Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6448

Search results for: human leukocyte antigens

6448 Accurate HLA Typing at High-Digit Resolution from NGS Data

Authors: Yazhi Huang, Jing Yang, Dingge Ying, Yan Zhang, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Nattiya Hirankarn, Pak Chung Sham, Yu Lung Lau, Wanling Yang

Abstract:

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing from next generation sequencing (NGS) data has the potential for applications in clinical laboratories and population genetic studies. Here we introduce a novel technique for HLA typing from NGS data based on read-mapping using a comprehensive reference panel containing all known HLA alleles and de novo assembly of the gene-specific short reads. An accurate HLA typing at high-digit resolution was achieved when it was tested on publicly available NGS data, outperforming other newly-developed tools such as HLAminer and PHLAT.

Keywords: human leukocyte antigens, next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, HLA typing

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6447 The Molecular Bases of Δβ T-Cell Mediated Antigen Recognition

Authors: Eric Chabrol, Sidonia B.G. Eckle, Renate de Boer, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn, Mirjam H.M. Heemskerk, Stephanie Gras

Abstract:

αβ and γδ T-cells are disparate T-cell lineages that, via their use of either αβ or γδ T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) respectively, can respond to distinct antigens. Here we characterise a new population of human T-cells, term δβ T-cells, that express TCRs comprising a TCR-δ variable gene fused to a Joining-α/Constant-α domain, paired with an array of TCR-β chains. We characterised the cellular, functional, biophysical and structural characteristic feature of this new T-cells population that reveal some new insight into TCR diversity. We provide molecular bases of how δβ T-cells can recognise viral peptide presented by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) molecule. Our findings highlight how components from αβ and γδTCR gene loci can recombine to confer antigen specificity thus expanding our understanding of T-cell biology and TCR diversity.

Keywords: new delta-beta TCR, HLA, viral peptide, structural immunology

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6446 Haplotypes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Different HIV-1 Groups from the Netherlands

Authors: A. Alyami, S. Christmas, K. Neeltje, G. Pollakis, B. Paxton, Z. Al-Bayati

Abstract:

The Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecule plays an important role in immunomodulation. To date, 16 untranslated regions (UTR) HLA-G haplotypes have been previously defined by sequenced SNPs in the coding region. From these, UTR-1, UTR-2, UTR-3, UTR-4, UTR-5, UTR-6 and UTR-7 are the most frequent 3’UTR haplotypes at the global level. UTR-1 is associated with higher levels of soluble HLA-G and HLA-G expression, whereas UTR-5 and UTR-7 are linked with low levels of soluble HLA-G and HLA-G expression. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection results in the progressive loss of immune function in infected individuals. The virus escape mechanism typically includes T lymphocytes and NK cell recognition and lyses by classical HLA-A and B down-regulation, which has been associated with non-classical HLA-G molecule up-regulation, respectively. We evaluated the haplotypes of the HLA-G 3′ untranslated region frequencies observed in three HIV-1 groups from the Netherlands and their susceptibility to develop infection. The three groups are made up of mainly men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU) and a high-risk-seronegative (HRSN) group. DNA samples were amplified with published primers prior sequencing. According to our results, the low expresser frequencies show higher in HRSN compared to other groups. This is indicating that 3’UTR polymorphisms may be identified as potential prognostic biomarkers to determine susceptibility to HIV.

Keywords: Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) , men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU), high-risk-seronegative (HRSN) group, high-untranslated region (UTR)

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6445 Leukocyte Detection Using Image Stitching and Color Overlapping Windows

Authors: Lina, Arlends Chris, Bagus Mulyawan, Agus B. Dharmawan

Abstract:

Blood cell analysis plays a significant role in the diagnosis of human health. As an alternative to the traditional technique conducted by laboratory technicians, this paper presents an automatic white blood cell (leukocyte) detection system using Image Stitching and Color Overlapping Windows. The advantage of this method is to present a detection technique of white blood cells that are robust to imperfect shapes of blood cells with various image qualities. The input for this application is images from a microscope-slide translation video. The preprocessing stage is performed by stitching the input images. First, the overlapping parts of the images are determined, then stitching and blending processes of two input images are performed. Next, the Color Overlapping Windows is performed for white blood cell detection which consists of color filtering, window candidate checking, window marking, finds window overlaps, and window cropping processes. Experimental results show that this method could achieve an average of 82.12% detection accuracy of the leukocyte images.

Keywords: color overlapping windows, image stitching, leukocyte detection, white blood cell detection

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6444 Evaluation of Humoral Immune Response Against Somatic and Excretory- Secretory Antigens of Dicrocoelium Dendriticum in Infected Sheep by Western Blot

Authors: Arash Jafari, Somaye Bahrami, Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali

Abstract:

The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of excretory-secretory and somatic antigens from D. dendriticum by SDS-PAGE and evaluation of humeral immune response against these antigens. The sera of infected sheep with different infection degrees were collected. Somatic and ES proteins were isolated with SDS PAGE. Immunogenicity properties of the resulting proteins were determined using western blot analysis. The total extract of somatic antigens analysed by SDS-PAGE revealed 21 proteins. In mild infection, bands of 130 KDa were immune dominant. In moderate infections 48, 80 and 130 KDa and in heavy infections 48, 60, 80, 130 KDa were detected as immune dominant bands. In ES antigens, mild infection 130 KDa, in moderate infection 100, 120 and 130 KDa and in heavy infection 45, 80, 85, 100, 120 and 130 KDa were immune dominant bands. The most immunogenic protein band during different degrees of infection was 130KDa.

Keywords: Dicrocoelium dendriticum excretory-secretory antigens, somatic antigens, western blot

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6443 Identification of Promiscuous Epitopes for Cellular Immune Responses in the Major Antigenic Protein Rv3873 Encoded by Region of Difference 1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

Abstract:

Rv3873 is a relatively large size protein (371 amino acids in length) and its gene is located in the immunodominant genomic region of difference (RD)1 that is present in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but deleted from the genomes of all the vaccine strains of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) and most other mycobacteria. However, when tested for cellular immune responses using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tuberculosis patients and BCG-vaccinated healthy subjects, this protein was found to be a major stimulator of cell mediated immune responses in both groups of subjects. In order to further identify the sequence of immunodominant epitopes and explore their Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-restriction for epitope recognition, 24 peptides (25-mers overlapping with the neighboring peptides by 10 residues) covering the sequence of Rv3873 were synthesized chemically using fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chemistry and tested in cell mediated immune responses. The results of these experiments helped in the identification of an immunodominant peptide P9 that was recognized by people expressing varying HLA-DR types. Furthermore, it was also predicted to be a promiscuous binder with multiple epitopes for binding to HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ alleles of HLA-class II molecules that present antigens to T helper cells, and to HLA-class I molecules that present antigens to T cytotoxic cells. In addition, the evaluation of peptide P9 using an immunogenicity predictor server yielded a high score (0.94), which indicated a greater probability of this peptide to elicit a protective cellular immune response. In conclusion, P9, a peptide with multiple epitopes and ability to bind several HLA class I and class II molecules for presentation to cells of the cellular immune response, may be useful as a peptide-based vaccine against tuberculosis.

Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, PPE68, peptides, vaccine

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6442 On a Negative Relation between Bacterial Taxis and Turing Pattern Formation

Authors: A. Elragig, S. Townley, H. Dreiwi

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In this paper we introduce a bacteria-leukocyte model with bacteria chemotaxsis. We assume that bacteria develop a tactic defense mechanism as a response to Leukocyte phagocytosis. We explore the effect of this tactic motion on Turing space in two parameter spaces. A fine tuning of bacterial chemotaxis shows a significant effect on developing a non-uniform steady state.

Keywords: chemotaxis-diffusion driven instability, bacterial chemotaxis, mathematical biology, ecology

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6441 Autoantibodies against Central Nervous System Antigens and the Serum Levels of IL-32 in Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Fatemeh Keshavarz

Abstract:

Background: Schizophrenia is a disease of the nervous system, and immune system disorders can affect its pathogenesis. Activation of microglia, proinflammatory cytokines, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to inflammation, activation of autoreactive B cells, and consequently the production of autoantibodies against system antigens are among the immune processes involved in neurological diseases. interleukin 32 (IL-32) a proinflammatory cytokine that important player in the activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. This study aimed to measure the serum level of IL-32 as well as the frequency of autoantibody positivity against several nervous system antigens in patients with schizophrenia. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy individuals in the control group. Serum IL-32 levels were measured by ELISA. The frequency of autoantibodies against Hu, Ri, Yo, Tr, CV2, Amphiphysin, SOX1, Zic4, ITPR1, CARP, GAD, Recoverin, Titin, and Ganglioside antigens were measured by indirect immunofluorescence method. Results: Serum IL-32 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher compared to the control group. Autoantibodies were positive in 8 patients for GAD antigen and 5 patients for Ri antigen, which showed a significant relationship compared to the control group. Autoantibodies were also positive in 2 patients for CV2, in 1 patient for Hu, and in 1 patient for CARP. Negative results were reported for other antigens. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated the serum IL-32 level and autoantibody positivity against several nervous system antigens may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

Keywords: schizophrenia, microglia, autoantibodies, IL-32

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6440 First Experimental Evidence on Feasibility of Molecular Magnetic Particle Imaging of Tumor Marker Alpha-1-Fetoprotein Using Antibody Conjugated Nanoparticles

Authors: Kolja Them, Priyal Chikhaliwala, Sudeshna Chandra

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this work is to examine possibilities for noninvasive imaging and identification of tumor markers for cancer diagnosis. The proposed method uses antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and multicolor Magnetic Particle Imaging (mMPI). The method has the potential for radiation exposure free real-time estimation of local tumor marker concentrations in vivo. In this study, the method is applied to human Alpha-1-Fetoprotein. Materials and Methods: As tracer material AFP antibody-conjugated Dendrimer-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used. The nanoparticle bioconjugates were then incubated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to block any possible nonspecific binding sites. Parts of the resulting solution were then incubated with AFP antigen. MPI measurements were done using the preclinical MPI scanner (Bruker Biospin MRI GmbH) and the multicolor method was used for image reconstruction. Results: In multicolor MPI images the nanoparticles incubated only with BSA were clearly distinguished from nanoparticles incubated with BSA and AFP antigens. Conclusion: Tomographic imaging of human tumor marker Alpha-1-Fetoprotein is possible using AFP antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles in presence of BSA. This opens interesting perspectives for cancer diagnosis.

Keywords: noninvasive imaging, tumor antigens, antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles, multicolor magnetic particle imaging, cancer diagnosis

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6439 Difference in the Expression of CIRBP, RBM3 and HSP70 in the Myocardium and Cerebellum after Death by Hypothermi a and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Lisa Wingenfeld, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

Abstract:

We studied the expression of hypoxia-related antigens (e.g., cold-inducible antigens and apoptotic antigens) in the myocardium and the cerebellumthat were obtained from individuals after death by carbon monoxide or hypothermia. The immunohistochemistry results revealed that expression of cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRBP) and RNA-binding protein 3 (RBM3) may be associated with hpyothermic and the hypoxic conditions. The expression of CIRBP and RBM3 in the myocardium was different from their expression in the cerebellum, especially in the Purkinje cells. The results indicate that agonal duration influences antigen expression. In the hypothermic condition, the myocardium uses more ATP since the force of the excitation-contraction coupling of the myocardium increases by more than 400% when the experimental temperature is reduced from 35°C to 25°C. The results obtained in this study indicate that physicians should pay attention to the myocardium when cooling the patient’s body to protect the brain.

Keywords: carbon monoxide death, cerebellum, CIRBP, hypothermic death, myocardium, RBM3

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6438 Inhibition of Mixed Infection Caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Virus by Fullerene Compound

Authors: Dmitry Nosik, Nickolay Nosik, Elli Kaplina, Olga Lobach, Marina Chataeva, Lev Rasnetsov

Abstract:

Background and aims: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is very often associated with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection but HIV patients are treated with a cocktail of antiretroviral drugs which are toxic. The use of an antiviral drug which will be active against both viruses like ferrovir found in our previous studies is rather actual. Earlier we had shown that Fullerene poly-amino capronic acid (FPACA) was active in case of monoinfection of HIV-1 or HSV-1. The aim of the study was to analyze the efficiency of FPACA against mixed infection of HIV and HSV. Methods: The peripheral blood lymphocytes, CEM, MT-4 cells were simultaneously infected with HIV-1 and HSV-1. FPACA was added 1 hour before infection. Cells viability was detected by MTT assay, virus antigens detected by ELISA, syncytium formation detected by microscopy. The different multiplicity of HIV-1/HSV-1 ratio was used. Results: The double viral HIV-1/HSV-1 infection was more cytopathic comparing with monoinfections. In mixed infection by the HIV-1/HSV-1 concentration of HIV-1 antigens and syncytium formations increased by 1,7 to 2,3 times in different cells in comparison with the culture infected with HIV-1 alone. The concentration of HSV-1 increased by 1,5-1,7 times, respectively. Administration of FPACA (1 microg/ml) protected cells: HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:1) – 80,1%; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:4) – 57,2%; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:8) – 46,3 %; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:16) – 17,0%. Virus’s antigen levels were also reduced. Syncytium formation was totally inhibited in all cases of mixed infection. Conclusion: FPACA showed antiviral activity in case of mixed viral infection induced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus. The effect of viral inhibition increased with the multiplicity of HIV-1 in the inoculum. The mechanism of FPACA action is connected with the blocking of the virus particles adsorption to the cells and it could be suggested that it can have an antiviral activity against some other viruses too. Now FPACA could be considered as a potential drug for treatment of HIV disease complicated with opportunistic herpes viral infection.

Keywords: antiviral drug, human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), herpes simplex virus (hsv), mixed viral infection

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6437 Lung Icams and Vcam-1 in Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Influenza Infections: Implications for Vaccination Strategies

Authors: S. Kozlovski, S.W. Feigelson, R. Alon

Abstract:

The b2 integrin ligands ICAM-1 ICAM-2 and the endothelial VLA-4 integrin ligand VCAM-1 are constitutively expressed on different lung vessels and on high endothelial venules (HEVs), the main portal for lymphocyte entry from the blood into lung draining lymph nodes. ICAMs are also ubiquitously expressed by many antigen-presenting leukocytes and have been traditionally suggested as critical for the various antigen-specific immune synapses generated by these distinct leukocytes and specific naïve and effector T cells. Loss of both ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on the lung vasculature reduces the ability to patrol monocytes and Tregs to patrol the lung vasculature at a steady state. Our new findings suggest, however, that in terms of innate leukocyte trafficking into the lung lamina propria, both constitutively expressed and virus-induced vascular VCAM-1 can functionally compensate for the loss of these ICAMs. In a mouse model for influenza infection, neutrophil and NK cell recruitment and clearance of influenza remained normal in mice deficient in both ICAMs. Strikingly, mice deficient in both ICAMs also mounted normal influenza-specific CD8 proliferation and differentiation. In addition, these mice normally combated secondary influenza infection, indicating that the presence of ICAMs on conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) that present viral antigens are not required for immune synapse formation between these APCs and naïve CD8 T cells as previously suggested. Furthermore, long-lasting humoral responses critical for protection from a secondary homosubtypic influenza infection were also normal in mice deficient in both ICAM-1 and ICAM-2. Collectively, our results suggest that the expression of ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on lung endothelial and epithelial cells, as well as on DCs and B cells, is not critical for the generation of innate or adaptive anti-viral immunity in the lungs. Our findings also suggest that endothelial VCAM-1 can substitute for the functions of vascular ICAMs in leukocyte trafficking into various lung compartments.

Keywords: emigration, ICAM-1, lymph nodes, VCAM-1

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6436 Human Leukocyte Antigen Class 1 Phenotype Distribution and Analysis in Persons from Central Uganda with Active Tuberculosis and Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

Authors: Helen K. Buteme, Rebecca Axelsson-Robertson, Moses L. Joloba, Henry W. Boom, Gunilla Kallenius, Markus Maeurer

Abstract:

Background: The Ugandan population is heavily affected by infectious diseases and Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) diversity plays a crucial role in the host-pathogen interaction and affects the rates of disease acquisition and outcome. The identification of HLA class 1 alleles and determining which alleles are associated with tuberculosis (TB) outcomes would help in screening individuals in TB endemic areas for susceptibility to TB and to predict resistance or progression to TB which would inevitably lead to better clinical management of TB. Aims: To be able to determine the HLA class 1 phenotype distribution in a Ugandan TB cohort and to establish the relationship between these phenotypes and active and latent TB. Methods: Blood samples were drawn from 32 HIV negative individuals with active TB and 45 HIV negative individuals with latent MTB infection. DNA was extracted from the blood samples and the DNA samples HLA typed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method. The allelic frequencies were determined by direct count. Results: HLA-A*02, A*01, A*74, A*30, B*15, B*58, C*07, C*03 and C*04 were the dominant phenotypes in this Ugandan cohort. There were differences in the distribution of HLA types between the individuals with active TB and the individuals with LTBI with only HLA-A*03 allele showing a statistically significant difference (p=0.0136). However, after FDR computation the corresponding q-value is above the expected proportion of false discoveries (q-value 0.2176). Key findings: We identified a number of HLA class I alleles in a population from Central Uganda which will enable us to carry out a functional characterization of CD8+ T-cell mediated immune responses to MTB. Our results also suggest that there may be a positive association between the HLA-A*03 allele and TB implying that individuals with the HLA-A*03 allele are at a higher risk of developing active TB.

Keywords: HLA, phenotype, tuberculosis, Uganda

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6435 Diagnosis of Gingivitis Based on Correlations of Laser Doppler Data and Gingival Fluid Cytology

Authors: A. V. Belousov, Yakushenko

Abstract:

One of the main problems of modern dentistry is development a reliable method to detect inflammation in the gums on the stages of diagnosis and assessment of treatment efficacy. We have proposed a method of gingival fluid intake, which successfully combines accessibility, excluding the impact of the annoying and damaging the gingival sulcus factors and provides reliable results (patent of RF№ 2342956 Method of gingival fluid intake). The objects of the study were students - volunteers of Dentistry Faculty numbering 75 people aged 20-21 years. Cellular composition of gingival fluid was studied using microscope "Olympus CX 31" (Japan) with the calculation of epithelial leukocyte index (ELI). Assessment of gingival micro circulation was performed using the apparatus «LAKK–01» (Lazma, Moscow). Cytological investigation noted the highly informative of epithelial leukocyte index (ELI), which demonstrated changes in the mechanisms of protection gums. The increase of ELI occurs during inhibition mechanisms of phagocytosis and activation of epithelial desquamation. The cytological data correlate with micro circulation indicators obtained by laser Doppler flowmetry. We have identified and confirmed the correlations between parameters laser Doppler flowmetry and data cytology gingival fluid in patients with gingivitis.

Keywords: gingivitis, laser doppler flowmetry, gingival fluid cytology, epithelial leukocyte index (ELI)

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6434 Double Functionalization of Magnetic Colloids with Electroactive Molecules and Antibody for Platelet Detection and Separation

Authors: Feixiong Chen, Naoufel Haddour, Marie Frenea-Robin, Yves MéRieux, Yann Chevolot, Virginie Monnier

Abstract:

Neonatal thrombopenia occurs when the mother generates antibodies against her baby’s platelet antigens. It is particularly critical for newborns because it can cause coagulation troubles leading to intracranial hemorrhage. In this case, diagnosis must be done quickly to make platelets transfusion immediately after birth. Before transfusion, platelet antigens must be tested carefully to avoid rejection. The majority of thrombopenia (95 %) are caused by antibodies directed against Human Platelet Antigen 1a (HPA-1a) or 5b (HPA-5b). The common method for antigen platelets detection is polymerase chain reaction allowing for identification of gene sequence. However, it is expensive, time-consuming and requires significant blood volume which is not suitable for newborns. We propose to develop a point-of-care device based on double functionalized magnetic colloids with 1) antibodies specific to antigen platelets and 2) highly sensitive electroactive molecules in order to be detected by an electrochemical microsensor. These magnetic colloids will be used first to isolate platelets from other blood components, then to capture specifically platelets bearing HPA-1a and HPA-5b antigens and finally to attract them close to sensor working electrode for improved electrochemical signal. The expected advantages are an assay time lower than 20 min starting from blood volume smaller than 100 µL. Our functionalization procedure based on amine dendrimers and NHS-ester modification of initial carboxyl colloids will be presented. Functionalization efficiency was evaluated by colorimetric titration of surface chemical groups, zeta potential measurements, infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence scanning and cyclic voltammetry. Our results showed that electroactive molecules and antibodies can be immobilized successfully onto magnetic colloids. Application of a magnetic field onto working electrode increased the detected electrochemical signal. Magnetic colloids were able to capture specific purified antigens extracted from platelets.

Keywords: Magnetic Nanoparticles , Electroactive Molecules, Antibody, Platelet

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6433 Separation and Characterization of Micobacterium bovis Cell Surface Lysate Antigen

Authors: Albina V. Moskvicheva, Gevorg G. Kazarian, Anna R. Valeeva, Marina A. Efimova, Malik N. Mukminov, Eduard A. Shuralev, Rustam Kh. Ravilov, Kamil S. Khaertynov

Abstract:

Improving the early diagnosis of tuberculosis and solving a number of problems associated with the differential diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection, nonspecific tuberculin reactions caused by sensitization of the body by non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, is urgent. The filtrates and extracts of M. bovis cell surface components are promising antigens with diagnostic potential. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize antigenic proteins and determine the dominant M. bovis antigens recognized by the humoral immune system. The mycobacterial cells were homogenized on FastPrep-24. Gel-filtration chromatography was used to fractionate the lysates of cell surface component extracts and proteins isolated from M. bovis culture supernatant. The separated fractions were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by determination of antigen serological activity using immunoblot with specific hyperimmune rabbit blood serum. As a result of electrophoretic separation of components by molecular weight, 23 antigen fractions were obtained. Analysis of densitograms showed that the fractions contained two zones of antigens with pronounced serological activity, corresponding to molecular weights of 28 and 21 kDa. The high serological activity of the 28 kDa antigen was established by immunoblot using hyperimmune blood sera. Separated and characterized by M. bovis specific antigen with a molecular weight of 28 kDa was added to the collection of specific marker antigens for M. bovis.

Keywords: antigen, gel-filtration chromatography, immunoblot, Mycobacterium bovis

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6432 Laboratory Findings as Predictors of St2 and NT-Probnp Elevations in Heart Failure Clinic, National Cardiovascular Centre Harapan Kita, Indonesia

Authors: B. B. Siswanto, A. Halimi, K. M. H. J. Tandayu, C. Abdillah, F. Nanda , E. Chandra

Abstract:

Nowadays, modern cardiac biomarkers, such as ST2 and NT-proBNP, have important roles in predicting morbidity and mortality in heart failure patients. Abnormalities of serum electrolytes, sepsis or infection, and deteriorating renal function will worsen the conditions of patients with heart failure. It is intriguing to know whether cardiac biomarkers elevations are affected by laboratory findings in heart failure patients. We recruited 65 patients from the heart failure clinic in NCVC Harapan Kita in 2014-2015. All of them have consented for laboratory examination, including cardiac biomarkers. The findings were recorded in our Research and Development Centre and analyzed using linear regression to find whether there is a relationship between laboratory findings (sodium, potassium, creatinine, and leukocytes) and ST2 or NT-proBNP. From 65 patients, 26.9% of them are female, and 73.1% are male, 69.4% patients classified as NYHA I-II and 31.6% as NYHA III-IV. The mean age is 55.7+11.4 years old; mean sodium level is 136.1+6.5 mmol/l; mean potassium level is 4.7+1.9 mmol/l; mean leukocyte count is 9184.7+3622.4 /ul; mean creatinine level is 1.2+0.5 mg/dl. From linear regression logistics, the relationship between NT-proBNP and sodium level (p<0.001), as well as leukocyte count (p=0.002) are significant, while NT-proBNP and potassium level (p=0.05), as well as creatinine level (p=0.534) are not significant. The relationship between ST2 and sodium level (p=0.501), potassium level (p=0.76), leukocyte level (p=0.897), and creatinine level (p=0.817) are not significant. To conclude, laboratory findings are more sensitive in predicting NT-proBNP elevation than ST2 elevation. Larger studies are needed to prove that NT-proBNP correlation with laboratory findings is more superior than ST2.

Keywords: heart failure, laboratory, NT-proBNP, ST2

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6431 Human Security and Human Trafficking Related Corruption

Authors: Ekin D. Horzum

Abstract:

The aim of the proposal is to examine the relationship between human trafficking related corruption and human security. The proposal suggests that the human trafficking related corruption is about willingness of the states to turn a blind eye to the human trafficking cases. Therefore, it is important to approach human trafficking related corruption in terms of human security and human rights violation to find an effective way to fight against human trafficking. In this context, the purpose of this proposal is to examine the human trafficking related corruption as a safe haven in which trafficking thrives for perpetrators.

Keywords: human trafficking, human security, human rights, corruption, organized crime

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6430 Determination of Parasitic Load in Different Tissues of Murine Toxoplasmosis after Immunization by Excretory-Secretory Antigens using Real Time QPCR

Authors: Ahmad Daryani, Yousef Dadimoghaddam, Mehdi Sharif, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Baghar Hashemi

Abstract:

Background: Excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs) of Toxoplasma gondii are one of the candidates for immunization against toxoplasmosis. For evaluation of immunization, we determined the kinetics of the distribution of Toxoplasma and parasite load in different tissues of mice immunized by ESAs. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 mice in case (n= 18) and control (n= 18) groups were immunized with ESAs and PBS, respectively. After 2 weeks, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Toxoplasma virulent RH strain. Blood and different tissues (brain, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and muscle) were collected daily after challenge (1, 2, 3 and last day before death). Parasite load was calculated using Real time QPCR targeted at the B1 gene. Results: ESAs as vaccine in different tissues showed various effects. However, infected mice which received the vaccine in comparison with control group, displayed a drastically decreasing in parasite burden, in their blood and tissues (P= 0.000). Conclusion: These results indicated that ESAs with reduction of parasite load in different tissues of host could be evaluable candidate for the development of immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis.

Keywords: parasitic load, murine toxoplasmosis, immunization, excretory-secretory antigens, real time QPCR

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6429 Nutraceuticals of Chemical Synthesis: Special Glycans as Prebiotics for the Holobiont

Authors: M. Menapace

Abstract:

Introduction: Herbal remedies express the idea of natural products used as pharmacotherapy or supplementation in case of need. Whether they are obtained directly by plants or synthesised chemically, prebiotics are considered nutraceuticals of natural origin, i.e., products made available for health reasons and self-medication. Methods: A literature review has been performed by screening manuscripts with prebiotics as herbal nutraceuticals (including chemically synthesized compounds, such as human milk oligosaccharides [HMO]) and evaluating the chemical structure of fibers in diverse food sources (principally herbals). Results: An examination of recent literature led to the fundamental concept of the holobiont as key in understanding the importance of prebiotics for the nonhost part of the metaorganism (microbiota) called a human being. This multispecies entity requires prebiotic fibers to avoid a state of disequilibrium (dysbiosis) that fosters diseases. Conclusions: Numerous human-derived glycans (special oligosaccharides that mimic in structure and function not only blood type antigens but also herbal fibers) have been identified as essential for the maintenance of the equilibrium (eubiosis) within the human holobiont in the modern age. These products are planned to be used not just as additions to baby milk formulas but as food supplements for the health of adults. In the context of alternative medicine, human-derived glycan-based supplements may represent the next step on the road to complete well-being.

Keywords: glycans, herbal remedy, prebiotics, food supplement

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6428 Study of a Cross-Flow Membrane to a Kidney Encapsulation Engineering Structures for Immunosuppression Filter

Authors: Sihyun Chae, Ryoto Arai, Waldo Concepcion, Paula Popescu

Abstract:

The kidneys perform an important role in the human hormones that regulate the blood pressure, produce an active form of vitamin D and control the production of red blood cells. Kidney disease can cause health problems, such as heart disease. Also, increase the chance of having a stroke or heart attack. There are mainly to types of treatments for kidney disease, dialysis, and kidney transplant. For a better quality of life, the kidney transplant is desirable. However, kidney transplant can cause antibody reaction and patients’ body would be attacked by immune system of their own. For solving that issue, patients with transplanted kidney always take immunosuppressive drugs which can hurt kidney as side effects. Patients willing to do a kidney transplant have a waiting time of 3.6 years in average searching to find an appropriate kidney, considering there are almost 96,380 patients waiting for kidney transplant. There is a promising method to solve these issues: bioartificial kidney. Our membrane is specially designed with unique perforations capable to filter the blood cells separating the white blood cells from red blood cells. White blood cells will not pass through the encapsulated kidney preventing the immune system to attack the new organ and eliminating the need of a matching donor. It is possible to construct life-time long encapsulation without needing pumps or a power supply on the cell’s separation method preventing futures surgeries due the Cross-Channel Flow inside the device. This technology allows the possibility to use an animal kidney, prevent cancer cells to spread through the body, arm and leg transplants in the future. This project aims to improve the quality of life of patients with kidney disease.

Keywords: kidney encapsulation, immunosuppression filter, leukocyte filter, leukocyte

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6427 Molecular Evolutionary Relationships Between O-Antigens of Enteric Bacteria

Authors: Yuriy A. Knirel

Abstract:

Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli is the predominant facultative anaerobe of the colonic flora, and some specific serotypes are associated with enteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigella spp. are human pathogens that cause diarrhea and bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). They are in effect E. coli with a specific mode of pathogenicity. Strains of Salmonella enterica are responsible for a food-borne infection (salmonellosis), and specific serotypes cause typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. All these bacteria are closely related in respect to structure and genetics of the lipopolysaccharide, including the O-polysaccharide part (O‑antigen). Being exposed to the bacterial cell surface, the O antigen is subject to intense selection by the host immune system and bacteriophages giving rise to diverse O‑antigen forms and providing the basis for typing of bacteria. The O-antigen forms of many bacteria are unique, but some are structurally and genetically related to others. The sequenced O-antigen gene clusters between conserved galF and gnd genes were analyzed taking into account the O-antigen structures established by us and others for all S. enterica and Shigella and most E. coli O-serogroups. Multiple genetic mechanisms of diversification of the O-antigen forms, such as lateral gene transfer and mutations, were elucidated and are summarized in the present paper. They include acquisition or inactivation of genes for sugar synthesis or transfer or recombination of O-antigen gene clusters or their parts. The data obtained contribute to our understanding of the origins of the O‑antigen diversity, shed light on molecular evolutionary relationships between the O-antigens of enteric bacteria, and open a way for studies of the role of gene polymorphism in pathogenicity.

Keywords: enteric bacteria, O-antigen gene cluster, polysaccharide biosynthesis, polysaccharide structure

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6426 Evaluation of the Diagnostic Potential of IL-2 as Biomarker for the Discrimination of Active and Latent Tuberculosis

Authors: Shima Mahmoudi, Setareh Mamishi, Babak Pourakbari, Majid Marjani

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In the last years, the potential role of distinct T-cell subsets as biomarkers of active tuberculosis TB and/or latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in whole blood stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigens in the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-G-IT) for the discrimination of active and latent tuberculosis. After 72-h of stimulation by antigens from the QFT-G-IT assay, IL-2 secretion was quantitated in supernatants by using ELISA (Mabtech AB, Sweden). Observing the level of IL-2 released after 72-h of incubation, we found that the level of IL-2 were significantly higher in LTBI group than in patients with active TB infection or control group (P value=0.019, Kruskal–Wallis test). The discrimination performance (assessed by the area under ROC curve) between LTBI and patients with active TB was 0.816 (95%CI: 0.72-0.97). Maximum discrimination was reached at a cut-off of 13.9 pg/mL for IL-2 following stimulation with 82% sensitivity and 86% specificity. In conclusion, although cytokine analysis has greatly contributed to the understanding of TB pathogenesis, data on cytokine profiles that might distinguish progression from latency of TB infection are scarce and even controversial. Our data indicate that the concomitant evaluation of IFN- γ and IL-2 could be instrumental in discriminating of active and latent TB infection.

Keywords: interleukin-2, discrimination, active TB, latent TB

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
6425 An Interaction between Human and Animal through the Death Experience

Authors: Mindaugas Kazlauskas

Abstract:

In this paper, it is presupposed that the description of the relationship between animal and human should begin with a description of the direct experience of the animal and how, in this experience, the human experiences itself (a self awareness mode). A human is concerned first and foremost with himself as a human through the experience of another as an animal. The questionsare: In the encounter with an animal, how is the animal constituted in the acts of human experience? How does human-animal interaction influence human behavioral patterns, and how does the human identifies itself in this interaction? The paper will present the results of interpretative phenomenological descriptions (IPA) of the relationship between human and animal in the face of death phenomenon through the experience of pet owners who lost their beloved companions and hunters, veterinatians, and farmers who face animal death. The results of IPA analysis reveal different relations such as the identification with an animal, the alienation experience, the experience of resistance, and an experience of detachment. Within these themes, IPA qualitative research results will be presented by highlighting patterns of human behavior, following Friedrich Schlachermacher's hermeneutics methodological principles, and reflecting on changes in value and attitude within society during daily interaction with the animal.

Keywords: animal human interaction, phenomenology, philosophy, death phenomenon

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6424 Human Rights Abuse in the Garment Factory in Bekasi Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

Abstract:

Although the Indonesian human rights protection has increased in recent years, but human rights violations still occur in the industrial sector. Crimes against human rights continue to occur and go unnoticed in spite of the government's legislation on human rights, employment law in addition to an international treaty that has been ratified by Indonesia. The increasing number of garment companies in Bekasi, also give rise to increased human rights violations since the government does not have a commitment to protect it. The Indonesian government and industry owners should pay attention to and protect the human rights of workers and treat them accordingly. This paper will review the human rights violations experienced by workers at garment factories in the context of the law, as well as ideas to improve the protection of workers' rights.

Keywords: human rights protection, human rights violations, workers’ rights, justice, security

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6423 Human Smuggling and Turkey

Authors: Perihan Hazel Kaya, Mustafa Göktuğ Kaya

Abstract:

Turkey has been a busy destination for immigration and it will always be as it is the geographical and cultural exit door of the East and the entrance door of the West. Among these immigrations, we can see the victims of human trafficking, human smuggling, refugees and those who came here to work and live. Human smuggling, which is one of the movements of illegal immigration, is the specific subject of this work. The fact that our country lies on the transportation destinations between the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa, the crime of human smuggling is highly committed in our country. The aim of the victims of human smuggling is to go to a more developed country to have higher standards of living, to get a better job and to escape from the economic and social instability of their countries. The human smuggling, which has gathered pace due to the improvements in communication and transportation, is not a regional issue and has become one of the most important problems for almost all countries. Accordingly, the reasons, methods and extent of human smuggling will be dealt firstly. Later, it will be studied why Turkey is preffered in human smuggling. Finally, statistical data will be given to show how much human smuggling has gone far in Turkey and the study will be finished with that what is being done and what can be done to prevent it.

Keywords: human smuggling, immigration, immigrator, human trafficking, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
6422 Using Lysosomal Immunogenic Cell Death to Target Breast Cancer via Xanthine Oxidase/Micro-Antibody Fusion Protein

Authors: Iulianna Taritsa, Kuldeep Neote, Eric Fossel

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Lysosome-induced immunogenic cell death (LIICD) is a powerful mechanism of targeting cancer cells that kills circulating malignant cells and primes the host’s immune cells against future remission. Current immunotherapies for cancer are limited in preventing recurrence – a gap that can be bridged by training the immune system to recognize cancer neoantigens. Lysosomal leakage can be induced therapeutically to traffic antigens from dying cells to dendritic cells, which can later present those tumorigenic antigens to T cells. Previous research has shown that oxidative agents administered in the tumor microenvironment can initiate LIICD. We generated a fusion protein between an oxidative agent known as xanthine oxidase (XO) and a mini-antibody specific for EGFR/HER2-sensitive breast tumor cells. The anti-EGFR single domain antibody fragment is uniquely sourced from llama, which is functional without the presence of a light chain. These llama micro-antibodies have been shown to be better able to penetrate tissues and have improved physicochemical stability as compared to traditional monoclonal antibodies. We demonstrate that the fusion protein created is stable and can induce early markers of immunogenic cell death in an in vitro human breast cancer cell line (SkBr3). Specifically, we measured overall cell death, as well as surface-expressed calreticulin, extracellular ATP release, and HMGB1 production. These markers are consensus indicators of ICD. Flow cytometry, luminescence assays, and ELISA were used respectively to quantify biomarker levels between treated versus untreated cells. We also included a positive control group of SkBr3 cells dosed with doxorubicin (a known inducer of LIICD) and a negative control dosed with cisplatin (a known inducer of cell death, but not of the immunogenic variety). We looked at each marker at various time points after cancer cells were treated with the XO/antibody fusion protein, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. Upregulated biomarkers after treatment with the fusion protein indicate an immunogenic response. We thus show the potential for this fusion protein to induce an anticancer effect paired with an adaptive immune response against EGFR/HER2+ cells. Our research in human cell lines here provides evidence for the success of the same therapeutic method for patients and serves as the gateway to developing a new treatment approach against breast cancer.

Keywords: apoptosis, breast cancer, immunogenic cell death, lysosome

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6421 Enhancing the Sensitivity of Antigen Based Sandwich ELISA for COVID-19 Diagnosis in Saliva Using Gold Conjugated Nanobodies

Authors: Manal Kamel, Sara Maher

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Development of sensitive non-invasive tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigens is imperative to manage the extent of infection throughout the population, yet, it is still challenging. Here, we designed and optimized a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen detection in saliva. Both saliva samples and nasopharyngeal swapswere collected from 170 PCR-confirmed positive and negative cases. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were conjugated with S1protein receptor binding domain (RBD) nanobodies. Recombinant S1 monoclonal antibodies (S1mAb) as primery antibody and gold conjugated nanobodies as secondary antibody were employed in sandwich ELISA. Our developed system were optimized to achieve 87.5 % sensitivity and 100% specificity for saliva samples compared to 89 % and 100% for nasopharyngeal swaps, respectively. This means that saliva could be a suitable replacement for nasopharyngeal swaps No cross reaction was detected with other corona virus antigens. These results revealed that our developed ELISAcould be establishedas a new, reliable, sensitive, and non-invasive test for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, using the easily collected saliva samples.

Keywords: COVID 19, diagnosis, ELISA, nanobodies

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6420 Preliminary Study of Human Reliability of Control in Case of Fire Based on the Decision Processes and Stress Model of Human in a Fire

Authors: Seung-Un Chae, Heung-Yul Kim, Sa-Kil Kim

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This paper presents the findings of preliminary study on human control performance in case of fire. The relationship between human control and human decision is studied in decision processes and stress model of human in a fire. Human behavior aspects involved in the decision process during a fire incident. The decision processes appear that six of individual perceptual processes: recognition, validation, definition, evaluation, commitment, and reassessment. Then, human may be stressed in order to get an optimal decision for their activity. This paper explores problems in human control processes and stresses in a catastrophic situation. Thus, the future approach will be concerned to reduce stresses and ambiguous irrelevant information.

Keywords: human reliability, decision processes, stress model, fire

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
6419 Human Security as a Tool of Protecting International Human Rights Law

Authors: Arenca Trashani

Abstract:

20 years after its first entrance in a General Assembly of the United Nation’s Resolution, human security has became a very important tool in a global debate affecting directly the whole main rules and regulations in international law and more closely in international human rights law. This paper will cover a very important issue of today at how the human security has its impact to the development of international human rights law, not as far as a challenge as it is seen up now but a tool of moving toward development and globalization. In order to analyze the impact of human security to the global agenda, we need to look to the main pillars of the international legal order which are affected by the human security in itself and its application in the policy making for this international legal order global and regional ones. This paper will focus, also, on human security, as a new and very important tool of measuring development, stability and the level of democratic consolidation and the respect for human rights especially in developing countries such as Albania. The states are no longer capable to monopolize the use of human security just within their boundaries and separated from the other principles of a functioning democracy. In this context, human security would be best guaranteed under the respect of the rule of law and democratization. During the last two decades the concept security has broadly developed, from a state-centric to a more human-centric approach: from state security to respect for human rights, to economic security, to environmental security as well. Last but not least we would see that human rights could be affected by human security not just at their promotion but also at their enforcement and mainly at the international institutions, which are entitled to promote and to protect human rights.

Keywords: human security, international human rights law, development, Albania, international law

Procedia PDF Downloads 524