Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 167

Search results for: honey bees

167 Role of Honey Bees in Our Ecosystem

Authors: Akhter Hussain Najar


Honey bees are the best insect grown on earth and are taking the lead in the global ecosystem. Life on earth depends upon honey bees pollinating each and every flower in its reign. The global economy is balanced by providing financial attribute due to the use of valuable resources generated from honey bees like honey, royal jelly, bee venom, propolis, bee wax even queens from parent colonies is now in demand. Livelihood stability is also maintained by the rearing of honey bees; beekeeping became a new professional work to be cared for by the experts. Indigenous methodologies are used to rear honey bees. The rearing of honey bees showed variation in different states like Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Jammu, Kashmir, etc. The production of honey depends upon the area and the availability of crops and the colonies of beekeepers in these states. However, the kind of honey from Jammu and Kashmir, like Accacia and Solai, has different color and odour from the honey generated in the rest of the states. However, the nature and viscosity vary from state to state. But in the last few years, the honey from Jammu and Kashmir has given different shapes when kept at room temperature due to unconditional rainfall during honey peak season in J&K.

Keywords: ecosystem pollen, pollination, honey bee

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166 An Internet of Things-Based Weight Monitoring System for Honey

Authors: Zheng-Yan Ruan, Chien-Hao Wang, Hong-Jen Lin, Chien-Peng Huang, Ying-Hao Chen, En-Cheng Yang, Chwan-Lu Tseng, Joe-Air Jiang


Bees play a vital role in pollination. This paper focuses on the weighing process of honey. Honey is usually stored at the comb in a hive. Bee farmers brush bees away from the comb and then collect honey, and the collected honey is weighed afterward. However, such a process brings strong negative influences on bees and even leads to the death of bees. This paper therefore presents an Internet of Things-based weight monitoring system which uses weight sensors to measure the weight of honey and simplifies the whole weighing procedure. To verify the system, the weight measured by the system is compared to the weight of standard weights used for calibration by employing a linear regression model. The R2 of the regression model is 0.9788, which suggests that the weighing system is highly reliable and is able to be applied to obtain actual weight of honey. In the future, the weight data of honey can be used to find the relationship between honey production and different ecological parameters, such as bees’ foraging behavior and weather conditions. It is expected that the findings can serve as critical information for honey production improvement.

Keywords: internet of things, weight, honey, bee

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165 Entomological Origin of Honey Discriminated by NMR Chloroform Extracts in Ecuadorian Honey

Authors: P. Vit, J. Uddin, V. Zuccato, F. Maza, E. Schievano


In Ecuador honeys are produced by Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Meliponini). We studied honey produced in beeswax combs by Apis mellifera, and honey produced in pots by Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona bees. Chloroform extracts of honey were obtained for fast NMR spectra. The 1D spectra were acquired at 298 K, with a 600 MHz NMR Bruker instrument, using a modified double pulsed field gradient spin echoes (DPFGSE) sequence. Signals of 1H NMR spectra were integrated and used as inputs for PCA, PLS-DA analysis, and labelled sets of classes were successfully identified, enhancing the separation between the three groups of honey according to the entomological origin: A. mellifera, Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona. This procedure is therefore recommended for authenticity test of honey in Ecuador.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, honey, 1H NMR, entomological origin, meliponini

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
164 Volatile Profile of Monofloral Honeys Produced by Stingless Bees from the Brazilian Semiarid Region

Authors: Ana Caroliny Vieira da Costa, Marta Suely Madruga


In Brazil, there is a diverse fauna of social bees, known by Meliponinae or native stingless bees. These bees are important for providing a differentiated product, especially regarding unique sweetness, flavor, and aroma. However, information about the volatile fraction in honey produced by stingless native bees is still lacking. The aim of this work was to characterize the volatile compound profile of monofloral honey produced by jandaíra bees (Melipona subnitida Ducke) which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC) as their floral sources; and by uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris Latrelle), which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and angico (Anadenanthera colubrina) as their floral sources. The volatiles were extracted using HS-SPME-GC-MS technique. The condition for the extraction was: equilibration time of 15 minutes, extraction time of 45 min and extraction temperature of 45°C. Through the results obtained, it was observed that the floral source had a strong influence on the aroma profile of the honey under evaluation, since the chemical profiles were marked primarily by the classes of terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Furthermore, the results obtained suggest the existence of differentiator compounds and potential markers for the botanical sources evaluated, such as linalool, D-sylvestrene, rose oxide and benzenethanol. These reports represent a valuable contribution to certifying the authenticity of those honey and provides for the first time, information intended for the construction of chemical knowledge of the aroma and flavor that characterize these honey produced in Brazil.

Keywords: aroma, honey, semiarid, stingless, volatiles

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163 The Influence of Environmental Factors on Honey Bee Activities: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Hung-Jen Lin, Chien-Hao Wang, Chien-Peng Huang, Yu-Sheng Tseng, En-Cheng Yang, Joe-Air Jiang


Bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior is a decisive index which can indicate the health condition of a colony. Traditional methods for monitoring the behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera) take too much time and are highly labor-intensive, and the lack of automation and synchronization disables researchers and beekeepers from obtaining real-time information of beehives. To solve these problems, this study proposes to use an Internet of Things (IoT)-based system for counting honey bees’ incoming and outgoing activities using an infrared interruption technique, while environmental factors are recorded simultaneously. The accuracy of the established system is verified by comparing the counting results with the outcomes of manual counting. Moreover, this highly -accurate device is appropriate for providing quantitative information regarding honey bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. Different statistical analysis methods, including one-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA, are used to investigate the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, illumination and ambient pressure, on bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. With the real-time data, a standard model is established using the outcomes from analyzing the relationship between environmental factors and bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. In the future, smart control systems, such as a temperature control system, can also be combined with the proposed system to create an appropriate colony environment. It is expected that the proposed system will make a considerable contribution to the apiculture and researchers.

Keywords: ANOVA, environmental factors, honey bee, incoming and outgoing behavior

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162 Evaluation of Pesticide Residues in Honey from Cocoa and Forest Ecosystems in Ghana

Authors: Richard G. Boakye, Dara A Stanley, Mathavan Vickneswaran, Blanaid White


The cultivation of cocoa (Theobroma cocoa), an important cash crop that contributes immensely towards the economic growth of several Western African countries, depends almost entirely on pesticide application owing to the plant’s vulnerability to pest and disease attacks. However, the extent to which pesticides inputted for cocoa cultivation impact bees and bee products has rarely received attention in research. Through this study, the effects of pesticides applied for cocoa cultivation on honey in Ghana were examined by evaluating honey samples from cocoa and forest ecosystems in Ghana. An analysis of five honey samples from each land use type confirmed pesticide contaminants from these land use types at measured concentrations for acetamiprid (0.051mg/kg); imidacloprid (0.004-0.02 mg/kg), thiamethoxam (0.013-0.017 mg/kg); indoxacarb (0.004-0.045 mg/kg) and sulfoxaflor (0.004-0.026 mg/kg). None of the observed pesticide concentrations exceeded EU maximum residue levels, indicating no compromise of the honey quality for human consumption. However, from the results, it could be inferred that toxic effects on bees may not be ruled out because observed concentrations largely exceeded the threshold of 0.001 mg/kg at which sublethal effects on bees have previously been reported. One of the most remarkable results to emerge from this study is the detection of imidacloprid in all honey samples analyzed, with sulfoxaflor and thiamethoxam also being detected in 93% and 73% of the honey samples, respectively. This suggests the probable prevalence of pesticide use in the landscape. However, the conclusions reached in this study should be interpreted within the scope of pesticide applications within Bia West District and not necessarily extended to other cocoa-producing districts in Ghana. Future studies should therefore include multiple cocoa-growing districts and other non-cocoa farming landscapes. Such an approach can give a broader outlook on pesticide residues in honey produced in Ghana.

Keywords: honey, cocoa, pesticides, bees, land use, landscape, residues, Ghana

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161 Investigation of Diseases and Enemies of Bees of Breeding Apis mellifera intermissa (Buttel-Reepen, 1906)

Authors: S. Zenia, L. Bitta, O. Bouhamam, H. Brines, M. Boudriaa, F. Haddadj, F. Marniche, A. Milla, H. Saadi, A. Smai


The bee Apis mellifera intermissa is a major social insect, in addition to its honey production, it is a pillar of our biodiversity. Several living organisms can come into contact with it: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, mites, and insects. In Algeria, many beekeepers have reported unusual mortality of local bees, loss of foragers and significant losses of their livestock. Despite the presence of a varied honey-bearing flora and a favourable Mediterranean climate, honey production remains low. This phenomenon can be attributed to the excess winter mortality, but also to the increasing difficulties that beekeepers face in maintaining healthy bee colonies, particularly bee diseases and their transmission facilitated by trade and beekeeping practices. Our survey is based on a questionnaire composed of several parts. The results obtained show that the disease that most affects bees according to beekeepers is varroa mite with 93% followed by fungi with 26%. The most replied enemy of bees is the false ringworm with 73%, followed by the bee-eater with 63%. Our goal is to determine the causes of this low production in two areas: Bejaia and Tizi-Ouzou.

Keywords: diseases, Apis mellifera L., varroa, European foulbrood

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160 Analysis of Genic Expression of Honey Bees Exposed to Sublethal Pesticides Doses Using the Transcriptome Technique

Authors: Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi, Aline Astolfi, Daniel Diego Mendes, Isabella Cristina de Castro Lippi, Jaine da Luz Scheffer, Yan Souza Lima, Juliana Lunardi, Giovanna do Padro Ribeiro, Samir Moura Kadri


NECTAR Brazilian group (Center of Education, Science, and Technology in Rational Beekeeping) conducted studies on the pesticides honey bees effects using the transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyzes for gene expression studies. In this way, we analyzed the effects of Pyraclostrobin and Fipronil on the honey bees with 21 old-days (forager) in laboratory conditions. For this, frames containing sealed brood were removed from the beehives and maintenance on the stove (32°C and 75% humidity) until the bees were born. So, newly emerged workers were marked on the pronotum with a non-toxic pen and reintroduced into their original hives. After 21 days, 120 marked bees were collected with an entomological forces and immediately stored in Petri dishes, perforated to ensure ventilation, and kept fasted for 3 hours. These honeybees were exposed to food contaminated or not with the sublethal dose of Pyraclostrobin (850 ppb/bee) or Fipronil (2.5 ppb/bee). After four hours of exposure, 15 bees from each treatment were referred to transcriptome analysis. Total RNA analysis was extracted from the brain pools (03 brains per pool) using the TRIzol® reagent protocol according to the manufacturer's instructions. cDNA libraries were constructed, and the FASTQC program was used to check adapter content and assess the quality of raw reads. Differential expression analysis was performed with the DESeq2 package. Genes that had an adjusted value of less than 0.05 were considered to be significantly up-regulated. Regarding the Pyraclostrobin, alterations were observed in the pattern of 17 gene related to of antioxidant system, cellular respiration, glucose metabolism, and regulation of juvenile hormone and the hormone insulin. Glyphosate altered the 10 gene related to the digestive system, exoskeleton composition, vitamin E transport, and antioxidant system. The results indicate that the necessity of studies using the sublethal doses to evaluate the pesticides uses and risks on crops and its effects on the honey bees.

Keywords: beekeeping, honey bees, pesticides, transcriptome

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159 Advocating for and Implementing the Use of Advance Top Bar (ATB) for a More Than 100% Increase in Honey Yield in Top Bar Hives Owing to Honey Harvesting Without Comb Destruction

Authors: Perry Ayi Mankattah


Introduction: Africa, which should lead the world in honey production, is importing three times the honey it produces even though it has a healthy, industrious and large population of bees. This is due to the mechanism of honey harvesting that destroys the combs and thereby reducing honey production and rate of harvesting. For Africa to take its place in the world of honey production, Africa should adopt a method that enables a higher rate of honey harvesting. The Advance Top Bar is, therefore, a simplified framework that provides that answer. It can be made of wood, plastic and metal that can be fabricated by tin/metal smiths, wielders and carpenters at the village level without any very sophisticated machines. Material and Methods: ATB is a top bar-like hollow framework of dimension 3.2*48 cm that can be made of wood, plastic and metal. It is made up of three parts of a constant hollow top bar, a variable grooved bottom bar with both bars being joined through synchronized holes (that align both the top and bottom bars ) by either metal or plastic rods of length 22cm and diameter of 5 mm with rounded balls at both ends It could be used with foundation combs or without and also other accessories to have about ten (10) function which includes commercial propolis harvesting queen rearing etc. The variable bottom bar length depends on the width of the hive, as most African beehives are somehow not standardized. Results: Foundation combs are placed within the Advance Top Bar for the bees to form their combs over its mesh to prevent comb breakage during honey harvesting. Similarly, honeycombs on top bars will produce natural foundation combs when also placed in the Advance top bar system just as they are re-used in the Langstroth Frames. Discussions and Conclusions: Any modification that will promote non-comb destruction during honey harvesting in Top bars shall cause Africa to increase honey production by over 100% as beekeepers adopt the mechanism. Honey-laden combs from the current normal top bars could be placed in the Advance Top Bar to harvest without comb destruction; hence the same system could be used as a transition to the adoption of the Advance Top Bar with less cost.

Keywords: honey, harvest, increase, production

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158 Application of Hybrid Honey Bees Mating Optimization Algorithm in Multiuser Detection of Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: N. Larbi, F. Debbat


Wireless communication systems have changed dramatically and shown spectacular evolution over the past two decades. These radio technologies are engaged in a quest endless high-speed transmission coupled to a constant need to improve transmission quality. Various radio communication systems being developed use code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. This work analyses a hybrid honey bees mating optimization algorithm (HBMO) applied to multiuser detection (MuD) in CDMA communication systems. The HBMO is a swarm-based optimization algorithm, which simulates the mating process of real honey bees. We apply a hybridization of HBMO with simulated annealing (SA) in order to improve the solution generated by the HBMO. Simulation results show that the detection based on Hybrid HBMO, in term of bit error rate (BER), is viable option when compared with the classic detectors from literature under Rayleigh flat fading channel.

Keywords: BER, DS-CDMA multiuser detection, genetic algorithm, hybrid HBMO, simulated annealing

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157 Hiveopolis - Honey Harvester System

Authors: Erol Bayraktarov, Asya Ilgun, Thomas Schickl, Alexandre Campo, Nicolis Stamatios


Traditional means of harvesting honey are often stressful for honeybees. Each time honey is collected a portion of the colony can die. In consequence, the colonies’ resilience to environmental stressors will decrease and this ultimately contributes to the global problem of honeybee colony losses. As part of the project HIVEOPOLIS, we design and build a different kind of beehive, incorporating technology to reduce negative impacts of beekeeping procedures, including honey harvesting. A first step in maintaining more sustainable honey harvesting practices is to design honey storage frames that can automate the honey collection procedures. This way, beekeepers save time, money, and labor by not having to open the hive and remove frames, and the honeybees' nest stays undisturbed.This system shows promising features, e.g., high reliability which could be a key advantage compared to current honey harvesting technologies.Our original concept of fractional honey harvesting has been to encourage the removal of honey only from "safe" locations and at levels that would leave the bees enough high-nutritional-value honey. In this abstract, we describe the current state of our honey harvester, its technology and areas to improve. The honey harvester works by separating the honeycomb cells away from the comb foundation; the movement and the elastic nature of honey supports this functionality. The honey sticks to the foundation, because of the surface tension forces amplified by the geometry. In the future, by monitoring the weight and therefore the capped honey cells on our honey harvester frames, we will be able to remove honey as soon as the weight measuring system reports that the comb is ready for harvesting. Higher viscosity honey or crystalized honey cause challenges in temperate locations when a smooth flow of honey is required. We use resistive heaters to soften the propolis and wax to unglue the moving parts during extraction. These heaters can also melt the honey slightly to the needed flow state. Precise control of these heaters allows us to operate the device for several purposes. We use ‘Nitinol’ springs that are activated by heat as an actuation method. Unlike conventional stepper or servo motors, which we also evaluated throughout development, the springs and heaters take up less space and reduce the overall system complexity. Honeybee acceptance was unknown until we actually inserted a device inside a hive. We not only observed bees walking on the artificial comb but also building wax, filling gaps with propolis and storing honey. This also shows that bees don’t mind living in spaces and hives built from 3D printed materials. We do not have data yet to prove that the plastic materials do not affect the chemical composition of the honey. We succeeded in automatically extracting stored honey from the device, demonstrating a useful extraction flow and overall effective operation this way.

Keywords: honey harvesting, honeybee, hiveopolis, nitinol

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156 The Effects of Heavy Metal and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pollution on Bees

Authors: Katarzyna Zięba, Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi, Paweł Miśkowiec, Agnieszka Moos-Matysik


Bees are effective pollinators of plants using by humans. However, there is a concern about the fate different species due to their recently decline. Pollution of the environment is described in the literature as one of the causes of this phenomenon. Due to human activities, heavy metals and aromatic hydrocarbons can occur in bee organisms in high concentrations. The presented study aims to provide information on how pollution affects bee quality, taking into account, also the biological differences between various groups of bees. Understanding the consequences of environmental pollution on bees can help to create and promote bee friendly habitats and actions. The analyses were carried out using two contamination gradients with 5 sites on each. The first, mainly heavy metal polluted gradient is stretching approx. 30km from the Bukowno Zinc smelter near Olkusz in the Lesser Poland Voivodship, to the north. The second cuts through the agglomeration of Kraków up to the southern borders of the Ojców National Park. The gradient near Olkusz is a well-described pollution gradient contaminated mainly by zinc, lead, and cadmium. The second gradient cut through the agglomeration of Kraków and end below the Ojców National Park. On each gradient, two bee species were installed: red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). Red mason bee is a polylectic, solitary bee species, widely distributed in Poland. Honey bees are a highly social species of bees, with clearly defined casts and roles in the colony. Before installing the bees in the field, samples of imagos of red mason bees and samples of pollen and imagos from each honey bee colony were analysed for zinc, lead cadmium, polycyclic and monocyclic hydrocarbons levels. After collecting the bees from the field, samples of bees and pollen samples for each site were prepared for heavy metal, monocyclic hydrocarbon, and polycyclic hydrocarbon analysis. Analyses of aromatic hydrocarbons were performed with gas chromatography coupled with a headspace sampler (HP 7694E) and mass spectrometer (MS) as detector. Monocyclic compounds were injected into column with headspace sampler while polycyclic ones with manual injector (after solid-liquid extraction with hexane). The heavy metal content (zinc, lead and cadmium) was assessed with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS AAnalyst 300 Perkin Elmer spectrometer) according to the methods for honey and bee products described in the literature. Pollution levels found in bee bodies and imago body masses in both species, and proportion of sex in case of red mason bees were correlated with pollution levels found in pollen for each site and colony or trap nest. An attempt to pinpoint the most important form of contamination regarding bee health was also be undertaken based on the achieved results.

Keywords: heavy metals, aromatic hydrocarbons, bees, pollution

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155 Making Beehives More 'Intelligent'- The Case of Capturing, Reducing, and Managing Bee Pest Infestation in Hives through Modification of Hive Entrance Holes and the Installation of Multiple In-Hive Bee Pest Traps

Authors: Prince Amartey


Bees are clever creatures, thus, capturing bees implies that the hives are intelligent in the sense that they have all of the required circumstances to attract and trap the bees. If the hive goes above and beyond to keep the bees in the hive and to keep the activities of in-hive pests to a minimal in order for the bees to develop to their maximum potential, the hive is becoming or is more 'intelligent'. Some bee pests, such as tiny beehive beetles, are endemic to Africa; however, the way we now extract honey by cutting off the combs and pressing for honey prevents the spread of these bees' insect enemies. However, when we explore entering the commercialization. When freshly collected combs are returned to the hives following the adoption of the frame and other systems, there is a need to consider putting in strategies to manage the accompanying pest concerns that arise with unprotected combs.The techniques for making hives more'intelligent' are thus more important presently, given that the African apicultural business does not wish to encourage the use of pesticides in the hives. This include changing the hive's entrance holes in order to improve the bees' own mechanism for defending the entry sites, as well as collecting pests by setting exterior and in-hive traps to prevent pest infiltration into hives by any means feasible. Material and Methods: The following five (5) mechanisms are proposed to make the hives more 'intelligent.' i. The usage of modified frames with five (5) beetle traps positioned horizontally on the vertical 'legs' to catch the beetle along the combs' surfaces-multiple bee ii. Baited bioelectric frame traps, which has both vertical sections of frame covered with a 3mm mesh that allows pest entry but not bees. The pest is attracted by strips of combs of honey, open brood, pollen on metal plates inserted horizontally on the vertical ‘legs’ of the frames. An electrical ‘mine’ system in place that electrocutes the pests as they step on the wires in the trap to enter the frame trap iii. The ten rounded hive entry holes are adapted as the bees are able to police the entrance to prevent entry of pest. The holes are arranged in two rows, with one on top of the other What Are the Main Contributions of Your Research?-Results Discussions and Conclusions The techniques implemented decrease pest ingress, while in-hive traps capture those that escape entry into the hives. Furthermore, the stand alteration traps larvae and stops their growth into adults. As beekeeping commercialization grows throughout Africa, these initiatives will minimize insect infestation in hives and necessarily enhance honey output.

Keywords: bee pests, modified frames, multiple beetle trap, Baited bioelectric frame traps

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154 In vitro Synergistic Antioxidant Activity of Honey-Mentha Spicata Combination

Authors: Yuva Bellik, Selles Mohamed Amar


The beneficial health effects including antioxidant properties of mint (Mentha spicata) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively studied. However, there is no data about the effects of their associated use. In this study the total phenolic and flavonoid contents for individual extracts of mint and honey and their combination were determined. The antioxidant activity was investigated by using reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2´- azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diamonium salt (ABTS), and chelating power methods. The results showed that individual extracts contained important quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their combination was found to produce best antioxidant activity. A significant linear correlation between the phenolic/flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity, especially with reducing power and free radical scavenging abilities, was observed.

Keywords: honey, mint, synergy, antioxidant activity

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153 Honey Intoxication: A Unique Cause of Sudden Cardiac Collapse

Authors: Bharat Rawat, Shekhar Rajbhandari, Yadav Bhatta, Jay Prakash Jaiswal, Shivaji Bikram Silwal, Rajiv Shrestha, Shova Sunuwar


Introduction: The honey produced by the bees fed on Rhobdodendron species containing grayanotoxin is known as mad honey. Grayanotoxin is found in honey obtained from the nectar of Rhododendron species growing on the mountains of the Black Sea region of Turkey and also in Japan, Nepal, Brazil, parts of North America, and Europe. Although the incidence of grayanotoxin poisoning is rare, there is concern that the number of cases per year will rise with the increasing demand for organic products. Mad honey intoxication might present with mild symptoms of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and neurological systems or might also present with a life-threatening form with AV block and cardiovascular collapse. In this article, we describe the summary of five cases, which came to our hospital with mad honey related cardiac complications. Findings: In last one year, five cases presented in the emergency department with sudden onset of Loss of consciousness, dizziness, shortness of breath. They felt difficulty after the consumption of 1-3 teaspoonful of wild honey. The honey was brought from most of the rural parts of Nepal like khotang. Some of them also came with vomiting, dizziness, and loose stool. On examination, most of them had severe bradycardia and low blood pressure. No abnormalities were detected on systemic examinations. In one patient, ECG and cardiac enzymes showed features of the acute coronary syndrome, but his treadmill test done few days later was normal. All patients were managed with inj. Atropine, I/V normal saline, and other supportive measures and discharged in a stable condition within one or two days. Conclusions: Rhododendrons is the national flower of Nepal. The specific species of rhododendron found in Nepal which contains the toxin is not known. Bees feeding on these rhododendrons are known to transfer the grayanotoxin to the honey they produce. Most symptoms are mild and resolve themselves without medical intervention. Signs and symptoms of grayanotoxin poisoning rarely last more than 24 hours and are usually not fatal. Some signs of mad honey poisoning include Bradycardia, Cardiac arrhythmia, Hypotension, Nausea and Vomiting. They respond to close monitoring and appropriate supportive treatment. Normally, patients recover completely with no residual damage to the heart or its conduction system.

Keywords: rhobdodendron, honey, grayanotoxin, bradycardia

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152 Nectariferous Plant Genetic Resources for Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Prerequisite for Conservation, Sustainable Management and Policy

Authors: C. V. Nnamani, O. L. Adedeji


The contemporary global economic meltdown has devastating effect on the Nigerian’s economy and its frantic search for alternative source of national revenue aside from oil and gas has become imperative for economic emancipation for Nigerians. Apicultural entrepreneurship could provide a source of livelihood if the basic knowledge of those plant genetic resources needed by bees is made available. A palynological evaluation of those palynotaxa which honey bees forage for pollen and nectar was carried out after standard acetolysis method. Results showed that the honey samples were highly diversified and rich in honey plants. A total of 9544.3 honey pollen, consisting of 39 honey plants belonging to 21 plant families and distributed within 38 genera were identified excluding 238 unidentified pollen grains. Data from the analysis equally revealed that Elaeis guineensis Jacq, Anacardium occidentale L, Diospyros mespiliformis Hochist xe ADC, Alchornea cordifolia Muell, Arg, Daniella oliveri (Rolfe) Hutch & Dalz, Irvingia wombolu Okafor ex Baill, Treculia africana Decne, Nauclea latifolia Smith and Crossopteryx febrifuga Afzil ex Benth were the predominant honey plants. It provided a guide to the optimal utilization of floral resources by honeybees in these regions, showing the opportunity and amazing potentials for apiculture entrepreneurship of these palytaxa. Most of these plants are rare, threatened and endangered. It calls for urgent conservation techniques and step by all players. Critical awareness creation to ensure farmers knowledge of these palynotaxa to ensure proper understanding and attendance boost from them as economic empowerment is needed.

Keywords: palynotaxa, acetolysis, enterprise, livelihood, Nigeria

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151 Breeding for Hygienic Behavior in Honey Bees

Authors: Michael Eickermann, Juergen Junk


The Western honey (Apis mellifera) is threatened by a number of parasites, especially the devastating Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is responsible for a high level of mortality over winter, e.g., in Europe and USA. While the use of synthetic pesticides or organic acids has been preferred so far to control this parasite, breeding strategies for less susceptible honey bees are in early stages. Hygienic behavior can be an important tool for controlling Varroa destructor. Worker bees with a high level of this behavior are able to detect infested brood in the cells under the wax lid during pupation and remove them out of the hive. The underlying processes of this behavior are only partly investigated, but it is for sure that hygienic behavior is heritable and therefore, can be integrated into commercial breeding lines. In a first step, breeding lines with a high level of phenotypic hygienic behavior have been identified by using a bioassay for accurate assessment of this trait in a long-term national breeding program in Luxembourg since 2015. Based on the artificial infestation of nucleus colonies with 150 phoretic Varroa destructor mites, the level of phenotypic hygienic behavior was detected by counting the number of mites in all stages, twelve days after infestation. A nucleus with a high level of hygienic behavior was overwintered and used for breeding activities in the following years. Artificial insemination was used to combine different breeding lines. Buckfast lines, as well as Carnica lines, were used. While Carnica lines offered only a low increase of hygienic behavior up to maximum 62.5%, Buckfast lines performed much better with mean levels of more than 87.5%. Some mating ends up with a level of 100%. But even with a level of 82.5% Varroa mites are not able to reproduce in the colony anymore. In a final step, a nucleus with a high level of hygienic behavior were build up to full colonies and located at two places in Luxembourg to build up a drone congregation area. Local beekeepers can bring their nucleus to this location for mating the queens with drones offering a high level of hygienic behavior.

Keywords: agiculture, artificial insemination, honey bee, varroa destructor

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150 Value Chain Identification of Beekeeping Business in Indonesia: Case Study of Four Beekeeping Business in West Java

Authors: Dwi Purnomo, Anas Bunyamin, Fajar Susilo, Akbar Anugrah


Beekeeping became a rural economic buffer, especially for people who lived by forest side to diversify their food or sell the honey and bee colony. Aside from the high price of honey and it’s derivative products, there is another revenue stream along beekeeping value chain that could be optimized by the people. There are five of nine honey bee species in the world, exist in Indonesia, such as Apis Cerana, Apis Dorsata, Apis Andreniformis, Apis Koschevnikovi, and Apis Nigrocincta. Indonesian farmer generally developed Apis Cerana and two other honey bees species, like Apis Mellifera and Trigona. This study tried to identify, how beekeeping business practices, challenges and opportunities in four beekeeping business in West Java through the value chain along the business. Data carried out by literature review, interview and focus group discussion with key actors in beekeeping business. There are six revenue stream in beekeeping business in West Java, such as brood hunter, beehives maker, agroforestry, agro-tourism, honey and derivatives products and bee acupuncture. This assesses conclude any criteria that should grasp for developing and sustaining beekeeping business in West Java.

Keywords: beekeeping business, business developing, value chain, West Java

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149 Identifying Apis millefera Strains in Akkar District (North Lebanon) Using Mitochondrial DNA: A Step in Preserving the Local Strain A. m. Syriaca

Authors: Zeina Nasr, Bashar Merheb


The honey bee is a social insect that had driven the human interest much more than any other organism. Beekeeping practices dated the appearance of Man on earth and now it provides a hobby or a secondary work that contributes to the family revenue and requires a little time engagement and money investment. Honey production is not the only contribution of honey bees to the economy, since honey bees play an important role in the pollination. Bee keeping in Lebanon is an important part of the agricultural economy. However, a growing concern about bees is spreading globally, due to an accelerated decline of bees colonies. This raises the alert to preserve and protect local bee strains against uncontrolled introduction of foreign strains and invasive parasitic species. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers are commonly used in studying genetic variation in the Apis mellifera species. The DraI-COI-COII test is based on the analysis of the intergenic region between the two genes COI and COII. The different honey bee strains differ in the presence or absence of the p sequence and the number of Q sequences present. A. m. syriaca belonging to the lineage Z, is the native honey bee subspecies in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine. A. m. syriaca is known for its high defensiveness, even though it has many important advantages. However, commercial breeder strains, such as the Italian (A. m. ligustica), and Carniolan (A. m. carnica) strains, have been introduced by beekeepers and regularly used for honey production. This raises worries about the disappearance of the local subspecies. It is obvious that identifying A. m. syriaca colonies and protecting them against uncontrolled mating with other bee strains is a crucial step to protect and improve the original local strain. This study aims to reveal the existing sub-species of honey bee in Akkar – Lebanon and to assess the influence of introgression on the hybridization of the local strain. This will help to identify areas of pure A.m. syriaca population over this district to be considered in choosing syriaca reserves. We collected samples of bees from different regions of Akkar district in order to perform mtDNA analysis. We determined the restriction fragments length of the intergenic region COI-COII, using the restriction enzyme DraI. The results showed both the C and the Z lineages. Four restriction patterns were identified among the restriction maps of the studied samples. The most abundant mitochondrial lineage is the Z lineage constituting about 60% of the identified samples. Al-Dreib region reported the lowest introgression with foreign mtDNA of 21% making it the most suitable area for a genetic reserve of syriaca in Akkar based on its lowest introgression and suitable environment in addition to the attitude of local beekeepers to conserve the local strain. Finally, this study is the first step in constructing conservation programs for the preservation of the local strain and should be generalized to the whole Lebanese population, consistent with the effort done in neighboring countries.

Keywords: Akkar Lebanon, Apis millefera syriaca, DraI-COI-COII test, mitochondrial DNA

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148 Sider Bee Honey: Antitumor Effect in Some Experimental Tumor Cell Lines

Authors: Aliaa M. Issa, Mahmoud N. ElRouby, Sahar A. S. Ahmad, Mahmoud M. El-Merzabani


Sider honey is a type of honey produced by bees feeding on the nectar of Sider tree, Ziziphus spina-christi (L) Desf . Honey is an effective agent for preventing, inhibiting and treating the growth of human and animal cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different dilutions from crude Sider honey and different duration times of exposure on the growth of six tumor cell lines (human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa; human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG-2; human larynx carcinoma cell line, Hep-2; brain tumor cell line, U251) as well as one animal cancerous cell line (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells line, EAC) and one normal cell line, Homo sapiens, human, (WISH) CCL-25. Different concentrations and treatment durations with Sider honey were tested on the growth of several cancer cell lines types. Histopathological changes in the tumor masses, animal survival, apoptosis and necrosis of the used cancer cell lines (using flow cytometry) were evaluated. Sider honey was administers either to the tumor mass itself by intratumoral injection or via drinking water. One-way ANOVA test was used for the analysis of (the means + standard error) of the optical density obtained from the Elisa reader and flow cytometry. The study revealed that different concentrations of Sider honey affected the growth patterns of all the studied cancer cell lines as well as their histopathological changes, and it depended on the cell line nature and the concentration of honey used. It is obvious that the relative animal survival percentage (bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, EAC cells) was proportionally increased with the increase in the used honey concentrations. The study of apoptosis and necrosis using the flow cytometry technique emphasized the viability results. In conclusion, Sider honey was effective as antitumor agent, in the used concentrations.

Keywords: antitumor, honey, sider, tumor cell lines

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147 Community Perceptions on Honey Quality in Tobacco Growing Areas in Kigoma Region, Tanzania

Authors: Pilly Kagosi, Cherestino Balama


Beekeeping plays major role in improving biodiversity, increasing household income, and crop production through pollination. Tobacco farming is also the main source of household income for smallholder farmers. In Kigoma, production of Tobacco has increased and is perceived to threaten honey quality. The study explored the perception of the community on quality of honey in tobacco and non tobacco growing areas. The study was conducted in Kigoma Region, Tanzania. District and Villages were purposively sampled based on large numbers of people dealing with beekeeping activities and tobacco farming. Socioeconomic data were collected and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and content analysis. The perception of stakeholders on honey quality was analysed using Likert scale. Majority of the respondents agreed that tobacco farming greatly affects honey quality because honey from beehives near tobacco farms test bitter and sometimes irritating, which was associated with nicotine content and agrochemicals applied to tobacco crops. Though they cannot differentiate honey bitterness from agrochemicals and bee fodders. Furthermore, it was revealed that chemicals applied to tobacco and vegetables have negative effect on the bees and honey quality. Respondents believe that setting bee hives near tobacco farms might contaminate honey and therefore affect its quality. Beekeepers are not aware of the nicotine content from other bee fodders like miombo of which do not have any effect on human beings. Actually, tobacco farming does not affect beekeeping activities in issue of quality when farmers follow proper management of tobacco flowers and proper handling of honey. Though, big challenge in tobacco farming is chemically applied to the crops and harvest bee fodders for curing tobacco. The study recommends training to community on proper management of tobacco and proper handling of bee products.

Keywords: community, honey, perceptions, tobacco

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146 Honey Contamination in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: B. Sadepovich Maikanov, Z. Shabanbayevich Adilbekov, R. Husainovna Mustafina, L. Tyulegenovna Auteleyeva


This study involves detailed information about contaminants of honey in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The requirements of the technical regulation ‘Requirements to safety of honey and bee products’ and GOST 19792-2001 were taken into account in this research. Contamination of honey by antibiotics wqs determined by the IEA (immune-enzyme analysis), Ridder analyzer and Tecna produced test systems. Voltammetry (TaLab device) was used to define contamination by salts of heavy metals and gamma-beta spectrometry, ‘Progress BG’ system, with preliminary ashing of the sample of honey was used to define radioactive contamination. This article pointed out that residues of chloramphenicol were detected in 24% of investigated products, in 22% of them –streptomycin, in 7.3% - sulfanilamide, in 2.4% - tylosin, and in 12% - combined contamination was noted. Geographically, the greatest degree of contamination of honey with antibiotics occurs in the Northern Kazakhstan – 54.4%, and Southern Kazakhstan - 50%, and the lowest in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan with 30% and 25%, respectively. Generally, pollution by heavy metals is within acceptable limits, but the contamination from lead is highest in the Akmola region. The level of radioactive cesium and strontium is also within acceptable concentrations. The highest radioactivity in terms of cesium was observed in the East Kazakhstan region - 49.00±10 Bq/kg, in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty - 12.00±5, 11.05±3 and 19.0±8 Bq/kg, respectively, while the norm is 100 Bq/kg. In terms of strontium, the radioactivity in the East Kazakhstan region is 25.03±15 Bq/kg, while in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty regions it is 12.00±3, 10.2±4 and 1.0±2 Bq/kg, respectively, with the norm of 80 Bq/kg. This accumulation is mainly associated with the environmental degradation, feeding and treating of bees. Moreover, in the process of collecting nectar, external substances can penetrate honey. Overall, this research determines factors and reasons of honey contamination.

Keywords: antibiotics, contamination of honey, honey, radionuclides

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
145 Comparative Analysis of Some Mineral Profile of Honey Marketed and Consumed in Some of the States in Northern Part of Nigeria

Authors: R. Odoh, M. S. Dauda, E. A. Kamba, N. C. Igwemmar


Honey and honey trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural and urban areas worldwide. In West Africa and other part of the world, honey and honey products holds high socio–cultural, religious, medicinal, and traditional values. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance profit, a variety of components are added to the raw, fresh and unprocessed honey, introducing the possibility of heavy metals contaminants. Therefore the honey sold in various places, markets and shops in some states in Northern Nigeria (Benue, Nassarawa and Taraba) including Abuja FCT, in Nigeria was analyzed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). All the honey samples contain heavy metals. The results ranged from 0.028–0.070, 0.023–0.058, 0.042–0.092, 4.231–8.589, 8.115–14.892, 0.078–0.922, 0.044–0.092, 0.041–0.087 and 18.234–28.654 μg/L for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn respectively. The mean concentration (μg/L) of the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of the regularly marketed honey is significantly higher than the mean concentration observed in raw, fresh and unprocessed honey. However, continued consumption of honey with high heavy metal content might lead to exposure to chronic heavy metal poisoning.

Keywords: honey, health, mineral profile adulteration, contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
144 Comparative Analysis of Some Mineral Profile of Honey Marketed and Consumed in Some of the States in Northern Part of Country, Nigeria

Authors: R. Odoh, M. S. Dauda, E. A. Kamba, N. C. Igwemmar


Honey and honey trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural and urban areas worldwide. In West Africa and other part of the world, honey and honey products holds high socio–cultural, religious, medicinal and traditional values. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance profit, a variety of components are added to the raw, fresh and unprocessed honey, introducing the possibility of heavy metals contaminants. Therefore the honey sold in various places, markets and shops in some states in Northern Nigeria (Benue, Nassarawa and Taraba) including Abuja FCT, in Nigeria was analyzed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). All the honey samples contain heavy metals. The results ranged from 0.028–0.070, 0.023–0.058, 0.042–0.092, 4.231–8.589, 8.115–14.892, 0.078–0.922, 0.044–0.092, 0.041–0.087 and 18.234–28.654 μg/L for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The mean concentration (μg/L) of the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of the regularly marketed honey is significantly higher than the mean concentration observed in raw, fresh and unprocessed honey. However, continued consumption of honey with high heavy metal content might lead to exposure to chronic heavy metal poisoning.

Keywords: honey, health, mineral profile adulteration, contamination

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143 Transcriptional Response of Honey Bee to Differential Nutritional Status and Nosema Infection

Authors: Farida Azzouz-Olden, Arthur G. Hunt, Gloria Degrandi-Hoffman


Bees are confronting several environmental challenges, including the intermingled effects of malnutrition and disease. Intuitively, pollen is the healthiest nutritional choice; however, commercial substitutes, such as BeePro and MegaBee, are widely used. Herein we examined how feeding natural and artificial diets shapes transcription in the abdomen of the honey bee, and how transcription shifts in combination with Nosema parasitism. Gene ontology enrichment revealed that, compared with poor diet (carbohydrates (C)), bees fed pollen (P > C), BeePro (B > C), and MegaBee (M > C) showed a broad upregulation of metabolic processes, especially lipids; however, pollen feeding promoted more functions and superior proteolysis. The superiority of the pollen diet was also evident through the remarkable overexpression of vitellogenin in bees fed pollen instead of MegaBee or BeePro. Upregulation of bioprocesses under carbohydrates feeding compared to pollen (C > P) provided a clear poor nutritional status, uncovering stark expression changes that were slight or absent relatively to BeePro (C > B) or MegaBee (C > M). Poor diet feeding (C > P) induced starvation response genes and hippo signaling pathway, while it repressed growth through different mechanisms. Carbohydrate feeding (C > P) also elicited ‘adult behavior’, and developmental processes suggesting transition to foraging. Finally, it altered the ‘circadian rhythm’, reflecting the role of this mechanism in the adaptation to nutritional stress in mammals. Nosema-infected bees fed pollen compared to carbohydrates (PN > CN) upheld certain bioprocesses of uninfected bees (P > C). Poor nutritional status was more apparent against pollen (CN > PN) than BeePro (CN > BN) or MegaBee (CN > MN). Nosema accentuated the effects of malnutrition since more starvation-response genes and stress response mechanisms were upregulated in CN > PN compared to C > P. The bioprocess ‘Macromolecular complex assembly’ was also enriched in CN > PN, and involved genes associated with human HIV and/or influenza, thus providing potential candidates for bee-Nosema interactions. Finally, the enzyme Duox emerged as essential for guts defense in bees, similarly to Drosophila. These results provide evidence of the superior nutritional status of bees fed pollen instead of artificial substitutes in terms of overall health, even in the presence of a pathogen.

Keywords: honeybee, immunity, Nosema, nutrition, RNA-seq

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142 Technical Efficiency of Small-Scale Honey Producer in Ethiopia: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

Authors: Kaleb Shiferaw, Berhanu Geberemedhin


Ethiopian farmers have a long tradition of beekeeping and the country has huge potential for honey production. However traditional mode of production still dominates the sub sector which negatively affect the total production and productivity. A number of studies have been conducted to better understand the working honey production, however, none of them systematically investigate the extent of technical efficiency of the sub-sector. This paper uses Stochastic Frontier production model to quantifying the extent of technical efficiency and identify exogenous determinant of inefficiency. The result showed that consistent with other studies traditional practice dominate small scale honey production in Ethiopia. The finding also revealed that use of purchased inputs such as bee forage and other supplement is very limited among honey producers indicating that natural bee forage is the primary source of bee forage. The immediate consequence of all these is low production and productivity. The number of hives the household owns, whether the household used improved apiculture technologies, availability of natural forest which is the primary sources of nectar for bees and amount of land owned by the households were found to have a significant influence on the amount of honey produced by beekeeper. Our result further showed that the mean technical efficiency of honey producers is 0.79 implying that, on average honey producer produce 80 percent of the maximum output. The implication is that 20 percent of the potential output is lost due to technical inefficiency. Number of hives owned by a honey produces, distance to district town-a proxy to market access, household wealth, and whether the household head has a leadership role in the PA affect the technical efficiency of honey producers. The finding suggest that policies that aim to expand the use of improved hives is expected to increase the honey production at household level. The result also suggest that investment on rural infrastructure would be instrumental in improving technical efficiency of honey producer.

Keywords: small-scale honey producer, Ethiopia, technical efficiency in apiculture, stochastic frontier analysis

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141 Development of Locally Fabricated Honey Extracting Machine

Authors: Akinfiresoye W. A., Olarewaju O. O., Okunola, Okunola I. O.


An indigenous honey-extracting machine was designed, fabricated and evaluated at the workshop of the department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Nigeria using locally available materials. It has the extraction unit, the presser, the honey collector and the frame. The harvested honeycomb is placed inside the cylindrical extraction unit with perforated holes. The press plate was then placed on the comb while the hydraulic press of 3 tons was placed on it, supported by the frame. The hydraulic press, which is manually operated, forces the oil out of the extraction chamber through the perforated holes into the honey collector positioned at the lowest part of the extraction chamber. The honey-extracting machine has an average throughput of 2.59 kg/min and an efficiency of about 91%. The cost of producing the honey extracting machine is NGN 31, 700: 00, thirty-one thousand and seven hundred nairas only or $70 at NGN 452.8 to a dollar. This cost is affordable to beekeepers and would-be honey entrepreneurs. The honey-extracting machine is easy to operate and maintain without any complex technical know-how.

Keywords: honey, extractor, cost, efficiency

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140 Untargeted Small Metabolite Identification from Thermally Treated Tualang Honey

Authors: Lee Suan Chua


This study investigated the effects of thermal treatment on Tualang honey sample in terms of honey colour and heat-induced small metabolites. The heating process was carried out in a temperature controlled water batch at 90 °C for 4 hours. The honey samples were put in cylinder tubes with the dimension of 1 cm diameter and 10 cm length for homogenous heat transfer. The results found that the thermal treatment produced not only hydroxylmethylfurfural, but also other harmful substances such as phthalic anhydride and radiolytic byproducts. The degradation of honey protein was reported due to the detection of free amino acids such as cysteine and phenylalanine in heat-treated honey samples. Sugar dehydration also occurred because fragmented di-galactose was identified based on the presence of characteristic ions in the mass fragmentation pattern. The honey colour was found getting darker as the heating duration was increased up to 4 hours. Approximately, 60 mm PFund of increment was noticed for the honey colour with the colour change rate of 14.8 mm PFund per hour. Based on the principal component analysis, the chemical profile of Tualang honey was significantly altered after 2 hours of heating at 90 °C.

Keywords: honey colour, hydroxylmethylfurfural, thermal treatment, tualang honey

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139 Approach to Honey Volatiles' Profiling by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Igor Jerkovic


Biodiversity of flora provides many different nectar sources for the bees. Unifloral honeys possess distinctive flavours, mainly derived from their nectar sources (characteristic volatile organic components (VOCs)). Specific or nonspecific VOCs (chemical markers) could be used for unifloral honey characterisation as addition to the melissopalynologycal analysis. The main honey volatiles belong, in general, to three principal categories: terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Some of these substances have been described as characteristics of the floral source, and other compounds, like several alcohols, branched aldehydes, and furan derivatives, may be related to the microbial purity of honey processing and storage conditions. Selection of the extraction method for the honey volatiles profiling should consider that heating of the honey produce different artefacts and therefore conventional methods of VOCs isolation (such as hydrodistillation) cannot be applied for the honey. Two-way approach for the isolation of the honey VOCs was applied using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HS-SPME (with the fibers of different polarity such as polydimethylsiloxane/ divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) or divinylbenzene/carboxene/ polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS)) enabled isolation of high volatile headspace VOCs of the honey samples. Among them, some characteristic or specific compounds can be found such as 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan (in Centaurea cyanus L. honey) or 1H-indole, methyl anthranilate, and cis-jasmone (in Citrus unshiu Marc. honey). USE with different solvents (mainly dichloromethane or the mixture pentane : diethyl ether 1 : 2 v/v) enabled isolation of less volatile and semi-volatile VOCs of the honey samples. Characteristic compounds from C. unshiu honey extracts were caffeine, 1H-indole, 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, methyl anthranilate, and phenylacetonitrile. Sometimes, the selection of solvent sequence was useful for more complete profiling such as sequence I: pentane → diethyl ether or sequence II: pentane → pentane/diethyl ether (1:2, v/v) → dichloromethane). The extracts with diethyl ether contained hydroquinone and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the major compounds, while (E)-4-(r-1’,t-2’,c-4’-trihydroxy-2’,6’,6’-trimethylcyclo-hexyl)but-3-en-2-one predominated in dichloromethane extracts of Allium ursinum L. honey. With this two-way approach, it was possible to obtain a more detailed insight into the honey volatile and semi-volatile compounds and to minimize the risks of compound discrimination due to their partial extraction that is of significant importance for the complete honey profiling and identification of the chemical biomarkers that can complement the pollen analysis.

Keywords: honey chemical biomarkers, honey volatile compounds profiling, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE)

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138 Pollination Effectiveness of Native Bee Species in Quality Seed Production of Berseem

Authors: Awais Ahmad, Mudssar Ali


Berseem is the major fodder crop grown in Pakistan and is highly preferred by cattle farmers due to its multicut nature and nutritious value. The quality seed production in berseem is largely dependent upon the activities of insect pollinators, particularly bees. In order to determine the effectiveness of native bee species in quality seed production of berseem, an experiment was conducted in the research field of MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan. The pollinator community of berseem was composed of four bees, three syrphid fly, and two butterfly species. Pesudapis sp. was the most abundant insect visitor, followed by Apis mellifera and A. dorsata. The visitation rate of A. mellifera was found highest, followed by Pesudapis sp. and A. dorsata. Moreover, single-visit efficacy in terms of seed per head and 1000 seed weight proved A. mellifera and Pesudapis sp as the most effective pollinators. Conserving these bee species may lead to sustainable berseem seed production in Pakistan.

Keywords: honey bees, syrphid fly, visitation rate, single visit

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