Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24405

Search results for: formal concept analysis

24405 Finding Related Scientific Documents Using Formal Concept Analysis

Authors: Nadeem Akhtar, Hira Javed

Abstract:

An important aspect of research is literature survey. Availability of a large amount of literature across different domains triggers the need for optimized systems which provide relevant literature to researchers. We propose a search system based on keywords for text documents. This experimental approach provides a hierarchical structure to the document corpus. The documents are labelled with keywords using KEA (Keyword Extraction Algorithm) and are automatically organized in a lattice structure using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). This groups the semantically related documents together. The hierarchical structure, based on keywords gives out only those documents which precisely contain them. This approach open doors for multi-domain research. The documents across multiple domains which are indexed by similar keywords are grouped together. A hierarchical relationship between keywords is obtained. To signify the effectiveness of the approach, we have carried out the experiment and evaluation on Semeval-2010 Dataset. Results depict that the presented method is considerably successful in indexing of scientific papers.

Keywords: formal concept analysis, keyword extraction algorithm, scientific documents, lattice

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24404 A Holistic Workflow Modeling Method for Business Process Redesign

Authors: Heejung Lee

Abstract:

In a highly competitive environment, it becomes more important to shorten the whole business process while delivering or even enhancing the business value to the customers and suppliers. Although the workflow management systems receive much attention for its capacity to practically support the business process enactment, the effective workflow modeling method remain still challenging and the high degree of process complexity makes it more difficult to gain the short lead time. This paper presents a workflow structuring method in a holistic way that can reduce the process complexity using activity-needs and formal concept analysis, which eventually enhances the key performance such as quality, delivery, and cost in business process.

Keywords: workflow management, re-engineering, formal concept analysis, business process

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24403 The Effects of Three Leadership Styles on Individual Performance

Authors: Leilei Liang

Abstract:

Leadership is commonly classified as formal leadership and informal leadership, which ignores and neglects the effects of 3rd type leadership. The emergence of 3rd type of leadership is closely related to special relations. To figure out the mechanism and effects of 3rd type leadership as well as the impacts of formal leadership and informal leadership on employee performance, this study collects data from 350 participants through a survey and proposes three hypotheses respectively from the perspective of expectation theory. The analytical results provide strong evidence for two of the three hypotheses, which demonstrate the positive correlation between formal leadership and individual performance and the negative relationship between 3rd type leadership and individual performance. This study contributes to leadership literature by putting forward the concept of the 3rd type of leadership. In addition, the effects of formal leadership, informal leadership, and 3rd type leadership on individual performance are discussed respectively in this study.

Keywords: formal leadership, informal leadership, 3rd leadership, individual performance, expectation theory

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24402 Linguistic Analysis of the Concept ‘Relation’ in Russian and English Languages

Authors: Nadezhda Obvintceva

Abstract:

The article gives the analysis of the concept ‘relation’ from the point of view of its realization in Russian and English languages on the basis of dictionaries articles. The analysis reveals the main difference of representation of this concept in both languages. It is the number of lexemes that express its general meanings. At the end of the article the author gives an explanation of possible causes of the difference and touches upon the issue about analytical phenomena in the vocabulary.

Keywords: concept, comparison, lexeme, meaning, relation, semantics

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24401 Investigating Factors Influencing Online Formal and Informal Learning Satisfaction of College Students

Authors: Lei Zhang, Li Ji

Abstract:

Formal learning and informal learning represent two distinct learning styles: one is systematic and organized, another is causal and unstructured. Although there are many factors influencing online learning satisfaction, including self-regulation, self-efficacy, and interaction, factors influencing online formal learning and informal learning satisfaction may differ from each other. This paper investigated and compared influential factors of online formal and informal learning. Two questionnaires were created based on previous studies to explore factors influencing online formal learning and online informal learning satisfaction, respectively. A sample of 105 college students from different departments in a university located in the eastern part of China was selected to participate in this study. They all had an online learning experience and agreed to fill out questionnaires. Correlation analysis, variance analysis, and regression analysis were employed in this study. In addition, five participants were chosen for interviews. The study found that student-content, interaction, self-regulation, and self-efficacy related positively to both online formal learning and informal learning satisfaction. In addition, compared to online formal learning, student-content interaction in informal learning was the most influential factor for online learning satisfaction, perhaps that online informal learning was more goal-oriented and learners paid attention to the quality of content. In addition, results also revealed that interactions among students or teachers had little impact on online informal learning satisfaction. This study compared influential factors in online formal and informal learning satisfaction helped to add discussions to online learning satisfaction and contributed to further practices of online learning.

Keywords: learning satisfaction, formal learning, informal learning, online learning

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24400 Investigating Students' Understanding about Mathematical Concept through Concept Map

Authors: Rizky Oktaviana

Abstract:

The main purpose of studying lies in improving students’ understanding. Teachers usually use written test to measure students’ understanding about learning material especially mathematical learning material. This common method actually has a lack point, such that in mathematics content, written test only show procedural steps to solve mathematical problems. Therefore, teachers unable to see whether students actually understand about mathematical concepts and the relation between concepts or not. One of the best tools to observe students’ understanding about the mathematical concepts is concept map. The goal of this research is to describe junior high school students understanding about mathematical concepts through Concept Maps based on the difference of mathematical ability. There were three steps in this research; the first step was choosing the research subjects by giving mathematical ability test to students. The subjects of this research are three students with difference mathematical ability, high, intermediate and low mathematical ability. The second step was giving concept mapping training to the chosen subjects. The last step was giving concept mapping task about the function to the subjects. Nodes which are the representation of concepts of function were provided in concept mapping task. The subjects had to use the nodes in concept mapping. Based on data analysis, the result of this research shows that subject with high mathematical ability has formal understanding, due to that subject could see the connection between concepts of function and arranged the concepts become concept map with valid hierarchy. Subject with intermediate mathematical ability has relational understanding, because subject could arranged all the given concepts and gave appropriate label between concepts though it did not represent the connection specifically yet. Whereas subject with low mathematical ability has poor understanding about function, it can be seen from the concept map which is only used few of the given concepts because subject could not see the connection between concepts. All subjects have instrumental understanding for the relation between linear function concept, quadratic function concept and domain, co domain, range.

Keywords: concept map, concept mapping, mathematical concepts, understanding

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24399 Failure Analysis and Verification Using an Integrated Method for Automotive Electric/Electronic Systems

Authors: Lei Chen, Jian Jiao, Tingdi Zhao

Abstract:

Failures of automotive electric/electronic systems, which are universally considered to be safety-critical and software-intensive, may cause catastrophic accidents. Analysis and verification of failures in these kinds of systems is a big challenge with increasing system complexity. Model-checking is often employed to allow formal verification by ensuring that the system model conforms to specified safety properties. The system-level effects of failures are established, and the effects on system behavior are observed through the formal verification. A hazard analysis technique, called Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis, is capable of identifying design flaws which may cause potential failure hazardous, including software and system design errors and unsafe interactions among multiple system components. This paper provides a concept on how to use model-checking integrated with Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis to perform failure analysis and verification of automotive electric/electronic systems. As a result, safety requirements are optimized, and failure propagation paths are found. Finally, an automotive electric/electronic system case study is used to verify the effectiveness and practicability of the method.

Keywords: failure analysis and verification, model checking, system-theoretic process analysis, automotive electric/electronic system

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24398 Physical Activity and Academic Achievement: How Physical Activity Should Be Implemented to Enhance Mathematical Achievement and Mathematical Self-Concept

Authors: Laura C. Dapp, Claudia M. Roebers

Abstract:

Being physically active has many benefits for children and adolescents. It is crucial for various aspects of physical and mental health, the development of a healthy self-concept, and also positively influences academic performance and school achievement. In addressing the still incomplete understanding of the link between physical activity (PA) and academic achievement, the current study scrutinized the open issue of how PA has to be implemented to positively affect mathematical outcomes in N = 138 fourth graders. Therefore, the current study distinguished between structured PA (formal, organized, adult-led exercise and deliberate sports practice) and unstructured PA (non-formal, playful, peer-led physically active play and sports activities). Results indicated that especially structured PA has the potential to contribute to mathematical outcomes. Although children spent almost twice as much time engaging in unstructured PA as compared to structured PA, only structured PA was significantly related to mathematical achievement as well as to mathematical self-concept. Furthermore, the pending issue concerning the quantity of PA needed to enhance children’s mathematical achievement was addressed. As to that, results indicated that the amount of time spent in structured PA constitutes a critical factor in accounting for mathematical outcomes, since children engaging in PA for two hours or more a week were shown to be both the ones with the highest mathematical self-concept as well as those attaining the highest mathematical achievement scores. Finally, the present study investigated the indirect effect of PA on mathematical achievement by controlling for the mathematical self-concept as a mediating variable. The results of a maximum likelihood mediation analysis with a 2’000 resampling bootstrapping procedure for the 95% confidence intervals revealed a full mediation, indicating that PA improves mathematical self-concept, which, in turn, positively affects mathematical achievement. Thus, engaging in high amounts of structured PA constitutes an advantageous leisure activity for children and adolescents, not only to enhance their physical health but also to foster their self-concept in a way that is favorable and encouraging for promoting their academic achievement. Note: The content of this abstract is partially based on a paper published elswhere by the authors.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Mathematical Performance, Physical Activity, Self-Concept

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24397 The Interrelationship between Formal and Informal Institutions and Its Impacts on the Autonomy of Public Service Delivery Units: The Case of Vietnam

Authors: Minh Thi Hai Vo

Abstract:

This article draws on in-depth interviews with state employees at public hospitals and universities in its institutional analysis of the autonomy practices of public service delivery units in Vietnam. Unlike many empirical and theoretical studies that view formal and informal institutions as complements or substitutes, this article finds no evidence of complementary or substitutive relationships. Instead, the article finds that formal institutions accommodate informal ones and that informal institutions tend to compete and interfere, with the existing and ineffective formal institutions. The result of such conflicting relationship is that the actual autonomy of public service delivery units is, in most cases, perceived to be greater than the formal autonomy they are given. In the condition of poor regulation, the informal autonomy may result in unethical practices including rent-seeking and corruption. The implication of the study finding is policy-makers need to redesign and reorganize the autonomisation of public service delivery units to make informal institutions support and reinforce formal ones in a complementary manner.

Keywords: autonomy, formal institutions, informal institutions, public service delivery units, Vietnam

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24396 Self-Education, Recognition and Well-Being Insights into Qualitative-Reconstructive Educational Research on the Value of Non-formal Education in the Adolescence

Authors: Sandra Biewers Grimm

Abstract:

International studies such as Pisa have shown an increasing social inequality in the education system, which is determined in particular by social origin and migration status. This is especially the case in the Luxembourg school system, which creates challenges for many young people due to the multilingualism in the country. While the international and also the national debate on education in the immediate aftermath of the publications of the Pisa results mainly focused on the further development of school-based learning venues and formal educational processes, it initially remained largely unclear what role exactly out-of-school learning venues and non-formal and informal learning processes could play in this further development. This has changed in the meantime. Both in the political discourses and in the scientific disciplines, those voices have become louder that draw attention to the important educational function and the enormous educational potential of out-of-school learning places as a response to the crisis of the formal education system and more than this. Youth work as an actor and approach of non-formal education is particularly in demand here. Due to its principles of self-education, participation and openness, it is considered to have a special potential in supporting the acquisition of important key competencies. In this context, the study "Educational experiences in non-formal settings" at CCY takes a differentiated look behind the scenes of education-oriented youth work and describes on the basis of empirical data what and how young people learn in youth centers and which significance they attach to these educational experiences for their subjective life situation. In this sense, the aim of the study is to reconstruct the subjective educational experiences of young people in Open Youth Work as well as to explore the value that these experiences have for young people. In doing so, it enables scientifically founded conclusions about the educational potential of youth work from the user's perspective. Initially, the study focuses on defining the concept of education in the context of non-formal education and thus sets a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis. This socio-educational term of education differs from the relevant conception of education in curricular, formal education as the acquisition of knowledge. It also differs from the operationalization of education as competence, or the differentiation into cultural, social and personal or into factual, social or methodological competence, which is often used in the European context and which has long been interpreted as a "social science reading of the question of education" (XX). Now the aim is to define a "broader" concept of education that goes beyond the normative and educational policy dimensions of a "non-formal education" and includes the classical socio-educational dimensions. Furthermore, the study works with different methods of empirical social research: In addition to ethnographic observation and an online survey, group discussions were conducted with the young people. The presentation gives an insight into the context, the methodology and the results of this study.

Keywords: non-formal education, youth research, qualitative research, educational theory

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24395 Lexico-Semantic and Contextual Analysis of the Concept of Joy in Modern English Fiction

Authors: Zarine Avetisyan

Abstract:

Concepts are part and parcel of everyday text and talk. Their ubiquity predetermines the topicality of the given research which aims at the semantic decomposition of concepts in general and the concept of joy in particular, as well as the study of lexico-semantic variants as means of realization of a certain concept in different “semantic settings”, namely in a certain context. To achieve the stated aim, the given research departs from the methods of componential and contextual analysis, studying lexico-semantic variants /LSVs/ of the concept of joy and the semantic signs embedded in those LSVs, such as the semantic sign of intensity, supporting emotions, etc. in the context of Modern English fiction.

Keywords: concept, context, lexico-semantic variant, semantic sign

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24394 Adult and Non Formal Education for the Attainment of Enterprenuerial Skills in Nigeria

Authors: Zulaiha Maluma Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper attempted to examine adult and non formal education for the attainment of entrepreneurial skills in empowering the citizens with entrepreneurial skills, for Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. This paper highlighted the meaning of education in the context of skill acquisition, entrepreneurial education, adult and non formal education. It also examined the objectives, issues and challenges as well as prospects of this type of education. It further discussed the role of adult and non formal education for the attainment of socioeconomic development of a growing nation like Nigeria. The paper equally proffered some recommendations and eventually concluded that adult and non formal education can indeed make self reliance, personal satisfaction and the attainment of entrepreneurial education for the socioeconomic development of any nation, possible.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, adult education, non formal education skills, Nigeria

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24393 Cloud-Based Dynamic Routing with Feedback in Formal Methods

Authors: Jawid Ahmad Baktash, Mursal Dawodi, Tomokazu Nagata

Abstract:

With the rapid growth of Cloud Computing, Formal Methods became a good choice for the refinement of message specification and verification for Dynamic Routing in Cloud Computing. Cloud-based Dynamic Routing is becoming increasingly popular. We propose feedback in Formal Methods for Dynamic Routing and Cloud Computing; the model and topologies show how to send messages from index zero to all others formally. The responsibility of proper verification becomes crucial with Dynamic Routing in the cloud. Formal Methods can play an essential role in the routing and development of Networks, and the testing of distributed systems. Event-B is a formal technique that consists of describing the problem rigorously and introduces solutions or details in the refinement steps. Event-B is a variant of B, designed for developing distributed systems and message passing of the dynamic routing. In Event-B and formal methods, the events consist of guarded actions occurring spontaneously rather than being invoked.

Keywords: cloud, dynamic routing, formal method, Pro-B, event-B

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24392 Formal Verification for Ethereum Smart Contract Using Coq

Authors: Xia Yang, Zheng Yang, Haiyong Sun, Yan Fang, Jingyu Liu, Jia Song

Abstract:

The smart contract in Ethereum is a unique program deployed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) to help manage cryptocurrency. The security of this smart contract is critical to Ethereum’s operation and highly sensitive. In this paper, we present a formal model for smart contract, using the separated term-obligation (STO) strategy to formalize and verify the smart contract. We use the IBM smart sponsor contract (SSC) as an example to elaborate the detail of the formalizing process. We also propose a formal smart sponsor contract model (FSSCM) and verify SSC’s security properties with an interactive theorem prover Coq. We found the 'Unchecked-Send' vulnerability in the SSC, using our formal model and verification method. Finally, we demonstrate how we can formalize and verify other smart contracts with this approach, and our work indicates that this formal verification can effectively verify the correctness and security of smart contracts.

Keywords: smart contract, formal verification, Ethereum, Coq

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24391 Concept Analysis of Professionalism in Teachers and Faculty Members

Authors: Taiebe Shokri, Shahram Yazdani, Leila Afshar, Soleiman Ahmadi

Abstract:

Introduction: The importance of professionalism in higher education not only determines the appropriate and inappropriate behaviors and guides faculty members in the implementation of professional responsibilities, but also guarantees faculty members' adherence to professional principles and values, ensures the quality of teaching and facilitator will be the teaching-learning process in universities and will increase the commitment to meet the needs of students as well as the development of an ethical culture based on ethics. Therefore, considering the important role of medical education teachers to prepare teachers and students in the future, the need to determine the concept of professional teacher and teacher, and the characteristics of teacher professionalism, we have explained the concept of professionalism in teachers in this study. Methods: The concept analysis method used in this study was Walker and Avant method which has eight steps. Walker and Avant state the purpose of concept analysis as follows: The process of distinguishing between the defining features of a concept and its unrelated features. The process of concept analysis includes selecting a concept, determining the purpose of the analysis, identifying the uses of the concept, determining the defining features of the concept, identifying a model, identifying boundary and adversarial items, identifying the precedents and consequences of the concept, and defining empirical references. is. Results: Professionalism in its general sense, requires deep knowledge, insight, creating a healthy and safe environment, honesty and trust, impartiality, commitment to the profession and continuous improvement, punctuality, criticism, professional competence, responsibility, and Individual accountability, especially in social interactions, is an effort for continuous improvement, the acquisition of these characteristics is not easily possible and requires education, especially continuous learning. Professionalism is a set of values, behaviors, and relationships that underpin public trust in teachers.

Keywords: concept analysis, medical education, professionalism, faculty members

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24390 Formal Thai National Costume in the Reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej

Authors: Chanoknart Mayusoh

Abstract:

The research about Formal Thai National Costume in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej is an applied research that aimed to study the accurate knowledge concerning to Thai national costume in the reign of King Rama IX, also to study origin of all costumes in the reign of King Rama IX and to study the style, material used, and using accasion. This research methodology which are collect quanlitative data through observation, document, and photograph from key informant of costume in the reign of King Rama IX and from another who related to this field. The formal Thai national costume of the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej originated from the visit of His Majesty the King to Europe and America in 1960. Since Thailand had no traditional national costume; Her Majesty the Queen initiated the idea to create formal Thai national costumes. In 1964, Her Majesty the Queen selected 8 styles of formal Thai national costume. Later, Her Majesty the Queen confered another 3 formal Thai national costume for men. There are 8 styles of formal Thai national costume for women: Thai Ruean Ton, Thai Chit Lada, Thai Amarin, Thai Borom Phiman, Thai Siwalia, Thai Chakkri, Thai Dusit, and Thai Chakkraphat. There are 3 styles of formal Thai national costume for men: short-sleeve shirt, long-sleeve shirt, and long-sleeve shirt with breechcloth. The costume is widely used in formal ceremony such as greeting ceremony for official foreign visitors, wedding ceremony, or other auspicious ceremonies. Now a day, they are always used as a bridal gown as well. The formal Thai national costume is valuable art that shows Thai identity and, should be preserved for the next generation.

Keywords: formal Thai national costume for women, formal Thai national costume for men, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great King Rama IX, Her Majesty Queen Sirikit Queen

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24389 Structural Analysis of an Active Morphing Wing for Enhancing UAV Performance

Authors: E. Kaygan, A. Gatto

Abstract:

A numerical study of a design concept for actively controlling wing twist is described in this paper. The concept consists of morphing elements which were designed to provide a rigid and seamless skin while maintaining structural rigidity. The wing structure is first modeled in CATIA V5 then imported into ANSYS for structural analysis. Athena Vortex Lattice method (AVL) is used to estimate aerodynamic response as well as aerodynamic loads of morphing wings, afterwards a structural optimization performed via ANSYS Static. Overall, the results presented in this paper show that the concept provides efficient wing twist while preserving an aerodynamically smooth and compliant surface. Sufficient structural rigidity in bending is also obtained. This concept is suggested as a possible alternative for morphing skin applications. 

Keywords: aircraft, morphing, skin, twist

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24388 A Refinement Strategy Coupling Event-B and Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) for Planning Problems

Authors: Sabrine Ammar, Mohamed Tahar Bhiri

Abstract:

Automatic planning has a de facto standard language called Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) for describing planning problems. It aims to formalize the planning problems described by the concept of state space. PDDL-related dynamic analysis tools, namely planners and validators, are insufficient for verifying and validating PDDL descriptions. Indeed, these tools made it possible to detect errors a posteriori by means of test activity. In this paper, we recommend a formal approach coupling the two languages Event-B and PDDL, for automatic planning. Event-B is used for formal modeling by stepwise refinement with mathematical proofs of planning problems. Thus, this paper proposes a refinement strategy allowing to obtain reliable PDDL descriptions from an ultimate Event-B model correct by construction. The ultimate Event-B model, correct by construction which is supposed to be translatable into PDDL, is automatically translated into PDDL using our MDE Event-B2PDDL tool.

Keywords: code generation, event-b, PDDL, refinement strategy, translation rules

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24387 Exploring the Difficulties of Acceleration Concept from the Perspective of Historical Textual Analysis

Authors: Yun-Ju Chiu, Feng-Yi Chen

Abstract:

Kinematics is the beginning to learn mechanics in physics course. The concept of acceleration plays an important role in learning kinematics. Teachers usually instruct the conception through the formulas and graphs of kinematics and the well-known law F = ma. However, over the past few decades, a lot of researchers reveal numerous students’ difficulties in learning acceleration. One of these difficulties is that students frequently confuse acceleration with velocity and force. Why is the concept of acceleration so difficult to learn? The aim of this study is to understand the conceptual evolution of acceleration through the historical textual analysis. Text analysis and one-to-one interviews with high school students and teachers are used in this study. This study finds the history of science constructed from textbooks is usually quite different from the real evolution of history. For example, most teachers and students believe that the best-known law F = ma was written down by Newton. The expression of the second law is not F = ma in Newton’s best-known book Principia in 1687. Even after more than one hundred years, a famous Cambridge textbook titled An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics by Whewell of Trinity College did not express this law as F = ma. At that time of Whewell, the early mid-nineteenth century Britain, the concept of acceleration was not only ambiguous but also confused with the concept of force. The process of learning the concept of acceleration is analogous to its conceptual development in history. The study from the perspective of historical textual analysis will promote the understanding of the concept learning difficulties, the development of professional physics teaching, and the improvement of the context of physics textbooks.

Keywords: acceleration, textbooks, mechanics, misconception, history of science

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24386 Challenges in Adopting 3R Concept in the Heritage Building Restoration

Authors: H. H. Goh, K. C. Goh, T. W. Seow, N. S. Said, S. E. P. Ang

Abstract:

Malaysia is rich with historic buildings, particularly in Penang and Malacca states. Restoration activities are increasingly important as these states are recognized under UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Restoration activities help to maintain the uniqueness and value of a heritage building. However, increasing in restoration activities has resulted in large quantities of waste. To cope with this problem, the 3R concept (reduce, reuse and recycle) is introduced. The 3R concept is one of the waste management hierarchies. This concept is still yet to apply in the building restoration industry compared to the construction industry. Therefore, this study aims to promote the 3R concept in the heritage building restoration industry. This study aims to examine the importance of 3R concept and to identify challenges in applying the 3R concept in the heritage building restoration industry. This study focused on contractors and consultants who are involved in heritage restoration projects in Penang. Literature review and interviews helps to reach the research objective. Data that obtained is analyzed by using content analysis. For the research, application of 3R concept is important to conserve natural resources and reduce pollution problems. However, limited space to organise waste is the obstruction during the implementation of this concept. In conclusion, the 3R concept plays an important role in promoting environmental conservation and helping in reducing the construction waste

Keywords: 3R Concept, heritage building, restoration activities, building science

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24385 Transcending or Going beyond the Concept of Race

Authors: Ovett Nwosimiri

Abstract:

Historically the concept of race has played a significant part in the existence of African philosophy. Race, as part of the historical events, has been used as a reason for colonization. In recent years, there has been a numerous work on the concept of race. Some philosophers have devoted their time to the discourse of race and to understand the ascription of the race. These philosophers have dedicated their time and energy to the concept of race. Philosophers, like Joshua Glasgow, W. E. B. Du Bois, Lucius Outlaw, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Naomi Zack, Emmanuel C. Eze and many others took up the task to explain the concept of race, and also to explain in their view whether the concept of race should be conserved or eliminated. According to the eliminativists, the concept of race should be eliminated. According to the conservationists, the concept of race should be conserved. The aim of this paper is to look at the possibility of transcending the concept of race. In order to do this, the paper will briefly explain Joshua Glasgow’ idea theory of ‘racial reconstructionism’, and it will propose a theory of ‘racial transcendentalism’ as a way of transcending the concept of race. The paper will argue that we should see the concept of race as a concept that has a future beyond the mere meaning and ideas that call for its elimination or conservation.

Keywords: conservationists, eliminativists, race, transcending

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24384 The Coexistence of Quality Practices and Frozen Concept in R and D Projects

Authors: Ayala Kobo-Greenhut, Amos Notea, Izhar Ben-Shlomo

Abstract:

In R&D projects, there is no doubt about the need to change a current concept to an alternative one over time (i.e., concept leaping). Concept leaping is required since with most R&D projects uncertainty is present as they take place in dynamic environments. Despite the importance of concept leaping when needed, R&D teams may fail to do so (i.e., frozen concept). This research suggests a possible reason why frozen concept happens in the framework of quality engineering and control engineering. We suggest that frozen concept occurs since concept determines the derived plan and its implementation may be considered as equivalent to a closed-loop process, and is subject to the problem of not recognizing gaps as failures. We suggest that although implementing quality practices into an R&D project’s routine has many advantages, it intensifies the frozen concept problem since working according to quality practices relates to exploitation of learning behavior, while leaping to a new concept relates to exploring learning behavior.

Keywords: closed loop, control engineering, design, leaping, frozen concept, quality engineering, quality practices

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24383 The Relationship between Self Concept Clarity and Need for Absolute Truth and Problem Solving and Symptoms of Stress in Homosexual Male

Authors: Gizem Akcan, Erdinc Ozturk

Abstract:

When it is examined as historically, it has caught attention that homosexual people try to behave as heterosexual or come out to have a place in community. Homosexual people have identity confusion during identity development, they have high levels of need for absolute truth and their psychological well being is affected negatively because of high levels of need for absolute truth and they have problems about self concept clarity. People who have problems about self concept clarity have problems on problem solving and show lots of symptoms of stress. People who have clear self concept use healthier coping strategies to solve problems. The purpose of this study is to show whether need for absolute truth predicts problem solving and symptoms of stress via mediator effect of self concept clarity or not on homosexual men. The participants of this study were 200 homosexual men. The ages of participants were 20-50. In addition, Demographic Information Form, Self Concept Clarity Scale, Need for Absolute Truth Scale, Stres Self-Assessment Checklist and Problem Solving Inventory were applied to the participants. The assessment of the data was made with confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling analysis. According to the results of this study, need for absolute truth predicts problem solving and symptoms of stress via mediator effect of self concept clarity on homosexual men.

Keywords: need for absolute truth, self concept clarity, symptoms of stress, problem solving

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24382 The Effects of SMS on the Formal Writings of the Students: A Comparative Study among the Students of Different Departments of IUB

Authors: Sumaira Saleem

Abstract:

This study reveals that the use of SMS effect the formal writing of the students. SMS is in vogue sine the last decade but its detrimental effects are effecting not only to the set norms but also deviant forms of expressions have come into the community to which all are not acquainted and it creates a hurdle in effective communication. It also determines the reasons behind the usage of SMS practices in the formal writings like in assignments and examinations. For this study a questionnaire was designed for faculty and students the data was collected from The Islamia University Bahawalpur and the formal work of the students was also collected to check the manifestation of SMS practices in writings. Data was analysed on excel sheet and the tables and graphs are used to explain the ratios and percentages of SMS usage. The results show that the usage of SMS has very strong effect upon the students writing.

Keywords: technology, writing, effects, SMS

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24381 Why and When to Teach Definitions: Necessary and Unnecessary Discontinuities Resulting from the Definition of Mathematical Concepts

Authors: Josephine Shamash, Stuart Smith

Abstract:

We examine reasons for introducing definitions in teaching mathematics in a number of different cases. We try to determine if, where, and when to provide a definition, and which definition to choose. We characterize different types of definitions and the different purposes we may have for formulating them, and detail examples of each type. Giving a definition at a certain stage can sometimes be detrimental to the development of the concept image. In such a case, it is advisable to delay the precise definition to a later stage. We describe two models, the 'successive approximation model', and the 'model of the extending definition' that fit such situations. Detailed examples that fit the different models are given based on material taken from a number of textbooks, and analysis of the way the concept is introduced, and where and how its definition is given. Our conclusions, based on this analysis, is that some of the definitions given may cause discontinuities in the learning sequence and constitute obstacles and unnecessary cognitive conflicts in the formation of the concept definition. However, in other cases, the discontinuity in passing from definition to definition actually serves a didactic purpose, is unavoidable for the mathematical evolution of the concept image, and is essential for students to deepen their understanding.

Keywords: concept image, mathematical definitions, mathematics education, mathematics teaching

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24380 Survey to Assess the Feasibility of Executing the Web-Based Collaboration Process Using WBCS

Authors: Mohamed A. Sullabi

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The importance of the formal specification in the software life cycle is barely concealing to anyone. Formal specifications use mathematical notation to describe the properties of information system precisely, without unduly constraining the way in how these properties are achieved. Having a correct and quality software specification is not easy task. This study concerns with how a group of rectifiers can communicate with each other and work to prepare and produce a correct formal software specification. WBCS has been implemented based mainly in the proposed supported cooperative work model and a survey conducted on the existing Webbased collaborative writing tools. This paper aims to assess the feasibility of executing the web-based collaboration process using WBCS. The purpose of conducting this test is to test the system as a whole for functionality and fitness for use based on the evaluation test plan.

Keywords: formal methods, formal specifications, collaborative writing, usability testing

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24379 Validation of the Formal Model of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Service of Library Information System

Authors: Zainab Magaji Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily Aida Jusoh

Abstract:

The web services applications for digital reference service (WSDRS) of LIS model is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ needs in the reference section of libraries. The formal WSDRS model consists of the Z specifications of all the informal specifications of the model. This paper discusses the formal validation of the Z specifications of WSDRS model. The authors formally verify and thus validate the properties of the model using Z/EVES theorem prover.

Keywords: validation, verification, formal, theorem prover

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24378 Contributions of Non-Formal Educational Spaces for the Scientific Literacy of Deaf Students

Authors: Rafael Dias Silva

Abstract:

The school is a social institution that should promote learning situations that remain throughout life. Based on this, the teaching activities promoted in museum spaces can represent an educational strategy that contributes to the learning process in a more meaningful way. This article systematizes a series of elements that guide the use of these spaces for the scientific literacy of deaf students and as experiences of this nature are favorable for the school development through the concept of the circularity. The methodology for the didactic use of these spaces of non-formal education is one of the reflections developed in this study and how such environments can contribute to the learning in the classroom. To develop in the student the idea of ​​association making him create connections with the curricular proposal and notice how the proposed activity is articulated. It is in our interest that the experience lived in the museum be shared collaborating for the construction of a scientific literacy and cultural identity through the research.

Keywords: accessibility in museums, Brazilian sign language, deaf students, teacher training

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
24377 The Interrelations between Niemeyer’s Works and the Concept of Typology: A Computer Based Analysis of Form and Structure

Authors: Aline M. C. Santoro, João C. Pantoja, Eduardo P. Rossetti

Abstract:

While the aim of the modernist movement was to deny known typology, the creation of a new formal language also gave it new meaning, which was now related to Form. This is specifically true in the modern capital of Brazil, where Niemeyer sought to demonstrate the manner in which the new materials available, such as reinforced concrete, were able to produce innovative forms. With this study, we aim to demonstrate the relationship between Niemeyer’s forms and the topological typology known as tessellation, through the presentation of two case studies, the Monument to Caxias and the Saint George Orthodox Church. At a first glance, our purpose is to present the definition of Form, especially with relationship to the works of Niemeyer, seeking to identify in them the concepts presented by Moussavi. Afterwards, we will use a computer-based approach to study and model the forms of two of his buildings with the McNeel Rhinoceros program, where, with the aid of diagrams and renderings, we will be able to clearly and legibly represent their organic forms and further understand their structural systems. When we recognise the concept of typology as a starting point for structural form, it can be concluded that the case studies presented here are encompassed by the typology presented by Moussavi since they derive from his basic structural systems.

Keywords: form, Niemeyer, structure, typology, topology

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24376 Formal Verification of Cache System Using a Novel Cache Memory Model

Authors: Guowei Hou, Lixin Yu, Wei Zhuang, Hui Qin, Xue Yang

Abstract:

Formal verification is proposed to ensure the correctness of the design and make functional verification more efficient. As cache plays a vital role in the design of System on Chip (SoC), and cache with Memory Management Unit (MMU) and cache memory unit makes the state space too large for simulation to verify, then a formal verification is presented for such system design. In the paper, a formal model checking verification flow is suggested and a new cache memory model which is called “exhaustive search model” is proposed. Instead of using large size ram to denote the whole cache memory, exhaustive search model employs just two cache blocks. For cache system contains data cache (Dcache) and instruction cache (Icache), Dcache memory model and Icache memory model are established separately using the same mechanism. At last, the novel model is employed to the verification of a cache which is module of a custom-built SoC system that has been applied in practical, and the result shows that the cache system is verified correctly using the exhaustive search model, and it makes the verification much more manageable and flexible.

Keywords: cache system, formal verification, novel model, system on chip (SoC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 416