Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18235

Search results for: data aggregation

18235 Efficient Positioning of Data Aggregation Point for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sifat Rahman Ahona, Rifat Tasnim, Naima Hassan


Data aggregation is a helpful technique for reducing the data communication overhead in wireless sensor network. One of the important tasks of data aggregation is positioning of the aggregator points. There are a lot of works done on data aggregation. But, efficient positioning of the aggregators points is not focused so much. In this paper, authors are focusing on the positioning or the placement of the aggregation points in wireless sensor network. Authors proposed an algorithm to select the aggregators positions for a scenario where aggregator nodes are more powerful than sensor nodes.

Keywords: aggregation point, data communication, data aggregation, wireless sensor network

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18234 PDDA: Priority-Based, Dynamic Data Aggregation Approach for Sensor-Based Big Data Framework

Authors: Lutful Karim, Mohammed S. Al-kahtani


Sensors are being used in various applications such as agriculture, health monitoring, air and water pollution monitoring, traffic monitoring and control and hence, play the vital role in the growth of big data. However, sensors collect redundant data. Thus, aggregating and filtering sensors data are significantly important to design an efficient big data framework. Current researches do not focus on aggregating and filtering data at multiple layers of sensor-based big data framework. Thus, this paper introduces (i) three layers data aggregation and framework for big data and (ii) a priority-based, dynamic data aggregation scheme (PDDA) for the lowest layer at sensors. Simulation results show that the PDDA outperforms existing tree and cluster-based data aggregation scheme in terms of overall network energy consumptions and end-to-end data transmission delay.

Keywords: big data, clustering, tree topology, data aggregation, sensor networks

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18233 Event Driven Dynamic Clustering and Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Ashok V. Sutagundar, Sunilkumar S. Manvi


Energy, delay and bandwidth are the prime issues of wireless sensor network (WSN). Energy usage optimization and efficient bandwidth utilization are important issues in WSN. Event triggered data aggregation facilitates such optimal tasks for event affected area in WSN. Reliable delivery of the critical information to sink node is also a major challenge of WSN. To tackle these issues, we propose an event driven dynamic clustering and data aggregation scheme for WSN that enhances the life time of the network by minimizing redundant data transmission. The proposed scheme operates as follows: (1) Whenever the event is triggered, event triggered node selects the cluster head. (2) Cluster head gathers data from sensor nodes within the cluster. (3) Cluster head node identifies and classifies the events out of the collected data using Bayesian classifier. (4) Aggregation of data is done using statistical method. (5) Cluster head discovers the paths to the sink node using residual energy, path distance and bandwidth. (6) If the aggregated data is critical, cluster head sends the aggregated data over the multipath for reliable data communication. (7) Otherwise aggregated data is transmitted towards sink node over the single path which is having the more bandwidth and residual energy. The performance of the scheme is validated for various WSN scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of aggregation time, cluster formation time and energy consumed for aggregation.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, dynamic clustering, data aggregation, wireless communication

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18232 Preparation of Wireless Networks and Security; Challenges in Efficient Accession of Encrypted Data in Healthcare

Authors: M. Zayoud, S. Oueida, S. Ionescu, P. AbiChar


Background: Wireless sensor network is encompassed of diversified tools of information technology, which is widely applied in a range of domains, including military surveillance, weather forecasting, and earthquake forecasting. Strengthened grounds are always developed for wireless sensor networks, which usually emerges security issues during professional application. Thus, essential technological tools are necessary to be assessed for secure aggregation of data. Moreover, such practices have to be incorporated in the healthcare practices that shall be serving in the best of the mutual interest Objective: Aggregation of encrypted data has been assessed through homomorphic stream cipher to assure its effectiveness along with providing the optimum solutions to the field of healthcare. Methods: An experimental design has been incorporated, which utilized newly developed cipher along with CPU-constrained devices. Modular additions have also been employed to evaluate the nature of aggregated data. The processes of homomorphic stream cipher have been highlighted through different sensors and modular additions. Results: Homomorphic stream cipher has been recognized as simple and secure process, which has allowed efficient aggregation of encrypted data. In addition, the application has led its way to the improvisation of the healthcare practices. Statistical values can be easily computed through the aggregation on the basis of selected cipher. Sensed data in accordance with variance, mean, and standard deviation has also been computed through the selected tool. Conclusion: It can be concluded that homomorphic stream cipher can be an ideal tool for appropriate aggregation of data. Alongside, it shall also provide the best solutions to the healthcare sector.

Keywords: aggregation, cipher, homomorphic stream, encryption

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18231 SA-SPKC: Secure and Efficient Aggregation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Stateful Public Key Cryptography

Authors: Merad Boudia Omar Rafik, Feham Mohammed


Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provides a great reduction of energy consumption. The limited resources of sensor nodes make the choice of an encryption algorithm very important for providing security for data aggregation. Asymmetric cryptography involves large ciphertexts and heavy computations but solves, on the other hand, the problem of key distribution of symmetric one. The latter provides smaller ciphertexts and speed computations. Also, the recent researches have shown that achieving the end-to-end confidentiality and the end-to-end integrity at the same is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose (SA-SPKC), a novel security protocol which addresses both security services for WSNs, and where only the base station can verify the individual data and identify the malicious node. Our scheme is based on stateful public key encryption (StPKE). The latter combines the best features of both kinds of encryption along with state in order to reduce the computation overhead. Our analysis

Keywords: secure data aggregation, wireless sensor networks, elliptic curve cryptography, homomorphic encryption

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18230 Aggregation Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An


In Wireless Sensor Networks which consist of tiny wireless sensor nodes with limited battery power, one of the most fundamental applications is data aggregation which collects nearby environmental conditions and aggregates the data to a designated destination, called a sink node. Important issues concerning the data aggregation are time efficiency and energy consumption due to its limited energy, and therefore, the related problem, named Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling (MLAS), has been the focus of many researchers. Its objective is to compute the minimum latency schedule, that is, to compute a schedule with the minimum number of timeslots, such that the sink node can receive the aggregated data from all the other nodes without any collision or interference. For the problem, the two interference models, the graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR), have been adopted with different power models, uniform-power and non-uniform power (with power control or without power control), and different antenna models, omni-directional antenna and directional antenna models. In this survey article, as the problem has proven to be NP-hard, we present and compare several state-of-the-art approximation algorithms in various models on the basis of latency as its performance measure.

Keywords: data aggregation, convergecast, gathering, approximation, interference, omni-directional, directional

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18229 Modeling Aggregation of Insoluble Phase in Reactors

Authors: A. Brener, B. Ismailov, G. Berdalieva


In the paper we submit the modification of kinetic Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation applying to systems with chemical reactions of first and second orders in which the main product is insoluble. The goal of this work is to create theoretical foundation and engineering procedures for calculating the chemical apparatuses in the conditions of joint course of chemical reactions and processes of aggregation of insoluble dispersed phases which are formed in working zones of the reactor.

Keywords: binary aggregation, clusters, chemical reactions, insoluble phases

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18228 DNAJB6 Chaperone Prevents the Aggregation of Intracellular but not Extracellular Aβ Peptides Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Rasha M. Hussein, Reem M. Hashem, Laila A. Rashed


Alzheimer’s disease is the most common dementia disease in the elderly. It is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. In addition, recent evidence indicates that accumulation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. This suggests that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) that maintain the protein quality control in the cell might be potential candidates for disease amelioration. DNAJB6, a member of DNAJ family of HSP, effectively prevented the aggregation of poly glutamines stretches associated with Huntington’s disease both in vitro and in cells. In addition, DNAJB6 was found recently to delay the aggregation of Aβ42 peptides in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the ability of DNAJB6 to prevent the aggregation of both intracellular and extracellular Aβ peptides using transfection of HEK293 cells with Aβ-GFP and recombinant Aβ42 peptides respectively. We performed western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We found that DNAJB6 can prevent Aβ-GFP aggregation, but not the seeded aggregation initiated by extracellular Aβ peptides. Moreover, DNAJB6 required interaction with HSP70 to prevent the aggregation of Aβ-GFP protein and its J-domain was essential for this anti-aggregation activity. Interestingly, overexpression of other DNAJ proteins as well as HSPB1 suppressed Aβ-GFP aggregation efficiently. Our findings suggest that DNAJB6 is a promising candidate for the inhibition of Aβ-GFP mediated aggregation through a canonical HSP70 dependent mechanism.

Keywords: , Alzheimer’s disease, chaperone, DNAJB6, aggregation

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18227 Multi Tier Data Collection and Estimation, Utilizing Queue Model in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Amirhossein Mohajerzadeh, Abolghasem Mohajerzadeh


In this paper, target parameter is estimated with desirable precision in hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSN) while the proposed algorithm also tries to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, using efficient data collecting algorithm. Target parameter distribution function is considered unknown. Sensor nodes sense the environment and send the data to the base station called fusion center (FC) using hierarchical data collecting algorithm. FC builds underlying phenomena based on collected data. Considering the aggregation level, x, the goal is providing the essential infrastructure to find the best value for aggregation level in order to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, while desirable accuracy is guaranteed (required sample size is fully depended on desirable precision). First, the sample size calculation algorithm is discussed, second, the average queue length based on M/M[x]/1/K queue model is determined and it is used for energy consumption calculation. Nodes can decrease transmission cost by aggregating incoming data. Furthermore, the performance of the new algorithm is evaluated in terms of lifetime and estimation accuracy.

Keywords: aggregation, estimation, queuing, wireless sensor network

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18226 Analytical Study of Applying the Account Aggregation Approach in E-Banking Services

Authors: A. Al Drees, A. Alahmari, R. Almuwayshir


The advanced information technology is becoming an important factor in the development of financial services industry, especially the banking industry. It has introduced new ways of delivering banking to the customer, such as Internet Banking. Banks began to look at electronic banking (e-banking) as a means to replace some of their traditional branch functions using the Internet as a new distribution channel. Some consumers have at least more than one account, and across banks, and access these accounts using e-banking services. To look at the current net worth position, customers have to login to each of their accounts and get the details and work on consolidation. This not only takes ample time but it is a repetitive activity at a specified frequency. To address this point, an account aggregation concept is added as a solution. E-banking account aggregation, as one of the e-banking types, appeared to build a stronger relationship with customers. Account Aggregation Service generally refers to a service that allows customers to manage their bank accounts maintained in different institutions through a common Internet banking operating a platform, with a high concern to security and privacy. This paper presents an overview of an e-banking account aggregation approach as a new service in the e-banking field.

Keywords: e-banking, account aggregation, security, enterprise development

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18225 Experimental Correlation for Erythrocyte Aggregation Rate in Population Balance Modeling

Authors: Erfan Niazi, Marianne Fenech


Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes tend to form chain-like aggregates under low shear rate called rouleaux. This is a reversible process and rouleaux disaggregate in high shear rates. Therefore, RBCs aggregation occurs in the microcirculation where low shear rates are present but does not occur under normal physiological conditions in large arteries. Numerical modeling of RBCs interactions is fundamental in analytical models of a blood flow in microcirculation. Population Balance Modeling (PBM) is particularly useful for studying problems where particles agglomerate and break in a two phase flow systems to find flow characteristics. In this method, the elementary particles lose their individual identity due to continuous destructions and recreations by break-up and agglomeration. The aim of this study is to find RBCs aggregation in a dynamic situation. Simplified PBM was used previously to find the aggregation rate on a static observation of the RBCs aggregation in a drop of blood under the microscope. To find aggregation rate in a dynamic situation we propose an experimental set up testing RBCs sedimentation. In this test, RBCs interact and aggregate to form rouleaux. In this configuration, disaggregation can be neglected due to low shear stress. A high-speed camera is used to acquire video-microscopic pictures of the process. The sizes of the aggregates and velocity of sedimentation are extracted using an image processing techniques. Based on the data collection from 5 healthy human blood samples, the aggregation rate was estimated as 2.7x103(±0.3 x103) 1/s.

Keywords: red blood cell, rouleaux, microfluidics, image processing, population balance modeling

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18224 Data Clustering in Wireless Sensor Network Implemented on Self-Organization Feature Map (SOFM) Neural Network

Authors: Krishan Kumar, Mohit Mittal, Pramod Kumar


Wireless sensor network is one of the most promising communication networks for monitoring remote environmental areas. In this network, all the sensor nodes are communicated with each other via radio signals. The sensor nodes have capability of sensing, data storage and processing. The sensor nodes collect the information through neighboring nodes to particular node. The data collection and processing is done by data aggregation techniques. For the data aggregation in sensor network, clustering technique is implemented in the sensor network by implementing self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network. Some of the sensor nodes are selected as cluster head nodes. The information aggregated to cluster head nodes from non-cluster head nodes and then this information is transferred to base station (or sink nodes). The aim of this paper is to manage the huge amount of data with the help of SOM neural network. Clustered data is selected to transfer to base station instead of whole information aggregated at cluster head nodes. This reduces the battery consumption over the huge data management. The network lifetime is enhanced at a greater extent.

Keywords: artificial neural network, data clustering, self organization feature map, wireless sensor network

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18223 Deployment of Beyond 4G Wireless Communication Networks with Carrier Aggregation

Authors: Bahram Khan, Anderson Rocha Ramos, Rui R. Paulo, Fernando J. Velez


With the growing demand for a new blend of applications, the users dependency on the internet is increasing day by day. Mobile internet users are giving more attention to their own experiences, especially in terms of communication reliability, high data rates and service stability on move. This increase in the demand is causing saturation of existing radio frequency bands. To address these challenges, researchers are investigating the best approaches, Carrier Aggregation (CA) is one of the newest innovations, which seems to fulfill the demands of the future spectrum, also CA is one the most important feature for Long Term Evolution - Advanced (LTE-Advanced). For this purpose to get the upcoming International Mobile Telecommunication Advanced (IMT-Advanced) mobile requirements (1 Gb/s peak data rate), the CA scheme is presented by 3GPP, which would sustain a high data rate using widespread frequency bandwidth up to 100 MHz. Technical issues such as aggregation structure, its implementations, deployment scenarios, control signal techniques, and challenges for CA technique in LTE-Advanced, with consideration of backward compatibility, are highlighted in this paper. Also, performance evaluation in macro-cellular scenarios through a simulation approach is presented, which shows the benefits of applying CA, low-complexity multi-band schedulers in service quality, system capacity enhancement and concluded that enhanced multi-band scheduler is less complex than the general multi-band scheduler, which performs better for a cell radius longer than 1800 m (and a PLR threshold of 2%).

Keywords: component carrier, carrier aggregation, LTE-advanced, scheduling

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18222 Solvent Extraction in Ionic Liquids: Structuration and Aggregation Effects on Extraction Mechanisms

Authors: Sandrine Dourdain, Cesar Lopez, Tamir Sukhbaatar, Guilhem Arrachart, Stephane Pellet-Rostaing


A promising challenge in solvent extraction is to replace the conventional organic solvents, with ionic liquids (IL). Depending on the extraction systems, these new solvents show better efficiency than the conventional ones. Although some assumptions based on ions exchanges have been proposed in the literature, these properties are not predictable because the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. It is well established that the mechanisms underlying solvent extraction processes are based not only on the molecular chelation of the extractant molecules but also on their ability to form supra-molecular aggregates due to their amphiphilic nature. It is therefore essential to evaluate how IL affects the aggregation properties of the extractant molecules. Our aim is to evaluate the influence of IL structure and polarity on solvent extraction mechanisms, by looking at the aggregation of the extractant molecules in IL. We compare extractant systems that are well characterized in common solvents and show thanks to SAXS and SANS measurements, that in the absence of IL ion exchange mechanisms, extraction properties are related to aggregation.

Keywords: solvent extraction in Ionic liquid, aggregation, Ionic liquids structure, SAXS, SANS

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18221 A Comparison of Methods for Neural Network Aggregation

Authors: John Pomerat, Aviv Segev


Recently, deep learning has had many theoretical breakthroughs. For deep learning to be successful in the industry, however, there need to be practical algorithms capable of handling many real-world hiccups preventing the immediate application of a learning algorithm. Although AI promises to revolutionize the healthcare industry, getting access to patient data in order to train learning algorithms has not been easy. One proposed solution to this is data- sharing. In this paper, we propose an alternative protocol, based on multi-party computation, to train deep learning models while maintaining both the privacy and security of training data. We examine three methods of training neural networks in this way: Transfer learning, average ensemble learning, and series network learning. We compare these methods to the equivalent model obtained through data-sharing across two different experiments. Additionally, we address the security concerns of this protocol. While the motivating example is healthcare, our findings regarding multi-party computation of neural network training are purely theoretical and have use-cases outside the domain of healthcare.

Keywords: neural network aggregation, multi-party computation, transfer learning, average ensemble learning

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18220 A New Aggregation Operator for Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers Based On the Geometric Means of the Left and Right Line Slopes

Authors: Manju Pandey, Nilay Khare, S. C. Shrivastava


This paper is the final in a series, which has defined two new classes of aggregation operators for triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers based on the geometrical characteristics of their fuzzy membership functions. In the present paper, a new aggregation operator for trapezoidal fuzzy numbers has been defined. The new operator is based on the geometric mean of the membership lines to the left and right of the maximum possibility interval. The operator is defined and the analytical relationships have been derived. Computation of the aggregate is demonstrated with a numerical example. Corresponding arithmetic and geometric aggregates as well as results from the recent work of the authors on TrFN aggregates have also been computed.

Keywords: LR fuzzy number, interval fuzzy number, triangular fuzzy number, trapezoidal fuzzy number, apex angle, left apex angle, right apex angle, aggregation operator, arithmetic and geometric mean

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18219 Visual Detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) through Formation of Beads Aggregation in Capillary Tube by Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Bo Ram Choi, Ji Su Kim, Juyeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee


Food contaminated by bacteria (E.coli), causes food poisoning, which occurs to many patients worldwide annually. We have introduced an application of rolling circle amplification (RCA) as a versatile biosensor and developed a diagnostic platform composed of capillary tube and microbeads for rapid and easy detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). When specific mRNA of E.coli is extracted from cell lysis, rolling circle amplification (RCA) of DNA template can be achieved and can be visualized by beads aggregation in capillary tube. In contrast, if there is no bacterial pathogen in sample, no beads aggregation can be seen. This assay is possible to detect visually target gene without specific equipment. It is likely to the development of a genetic kit for point of care testing (POCT) that can detect target gene using microbeads.

Keywords: rolling circle amplification (RCA), Escherichia coli (E. coli), point of care testing (POCT), beads aggregation, capillary tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
18218 Rethinking News Aggregation to Achieve Depolarization

Authors: Kushagra Khandelwal, Chinmay Anand, Sharmistha Banerjee


This paper presents an approach to news aggregation that is aimed at solving the issues centered on depolarization and manipulation of news information and stories. Largest democracies across the globe face numerous issues related to news democratization. With the advancements in technology and increasing outreach, web has become an important information source which is inclusive of news. Research was focused on the current millennial population consisting of modern day internet users. The study involved literature review, an online survey, an expert interview with a journalist and a focus group discussion with the user groups. The study was aimed at investigating problems associated with the current news system from both the consumer as well as distributor point of view. The research findings helped in producing five key potential opportunity areas which were explored for design intervention. Upon ideation, we identified five design features which include opinion aggregation. Categorized opinions, news tracking, online discussion and ability to take actions that support news democratization.

Keywords: citizen journalism, democratization, depolarized news, napsterization, news aggregation, opinions

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18217 Wind Speed Prediction Using Passive Aggregation Artificial Intelligence Model

Authors: Tarek Aboueldahab, Amin Mohamed Nassar


Wind energy is a fluctuating energy source unlike conventional power plants, thus, it is necessary to accurately predict short term wind speed to integrate wind energy in the electricity supply structure. To do so, we present a hybrid artificial intelligence model of short term wind speed prediction based on passive aggregation of the particle swarm optimization and neural networks. As a result, improvement of the prediction accuracy is obviously obtained compared to the standard artificial intelligence method.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, neural networks, particle swarm optimization, passive aggregation, wind speed prediction

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18216 Investigations of Protein Aggregation Using Sequence and Structure Based Features

Authors: M. Michael Gromiha, A. Mary Thangakani, Sandeep Kumar, D. Velmurugan


The main cause of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzhemier, Parkinson, and spongiform encephalopathies is formation of amyloid fibrils and plaques in proteins. We have analyzed different sets of proteins and peptides to understand the influence of sequence-based features on protein aggregation process. The comparison of 373 pairs of homologous mesophilic and thermophilic proteins showed that aggregation-prone regions (APRs) are present in both. But, the thermophilic protein monomers show greater ability to ‘stow away’ the APRs in their hydrophobic cores and protect them from solvent exposure. The comparison of amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating hexapeptides suggested distinct preferences for specific residues at the six positions as well as all possible combinations of nine residue pairs. The compositions of residues at different positions and residue pairs have been converted into energy potentials and utilized for distinguishing between amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating peptides. Our method could correctly identify the amyloid forming peptides at an accuracy of 95-100% in different datasets of peptides.

Keywords: aggregation, amyloids, thermophilic proteins, amino acid residues, machine learning techniques

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18215 Aggregation of Butanediyl-1,4-Bis(Tetradecyldimethylammonium Bromide) (14–4–14) Gemini Surfactants in Presence of Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol

Authors: P. Ajmal Koya, Tariq Ahmad Wagay, K. Ismail


One of the fundamental property of surfactant molecules are their ability to aggregate in water or binary mixtures of water and organic solvents as an effort to minimize their unfavourable interaction with the medium. In this work, influence two co-solvents (ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)) on the aggregation properties of a cationic gemini surfactant, butanediyl-1,4-bis(tetradecyldimethylammonium bromide) (14–4–14), has been studied by conductance and steady state fluorescence at 298 K. The weight percentage of two co-solvents varied in between 0 and 50 % at an interval of 5 % up to 20 % and then 10 % up to 50 %. It was found that micellization process is delayed by the inclusion of both the co-solvents; consequently, a progressive increase was observed in critical micelle concentration (cmc) and Gibbs free energy of micellization (∆G0m), whereas a rough increase was observed in the values of degree of counter ion dissociation (α) and a decrease was obtained in values of average aggregation number (Nagg) and Stern-Volmer constant (KSV). At low weight percentage (up to 15 %) of co-solvents, 14–4–14 geminis were found to be almost equally prone to micellization both in EG–water (EG–WR) and in PG–water (PG–WR) mixed media while at high weight percentages they are more prone to micellization in EG–WR than in PG–WR mixed media.

Keywords: aggregation number, gemini surfactant, micellization, non aqueous solvent

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18214 Gas Aggregation and Nanobubbles Stability on Substrates Influenced by Surface Wettability: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Tsu-Hsu Yen


The interfacial gas adsorption presents a frequent challenge and opportunity for micro-/nano-fluidic operation. In this study, we investigate the wettability, gas accumulation, and nanobubble formation on various homogeneous surface conditions by using MD simulation, including a series of 3D and quasi-2D argon-water-solid systems simulation. To precisely determine the wettability on various substrates, several indicators were calculated. Among these wettability indicators, the water PMF (potential of mean force) has the most correlation tendency with interfacial water molecular orientation than depletion layer width and droplet contact angle. The results reveal that the aggregation of argon molecules on substrates not only depending on the level of hydrophobicity but also determined by the competition between gas-solid and water-solid interaction as well as water molecular structure near the surface. In addition, the surface nanobubble is always observed coexisted with the gas enrichment layer. The water structure adjacent to water-gas and water-solid interfaces also plays an important factor in gas out-flux and gas aggregation, respectively. The quasi-2D simulation shows that only a slight difference in the curved argon-water interface from the plane interface which suggests no noticeable obstructing effect on gas outflux from the gas-water interfacial water networks.

Keywords: gas aggregation, interfacial nanobubble, molecular dynamics simulation, wettability

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18213 The Role of Piceatannol in Counteracting Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Aggregation and Nuclear Translocation

Authors: Joanna Gerszon, Aleksandra Rodacka


In the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, protein and peptide aggregation processes play a vital role in contributing to the formation of intracellular and extracellular protein deposits. One of the major components of these deposits is the oxidatively modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Therefore, the purpose of this research was to answer the question whether piceatannol, a stilbene derivative, counteracts and/or slows down oxidative stress-induced GAPDH aggregation. The study also aimed to determine if this natural occurring compound prevents unfavorable nuclear translocation of GAPDH in hippocampal cells. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analysis indicated that one molecule of GAPDH can bind up to 8 molecules of piceatannol (7.3 ± 0.9). As a consequence of piceatannol binding to the enzyme, the loss of activity was observed. Parallel with GAPDH inactivation the changes in zeta potential, and loss of free thiol groups were noted. Nevertheless, the ligand-protein binding does not influence the secondary structure of the GAPDH. Precise molecular docking analysis of the interactions inside the active center allowed to presume that these effects are due to piceatannol ability to assemble a covalent binding with nucleophilic cysteine residue (Cys149) which is directly involved in the catalytic reaction. Molecular docking also showed that simultaneously 11 molecules of ligand can be bound to dehydrogenase. Taking into consideration obtained data, the influence of piceatannol on level of GAPDH aggregation induced by excessive oxidative stress was examined. The applied methods (thioflavin-T binding-dependent fluorescence as well as microscopy methods - transmission electron microscopy, Congo Red staining) revealed that piceatannol significantly diminishes level of GAPDH aggregation. Finally, studies involving cellular model (Western blot analyses of nuclear and cytosolic fractions and confocal microscopy) indicated that piceatannol-GAPDH binding prevents GAPDH from nuclear translocation induced by excessive oxidative stress in hippocampal cells. In consequence, it counteracts cell apoptosis. These studies demonstrate that by binding with GAPDH, piceatannol blocks cysteine residue and counteracts its oxidative modifications, that induce oligomerization and GAPDH aggregation as well as it prevents hippocampal cells from apoptosis by retaining GAPDH in the cytoplasm. All these findings provide a new insight into the role of piceatannol interaction with GAPDH and present a potential therapeutic strategy for some neurological disorders related to GAPDH aggregation. This work was supported by the by National Science Centre, Poland (grant number 2017/25/N/NZ1/02849).

Keywords: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, neurodegenerative disease, neuroprotection, piceatannol, protein aggregation

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18212 Computer Simulation to Investigate Magnetic and Wave-Absorbing Properties of Iron Nanoparticles

Authors: Chuan-Wen Liu, Min-Hsien Liu, Chung-Chieh Tai, Bing-Cheng Kuo, Cheng-Lung Chen, Huazhen Shen


A recent surge in research on magnetic radar absorbing materials (RAMs) has presented researchers with new opportunities and challenges. This study was performed to gain a better understanding of the wave-absorbing phenomenon of magnetic RAMs. First, we hypothesized that the absorbing phenomenon is dependent on the particle shape. Using the Material Studio program and the micro-dot magnetic dipoles (MDMD) method, we obtained results from magnetic RAMs to support this hypothesis. The total MDMD energy of disk-like iron particles was greater than that of spherical iron particles. In addition, the particulate aggregation phenomenon decreases the wave-absorbance, according to both experiments and computational data. To conclude, this study may be of importance in terms of explaining the wave- absorbing characteristic of magnetic RAMs. Combining molecular dynamics simulation results and the theory of magnetization of magnetic dots, we investigated the magnetic properties of iron materials with different particle shapes and degrees of aggregation under external magnetic fields. The MDMD of the materials under magnetic fields of various strengths were simulated. Our results suggested that disk-like iron particles had a better magnetization than spherical iron particles. This result could be correlated with the magnetic wave- absorbing property of iron material.

Keywords: wave-absorbing property, magnetic material, micro-dot magnetic dipole, particulate aggregation

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18211 A QoS Aware Cluster Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Network Using LZW Lossless Compression

Authors: J. S. Saini, P. P. K. Sandhu


The multi-hop nature of Wireless Mesh Networks and the hasty progression of throughput demands results in multi- channels and multi-radios structures in mesh networks, but the main problem of co-channels interference reduces the total throughput, specifically in multi-hop networks. Quality of Service mentions a vast collection of networking technologies and techniques that guarantee the ability of a network to make available desired services with predictable results. Quality of Service (QoS) can be directed at a network interface, towards a specific server or router's performance, or in specific applications. Due to interference among various transmissions, the QoS routing in multi-hop wireless networks is formidable task. In case of multi-channel wireless network, since two transmissions using the same channel may interfere with each other. This paper has considered the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol to locate the secure and optimised path. The proposed technique also utilizes the Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW) based lossless data compression and intra cluster data aggregation to enhance the communication between the source and the destination. The use of clustering has the ability to aggregate the multiple packets and locates a single route using the clusters to improve the intra cluster data aggregation. The use of the LZW based lossless data compression has ability to reduce the data packet size and hence it will consume less energy, thus increasing the network QoS. The MATLAB tool has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of the projected technique. The comparative analysis has shown that the proposed technique outperforms over the existing techniques.

Keywords: WMNS, QOS, flooding, collision avoidance, LZW, congestion control

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18210 Interference Management in Long Term Evolution-Advanced System

Authors: Selma Sbit, Mohamed Bechir Dadi, Belgacem Chibani Rhaimi


Incorporating Home eNodeB (HeNB) in cellular networks, e.g. Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A), is beneficial for extending coverage and enhancing capacity at low price especially within the non-line-of sight (NLOS) environments such as homes. HeNB or femtocell is a small low powered base station which provides radio coverage to the mobile users in an indoor environment. This deployment results in a heterogeneous network where the available spectrum becomes shared between two layers. Therefore, a problem of Inter Cell Interference (ICI) appears. This issue is the main challenge in LTE-A. To deal with this challenge, various techniques based on frequency, time and power control are proposed. This paper deals with the impact of carrier aggregation and higher order MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) schemes on the LTE-Advanced performance. Simulation results show the advantages of these schemes on the system capacity (4.109 b/s/Hz when bandwidth B=100 MHz and when applying MIMO 8x8 for SINR=30 dB), maximum theoretical peak data rate (more than 4 Gbps for B=100 MHz and when MIMO 8x8 is used) and spectral efficiency (15 b/s/Hz and 30b/s/Hz when MIMO 4x4 and MIMO 8x8 are applying respectively for SINR=30 dB).

Keywords: capacity, carrier aggregation, LTE-Advanced, MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output), peak data rate, spectral efficiency

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18209 Performance Assessment of Carrier Aggregation-Based Indoor Mobile Networks

Authors: Viktor R. Stoynov, Zlatka V. Valkova-Jarvis


The intelligent management and optimisation of radio resource technologies will lead to a considerable improvement in the overall performance in Next Generation Networks (NGNs). Carrier Aggregation (CA) technology, also known as Spectrum Aggregation, enables more efficient use of the available spectrum by combining multiple Component Carriers (CCs) in a virtual wideband channel. LTE-A (Long Term Evolution–Advanced) CA technology can combine multiple adjacent or separate CCs in the same band or in different bands. In this way, increased data rates and dynamic load balancing can be achieved, resulting in a more reliable and efficient operation of mobile networks and the enabling of high bandwidth mobile services. In this paper, several distinct CA deployment strategies for the utilisation of spectrum bands are compared in indoor-outdoor scenarios, simulated via the recently-developed Realistic Indoor Environment Generator (RIEG). We analyse the performance of the User Equipment (UE) by integrating the average throughput, the level of fairness of radio resource allocation, and other parameters, into one summative assessment termed a Comparative Factor (CF). In addition, comparison of non-CA and CA indoor mobile networks is carried out under different load conditions: varying numbers and positions of UEs. The experimental results demonstrate that the CA technology can improve network performance, especially in the case of indoor scenarios. Additionally, we show that an increase of carrier frequency does not necessarily lead to improved CF values, due to high wall-penetration losses. The performance of users under bad-channel conditions, often located in the periphery of the cells, can be improved by intelligent CA location. Furthermore, a combination of such a deployment and effective radio resource allocation management with respect to user-fairness plays a crucial role in improving the performance of LTE-A networks.

Keywords: comparative factor, carrier aggregation, indoor mobile network, resource allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
18208 FCNN-MR: A Parallel Instance Selection Method Based on Fast Condensed Nearest Neighbor Rule

Authors: Lu Si, Jie Yu, Shasha Li, Jun Ma, Lei Luo, Qingbo Wu, Yongqi Ma, Zhengji Liu


Instance selection (IS) technique is used to reduce the data size to improve the performance of data mining methods. Recently, to process very large data set, several proposed methods divide the training set into some disjoint subsets and apply IS algorithms independently to each subset. In this paper, we analyze the limitation of these methods and give our viewpoint about how to divide and conquer in IS procedure. Then, based on fast condensed nearest neighbor (FCNN) rule, we propose a large data sets instance selection method with MapReduce framework. Besides ensuring the prediction accuracy and reduction rate, it has two desirable properties: First, it reduces the work load in the aggregation node; Second and most important, it produces the same result with the sequential version, which other parallel methods cannot achieve. We evaluate the performance of FCNN-MR on one small data set and two large data sets. The experimental results show that it is effective and practical.

Keywords: instance selection, data reduction, MapReduce, kNN

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
18207 A Scalable Media Job Framework for an Open Source Search Engine

Authors: Pooja Mishra, Chris Pollett


This paper explores efficient ways to implement various media-updating features like news aggregation, video conversion, and bulk email handling. All of these jobs share the property that they are periodic in nature, and they all benefit from being handled in a distributed fashion. The data for these jobs also often comes from a social or collaborative source. We isolate the class of periodic, one round map reduce jobs as a useful setting to describe and handle media updating tasks. As such tasks are simpler than general map reduce jobs, programming them in a general map reduce platform could easily become tedious. This paper presents a MediaUpdater module of the Yioop Open Source Search Engine Web Portal designed to handle such jobs via an extension of a PHP class. We describe how to implement various media-updating tasks in our system as well as experiments carried out using these implementations on an Amazon Web Services cluster.

Keywords: distributed jobs framework, news aggregation, video conversion, email

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
18206 Automatic Aggregation and Embedding of Microservices for Optimized Deployments

Authors: Pablo Chico De Guzman, Cesar Sanchez


Microservices are a software development methodology in which applications are built by composing a set of independently deploy-able, small, modular services. Each service runs a unique process and it gets instantiated and deployed in one or more machines (we assume that different microservices are deployed into different machines). Microservices are becoming the de facto standard for developing distributed cloud applications due to their reduced release cycles. In principle, the responsibility of a microservice can be as simple as implementing a single function, which can lead to the following issues: - Resource fragmentation due to the virtual machine boundary. - Poor communication performance between microservices. Two composition techniques can be used to optimize resource fragmentation and communication performance: aggregation and embedding of microservices. Aggregation allows the deployment of a set of microservices on the same machine using a proxy server. Aggregation helps to reduce resource fragmentation, and is particularly useful when the aggregated services have a similar scalability behavior. Embedding deals with communication performance by deploying on the same virtual machine those microservices that require a communication channel (localhost bandwidth is reported to be about 40 times faster than cloud vendor local networks and it offers better reliability). Embedding can also reduce dependencies on load balancer services since the communication takes place on a single virtual machine. For example, assume that microservice A has two instances, a1 and a2, and it communicates with microservice B, which also has two instances, b1 and b2. One embedding can deploy a1 and b1 on machine m1, and a2 and b2 are deployed on a different machine m2. This deployment configuration allows each pair (a1-b1), (a2-b2) to communicate using the localhost interface without the need of a load balancer between microservices A and B. Aggregation and embedding techniques are complex since different microservices might have incompatible runtime dependencies which forbid them from being installed on the same machine. There is also a security concern since the attack surface between microservices can be larger. Luckily, container technology allows to run several processes on the same machine in an isolated manner, solving the incompatibility of running dependencies and the previous security concern, thus greatly simplifying aggregation/embedding implementations by just deploying a microservice container on the same machine as the aggregated/embedded microservice container. Therefore, a wide variety of deployment configurations can be described by combining aggregation and embedding to create an efficient and robust microservice architecture. This paper presents a formal method that receives a declarative definition of a microservice architecture and proposes different optimized deployment configurations by aggregating/embedding microservices. The first prototype is based on i2kit, a deployment tool also submitted to ICWS 2018. The proposed prototype optimizes the following parameters: network/system performance, resource usage, resource costs and failure tolerance.

Keywords: aggregation, deployment, embedding, resource allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 97