Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 139

Search results for: honey bees

139 An Internet of Things-Based Weight Monitoring System for Honey

Authors: Zheng-Yan Ruan, Chien-Hao Wang, Hong-Jen Lin, Chien-Peng Huang, Ying-Hao Chen, En-Cheng Yang, Chwan-Lu Tseng, Joe-Air Jiang

Abstract:

Bees play a vital role in pollination. This paper focuses on the weighing process of honey. Honey is usually stored at the comb in a hive. Bee farmers brush bees away from the comb and then collect honey, and the collected honey is weighed afterward. However, such a process brings strong negative influences on bees and even leads to the death of bees. This paper therefore presents an Internet of Things-based weight monitoring system which uses weight sensors to measure the weight of honey and simplifies the whole weighing procedure. To verify the system, the weight measured by the system is compared to the weight of standard weights used for calibration by employing a linear regression model. The R2 of the regression model is 0.9788, which suggests that the weighing system is highly reliable and is able to be applied to obtain actual weight of honey. In the future, the weight data of honey can be used to find the relationship between honey production and different ecological parameters, such as bees’ foraging behavior and weather conditions. It is expected that the findings can serve as critical information for honey production improvement.

Keywords: internet of things, weight, honey, bee

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
138 Entomological Origin of Honey Discriminated by NMR Chloroform Extracts in Ecuadorian Honey

Authors: P. Vit, J. Uddin, V. Zuccato, F. Maza, E. Schievano

Abstract:

In Ecuador honeys are produced by Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Meliponini). We studied honey produced in beeswax combs by Apis mellifera, and honey produced in pots by Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona bees. Chloroform extracts of honey were obtained for fast NMR spectra. The 1D spectra were acquired at 298 K, with a 600 MHz NMR Bruker instrument, using a modified double pulsed field gradient spin echoes (DPFGSE) sequence. Signals of 1H NMR spectra were integrated and used as inputs for PCA, PLS-DA analysis, and labelled sets of classes were successfully identified, enhancing the separation between the three groups of honey according to the entomological origin: A. mellifera, Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona. This procedure is therefore recommended for authenticity test of honey in Ecuador.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, honey, 1H NMR, entomological origin, meliponini

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
137 Volatile Profile of Monofloral Honeys Produced by Stingless Bees from the Brazilian Semiarid Region

Authors: Ana Caroliny Vieira da Costa, Marta Suely Madruga

Abstract:

In Brazil, there is a diverse fauna of social bees, known by Meliponinae or native stingless bees. These bees are important for providing a differentiated product, especially regarding unique sweetness, flavor, and aroma. However, information about the volatile fraction in honey produced by stingless native bees is still lacking. The aim of this work was to characterize the volatile compound profile of monofloral honey produced by jandaíra bees (Melipona subnitida Ducke) which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC) as their floral sources; and by uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris Latrelle), which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and angico (Anadenanthera colubrina) as their floral sources. The volatiles were extracted using HS-SPME-GC-MS technique. The condition for the extraction was: equilibration time of 15 minutes, extraction time of 45 min and extraction temperature of 45°C. Through the results obtained, it was observed that the floral source had a strong influence on the aroma profile of the honey under evaluation, since the chemical profiles were marked primarily by the classes of terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Furthermore, the results obtained suggest the existence of differentiator compounds and potential markers for the botanical sources evaluated, such as linalool, D-sylvestrene, rose oxide and benzenethanol. These reports represent a valuable contribution to certifying the authenticity of those honey and provides for the first time, information intended for the construction of chemical knowledge of the aroma and flavor that characterize these honey produced in Brazil.

Keywords: aroma, honey, semiarid, stingless, volatiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
136 The Influence of Environmental Factors on Honey Bee Activities: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Hung-Jen Lin, Chien-Hao Wang, Chien-Peng Huang, Yu-Sheng Tseng, En-Cheng Yang, Joe-Air Jiang

Abstract:

Bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior is a decisive index which can indicate the health condition of a colony. Traditional methods for monitoring the behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera) take too much time and are highly labor-intensive, and the lack of automation and synchronization disables researchers and beekeepers from obtaining real-time information of beehives. To solve these problems, this study proposes to use an Internet of Things (IoT)-based system for counting honey bees’ incoming and outgoing activities using an infrared interruption technique, while environmental factors are recorded simultaneously. The accuracy of the established system is verified by comparing the counting results with the outcomes of manual counting. Moreover, this highly -accurate device is appropriate for providing quantitative information regarding honey bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. Different statistical analysis methods, including one-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA, are used to investigate the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, illumination and ambient pressure, on bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. With the real-time data, a standard model is established using the outcomes from analyzing the relationship between environmental factors and bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. In the future, smart control systems, such as a temperature control system, can also be combined with the proposed system to create an appropriate colony environment. It is expected that the proposed system will make a considerable contribution to the apiculture and researchers.

Keywords: ANOVA, environmental factors, honey bee, incoming and outgoing behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
135 Investigation of Diseases and Enemies of Bees of Breeding Apis mellifera intermissa (Buttel-Reepen, 1906)

Authors: S. Zenia, L. Bitta, O. Bouhamam, H. Brines, M. Boudriaa, F. Haddadj, F. Marniche, A. Milla, H. Saadi, A. Smai

Abstract:

The bee Apis mellifera intermissa is a major social insect, in addition to its honey production, it is a pillar of our biodiversity. Several living organisms can come into contact with it: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, mites, and insects. In Algeria, many beekeepers have reported unusual mortality of local bees, loss of foragers and significant losses of their livestock. Despite the presence of a varied honey-bearing flora and a favourable Mediterranean climate, honey production remains low. This phenomenon can be attributed to the excess winter mortality, but also to the increasing difficulties that beekeepers face in maintaining healthy bee colonies, particularly bee diseases and their transmission facilitated by trade and beekeeping practices. Our survey is based on a questionnaire composed of several parts. The results obtained show that the disease that most affects bees according to beekeepers is varroa mite with 93% followed by fungi with 26%. The most replied enemy of bees is the false ringworm with 73%, followed by the bee-eater with 63%. Our goal is to determine the causes of this low production in two areas: Bejaia and Tizi-Ouzou.

Keywords: diseases, Apis mellifera L., varroa, European foulbrood

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
134 Application of Hybrid Honey Bees Mating Optimization Algorithm in Multiuser Detection of Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: N. Larbi, F. Debbat

Abstract:

Wireless communication systems have changed dramatically and shown spectacular evolution over the past two decades. These radio technologies are engaged in a quest endless high-speed transmission coupled to a constant need to improve transmission quality. Various radio communication systems being developed use code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. This work analyses a hybrid honey bees mating optimization algorithm (HBMO) applied to multiuser detection (MuD) in CDMA communication systems. The HBMO is a swarm-based optimization algorithm, which simulates the mating process of real honey bees. We apply a hybridization of HBMO with simulated annealing (SA) in order to improve the solution generated by the HBMO. Simulation results show that the detection based on Hybrid HBMO, in term of bit error rate (BER), is viable option when compared with the classic detectors from literature under Rayleigh flat fading channel.

Keywords: BER, DS-CDMA multiuser detection, genetic algorithm, hybrid HBMO, simulated annealing

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
133 The Effects of Heavy Metal and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pollution on Bees

Authors: Katarzyna Zięba, Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi, Paweł Miśkowiec, Agnieszka Moos-Matysik

Abstract:

Bees are effective pollinators of plants using by humans. However, there is a concern about the fate different species due to their recently decline. Pollution of the environment is described in the literature as one of the causes of this phenomenon. Due to human activities, heavy metals and aromatic hydrocarbons can occur in bee organisms in high concentrations. The presented study aims to provide information on how pollution affects bee quality, taking into account, also the biological differences between various groups of bees. Understanding the consequences of environmental pollution on bees can help to create and promote bee friendly habitats and actions. The analyses were carried out using two contamination gradients with 5 sites on each. The first, mainly heavy metal polluted gradient is stretching approx. 30km from the Bukowno Zinc smelter near Olkusz in the Lesser Poland Voivodship, to the north. The second cuts through the agglomeration of Kraków up to the southern borders of the Ojców National Park. The gradient near Olkusz is a well-described pollution gradient contaminated mainly by zinc, lead, and cadmium. The second gradient cut through the agglomeration of Kraków and end below the Ojców National Park. On each gradient, two bee species were installed: red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). Red mason bee is a polylectic, solitary bee species, widely distributed in Poland. Honey bees are a highly social species of bees, with clearly defined casts and roles in the colony. Before installing the bees in the field, samples of imagos of red mason bees and samples of pollen and imagos from each honey bee colony were analysed for zinc, lead cadmium, polycyclic and monocyclic hydrocarbons levels. After collecting the bees from the field, samples of bees and pollen samples for each site were prepared for heavy metal, monocyclic hydrocarbon, and polycyclic hydrocarbon analysis. Analyses of aromatic hydrocarbons were performed with gas chromatography coupled with a headspace sampler (HP 7694E) and mass spectrometer (MS) as detector. Monocyclic compounds were injected into column with headspace sampler while polycyclic ones with manual injector (after solid-liquid extraction with hexane). The heavy metal content (zinc, lead and cadmium) was assessed with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS AAnalyst 300 Perkin Elmer spectrometer) according to the methods for honey and bee products described in the literature. Pollution levels found in bee bodies and imago body masses in both species, and proportion of sex in case of red mason bees were correlated with pollution levels found in pollen for each site and colony or trap nest. An attempt to pinpoint the most important form of contamination regarding bee health was also be undertaken based on the achieved results.

Keywords: heavy metals, aromatic hydrocarbons, bees, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
132 In vitro Synergistic Antioxidant Activity of Honey-Mentha Spicata Combination

Authors: Yuva Bellik, Selles Mohamed Amar

Abstract:

The beneficial health effects including antioxidant properties of mint (Mentha spicata) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively studied. However, there is no data about the effects of their associated use. In this study the total phenolic and flavonoid contents for individual extracts of mint and honey and their combination were determined. The antioxidant activity was investigated by using reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2´- azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diamonium salt (ABTS), and chelating power methods. The results showed that individual extracts contained important quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their combination was found to produce best antioxidant activity. A significant linear correlation between the phenolic/flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity, especially with reducing power and free radical scavenging abilities, was observed.

Keywords: honey, mint, synergy, antioxidant activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
131 Honey Intoxication: A Unique Cause of Sudden Cardiac Collapse

Authors: Bharat Rawat, Shekhar Rajbhandari, Yadav Bhatta, Jay Prakash Jaiswal, Shivaji Bikram Silwal, Rajiv Shrestha, Shova Sunuwar

Abstract:

Introduction: The honey produced by the bees fed on Rhobdodendron species containing grayanotoxin is known as mad honey. Grayanotoxin is found in honey obtained from the nectar of Rhododendron species growing on the mountains of the Black Sea region of Turkey and also in Japan, Nepal, Brazil, parts of North America, and Europe. Although the incidence of grayanotoxin poisoning is rare, there is concern that the number of cases per year will rise with the increasing demand for organic products. Mad honey intoxication might present with mild symptoms of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and neurological systems or might also present with a life-threatening form with AV block and cardiovascular collapse. In this article, we describe the summary of five cases, which came to our hospital with mad honey related cardiac complications. Findings: In last one year, five cases presented in the emergency department with sudden onset of Loss of consciousness, dizziness, shortness of breath. They felt difficulty after the consumption of 1-3 teaspoonful of wild honey. The honey was brought from most of the rural parts of Nepal like khotang. Some of them also came with vomiting, dizziness, and loose stool. On examination, most of them had severe bradycardia and low blood pressure. No abnormalities were detected on systemic examinations. In one patient, ECG and cardiac enzymes showed features of the acute coronary syndrome, but his treadmill test done few days later was normal. All patients were managed with inj. Atropine, I/V normal saline, and other supportive measures and discharged in a stable condition within one or two days. Conclusions: Rhododendrons is the national flower of Nepal. The specific species of rhododendron found in Nepal which contains the toxin is not known. Bees feeding on these rhododendrons are known to transfer the grayanotoxin to the honey they produce. Most symptoms are mild and resolve themselves without medical intervention. Signs and symptoms of grayanotoxin poisoning rarely last more than 24 hours and are usually not fatal. Some signs of mad honey poisoning include Bradycardia, Cardiac arrhythmia, Hypotension, Nausea and Vomiting. They respond to close monitoring and appropriate supportive treatment. Normally, patients recover completely with no residual damage to the heart or its conduction system.

Keywords: rhobdodendron, honey, grayanotoxin, bradycardia

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
130 Nectariferous Plant Genetic Resources for Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Prerequisite for Conservation, Sustainable Management and Policy

Authors: C. V. Nnamani, O. L. Adedeji

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The contemporary global economic meltdown has devastating effect on the Nigerian’s economy and its frantic search for alternative source of national revenue aside from oil and gas has become imperative for economic emancipation for Nigerians. Apicultural entrepreneurship could provide a source of livelihood if the basic knowledge of those plant genetic resources needed by bees is made available. A palynological evaluation of those palynotaxa which honey bees forage for pollen and nectar was carried out after standard acetolysis method. Results showed that the honey samples were highly diversified and rich in honey plants. A total of 9544.3 honey pollen, consisting of 39 honey plants belonging to 21 plant families and distributed within 38 genera were identified excluding 238 unidentified pollen grains. Data from the analysis equally revealed that Elaeis guineensis Jacq, Anacardium occidentale L, Diospyros mespiliformis Hochist xe ADC, Alchornea cordifolia Muell, Arg, Daniella oliveri (Rolfe) Hutch & Dalz, Irvingia wombolu Okafor ex Baill, Treculia africana Decne, Nauclea latifolia Smith and Crossopteryx febrifuga Afzil ex Benth were the predominant honey plants. It provided a guide to the optimal utilization of floral resources by honeybees in these regions, showing the opportunity and amazing potentials for apiculture entrepreneurship of these palytaxa. Most of these plants are rare, threatened and endangered. It calls for urgent conservation techniques and step by all players. Critical awareness creation to ensure farmers knowledge of these palynotaxa to ensure proper understanding and attendance boost from them as economic empowerment is needed.

Keywords: palynotaxa, acetolysis, enterprise, livelihood, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
129 Breeding for Hygienic Behavior in Honey Bees

Authors: Michael Eickermann, Juergen Junk

Abstract:

The Western honey (Apis mellifera) is threatened by a number of parasites, especially the devastating Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is responsible for a high level of mortality over winter, e.g., in Europe and USA. While the use of synthetic pesticides or organic acids has been preferred so far to control this parasite, breeding strategies for less susceptible honey bees are in early stages. Hygienic behavior can be an important tool for controlling Varroa destructor. Worker bees with a high level of this behavior are able to detect infested brood in the cells under the wax lid during pupation and remove them out of the hive. The underlying processes of this behavior are only partly investigated, but it is for sure that hygienic behavior is heritable and therefore, can be integrated into commercial breeding lines. In a first step, breeding lines with a high level of phenotypic hygienic behavior have been identified by using a bioassay for accurate assessment of this trait in a long-term national breeding program in Luxembourg since 2015. Based on the artificial infestation of nucleus colonies with 150 phoretic Varroa destructor mites, the level of phenotypic hygienic behavior was detected by counting the number of mites in all stages, twelve days after infestation. A nucleus with a high level of hygienic behavior was overwintered and used for breeding activities in the following years. Artificial insemination was used to combine different breeding lines. Buckfast lines, as well as Carnica lines, were used. While Carnica lines offered only a low increase of hygienic behavior up to maximum 62.5%, Buckfast lines performed much better with mean levels of more than 87.5%. Some mating ends up with a level of 100%. But even with a level of 82.5% Varroa mites are not able to reproduce in the colony anymore. In a final step, a nucleus with a high level of hygienic behavior were build up to full colonies and located at two places in Luxembourg to build up a drone congregation area. Local beekeepers can bring their nucleus to this location for mating the queens with drones offering a high level of hygienic behavior.

Keywords: agiculture, artificial insemination, honey bee, varroa destructor

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
128 Value Chain Identification of Beekeeping Business in Indonesia: Case Study of Four Beekeeping Business in West Java

Authors: Dwi Purnomo, Anas Bunyamin, Fajar Susilo, Akbar Anugrah

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Beekeeping became a rural economic buffer, especially for people who lived by forest side to diversify their food or sell the honey and bee colony. Aside from the high price of honey and it’s derivative products, there is another revenue stream along beekeeping value chain that could be optimized by the people. There are five of nine honey bee species in the world, exist in Indonesia, such as Apis Cerana, Apis Dorsata, Apis Andreniformis, Apis Koschevnikovi, and Apis Nigrocincta. Indonesian farmer generally developed Apis Cerana and two other honey bees species, like Apis Mellifera and Trigona. This study tried to identify, how beekeeping business practices, challenges and opportunities in four beekeeping business in West Java through the value chain along the business. Data carried out by literature review, interview and focus group discussion with key actors in beekeeping business. There are six revenue stream in beekeeping business in West Java, such as brood hunter, beehives maker, agroforestry, agro-tourism, honey and derivatives products and bee acupuncture. This assesses conclude any criteria that should grasp for developing and sustaining beekeeping business in West Java.

Keywords: beekeeping business, business developing, value chain, West Java

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
127 Identifying Apis millefera Strains in Akkar District (North Lebanon) Using Mitochondrial DNA: A Step in Preserving the Local Strain A. m. Syriaca

Authors: Zeina Nasr, Bashar Merheb

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The honey bee is a social insect that had driven the human interest much more than any other organism. Beekeeping practices dated the appearance of Man on earth and now it provides a hobby or a secondary work that contributes to the family revenue and requires a little time engagement and money investment. Honey production is not the only contribution of honey bees to the economy, since honey bees play an important role in the pollination. Bee keeping in Lebanon is an important part of the agricultural economy. However, a growing concern about bees is spreading globally, due to an accelerated decline of bees colonies. This raises the alert to preserve and protect local bee strains against uncontrolled introduction of foreign strains and invasive parasitic species. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers are commonly used in studying genetic variation in the Apis mellifera species. The DraI-COI-COII test is based on the analysis of the intergenic region between the two genes COI and COII. The different honey bee strains differ in the presence or absence of the p sequence and the number of Q sequences present. A. m. syriaca belonging to the lineage Z, is the native honey bee subspecies in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine. A. m. syriaca is known for its high defensiveness, even though it has many important advantages. However, commercial breeder strains, such as the Italian (A. m. ligustica), and Carniolan (A. m. carnica) strains, have been introduced by beekeepers and regularly used for honey production. This raises worries about the disappearance of the local subspecies. It is obvious that identifying A. m. syriaca colonies and protecting them against uncontrolled mating with other bee strains is a crucial step to protect and improve the original local strain. This study aims to reveal the existing sub-species of honey bee in Akkar – Lebanon and to assess the influence of introgression on the hybridization of the local strain. This will help to identify areas of pure A.m. syriaca population over this district to be considered in choosing syriaca reserves. We collected samples of bees from different regions of Akkar district in order to perform mtDNA analysis. We determined the restriction fragments length of the intergenic region COI-COII, using the restriction enzyme DraI. The results showed both the C and the Z lineages. Four restriction patterns were identified among the restriction maps of the studied samples. The most abundant mitochondrial lineage is the Z lineage constituting about 60% of the identified samples. Al-Dreib region reported the lowest introgression with foreign mtDNA of 21% making it the most suitable area for a genetic reserve of syriaca in Akkar based on its lowest introgression and suitable environment in addition to the attitude of local beekeepers to conserve the local strain. Finally, this study is the first step in constructing conservation programs for the preservation of the local strain and should be generalized to the whole Lebanese population, consistent with the effort done in neighboring countries.

Keywords: Akkar Lebanon, Apis millefera syriaca, DraI-COI-COII test, mitochondrial DNA

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
126 Sider Bee Honey: Antitumor Effect in Some Experimental Tumor Cell Lines

Authors: Aliaa M. Issa, Mahmoud N. ElRouby, Sahar A. S. Ahmad, Mahmoud M. El-Merzabani

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Sider honey is a type of honey produced by bees feeding on the nectar of Sider tree, Ziziphus spina-christi (L) Desf . Honey is an effective agent for preventing, inhibiting and treating the growth of human and animal cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different dilutions from crude Sider honey and different duration times of exposure on the growth of six tumor cell lines (human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa; human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG-2; human larynx carcinoma cell line, Hep-2; brain tumor cell line, U251) as well as one animal cancerous cell line (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells line, EAC) and one normal cell line, Homo sapiens, human, (WISH) CCL-25. Different concentrations and treatment durations with Sider honey were tested on the growth of several cancer cell lines types. Histopathological changes in the tumor masses, animal survival, apoptosis and necrosis of the used cancer cell lines (using flow cytometry) were evaluated. Sider honey was administers either to the tumor mass itself by intratumoral injection or via drinking water. One-way ANOVA test was used for the analysis of (the means + standard error) of the optical density obtained from the Elisa reader and flow cytometry. The study revealed that different concentrations of Sider honey affected the growth patterns of all the studied cancer cell lines as well as their histopathological changes, and it depended on the cell line nature and the concentration of honey used. It is obvious that the relative animal survival percentage (bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, EAC cells) was proportionally increased with the increase in the used honey concentrations. The study of apoptosis and necrosis using the flow cytometry technique emphasized the viability results. In conclusion, Sider honey was effective as antitumor agent, in the used concentrations.

Keywords: antitumor, honey, sider, tumor cell lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
125 Community Perceptions on Honey Quality in Tobacco Growing Areas in Kigoma Region, Tanzania

Authors: Pilly Kagosi, Cherestino Balama

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Beekeeping plays major role in improving biodiversity, increasing household income, and crop production through pollination. Tobacco farming is also the main source of household income for smallholder farmers. In Kigoma, production of Tobacco has increased and is perceived to threaten honey quality. The study explored the perception of the community on quality of honey in tobacco and non tobacco growing areas. The study was conducted in Kigoma Region, Tanzania. District and Villages were purposively sampled based on large numbers of people dealing with beekeeping activities and tobacco farming. Socioeconomic data were collected and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and content analysis. The perception of stakeholders on honey quality was analysed using Likert scale. Majority of the respondents agreed that tobacco farming greatly affects honey quality because honey from beehives near tobacco farms test bitter and sometimes irritating, which was associated with nicotine content and agrochemicals applied to tobacco crops. Though they cannot differentiate honey bitterness from agrochemicals and bee fodders. Furthermore, it was revealed that chemicals applied to tobacco and vegetables have negative effect on the bees and honey quality. Respondents believe that setting bee hives near tobacco farms might contaminate honey and therefore affect its quality. Beekeepers are not aware of the nicotine content from other bee fodders like miombo of which do not have any effect on human beings. Actually, tobacco farming does not affect beekeeping activities in issue of quality when farmers follow proper management of tobacco flowers and proper handling of honey. Though, big challenge in tobacco farming is chemically applied to the crops and harvest bee fodders for curing tobacco. The study recommends training to community on proper management of tobacco and proper handling of bee products.

Keywords: community, honey, perceptions, tobacco

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
124 Comparative Analysis of Some Mineral Profile of Honey Marketed and Consumed in Some of the States in Northern Part of Nigeria

Authors: R. Odoh, M. S. Dauda, E. A. Kamba, N. C. Igwemmar

Abstract:

Honey and honey trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural and urban areas worldwide. In West Africa and other part of the world, honey and honey products holds high socio–cultural, religious, medicinal, and traditional values. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance profit, a variety of components are added to the raw, fresh and unprocessed honey, introducing the possibility of heavy metals contaminants. Therefore the honey sold in various places, markets and shops in some states in Northern Nigeria (Benue, Nassarawa and Taraba) including Abuja FCT, in Nigeria was analyzed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). All the honey samples contain heavy metals. The results ranged from 0.028–0.070, 0.023–0.058, 0.042–0.092, 4.231–8.589, 8.115–14.892, 0.078–0.922, 0.044–0.092, 0.041–0.087 and 18.234–28.654 μg/L for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn respectively. The mean concentration (μg/L) of the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of the regularly marketed honey is significantly higher than the mean concentration observed in raw, fresh and unprocessed honey. However, continued consumption of honey with high heavy metal content might lead to exposure to chronic heavy metal poisoning.

Keywords: honey, health, mineral profile adulteration, contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
123 Honey Contamination in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: B. Sadepovich Maikanov, Z. Shabanbayevich Adilbekov, R. Husainovna Mustafina, L. Tyulegenovna Auteleyeva

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This study involves detailed information about contaminants of honey in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The requirements of the technical regulation ‘Requirements to safety of honey and bee products’ and GOST 19792-2001 were taken into account in this research. Contamination of honey by antibiotics wqs determined by the IEA (immune-enzyme analysis), Ridder analyzer and Tecna produced test systems. Voltammetry (TaLab device) was used to define contamination by salts of heavy metals and gamma-beta spectrometry, ‘Progress BG’ system, with preliminary ashing of the sample of honey was used to define radioactive contamination. This article pointed out that residues of chloramphenicol were detected in 24% of investigated products, in 22% of them –streptomycin, in 7.3% - sulfanilamide, in 2.4% - tylosin, and in 12% - combined contamination was noted. Geographically, the greatest degree of contamination of honey with antibiotics occurs in the Northern Kazakhstan – 54.4%, and Southern Kazakhstan - 50%, and the lowest in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan with 30% and 25%, respectively. Generally, pollution by heavy metals is within acceptable limits, but the contamination from lead is highest in the Akmola region. The level of radioactive cesium and strontium is also within acceptable concentrations. The highest radioactivity in terms of cesium was observed in the East Kazakhstan region - 49.00±10 Bq/kg, in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty - 12.00±5, 11.05±3 and 19.0±8 Bq/kg, respectively, while the norm is 100 Bq/kg. In terms of strontium, the radioactivity in the East Kazakhstan region is 25.03±15 Bq/kg, while in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty regions it is 12.00±3, 10.2±4 and 1.0±2 Bq/kg, respectively, with the norm of 80 Bq/kg. This accumulation is mainly associated with the environmental degradation, feeding and treating of bees. Moreover, in the process of collecting nectar, external substances can penetrate honey. Overall, this research determines factors and reasons of honey contamination.

Keywords: antibiotics, contamination of honey, honey, radionuclides

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
122 Comparative Analysis of Some Mineral Profile of Honey Marketed and Consumed in Some of the States in Northern Part of Country, Nigeria

Authors: R. Odoh, M. S. Dauda, E. A. Kamba, N. C. Igwemmar

Abstract:

Honey and honey trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural and urban areas worldwide. In West Africa and other part of the world, honey and honey products holds high socio–cultural, religious, medicinal and traditional values. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance profit, a variety of components are added to the raw, fresh and unprocessed honey, introducing the possibility of heavy metals contaminants. Therefore the honey sold in various places, markets and shops in some states in Northern Nigeria (Benue, Nassarawa and Taraba) including Abuja FCT, in Nigeria was analyzed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). All the honey samples contain heavy metals. The results ranged from 0.028–0.070, 0.023–0.058, 0.042–0.092, 4.231–8.589, 8.115–14.892, 0.078–0.922, 0.044–0.092, 0.041–0.087 and 18.234–28.654 μg/L for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The mean concentration (μg/L) of the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of the regularly marketed honey is significantly higher than the mean concentration observed in raw, fresh and unprocessed honey. However, continued consumption of honey with high heavy metal content might lead to exposure to chronic heavy metal poisoning.

Keywords: honey, health, mineral profile adulteration, contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
121 Transcriptional Response of Honey Bee to Differential Nutritional Status and Nosema Infection

Authors: Farida Azzouz-Olden, Arthur G. Hunt, Gloria Degrandi-Hoffman

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Bees are confronting several environmental challenges, including the intermingled effects of malnutrition and disease. Intuitively, pollen is the healthiest nutritional choice; however, commercial substitutes, such as BeePro and MegaBee, are widely used. Herein we examined how feeding natural and artificial diets shapes transcription in the abdomen of the honey bee, and how transcription shifts in combination with Nosema parasitism. Gene ontology enrichment revealed that, compared with poor diet (carbohydrates (C)), bees fed pollen (P > C), BeePro (B > C), and MegaBee (M > C) showed a broad upregulation of metabolic processes, especially lipids; however, pollen feeding promoted more functions and superior proteolysis. The superiority of the pollen diet was also evident through the remarkable overexpression of vitellogenin in bees fed pollen instead of MegaBee or BeePro. Upregulation of bioprocesses under carbohydrates feeding compared to pollen (C > P) provided a clear poor nutritional status, uncovering stark expression changes that were slight or absent relatively to BeePro (C > B) or MegaBee (C > M). Poor diet feeding (C > P) induced starvation response genes and hippo signaling pathway, while it repressed growth through different mechanisms. Carbohydrate feeding (C > P) also elicited ‘adult behavior’, and developmental processes suggesting transition to foraging. Finally, it altered the ‘circadian rhythm’, reflecting the role of this mechanism in the adaptation to nutritional stress in mammals. Nosema-infected bees fed pollen compared to carbohydrates (PN > CN) upheld certain bioprocesses of uninfected bees (P > C). Poor nutritional status was more apparent against pollen (CN > PN) than BeePro (CN > BN) or MegaBee (CN > MN). Nosema accentuated the effects of malnutrition since more starvation-response genes and stress response mechanisms were upregulated in CN > PN compared to C > P. The bioprocess ‘Macromolecular complex assembly’ was also enriched in CN > PN, and involved genes associated with human HIV and/or influenza, thus providing potential candidates for bee-Nosema interactions. Finally, the enzyme Duox emerged as essential for guts defense in bees, similarly to Drosophila. These results provide evidence of the superior nutritional status of bees fed pollen instead of artificial substitutes in terms of overall health, even in the presence of a pathogen.

Keywords: honeybee, immunity, Nosema, nutrition, RNA-seq

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120 Technical Efficiency of Small-Scale Honey Producer in Ethiopia: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

Authors: Kaleb Shiferaw, Berhanu Geberemedhin

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Ethiopian farmers have a long tradition of beekeeping and the country has huge potential for honey production. However traditional mode of production still dominates the sub sector which negatively affect the total production and productivity. A number of studies have been conducted to better understand the working honey production, however, none of them systematically investigate the extent of technical efficiency of the sub-sector. This paper uses Stochastic Frontier production model to quantifying the extent of technical efficiency and identify exogenous determinant of inefficiency. The result showed that consistent with other studies traditional practice dominate small scale honey production in Ethiopia. The finding also revealed that use of purchased inputs such as bee forage and other supplement is very limited among honey producers indicating that natural bee forage is the primary source of bee forage. The immediate consequence of all these is low production and productivity. The number of hives the household owns, whether the household used improved apiculture technologies, availability of natural forest which is the primary sources of nectar for bees and amount of land owned by the households were found to have a significant influence on the amount of honey produced by beekeeper. Our result further showed that the mean technical efficiency of honey producers is 0.79 implying that, on average honey producer produce 80 percent of the maximum output. The implication is that 20 percent of the potential output is lost due to technical inefficiency. Number of hives owned by a honey produces, distance to district town-a proxy to market access, household wealth, and whether the household head has a leadership role in the PA affect the technical efficiency of honey producers. The finding suggest that policies that aim to expand the use of improved hives is expected to increase the honey production at household level. The result also suggest that investment on rural infrastructure would be instrumental in improving technical efficiency of honey producer.

Keywords: small-scale honey producer, Ethiopia, technical efficiency in apiculture, stochastic frontier analysis

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119 Untargeted Small Metabolite Identification from Thermally Treated Tualang Honey

Authors: Lee Suan Chua

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This study investigated the effects of thermal treatment on Tualang honey sample in terms of honey colour and heat-induced small metabolites. The heating process was carried out in a temperature controlled water batch at 90 °C for 4 hours. The honey samples were put in cylinder tubes with the dimension of 1 cm diameter and 10 cm length for homogenous heat transfer. The results found that the thermal treatment produced not only hydroxylmethylfurfural, but also other harmful substances such as phthalic anhydride and radiolytic byproducts. The degradation of honey protein was reported due to the detection of free amino acids such as cysteine and phenylalanine in heat-treated honey samples. Sugar dehydration also occurred because fragmented di-galactose was identified based on the presence of characteristic ions in the mass fragmentation pattern. The honey colour was found getting darker as the heating duration was increased up to 4 hours. Approximately, 60 mm PFund of increment was noticed for the honey colour with the colour change rate of 14.8 mm PFund per hour. Based on the principal component analysis, the chemical profile of Tualang honey was significantly altered after 2 hours of heating at 90 °C.

Keywords: honey colour, hydroxylmethylfurfural, thermal treatment, tualang honey

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118 Approach to Honey Volatiles' Profiling by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Igor Jerkovic

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Biodiversity of flora provides many different nectar sources for the bees. Unifloral honeys possess distinctive flavours, mainly derived from their nectar sources (characteristic volatile organic components (VOCs)). Specific or nonspecific VOCs (chemical markers) could be used for unifloral honey characterisation as addition to the melissopalynologycal analysis. The main honey volatiles belong, in general, to three principal categories: terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Some of these substances have been described as characteristics of the floral source, and other compounds, like several alcohols, branched aldehydes, and furan derivatives, may be related to the microbial purity of honey processing and storage conditions. Selection of the extraction method for the honey volatiles profiling should consider that heating of the honey produce different artefacts and therefore conventional methods of VOCs isolation (such as hydrodistillation) cannot be applied for the honey. Two-way approach for the isolation of the honey VOCs was applied using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HS-SPME (with the fibers of different polarity such as polydimethylsiloxane/ divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) or divinylbenzene/carboxene/ polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS)) enabled isolation of high volatile headspace VOCs of the honey samples. Among them, some characteristic or specific compounds can be found such as 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan (in Centaurea cyanus L. honey) or 1H-indole, methyl anthranilate, and cis-jasmone (in Citrus unshiu Marc. honey). USE with different solvents (mainly dichloromethane or the mixture pentane : diethyl ether 1 : 2 v/v) enabled isolation of less volatile and semi-volatile VOCs of the honey samples. Characteristic compounds from C. unshiu honey extracts were caffeine, 1H-indole, 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, methyl anthranilate, and phenylacetonitrile. Sometimes, the selection of solvent sequence was useful for more complete profiling such as sequence I: pentane → diethyl ether or sequence II: pentane → pentane/diethyl ether (1:2, v/v) → dichloromethane). The extracts with diethyl ether contained hydroquinone and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the major compounds, while (E)-4-(r-1’,t-2’,c-4’-trihydroxy-2’,6’,6’-trimethylcyclo-hexyl)but-3-en-2-one predominated in dichloromethane extracts of Allium ursinum L. honey. With this two-way approach, it was possible to obtain a more detailed insight into the honey volatile and semi-volatile compounds and to minimize the risks of compound discrimination due to their partial extraction that is of significant importance for the complete honey profiling and identification of the chemical biomarkers that can complement the pollen analysis.

Keywords: honey chemical biomarkers, honey volatile compounds profiling, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE)

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117 Pollination Effectiveness of Native Bee Species in Quality Seed Production of Berseem

Authors: Awais Ahmad, Mudssar Ali

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Berseem is the major fodder crop grown in Pakistan and is highly preferred by cattle farmers due to its multicut nature and nutritious value. The quality seed production in berseem is largely dependent upon the activities of insect pollinators, particularly bees. In order to determine the effectiveness of native bee species in quality seed production of berseem, an experiment was conducted in the research field of MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan. The pollinator community of berseem was composed of four bees, three syrphid fly, and two butterfly species. Pesudapis sp. was the most abundant insect visitor, followed by Apis mellifera and A. dorsata. The visitation rate of A. mellifera was found highest, followed by Pesudapis sp. and A. dorsata. Moreover, single-visit efficacy in terms of seed per head and 1000 seed weight proved A. mellifera and Pesudapis sp as the most effective pollinators. Conserving these bee species may lead to sustainable berseem seed production in Pakistan.

Keywords: honey bees, syrphid fly, visitation rate, single visit

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116 A Controlled Mathematical Model for Population Dynamics in an Infested Honeybees Colonies

Authors: Chakib Jerry, Mounir Jerry

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In this paper, a mathematical model of infested honey bees colonies is formulated in order to investigate Colony Collapse Disorder in a honeybee colony. CCD, as it is known, is a major problem on honeybee farms because of the massive decline in colony numbers. We introduce to the model a control variable which represents forager protection. We study the controlled model to derive conditions under which the bee colony can fight off epidemic. Secondly we study the problem of minimizing prevention cost under model’s dynamics constraints.

Keywords: honey bee, disease transmission model, disease control honeybees, optimal control

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115 Determination of the Botanical Origin of Honey by the Artificial Neural Network Processing of PARAFAC Scores of Fluorescence Data

Authors: Lea Lenhardt, Ivana Zeković, Tatjana Dramićanin, Miroslav D. Dramićanin

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Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for characterization and classification of honey. Excitation emission spectra were obtained for 95 honey samples of different botanical origin (acacia, sunflower, linden, meadow, and fake honey) by recording emission from 270 to 640 nm with excitation in the range of 240-500 nm. Fluorescence spectra were described with a six-component PARAFAC model, and PARAFAC scores were further processed with two types of ANN’s (feed-forward network and self-organizing maps) to obtain algorithms for classification of honey on the basis of their botanical origin. Both ANN’s detected fake honey samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

Keywords: honey, fluorescence, PARAFAC, artificial neural networks

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114 Effect of Climate Variability on Honeybee's Production in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Justin Orimisan Ijigbade

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The study was conducted to assess the effect of climate variability on honeybee’s production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed to collect the data from 60 beekeepers across six Local Government Areas in Ondo State. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and multiple regression model analyses. The results showed that 93.33% of the respondents were male with 80% above 40 years of age. Majority of the respondents (96.67%) had formal education and 90% produced honey for commercial purpose. The result revealed that 90% of the respondents admitted that low temperature as a result of long hours/period of rainfall affected the foraging efficiency of the worker bees, 73.33% claimed that long period of low humidity resulted in low level of nectar flow, while 70% submitted that high temperature resulted in improper composition of workers, dunes and queen in the hive colony. The result of multiple regression showed that beekeepers’ experience, educational level, access to climate information, temperature and rainfall were the main factors affecting honey bees production in the study area. Therefore, beekeepers should be given more education on climate variability and its adaptive strategies towards ensuring better honeybees production in the study area.

Keywords: climate variability, honeybees production, humidity, rainfall and temperature

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113 Honey: A Remedy Rediscovered in the Treatment of Oral Diseases

Authors: Muhammad Mansoor Majeed, Imtiaz Ahmed

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For centuries, honey has been used for the management and cure of different diseases for the treatment of wound, ulcers, burns, cough, and sore throat, etc. It has also been proved to decrease inflammation, edema, and exudates in different body tissues. This study is performed to find out the effectiveness of honey in the treatment and prevention of gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and accumulation of plaque. Randomized control trial was performed on two subject groups. Honey provided to one subject group to apply on their gums and tooth and then gargle with water and drink. Frequency of the procedure is thrice a day for a month. Another group was given a placebo. Before and after, readings were taken according to Loe and Silness Plaque and Gingival Index. Initially, the mean plaque index, Gingival index and the percentage of sites which were bleeding in the honey group was 0.910, 0.800 and 58.71% respectively which has reduced to 0.313, 0.296 and 27.6% in 30 ± 3 days whereas the control group did not show signs of improvement. Visible changed has observed in the honey group from 0.910 to 0.313 in mean plaque index, 0.800 to 0.296 in Gingival Index, and the percentage of bleeding sited decreased from 58.71% to 27.6%. No significant changes observed in another group. We can conclude that honey reduces the formation/accumulation of plaque and decreases gingival bleeding as well as it has therapeutic effects.

Keywords: honey, gingivitis, Pakistan, bleeding gums

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112 Authenticity of Ecuadorian Commercial Honeys

Authors: Elisabetta Schievano, Valentina Zuccato, Claudia Finotello, Patricia Vit

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Control of honey frauds is needed in Ecuador to protect bee keepers and consumers because simple syrups and new syrups with eucalyptus are sold as genuine honeys. Authenticity of Ecuadorian commercial honeys was tested with a vortex emulsion consisting on one volume of honey:water (1:1) dilution, and two volumes of diethyl ether. This method allows a separation of phases in one minute to discriminate genuine honeys that form three phase and fake honeys that form two phases; 34 of the 42 honeys analyzed from five provinces of Ecuador were genuine. This was confirmed with 1H NMR spectra of honey dilutions in deuterated water with an enhanced aminoacid region with signals for proline, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Classic quality indicators were also tested with this method (sugars, HMF), indicators of fermentation (ethanol, acetic acid), and residues of citric acid used in the syrup manufacture. One of the honeys gave a false positive for genuine, being an admixture of genuine honey with added syrup, evident for the high sucrose. Sensory analysis was the final confirmation to recognize the honey groups studied here, namely honey produced in combs by Apis mellifera, fake honey, and honey produced in cerumen pots by Geotrigona, Melipona, and Scaptotrigona. This is a valuable contribution to protect honey consumers, and to develop the beekeeping industry in Ecuador.

Keywords: fake, genuine, honey, 1H NMR, Ecuador

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
111 Mitochondrial Energy Utilization is Unchanged with Age in the Trophocytes and Oenocytes of Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

Authors: Chia-Ying Yen, Chin-Yuan Hsu

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The lifespans of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera) are much longer than those of worker bees. The expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules decreased with age in the trophocytes and oenocytes of worker bees, but they are unknown in queen bees. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules were evaluated in the trophocytes and oenocytes of young and old queen bees by biochemical techniques. The results showed that mitochondrial density and mitochondrial membrane potential; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels; the NAD+/NADH ratio; and relative expression of NADH dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase normalized against mitochondrial density were not significantly different between young and old queen bees. These findings reveal that mitochondrial energy utilization maintains a young status in the trophocytes and oenocytes of old queen bees and that trophocytes and oenocytes have aging-delaying mechanisms and can be used to study cellular longevity.

Keywords: aging, longevity, mitochondrial energy, queen bees

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110 Preparation and Analysis of Chitosan-Honey Films for Wound Dressing Application

Authors: L. Sasikala, Bhaarathi Dhurai

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Increase in antibiotic resistance bacteria leads to the development of active wound dressings, which absorb any bodily fluid, evaporation of moisture at a certain rate and can be easily removed after healing. Natural materials like chitosan, herbs, and honey have number of active materials present in them to accelerate wound healing and to arrest wound in infections. Hence with the advantages of biomaterials, a film was prepared using chitosan and honey. There are a lot of practical considerations with respect to honey. Honey exerts many beneficial actions on the wound surface only when it remains. The attempts to hold honey on the surface of the wound remain a question because honey becomes a very runny liquid when it comes to body temperature. Hence, this research was focused on development of a new form of wound dressing, by holding honey on the wound surface in different form and also which has a combined effect of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey and chitosan. Chitosan-honey film was prepared using casting technique. Films were prepared in different variations; with acetic acid and with lactic acid; with and without honey. In summary, the film produced from 2% chitosan- 1% lactic acid as a solvent, with 10% honey shows optimum inclined values in all the tests, like thickness, folding endurance, weight, water vapor transmission, tensile strength, swelling ratio and antimicrobial activity, with specific reference to wound dressings. The film has water vapor transmission of 1680 g/m²/day, water absorption of 225%, tensile strength of 39.1N/mm² and elongation of 50.3%. There is a notable inhibition zone of 29 mm against S. aureus and 24 mm against E. coli in the case of chitosan-lactic acid-honey film. The film also arrests, microbes transmitting from the outside environment to wound bed, which can be used as an effective wound dressing material.

Keywords: casting technique, chitosan, honey, film, wound dressings

Procedia PDF Downloads 116