Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5763

Search results for: formal learning

5763 Investigating Factors Influencing Online Formal and Informal Learning Satisfaction of College Students

Authors: Lei Zhang, Li Ji

Abstract:

Formal learning and informal learning represent two distinct learning styles: one is systematic and organized, another is causal and unstructured. Although there are many factors influencing online learning satisfaction, including self-regulation, self-efficacy, and interaction, factors influencing online formal learning and informal learning satisfaction may differ from each other. This paper investigated and compared influential factors of online formal and informal learning. Two questionnaires were created based on previous studies to explore factors influencing online formal learning and online informal learning satisfaction, respectively. A sample of 105 college students from different departments in a university located in the eastern part of China was selected to participate in this study. They all had an online learning experience and agreed to fill out questionnaires. Correlation analysis, variance analysis, and regression analysis were employed in this study. In addition, five participants were chosen for interviews. The study found that student-content, interaction, self-regulation, and self-efficacy related positively to both online formal learning and informal learning satisfaction. In addition, compared to online formal learning, student-content interaction in informal learning was the most influential factor for online learning satisfaction, perhaps that online informal learning was more goal-oriented and learners paid attention to the quality of content. In addition, results also revealed that interactions among students or teachers had little impact on online informal learning satisfaction. This study compared influential factors in online formal and informal learning satisfaction helped to add discussions to online learning satisfaction and contributed to further practices of online learning.

Keywords: learning satisfaction, formal learning, informal learning, online learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
5762 A Theoretical Framework for Design Theories in Mobile Learning: A Higher Education Perspective

Authors: Paduri Veerabhadram, Antoinette Lombard

Abstract:

In this paper a framework for hypothesizing about mobile learning to complement theories of formal and informal learning is presented. As such, activity theory will form the main theoretical lens through which the elements involved in formal and informal learning for mobile learning will be explored, specifically related to context-aware mobile learning application. The author believes that the complexity of the relationships involved can best be analysed using activity theory. Activity theory, as a social, cultural and activity theory can be used as a mobile learning framework in an academic environment, but to develop an optimal artifact, through investigation of inherent system's contradictions. As such, it serves as a powerful modelling tool to explore and understand the design of a mobile learning environment in the study’s environment. The Academic Tool Kit Framework (ATKF) as also employed for designing of a constructivism learning environment, effective in assisting universities to facilitate lecturers to effectively implement learning through utilizing mobile devices. Results indicate a positive perspective of students in the use of mobile devices for formal and informal learning, based on the context-aware learning environment developed through the use of activity theory and ATKF.

Keywords: collaborative learning, cooperative learning, context-aware learning environment, mobile learning, pedagogy

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5761 A Framework on the Critical Success Factors of E-Learning Implementation in Higher Education: A Review of the Literature

Authors: Sujit K. Basak, Marguerite Wotto, Paul Bélanger

Abstract:

This paper presents a conceptual framework on the critical success factors of e-learning implementation in higher education, derived from an in-depth survey of literature review. The aim of this study was achieved by identifying critical success factors that affect for the successful implementation of e-learning. The findings help to articulate issues that are related to e-learning implementation in both formal and non-formal higher education and in this way contribute to the development of programs designed to address the relevant issues.

Keywords: critical success factors, e-learning, higher education, life-long learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
5760 Lifelong Learning and Digital Literacies in Language Learning

Authors: Selma Karabinar

Abstract:

Lifelong learning can be described as a system where learning takes place for a person over the course of a lifespan and comprises formal, non-formal and informal learning to achieve the maximum possible improvement in personal, social, and vocational life. 21st century is marked with the digital technologies and people need to learn and adapt to new literacies as part of their lifelong learning. Our current knowledge gap brings to mind several questions: Do people with digital mindsets have different assumptions about affordances of digital technologies? How do digital mindsets lead language learners use digital technologies within and beyond classrooms? Does digital literacies have different significance for the learners? The presentation is based on a study attempted to answer these questions and show the relationship between lifelong learning and digital literacies. The study was conducted with learners of English language at a state university in Istanbul. The quantitative data in terms of participants' lifelong learning perception was collected through a lifelong learning scale from 150 students. Then 5 students with high and 5 with low lifelong learning perception were interviewed. They were questioned about their personal sense of agency in lifelong learning and how they use digital technologies in their language learning. Therefore, the qualitative data was analyzed in terms of their knowledge about digital literacies and actual use of it in their personal and educational life. The results of the study suggest why teaching new literacies are important for lifelong learning and also suggests implications for language teachers' education and language pedagogy.

Keywords: digital mindsets, language learning, lifelong learning, new literacies

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5759 Instruction and Learning Design Consideration for the Development of Mobile Learning Application

Authors: M. Sarrab, M. Elbasir

Abstract:

Most of mobile learning applications currently available are developed for the formal education and learning environment. Those applications are characterized by the improvement of the interaction process between instructors and learners to provide more collaboration and flexibility in the learning process. Despite the long history and large amount of research on Instruction design model and mobile learning there is no complete and well defined set of steps to follow in designing mobile learning applications. Based on this scenario, this paper focuses on identifying instruction design phases considerations and influencing factors in developing mobile learning application. This set of instruction design steps includes analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation and continuous has been built from a literature study with focus on standards for learning and mobile application software quality and guidelines. The effort is part of an Omani-funded research project investigating the development, adoption and dissemination of mobile learning in Oman.

Keywords: instruction design, mobile learning, mobile application

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
5758 The Wider Benefits of Negotiations: Austrian Perspective on Educational Leadership as a ‘Power Game’ for Trade Unions

Authors: Rudolf Egger

Abstract:

This paper explores the relationships between the basic learning processes of leading trade union workers and their methods for coping with the changes in the life-courses of societies today. It will discuss the fragile discourse on lifelong learning in trade unions and the “production of self-techniques” to get in touch with the new economic forms. On the basis of an empirical project, different processes of the socialization of leading trade union workers will be analysed to discover the consequences of the lifelong learning discourse. The results show what competences they need to develop for the “wider benefits of negotiations”. The main challenge remains to make visible how deeply intertwined trade union learning and education are with development in an ongoing dynamic economic process, rather than a quick-fix injection of skills and information. There is a complex relationship existing between the three ‘partners’, work, learning and society forming. The author suggests that contemporary trade unions could be trendsetters who make their own learning agendas by drawing less on formal education and more on informal and non-formal learning contexts. This is in parallel with growing political and scientific consciousness of the need to arrive at new educational/vocational policies and practices.

Keywords: trade union workers, educational leadership, learning societies, social acting

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
5757 Promoting Non-Formal Learning Mobility in the Field of Youth

Authors: Juha Kettunen

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for the assessment of research and development projects. The assessment map is developed in this study based on the strategy map of the balanced scorecard approach. The assessment map is applied in a project that aims to reduce the inequality and risk of exclusion of young people from disadvantaged social groups. The assessment map denotes that not only funding but also necessary skills and qualifications should be carefully assessed in the implementation of the project plans so as to achieve the objectives of projects and the desired impact. The results of this study are useful for those who want to develop the implementation of the Erasmus+ Programme and the project teams of research and development projects.

Keywords: non-formal learning, youth work, social inclusion, innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
5756 Contributions of Non-Formal Educational Spaces for the Scientific Literacy of Deaf Students

Authors: Rafael Dias Silva

Abstract:

The school is a social institution that should promote learning situations that remain throughout life. Based on this, the teaching activities promoted in museum spaces can represent an educational strategy that contributes to the learning process in a more meaningful way. This article systematizes a series of elements that guide the use of these spaces for the scientific literacy of deaf students and as experiences of this nature are favorable for the school development through the concept of the circularity. The methodology for the didactic use of these spaces of non-formal education is one of the reflections developed in this study and how such environments can contribute to the learning in the classroom. To develop in the student the idea of ​​association making him create connections with the curricular proposal and notice how the proposed activity is articulated. It is in our interest that the experience lived in the museum be shared collaborating for the construction of a scientific literacy and cultural identity through the research.

Keywords: accessibility in museums, Brazilian sign language, deaf students, teacher training

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
5755 Formal History Teaching and Lifeworld Literacies: Developing Transversal Skills as an Embodied Learning Outcomes in Historical Research Projects

Authors: Paul Flynn, Luke O’Donnell

Abstract:

There is a pressing societal need for educators in formal and non-formal settings to develop pedagogical frameworks, programmes, and interventions that support the development of transversal skills for life beyond the classroom. These skills include communication, collaboration, interpersonal relationship building, problem-solving, and planning, and organizational skills; or lifeworld literacies encountered first hand. This is particularly true for young people aged between 15-18. This demographic represents both the future of society and those best positioned to take advantage of well-designed, structured educational supports within and across formal and non-formal settings. Secondary school history has been identified as an appropriate area of study which deftly develops many of those transversal skills so crucial to positive societal engagement. However, in the formal context, students often challenge history’s relevance to their own lived experience and dismiss it as a study option. In response to such challenges, teachers will often design stimulating lessons which are often well-received. That said, some students continue to question modern-day connections, presenting a persistent and pervasive classroom distraction. The continuing decline in numbers opting to study second-level history indicates an erosion of what should be a critical opportunity to develop all-important lifeworld literacies within formal education. In contrast, students readily acknowledge relevance in non-formal settings where many participants meaningfully engage with history by way of student-focused activities. Furthermore, many do so without predesigned pedagogical aids which support transversal skills development as embodied learning outcomes. As this paper will present, there is a dearth of work pertaining to the circular subject of history and its embodied learning outcomes, including lifeworld literacies, in formal and non-formal settings. While frequently challenging to reconcile formal (often defined by strict curricula and examination processes), and non-formal engagement with history, opportunities do exist. In the Irish context, this is exemplified by a popular university outreach programme: breaking the SEAL. This programme supports second-level history students as they fulfill curriculum requirements in completing a research study report. This report is a student-led research project pulling on communication skills, collaboration with peers and teachers, interpersonal relationships, problem-solving, and planning and organizational skills. Completion of this process has been widely recognized as excellent preparation not only for higher education (third level) but work-life demands as well. Within a formal education setting, the RSR harnesses non-formal learning virtues and exposes students to limited aspects of independent learning that relate to a professional work setting –a lifeworld literacy. Breaking the SEAL provides opportunities for students to enhance their lifeworld literacy by engaging in an independent research and learning process within the protective security of the classroom and its teacher. This paper will highlight the critical role this programme plays in preparing participating students (n=315) for life after compulsory education and presents examples of how lifeworld literacies may be developed through a scaffolded process of historical research and reporting anchored in non-formal contexts.

Keywords: history, education, literacy, transversal skills

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5754 Adult and Non Formal Education for the Attainment of Enterprenuerial Skills in Nigeria

Authors: Zulaiha Maluma Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper attempted to examine adult and non formal education for the attainment of entrepreneurial skills in empowering the citizens with entrepreneurial skills, for Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. This paper highlighted the meaning of education in the context of skill acquisition, entrepreneurial education, adult and non formal education. It also examined the objectives, issues and challenges as well as prospects of this type of education. It further discussed the role of adult and non formal education for the attainment of socioeconomic development of a growing nation like Nigeria. The paper equally proffered some recommendations and eventually concluded that adult and non formal education can indeed make self reliance, personal satisfaction and the attainment of entrepreneurial education for the socioeconomic development of any nation, possible.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, adult education, non formal education skills, Nigeria

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5753 Self-Education, Recognition and Well-Being Insights into Qualitative-Reconstructive Educational Research on the Value of Non-formal Education in the Adolescence

Authors: Sandra Biewers Grimm

Abstract:

International studies such as Pisa have shown an increasing social inequality in the education system, which is determined in particular by social origin and migration status. This is especially the case in the Luxembourg school system, which creates challenges for many young people due to the multilingualism in the country. While the international and also the national debate on education in the immediate aftermath of the publications of the Pisa results mainly focused on the further development of school-based learning venues and formal educational processes, it initially remained largely unclear what role exactly out-of-school learning venues and non-formal and informal learning processes could play in this further development. This has changed in the meantime. Both in the political discourses and in the scientific disciplines, those voices have become louder that draw attention to the important educational function and the enormous educational potential of out-of-school learning places as a response to the crisis of the formal education system and more than this. Youth work as an actor and approach of non-formal education is particularly in demand here. Due to its principles of self-education, participation and openness, it is considered to have a special potential in supporting the acquisition of important key competencies. In this context, the study "Educational experiences in non-formal settings" at CCY takes a differentiated look behind the scenes of education-oriented youth work and describes on the basis of empirical data what and how young people learn in youth centers and which significance they attach to these educational experiences for their subjective life situation. In this sense, the aim of the study is to reconstruct the subjective educational experiences of young people in Open Youth Work as well as to explore the value that these experiences have for young people. In doing so, it enables scientifically founded conclusions about the educational potential of youth work from the user's perspective. Initially, the study focuses on defining the concept of education in the context of non-formal education and thus sets a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis. This socio-educational term of education differs from the relevant conception of education in curricular, formal education as the acquisition of knowledge. It also differs from the operationalization of education as competence, or the differentiation into cultural, social and personal or into factual, social or methodological competence, which is often used in the European context and which has long been interpreted as a "social science reading of the question of education" (XX). Now the aim is to define a "broader" concept of education that goes beyond the normative and educational policy dimensions of a "non-formal education" and includes the classical socio-educational dimensions. Furthermore, the study works with different methods of empirical social research: In addition to ethnographic observation and an online survey, group discussions were conducted with the young people. The presentation gives an insight into the context, the methodology and the results of this study.

Keywords: non-formal education, youth research, qualitative research, educational theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
5752 Formal Innovations vs. Informal Innovations: The Case of the Mining Sector in Nigeria

Authors: Jegede Oluseye Oladayo

Abstract:

The study mapped innovation activities in the formal and informal mining sector in Nigeria. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected through guided questionnaire administration, guided interviews and personal observation. A purposive sampling method was adopted to select firms that are micro, small and medium enterprises. The study covered 100 (50 in the formal sector and 50 in the informal sector) purposively selected companies in south-western Nigeria. Secondary data were collected from different published sources. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the four types of technological innovations sampled, organisational innovation was found to be highest both in the formal (100%) and informal (100%) sectors, followed by process innovation: 60% in the formal sector and 28% in the informal sector, marketing innovation and diffusion based innovation were implemented by 64% and 4% respectively in the formal sector. There were no R&D activities (intramural or extramural) in both sectors, however, innovation activities occur at moderate levels in the formal sector. This is characterised by acquisition of machinery, equipment, hardware (100%), software (56), training (82%) and acquisition of external knowledge (60%) in the formal sector. In the informal sector, innovation activities were characterised by acquisition of external knowledge (100%), training/learning by experience (100%) and acquisition of tools (68%). The impact of innovation on firm’s performance in the formal sector was expressed mainly as increased capacity of production (100%), reduced production cost per unit of labour (88%), compliance with governmental regulatory requirements (72%) and entry on new markets (60%). In the informal sector, the impact of innovation was mainly expressed in improved flexibility of production (70%) and machinery/energy efficiency (70%). The important technological driver of process innovation in the mining sector was acquisition of machinery which accounts for the prevalence of 100% both in the formal and informal sectors. Next to this is training and re-training of technical staff, 74% in both the formal and the informal sector. Other factors influencing organisational innovation are skill of workforce with a prevalence of 80% in both the formal and informal sector. The important technological drivers include educational background of the manager/head of technical department (54%) for organisational innovation and (50%) for process innovation in the formal sector. The study concluded that innovation competence of the firms was mostly organisational changes.

Keywords: innovation prevalence, innovation activities, innovation performance, innovation drivers

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5751 Cloud-Based Dynamic Routing with Feedback in Formal Methods

Authors: Jawid Ahmad Baktash, Mursal Dawodi, Tomokazu Nagata

Abstract:

With the rapid growth of Cloud Computing, Formal Methods became a good choice for the refinement of message specification and verification for Dynamic Routing in Cloud Computing. Cloud-based Dynamic Routing is becoming increasingly popular. We propose feedback in Formal Methods for Dynamic Routing and Cloud Computing; the model and topologies show how to send messages from index zero to all others formally. The responsibility of proper verification becomes crucial with Dynamic Routing in the cloud. Formal Methods can play an essential role in the routing and development of Networks, and the testing of distributed systems. Event-B is a formal technique that consists of describing the problem rigorously and introduces solutions or details in the refinement steps. Event-B is a variant of B, designed for developing distributed systems and message passing of the dynamic routing. In Event-B and formal methods, the events consist of guarded actions occurring spontaneously rather than being invoked.

Keywords: cloud, dynamic routing, formal method, Pro-B, event-B

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
5750 Formal Verification for Ethereum Smart Contract Using Coq

Authors: Xia Yang, Zheng Yang, Haiyong Sun, Yan Fang, Jingyu Liu, Jia Song

Abstract:

The smart contract in Ethereum is a unique program deployed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) to help manage cryptocurrency. The security of this smart contract is critical to Ethereum’s operation and highly sensitive. In this paper, we present a formal model for smart contract, using the separated term-obligation (STO) strategy to formalize and verify the smart contract. We use the IBM smart sponsor contract (SSC) as an example to elaborate the detail of the formalizing process. We also propose a formal smart sponsor contract model (FSSCM) and verify SSC’s security properties with an interactive theorem prover Coq. We found the 'Unchecked-Send' vulnerability in the SSC, using our formal model and verification method. Finally, we demonstrate how we can formalize and verify other smart contracts with this approach, and our work indicates that this formal verification can effectively verify the correctness and security of smart contracts.

Keywords: smart contract, formal verification, Ethereum, Coq

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
5749 Learning for the Future: Flipping English Language Learning Classrooms for Future

Authors: Natarajan Hema, Tamilarasan Karunakaran

Abstract:

Technology is remodeling the process of teaching and learning. An inflection point is faced where technological interventions are rewiring learning process in formal classrooms. Employment depends on dynamic learning capability. Transforming the functionalities of teaching-learning-assessment through innovation is needed to modify the roles of teacher to enabler and learner to the dynamic learner. This makeover is vital for English language teaching where English is acquired as a skill, exercised as ability and get stabilized as a competence. This reshaping could be achieved through providing autonomy to participants of learning. This paper explores parameters and components aiding such a transformation. The differentiated responsibilities and other critical learning support systems are projected as viable options. New age teaching practices are studied for feasibilities to aid transformation and being put forth an inter-operable teaching-learning system for a learner-centric ELT classrooms. LOTUS model developed by the authors is also studied for its inclusiveness to promote skill acquisition.

Keywords: ELT methodology, communicative competence, skill acquisition , new age teaching

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5748 Formal Thai National Costume in the Reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej

Authors: Chanoknart Mayusoh

Abstract:

The research about Formal Thai National Costume in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej is an applied research that aimed to study the accurate knowledge concerning to Thai national costume in the reign of King Rama IX, also to study origin of all costumes in the reign of King Rama IX and to study the style, material used, and using accasion. This research methodology which are collect quanlitative data through observation, document, and photograph from key informant of costume in the reign of King Rama IX and from another who related to this field. The formal Thai national costume of the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej originated from the visit of His Majesty the King to Europe and America in 1960. Since Thailand had no traditional national costume; Her Majesty the Queen initiated the idea to create formal Thai national costumes. In 1964, Her Majesty the Queen selected 8 styles of formal Thai national costume. Later, Her Majesty the Queen confered another 3 formal Thai national costume for men. There are 8 styles of formal Thai national costume for women: Thai Ruean Ton, Thai Chit Lada, Thai Amarin, Thai Borom Phiman, Thai Siwalia, Thai Chakkri, Thai Dusit, and Thai Chakkraphat. There are 3 styles of formal Thai national costume for men: short-sleeve shirt, long-sleeve shirt, and long-sleeve shirt with breechcloth. The costume is widely used in formal ceremony such as greeting ceremony for official foreign visitors, wedding ceremony, or other auspicious ceremonies. Now a day, they are always used as a bridal gown as well. The formal Thai national costume is valuable art that shows Thai identity and, should be preserved for the next generation.

Keywords: formal Thai national costume for women, formal Thai national costume for men, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great King Rama IX, Her Majesty Queen Sirikit Queen

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5747 The Interrelationship between Formal and Informal Institutions and Its Impacts on the Autonomy of Public Service Delivery Units: The Case of Vietnam

Authors: Minh Thi Hai Vo

Abstract:

This article draws on in-depth interviews with state employees at public hospitals and universities in its institutional analysis of the autonomy practices of public service delivery units in Vietnam. Unlike many empirical and theoretical studies that view formal and informal institutions as complements or substitutes, this article finds no evidence of complementary or substitutive relationships. Instead, the article finds that formal institutions accommodate informal ones and that informal institutions tend to compete and interfere, with the existing and ineffective formal institutions. The result of such conflicting relationship is that the actual autonomy of public service delivery units is, in most cases, perceived to be greater than the formal autonomy they are given. In the condition of poor regulation, the informal autonomy may result in unethical practices including rent-seeking and corruption. The implication of the study finding is policy-makers need to redesign and reorganize the autonomisation of public service delivery units to make informal institutions support and reinforce formal ones in a complementary manner.

Keywords: autonomy, formal institutions, informal institutions, public service delivery units, Vietnam

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5746 Teachers’ Awareness of the Significance of Lifelong Learning: A Case Study of Secondary School Teachers of Batna - Algeria

Authors: Bahloul Amel

Abstract:

This study is an attempt to raise the awareness of the stakeholders and the authorities on the sensitivity of Algerian secondary school teachers of English as a Foreign Language about the students’ loss of English language skills learned during formal schooling with effort and at expense and the supposed measures to arrest that loss. Data was collected from secondary school teachers of EFL and analyzed quantitatively using a questionnaire containing open-ended and close-ended questions. The results advocate a consensus about the need for actions to be adopted to make assessment techniques outcome-oriented. Most of the participants were in favor of including curricular activities involving contextualized learning, problem-solving learning critical self-awareness, self and peer-assisted learning, use of computers and internet so as to make learners autonomous.

Keywords: lifelong learning, EFL, contextualized learning, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
5745 Islamic Education System: Implementation of Curriculum Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang

Authors: Basyir Yaman, Fades Br. Gultom

Abstract:

The picture and pattern of Islamic education in the Prophet's period in Mecca and Medina is the history of the past that we need to bring back. The Basic Education Institute called Kuttab. Kuttab or Maktab comes from the word kataba which means to write. The popular Kuttab in the Prophet’s period aims to resolve the illiteracy in the Arab community. In Indonesia, this Institution has 25 branches; one of them is located in Semarang (i.e. Kuttab Al-Fatih). Kuttab Al-Fatih as a non-formal institution of Islamic education is reserved for children aged 5-12 years. The independently designed curriculum is a distinctive feature that distinguishes between Kuttab Al-Fatih curriculum and the formal institutional curriculum in Indonesia. The curriculum includes the faith and the Qur’an. Kuttab Al-Fatih has been licensed as a Community Activity Learning Center under the direct supervision and guidance of the National Education Department. Here, we focus to describe the implementation of curriculum Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang (i.e. faith and al-Qur’an). After that, we determine the relevance between the implementation of the Kuttab Al-Fatih education system with the formal education system in Indonesia. This research uses literature review and field research qualitative methods. We obtained the data from the head of Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang, vice curriculum, faith coordinator, al-Qur’an coordinator, as well as the guardians of learners and the learners. The result of this research is the relevance of education system in Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang about education system in Indonesia. Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang emphasizes character building through a curriculum designed in such a way and combines thematic learning models in modules.

Keywords: Islamic education system, implementation of curriculum, Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang, formal education system, Indonesia

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5744 A Framework for Rating Synchronous Video E-Learning Applications

Authors: Alex Vakaloudis, Juan Manuel Escano-Gonzalez

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Setting up a system to broadcast live lectures on the web is a procedure which on the surface does not require any serious technical skills mainly due to the facilities provided by popular learning management systems and their plugins. Nevertheless, producing a system of outstanding quality is a multidisciplinary and by no means a straightforward task. This complicatedness may be responsible for the delivery of an overall poor experience to the learners, and it calls for a formal rating framework that takes into account the diverse aspects of an architecture for synchronous video e-learning systems. We discuss the specifications of such a framework which at its final stage employs fuzzy logic technique to transform from qualitative to quantitative results.

Keywords: synchronous video, fuzzy logic, rating framework, e-learning

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5743 The Effects of Three Leadership Styles on Individual Performance

Authors: Leilei Liang

Abstract:

Leadership is commonly classified as formal leadership and informal leadership, which ignores and neglects the effects of 3rd type leadership. The emergence of 3rd type of leadership is closely related to special relations. To figure out the mechanism and effects of 3rd type leadership as well as the impacts of formal leadership and informal leadership on employee performance, this study collects data from 350 participants through a survey and proposes three hypotheses respectively from the perspective of expectation theory. The analytical results provide strong evidence for two of the three hypotheses, which demonstrate the positive correlation between formal leadership and individual performance and the negative relationship between 3rd type leadership and individual performance. This study contributes to leadership literature by putting forward the concept of the 3rd type of leadership. In addition, the effects of formal leadership, informal leadership, and 3rd type leadership on individual performance are discussed respectively in this study.

Keywords: formal leadership, informal leadership, 3rd leadership, individual performance, expectation theory

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5742 Maintaining the Formal Type of West Java's Heritage Language with Sundanese Language Lesson in Senior High School

Authors: Dinda N. Lestari

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Sundanese language is one of heritage language in Indonesia that must be maintained especially the formal type of it because teenagers nowadays do not speak Sundanese language formally in their daily lives. To maintain it, Cultural and Education Ministry of Indonesia has input Sundanese language lesson at senior high school in West Java area. The aim of this study was to observe whether the existence of Sundanese language lesson in senior high school in the big town of Karawang, West Java - Indonesia give the contribution to the formal type of Sundanese language maintenance or not. For gathering the data, the researcher interviewed the senior high school students who have learned Sundanese language to observe their acquisition of it. As a result of the interview, the data was presented in qualitative research by using the interviewing method. Then, the finding indicated that the existence of Sundanese language in Senior High School also the educational program which is related to it, for instance, Kemis Nyunda seemed to do not effective enough in maintaining the formal type of Sundanese language. Therefore, West Java government must revise the learning strategy of it, including the role of the Sundanese language teacher.

Keywords: heritage language, language maintenance and shift, senior high school, Sundanese language, Sundanese language lesson

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5741 Role of Special Training Centers (STC) in Right to Education Act Challenges And Remedies

Authors: Anshu Radha Aggarwal

Abstract:

As per the Right to Education Act (RTE), 2009, every child in the age group of 6-14 years shall be admitted in a neighborhood school. All the Out of School Children identified have to be enrolled / mainstreamed in to age appropriate class and there-after be provided special training. This paper addresses issues emerging from provisions in the RTE Act that specifically refer to the enrolment of out-of school children into age appropriate classes and the requirement to provide special trainings that will enable this to take place. In the context of RTE Act, the Out-of-School Children are first enrolled in the formal school and then they are provided with Special Training through NRSTCs (Long Term / Short term basis). These centers are functioning in formal school campus itself. This paper specifies the role of special training centers (STC). It presents a re-envisioning of assessment that recognizes two principal functions of assessment, assessment for learning and assessment of learning, instead of the more familiar categories of formative, diagnostic, summative, and evaluative assessment. The use of these two functions of assessment highlights and emphasizes the role of special training centers (STC) to assess their level for giving them appropriate special training and to evaluate their improvement in learning level. Challenge of problem faced by teachers to do diagnostic assessment, including its place in the sequence of assessment procedures appropriate in identifying and addressing individual children’s learning difficulties are solved by special training centers (STC). It is important that assessment is used to identify children with learning difficulties at the earliest possible stage so that appropriate support and intervention can be put in place. So appropriate challenges with tools are presented here for their assessment at entry level and at completion level of primary children by special training centers (STC).

Keywords: right to education, assessment, challenges, out of school children

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5740 The Effects of SMS on the Formal Writings of the Students: A Comparative Study among the Students of Different Departments of IUB

Authors: Sumaira Saleem

Abstract:

This study reveals that the use of SMS effect the formal writing of the students. SMS is in vogue sine the last decade but its detrimental effects are effecting not only to the set norms but also deviant forms of expressions have come into the community to which all are not acquainted and it creates a hurdle in effective communication. It also determines the reasons behind the usage of SMS practices in the formal writings like in assignments and examinations. For this study a questionnaire was designed for faculty and students the data was collected from The Islamia University Bahawalpur and the formal work of the students was also collected to check the manifestation of SMS practices in writings. Data was analysed on excel sheet and the tables and graphs are used to explain the ratios and percentages of SMS usage. The results show that the usage of SMS has very strong effect upon the students writing.

Keywords: technology, writing, effects, SMS

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5739 Survey to Assess the Feasibility of Executing the Web-Based Collaboration Process Using WBCS

Authors: Mohamed A. Sullabi

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The importance of the formal specification in the software life cycle is barely concealing to anyone. Formal specifications use mathematical notation to describe the properties of information system precisely, without unduly constraining the way in how these properties are achieved. Having a correct and quality software specification is not easy task. This study concerns with how a group of rectifiers can communicate with each other and work to prepare and produce a correct formal software specification. WBCS has been implemented based mainly in the proposed supported cooperative work model and a survey conducted on the existing Webbased collaborative writing tools. This paper aims to assess the feasibility of executing the web-based collaboration process using WBCS. The purpose of conducting this test is to test the system as a whole for functionality and fitness for use based on the evaluation test plan.

Keywords: formal methods, formal specifications, collaborative writing, usability testing

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5738 A Review of Machine Learning for Big Data

Authors: Devatha Kalyan Kumar, Aravindraj D., Sadathulla A.

Abstract:

Big data are now rapidly expanding in all engineering and science and many other domains. The potential of large or massive data is undoubtedly significant, make sense to require new ways of thinking and learning techniques to address the various big data challenges. Machine learning is continuously unleashing its power in a wide range of applications. In this paper, the latest advances and advancements in the researches on machine learning for big data processing. First, the machine learning techniques methods in recent studies, such as deep learning, representation learning, transfer learning, active learning and distributed and parallel learning. Then focus on the challenges and possible solutions of machine learning for big data.

Keywords: active learning, big data, deep learning, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
5737 Validation of the Formal Model of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Service of Library Information System

Authors: Zainab Magaji Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily Aida Jusoh

Abstract:

The web services applications for digital reference service (WSDRS) of LIS model is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ needs in the reference section of libraries. The formal WSDRS model consists of the Z specifications of all the informal specifications of the model. This paper discusses the formal validation of the Z specifications of WSDRS model. The authors formally verify and thus validate the properties of the model using Z/EVES theorem prover.

Keywords: validation, verification, formal, theorem prover

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
5736 Mobile Mediated Learning and Teachers Education in Less Resourced Region

Authors: Abdul Rashid Ahmadi, Samiullah Paracha, Hamidullah Sokout, Mohammad Hanif Gharana

Abstract:

Conventional educational practices, do not offer all the required skills for teachers to successfully survive in today’s workplace. Due to poor professional training, a big gap exists across the curriculum plan and the teacher practices in the classroom. As such, raising the quality of teaching through ICT-enabled training and professional development of teachers should be an urgent priority. ‘Mobile Learning’, in that vein, is an increasingly growing field of educational research and practice across schools and work places. In this paper, we propose a novel Mobile learning system that allows the users to learn through an intelligent mobile learning in cooperatively every-time and every-where. The system will reduce the training cost and increase consistency, efficiency, and data reliability. To establish that our system will display neither functional nor performance failure, the evaluation strategy is based on formal observation of users interacting with system followed by questionnaires and structured interviews.

Keywords: computer assisted learning, intelligent tutoring system, learner centered design, mobile mediated learning and teacher education

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5735 English Language Teaching and Learning Analysis in Iran

Authors: F. Zarrabi, J. R. Brown

Abstract:

Although English is not a second language in Iran, it has become an inseparable part of many Iranian people’s lives and is becoming more and more widespread. This high demand has caused a significant increase in the number of private English language institutes in Iran. Although English is a compulsory course in schools and universities, the majority of Iranian people are unable to communicate easily in English. This paper reviews the current state of teaching and learning English as an international language in Iran. Attitudes and motivations about learning English are reviewed. Five different aspects of using English within the country are analysed, including: English in public domain, English in Media, English in organizations/businesses, English in education, and English in private language institutes. Despite the time and money spent on English language courses in private language institutes, the majority of learners seem to forget what has been learned within months of completing their course. That is, when they are students with the support of the teacher and formal classes, they appear to make progress and use English more or less fluently. When this support is removed, their language skills either stagnant or regress. The findings of this study suggest that a dependant approach to learning is potentially one of the main reasons for English language learning problems and this is encouraged by English course books and approaches to teaching.

Keywords: English in Iran, English language learning, English language teaching, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
5734 Teaching the Tacit Nuances of Japanese Onomatopoeia through an E-Learning System: An Evaluation Approach of Narrative Interpretation

Authors: Xiao-Yan Li, Takashi Hashimoto, Guanhong Li, Shuo Yang

Abstract:

In Japanese, onomatopoeia is an important element in the lively expression of feelings and experiences. It is very difficult for students of Japanese to acquire onomatopoeia, especially, its nuances. In this paper, based on traditional L2 learning theories, we propose a new method to improve the efficiency of teaching the nuances – both explicit and tacit - to non-native speakers of Japanese. The method for teaching the tacit nuances of onomatopoeia consists of three elements. First is to teach the formal rules representing the explicit nuances of onomatopoeic words. Second is to have the students create new onomatopoeic words by utilizing those formal rules. The last element is to provide feedback by evaluating the onomatopoeias created. Our previous study used five-grade relative estimation. However students were confused about the five-grade system, because they could not understand the evaluation criteria only based on a figure. In this new system, then, we built an evaluation database through native speakers’ narrative interpretation. We asked Japanese native speakers to describe their awareness of the nuances of onomatopoeia in writing. Then they voted on site and defined priorities for showing to learners on the system. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and the learning system, we conducted a preliminary experiment involving two groups of subjects. While Group A got feedback about the appropriateness of their onomatopoeic constructions from the native speakers’ narrative interpretation, Group B got feedback just in the form of the five-grade relative estimation. A questionnaire survey administered to all of the learners clarified our learning system availability and also identified areas that should be improved. Repetitive learning of word-formation rules, creating new onomatopoeias and gaining new awareness from narrative interpretation is the total process used to teach the explicit and tacit nuances of onomatopoeia.

Keywords: onomatopoeia, tacit nuance, narrative interpretation, e-learning system, second language teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 328