosing NSCLC is not yet known, so this report is made to seek the answer for the question above. Methods: Literature searching is done using online databases. Proquest and Pubmed are online databases being used in this report. Then, literature selection is done by excluding and including based on inclusion criterias and exclusion criterias. The selected literature is then being appraised using the criteria of validity, importance, and validity. Results: From six journals appraised, five of them are valid. Sensitivity value acquired from all five literature is ranging from 50-84.5 %, meanwhile the specificity is 87.8 %-94.4 %. Likelihood the ratio of all appraised literature is ranging from 5.09 -10.54, which categorized to Intermediate High. Conclusion: Serum Cyfra 21-1 is a sensitive and very specific tumor marker for diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Keywords: cyfra 21-1, diagnosis, nonsmall cell lung cancer, NSCLC, tumor marker

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375 Caspase-11 and AIM2 Inflammasome are Involved in Smoking-Induced COPD and Lung Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Chiara Colarusso, Michela Terlizzi, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino

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Cigarette smoking is the main cause and the most common risk factor for both COPD and lung cancer. In our previous studies, we proved that caspase-11 in mice and its human analogue, caspase-4, are involved in lung carcinogenesis and that AIM2 inflammasome might play a pro-cancerous role in lung cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate potential crosstalk between COPD and lung cancer, focusing on AIM2 and caspase-11-dependent inflammasome signaling pathway. To mimic COPD, we took advantage of an experimental first-hand smoking mouse model and, to confirm what was observed in mice, we used human samples of lung adenocarcinoma patients stratified according to the smoking and COPD status. We demonstrated that smoke exposure led to emphysema-like features, bronchial tone impairment, and release of IL-1-like cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-18) in a caspase-1 independent manner in C57Bl/6N. Rather, a dysfunctional caspase-11 in smoke-exposed 129Sv mice was associated to lower bronchial inflammation, collagen deposition, and IL-1-like inflammation. In addition, for the first time, we found that AIM2 inflammasome is involved in lung inflammation in smoking and COPD, in that its expression was higher in smoke-exposed C57Bl/6N compared to 129Sv smoking mice, who instead did not show any alteration of AIM2 in both macrophages and dendritic cells. Moreover, we found that AIM2 expression in the cancerous tissue, albeit higher than non-cancerous tissue, was not statistically different according to the COPD and smoking status. Instead, the higher expression of AIM2 in non-cancerous tissue of smoker COPD patients than smokers who did not have COPD was correlated to a higher hazard ratio of poor survival rate than patients who presented lower levels of AIM2. In conclusion, our data highlight that caspase-11 in mice is associated to smoke-induced lung latent inflammation which could drive the establishment of lung cancer, and that AIM2 inflammasome plays a role at the crosstalk between smoking/COPD and lung adenocarcinoma in that its higher presence is correlated to lower survival rate of smoker COPD adenocarcinoma.

Keywords: COPD, inflammasome, lung cancer, lung inflammation, smoke

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374 Role of Imaging in Predicting the Receptor Positivity Status in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Chapter in Radiogenomics

Authors: Sonal Sethi, Mukesh Yadav, Abhimanyu Gupta

Abstract:

The upcoming field of radiogenomics has the potential to upgrade the role of imaging in lung cancer management by noninvasive characterization of tumor histology and genetic microenvironment. Receptor positivity like epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genotyping are critical in lung adenocarcinoma for treatment. As conventional identification of receptor positivity is an invasive procedure, we analyzed the features on non-invasive computed tomography (CT), which predicts the receptor positivity in lung adenocarcinoma. Retrospectively, we did a comprehensive study from 77 proven lung adenocarcinoma patients with CT images, EGFR and ALK receptor genotyping, and clinical information. Total 22/77 patients were receptor-positive (15 had only EGFR mutation, 6 had ALK mutation, and 1 had both EGFR and ALK mutation). Various morphological characteristics and metastatic distribution on CT were analyzed along with the clinical information. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found spiculated margin, lymphangitic spread, air bronchogram, pleural effusion, and distant metastasis had a significant predictive value for receptor mutation status. On univariate analysis, air bronchogram and pleural effusion had significant individual predictive value. Conclusions: Receptor positive lung cancer has characteristic imaging features compared with nonreceptor positive lung adenocarcinoma. Since CT is routinely used in lung cancer diagnosis, we can predict the receptor positivity by a noninvasive technique and would follow a more aggressive algorithm for evaluation of distant metastases as well as for the treatment.

Keywords: lung cancer, multidisciplinary cancer care, oncologic imaging, radiobiology

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373 Lung Function, Urinary Heavy Metals And ITS Other Influencing Factors Among Community In Klang Valley

Authors: Ammar Amsyar Abdul Haddi, Mohd Hasni Jaafar

Abstract:

Heavy metals are elements naturally presented in the environment that can cause adverse effect to health. But not much literature was found on effects toward lung function, where impairment of lung function may lead to various lung diseases. The objective of the study is to explore the lung function impairment, urinary heavy metal level, and its associated factors among the community in Klang valley, Malaysia. Sampling was done in Kuala Lumpur suburb public and housing areas during community events throughout March 2019 till October 2019. respondents who gave the consent were given a questionnaire to answer and was proceeded with a lung function test. Urine samples were obtained at the end of the session and sent for Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis for heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentration. A total of 200 samples were analysed, and of all, 52% of respondents were male, Age ranging from 18 years old to 74 years old with a mean age of 38.44. Urinary samples show that 12% of the respondent (n=22) has Cd level above than average, and 1.5 % of the respondent (n=3) has urinary Pb at an above normal level. Bivariate analysis show that there was a positive correlation between urinary Cd and urinary Pb (r= 0.309; p<0.001). Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between urinary Cd level and full vital capacity (FVC) (r=-0.202, p=0.004), Force expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) (r = -0.225, p=0.001), and also with Force expiratory flow between 25-75% FVC (FEF25%-75%) (r= -0.187, p=0.008). however, urinary Pb did not show any association with FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, or FEF25%-75%. Multiple linear regression analysis shows that urinary Cd remained significant and negatively affect FVC% (p=0.025) and FEV1% (p=0.004) achieved from the predicted value. On top of that, other factors such as education level (p=0.013) and duration of smoking(p=0.003) may influencing both urinary Cd and performance in lung function as well, suggesting Cd as a potential mediating factor between smoking and impairment of lung function. however, there was no interaction detected between heavy metal or other influencing factor in this study. In short, there is a negative linear relationship detected between urinary Cd and lung function, and urinary Cd is likely to affects lung function in a restrictive pattern. Since smoking is also an influencing factor for urinary Cd and lung function impairment, it is highly suggested that smokers should be screened for lung function and urinary Cd level in the future for early disease prevention.

Keywords: lung function, heavy metals, community

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372 Histopathological Examination of Lung Surgery Camel in Iran

Authors: Ali Chitgar

Abstract:

Respiratory infections including diseases in camels are important not only because of the threat of animal health but also to reduce their production. Since that deal with respiratory problems and their treatment requires adequate knowledge of the existing respiratory problems, unfortunately, there is limited information about the species of camels. This study aimed to identify lung lesions camels slaughtered in a slaughterhouse more important was performed using histopathology. Respiratory camels (n = 477) was examined after the killing fully and tissue samples were placed in 10% formalin. The samples and histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining and color were evaluated. In this study 79.6 % (236 of 477 samples) of the samples was at least a lung lesion. Rate acute interstitial pneumonia, chronic interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiolitis, an inflammation of the pleura and 52.8 % respectively atelectasis (236 of 477 samples), 5.4 % (24 of 477 samples), 7.8 % (35 of 477 samples), 6.7 % (30 of 477 samples), 3.4 % (15 of 477 samples) and 15.2% (68 of 477 samples). The lung lesions, acute interstitial pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in autumn winter rather than spring and summer (p <0/05) and as a result, this study showed that high rates of lung lesions in the camel population. Waste higher results in cold seasons (fall and winter) shows.

Keywords: camel, surgery, histopathology, breathing organ

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371 Comparison between Effects of Free Curcumin and Curcumin Loaded NIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles on Telomerase and Pinx1 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Y. Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, F. Badrzadeh, N. Zarghami, S. Jalilzadeh-Tabrizi, R. Zamani

Abstract:

Herbal compounds such as curcumin which decrease telomerase and gene expression have been considered as beneficial tools for lung cancer treatment. In this article, we compared the effects of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles on telomerase and PinX1 gene expression in a lung cancer cell line. A tetrazolium-based assay was used for determination of cytotoxic effects of curcumin on the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line and telomerase and pinX1 gene expression was measured with real-time PCR. MTT assay showed that Curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA inhibited the growth of the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line in a time and dose-dependent manner. Our q-PCR results showed that the expression of telomerase gene was effectively reduced as the concentration of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA increased while expression of the PinX1 gene became elevated. The results showed that curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA exerted cytotoxic effects on the Calu-6 cell line through down-regulation of telomerase and stimulation of pinX1 gene expression. NIPPAm-MAA could be the good carrier for such kinds of hydrophobic agent.

Keywords: curcumin, NIPAAm-MAA, PinX1, telomerase, lung cancer cells

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370 Environmental Pollution Impact on Lung Functions and Cognitive Functions Among School Adolescence

Authors: Sultan Ayoub Meo

Abstract:

Environmental pollution is a highly challenging global concern of the 21st century and is a major cause of various communicable and non-communicable diseases. We investigate the impact of air pollution on "lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and cognitive function"in a group of one hundred young students studying in a traffic-polluted school. The students wereselected based on their age, gender, height, weight, and ethnicity. After the clinical history, one hundred students were recruited from the schoolnear and away from the polluted areas. The lung and cognitive functions were recorded. The results revealed that lung and cognitive function parameters were reduced in groups of students studying in a school located in a traffic-polluted area compared to thosestudying in a schoolsituated away from the traffic-polluted area. Environmental pollution impairs students' lung and cognitive functions studying in schools located within traffic-polluted areas. The health officials and policymakers establish strategies to minimize environmental pollution and its allied health hazards. Prof. Sultan Ayoub Meo, MD, Ph.D Professor, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia Email. [email protected] / [email protected]

Keywords: environmental pOllution, lung physiology, cognitive functions, air pollution

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369 The Application of FSI Techniques in Modeling of Realist Pulmonary Systems

Authors: Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Hassan Athari, Dogan Ciloglu

Abstract:

The modeling lung respiratory system which has complex anatomy and biophysics presents several challenges including tissue-driven flow patterns and wall motion. Also, the lung pulmonary system because of that they stretch and recoil with each breath, has not static walls and structures. The direct relationship between air flow and tissue motion in the lung structures naturally prefers an FSI simulation technique. Therefore, in order to toward the realistic simulation of pulmonary breathing mechanics the development of a coupled FSI computational model is an important step. A simple but physiologically-relevant three dimensional deep long geometry is designed and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling technique is utilized for simulating the deformation of the lung parenchyma tissue which produces airflow fields. The real understanding of respiratory tissue system as a complex phenomenon have been investigated with respect to respiratory patterns, fluid dynamics and tissue visco-elasticity and tidal breathing period.

Keywords: lung deformation and mechanics; Tissue mechanics; Viscoelasticity; Fluid-structure interactions; ANSYS

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368 Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Activities of Formononetin in Lung Cancer by in vitro Methods

Authors: Vishnu Varthan Vaithiyalingam Jagannathan, Lakshmi Karunanidhi Santhanalakshmi, Srividya Ammayappan Rajam

Abstract:

Formononetin is the O-Methoxy Flavonol that has many pharmacological activities, which belongs to the flavonoid family. In the current study, activity of this molecule was evaluated in lung cancer cell lines. In general, flavonoids possess certain anticancer mechanism. Being a flavonoid subfamily, this molecule was subjected to evaluate cytotoxicity assay by MTT ((3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide)) stain, mode of cell death assay stained by acridine orange and ethidium bromide and Evaluation of Apoptosis pathway (extrinsic or intrinsic) by Caspase 3/7 stain and Rhodamine-123 stain. From the results, we could able to confirm that the investigatory molecule formononetin has anticancer activity and in future, the study will propose to evaluate the formononetin action against genetic changes occurs during lung cancer progression.

Keywords: Caspase 3/7, formononetin, lung cancer, Rhodamine-123

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367 Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening in China: A Discrete Choice Experiment

Authors: Zixuan Zhao, Lingbin Du, Le Wang, Youqing Wang, Yi Yang, Jingjun Chen, Hengjin Dong

Abstract:

Objectives: Few results from public attitudes for lung cancer screening are available both in China and abroad. This study aimed to identify preferred lung cancer screening modalities in a Chinese population and predict uptake rates of different modalities. Materials and Methods: A discrete choice experiment questionnaire was administered to 392 Chinese individuals aged 50–74 years who were at high risk for lung cancer. Each choice set had two lung screening options and an option to opt-out, and respondents were asked to choose the most preferred one. Both mixed logit analysis and stepwise logistic analysis were conducted to explore whether preferences were related to respondent characteristics and identify which kinds of respondents were more likely to opt out of any screening. Results: On mixed logit analysis, attributes that were predictive of choice at 1% level of statistical significance included the screening interval, screening venue, and out-of-pocket costs. The preferred screening modality seemed to be screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) + blood test once a year in a general hospital at a cost of RMB 50; this could increase the uptake rate by 0.40 compared to the baseline setting. On stepwise logistic regression, those with no endowment insurance were more likely to opt out; those who were older and housewives/househusbands, and those with a health check habit and with commercial endowment insurance were less likely to opt out from a screening programme. Conclusions: There was considerable variance between real risk and self-perceived risk of lung cancer among respondents, and further research is required in this area. Lung cancer screening uptake can be increased by offering various screening modalities, so as to help policymakers further design the screening modality.

Keywords: lung cancer, screening, China., discrete choice experiment

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366 A Dose Distribution Approach Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Dosimetric Accuracy Calculation for Treating the Lung Tumor

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Mashud, M. Tariquzzaman, M. Jahangir Alam, Tapan Kumar Godder, M. Mahbubur Rahman

Abstract:

This paper presents a Monte Carlo (MC) method-based dose distributions on lung tumor for 6 MV photon beam to improve the dosimetric accuracy for cancer treatment. The polystyrene which is tissue equivalent material to the lung tumor density is used in this research. In the empirical calculations, TRS-398 formalism of IAEA has been used, and the setup was made according to the ICRU recommendations. The research outcomes were compared with the state-of-the-art experimental results. From the experimental results, it is observed that the proposed based approach provides more accurate results and improves the accuracy than the existing approaches. The average %variation between measured and TPS simulated values was obtained 1.337±0.531, which shows a substantial improvement comparing with the state-of-the-art technology.

Keywords: lung tumour, Monte Carlo, polystyrene, Elekta synergy, Monaco planning system

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365 Intracellular Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 3 Contributes to Lung Tumor Cell Proliferation

Authors: Michela Terlizzi, Chiara Colarusso, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino

Abstract:

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a membrane-derived bioactive phospholipid exerting a multitude of effects on respiratory cell physiology and pathology through five S1P receptors (S1PR1-5). Higher levels of S1P have been registered in a broad range of respiratory diseases, including inflammatory disorders and cancer, although its exact role is still elusive. Based on our previous study in which we found that S1P/S1PR3 is involved in an inflammatory pattern via the activation of Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9), highly expressed on lung cancer cells, the main goal of the current study was to better understand the involvement of S1P/S1PR3 pathway/signaling during lung carcinogenesis, taking advantage of a mouse model of first-hand smoke exposure and of carcinogen-induced lung cancer. We used human samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), a mouse model of first-hand smoking, and of Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced tumor-bearing mice and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that the intranuclear, but not the membrane, localization of S1PR3 was associated to the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells, the mechanism that was correlated to human and mouse samples of smoke-exposure and carcinogen-induced lung cancer, which were characterized by higher utilization of S1P. Indeed, the inhibition of the membrane S1PR3 did not alter tumor cell proliferation after TLR9 activation. Instead, according to the nuclear localization of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) II, the enzyme responsible for the catalysis of the S1P last step synthesis, the inhibition of the kinase completely blocked the endogenous S1P-induced tumor cell proliferation. These results prove that the endogenous TLR9-induced S1P can on one side favor pro-inflammatory mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment via the activation of cell surface receptors, but on the other tumor progression via the nuclear S1PR3/SPHK II axis, highlighting a novel molecular mechanism that identifies S1P as one of the crucial mediators for lung carcinogenesis-associated inflammatory processes and that could provide differential therapeutic approaches especially in non-responsive lung cancer patients.

Keywords: sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), S1P Receptor 3 (S1PR3), smoking-mice, lung inflammation, lung cancer

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364 Sensing of Cancer DNA Using Resonance Frequency

Authors: Sungsoo Na, Chanho Park

Abstract:

Lung cancer is one of the most common severe diseases driving to the death of a human. Lung cancer can be divided into two cases of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC), and about 80% of lung cancers belong to the case of NSCLC. From several studies, the correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and NSCLCs has been investigated. Therefore, EGFR inhibitor drugs such as gefitinib and erlotinib have been used as lung cancer treatments. However, the treatments result showed low response (10~20%) in clinical trials due to EGFR mutations that cause the drug resistance. Patients with resistance to EGFR inhibitor drugs usually are positive to KRAS mutation. Therefore, assessment of EGFR and KRAS mutation is essential for target therapies of NSCLC patient. In order to overcome the limitation of conventional therapies, overall EGFR and KRAS mutations have to be monitored. In this work, the only detection of EGFR will be presented. A variety of techniques has been presented for the detection of EGFR mutations. The standard detection method of EGFR mutation in ctDNA relies on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Real-time PCR method provides high sensitive detection performance. However, as the amplification step increases cost effect and complexity increase as well. Other types of technology such as BEAMing, next generation sequencing (NGS), an electrochemical sensor and silicon nanowire field-effect transistor have been presented. However, those technologies have limitations of low sensitivity, high cost and complexity of data analyzation. In this report, we propose a label-free and high-sensitive detection method of lung cancer using quartz crystal microbalance based platform. The proposed platform is able to sense lung cancer mutant DNA with a limit of detection of 1nM.

Keywords: cancer DNA, resonance frequency, quartz crystal microbalance, lung cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 167