Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3082

Search results for: cell seeding

3082 Analysis of Weather Radar Data for the Cloud Seeding in Korea, 2018

Authors: Yonghun Ro, Joo-Wan Cha, Sanghee Chae, Areum Ko, Woonseon Jung, Jong-Chul Ha


National Institute of Meteorological Science (NIMS) in South Korea has performed the cloud seeding to support the field of cloud physics. This is to determine the precipitation occurrence analyzing the changes in the microphysical schemes of clouds. NIMS conducted 12 times of cloud seeding in the lower height of the troposphere at Kangwon and Kyunggi provinces throughout 2018. The change in the reflectivity of the weather radar was analyzed to verify the enhancement of precipitation according to the cloud seeding in this study. First, the natural system in the near of the target area was separated to clear the seeding effect. The radar reflectivity in the point of ground gauge station was extracted in every 10 minutes and the increased values during the reaction time of cloud particles and seeding materials were estimated as a seeding effect considering the cloud temperature, wind speed and direction, and seeding line that the aircraft had passed by. The radar reflectivity affected by seeding materials was showed an increment of 5 to 10 dBZ, and enhanced precipitation cloud was also detected in the 11 cases of cloud seeding experiments.

Keywords: cloud seeding, reflectivity, weather radar, seeding effect

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3081 Biological Optimization following BM-MSC Seeding of Partially Demineralized and Partially Demineralized Laser-Perforated Structural Bone Allografts Implanted in Critical Femoral Defects

Authors: S. AliReza Mirghasemi, Zameer Hussain, Mohammad Saleh Sadeghi, Narges Rahimi Gabaran, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad


Background: Despite promising results have shown by osteogenic cell-based demineralized bone matrix composites, they need to be optimized for grafts that act as structural frameworks in load-bearing defects. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells seeding on partially demineralized laser-perforated structural allografts that have been implanted in critical femoral defects. Materials and Methods: P3 stem cells were used for graft seeding. Laser perforation in four rows of three holes was achieved. Cell-seeded grafts were incubated for one hour until they were planted into the defect. We used four types of grafts: partially demineralized only (Donly), partially demineralized stem cell seeded (DST), partially demineralized laser-perforated (DLP), and partially demineralized laser-perforated stem cell seeded (DLPST). histologic and histomorphometric analysis were performed at 12 weeks. Results: Partially demineralized laser-perforated had the highest woven bone formation within graft limits, stem cell seeded demineralized laser-perforated remained intact, and the difference between partially demineralized only and partially demineralized stem cell seeded was insignificant. At interface, partially demineralized laser-perforated and partially demineralized only had comparable osteogenesis, but partially demineralized stem cell seeded was inferior. The interface in stem cell seeded demineralized laser-perforated was almost replaced by distinct endochondral osteogenesis with higher angiogenesis in the vicinity. Partially demineralized stem cell seeded and stem cell seeded demineralized laser-perforated graft surfaces had extra vessel-ingrowth-like porosities, a sign of delayed resorption. Conclusion: This demonstrates that simple cell-based composites are not optimal and necessitates the supplementation of synergistic stipulations and surface changes.

Keywords: structural bone allograft, partial demineralization, laser perforation, mesenchymal stem cell

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3080 ORR Activity and Stability of Pt-Based Electrocatalysts in PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: S. Limpattayanate, M. Hunsom


A comparison of activity and stability of the as-formed Pt/C, Pt-Co, and Pt-Pd/C electrocatalysts, prepared by a combined approach of impregnation and seeding, was performed. According to the activity test in a single proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of the Pt-M/C electro catalyst was slightly lower than that of Pt/C. The j0.9 V and E10 mA/cm2 of the as-prepared electrocatalysts increased in the order of Pt/C>Pt-Co/C>Pt-Pd/C. However, in the medium-to-high current density region, Pt-Pd/C exhibited the best performance. With regard to their stability in a 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte solution, the electro chemical surface area decreased as the number of rounds of repetitive potential cycling increased due to the dissolution of the metals within the catalyst structure. For long-term measurement, Pt-Pd/C was the most stable than the other three electrocatalysts.

Keywords: ORR activity, stability, Pt-based electrocatalysts, PEM fuel cell

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3079 Hydrogel Hybridizing Temperature-Cured Dissolvable Gelatin Microspheres as Non-Anchorage Dependent Cell Carriers for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Dong-An Wang


All kinds of microspheres have been extensively employed as carriers for drug, gene and therapeutic cell delivery. Most therapeutic cell delivery microspheres rely on a two-step methodology: fabrication of microspheres and subsequent seeding of cells onto them. In this study, we have developed a novel one-step cell encapsulation technique using a convenient and instant water-in-oil single emulsion approach to form cell-encapsulated gelatin microspheres. This technology is adopted for hyaline cartilage tissue engineering, in which autologous chondrocytes are used as therapeutic cells. Cell viability was maintained throughout and after the microsphere formation (75-100 µm diameters) process that avoids involvement of any covalent bonding reactions or exposure to any further chemicals. Further encapsulation of cell-laden microspheres in alginate gels were performed under 4°C via a prompt process. Upon the formation of alginate constructs, they were immediately relocated into CO2 incubator where the temperature was maintained at 37°C; under this temperature, the cell-laden gelatin microspheres dissolved within hours to yield similarly sized cavities and the chondrocytes were therefore suspended within the cavities inside the alginate gel bulk. Hence, the gelatin cell-laden microspheres served two roles: as cell delivery vehicles which can be removable through temperature curing, and as porogens within an alginate hydrogel construct to provide living space for cell growth and tissue development as well as better permeability for mutual diffusions. These cell-laden microspheres, namely “temperature-cured dissolvable gelatin microsphere based cell carriers” (tDGMCs), were further encapsulated in a chondrocyte-laden alginate scaffold system and analyzed by WST-1, gene expression analyses, biochemical assays, histology and immunochemistry stains. The positive results consistently demonstrated the promise of tDGMC technology in delivering these non-anchorage dependent cells (chondrocytes). It can be further conveniently translated into delivery of other non-anchorage dependent cell species, including stem cells, progenitors or iPS cells, for regeneration of tissues in internal organs, such as engineered hepatogenesis or pancreatic regeneration.

Keywords: biomaterials, tissue engineering, microsphere, hydrogel, porogen, anchorage dependence

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3078 Exposure Assessment to Airborne Particulate Matter in Agriculture

Authors: K. Rumchev, S. Gilbey


Airborne particulate matter is a known hazard to human health, with a considerable body of evidence linking agricultural dust exposures to adverse human health effects in exposed populations. It is also known that agricultural workers are exposed to high levels of soil dust and other types of airborne particulate matter within the farming environment. The aim of this study was to examine exposure to agricultural dust among farm workers during the seeding season. Twenty-one wheat-belt farms consented to participate in the study with 30 workers being monitored for dust exposure whilst seeding or undertaking seeding associated tasks. Each farm was visited once and farmers’ were asked to wear a personal air sampler for a 4-hour sampling period. Simultaneous, real-time, tractor cabin air quality monitoring was also undertaken. Data for this study was collected using real-time aerosol dust monitors to determine in-tractor cabin PM exposure to five size fractions (total, PM10, respirable, PM2.5 and PM1), and personal sampling was undertaken to establish individual exposure to inhalable and respirable dust concentrations. The study established a significant difference between personal exposures and simultaneous real-time in-cabin exposures for both inhalable and respirable fractions. No significant difference was shown between in-cabin and personal inhalable dust concentrations during seeding and spraying tasks, although both in-cabin and personal concentrations were two times greater for seeding than spraying. Future research should focus on educating and providing farm owners and workers with more information on adopting safe work practices to minimise harmful exposures to agricultural dust.

Keywords: agriculture, air quality, Australia, particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
3077 Biomolecules Based Microarray for Screening Human Endothelial Cells Behavior

Authors: Adel Dalilottojari, Bahman Delalat, Frances J. Harding, Michaelia P. Cockshell, Claudine S. Bonder, Nicolas H. Voelcker


Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) based therapies continue to be of interest to treat ischemic events based on their proven role to promote blood vessel formation and thus tissue re-vascularisation. Current strategies for the production of clinical-grade EPCs requires the in vitro isolation of EPCs from peripheral blood followed by cell expansion to provide sufficient quantities EPCs for cell therapy. This study aims to examine the use of different biomolecules to significantly improve the current strategy of EPC capture and expansion on collagen type I (Col I). In this study, four different biomolecules were immobilised on a surface and then investigated for their capacity to support EPC capture and proliferation. First, a cell microarray platform was fabricated by coating a glass surface with epoxy functional allyl glycidyl ether plasma polymer (AGEpp) to mediate biomolecule binding. The four candidate biomolecules tested were Col I, collagen type II (Col II), collagen type IV (Col IV) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), which were arrayed on the epoxy-functionalised surface using a non-contact printer. The surrounding area between the printed biomolecules was passivated with polyethylene glycol-bisamine (A-PEG) to prevent non-specific cell attachment. EPCs were seeded onto the microarray platform and cell numbers quantified after 1 h (to determine capture) and 72 h (to determine proliferation). All of the extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules printed demonstrated an ability to capture EPCs within 1 h of cell seeding with Col II exhibiting the highest level of attachment when compared to the other biomolecules. Interestingly, Col IV exhibited the highest increase in EPC expansion after 72 h when compared to Col I, Col II and VEGF-A. These results provide information for significant improvement in the capture and expansion of human EPC for further application.

Keywords: biomolecules, cell microarray platform, cell therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, high throughput screening

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3076 Cell Patterns and Tissue Metamorphoses Based on Cell Surface Mechanism

Authors: Reyhane Hamed Kamran


Early stage morphogenesis requires the execution of complex systems that direct the nearby conduct of gatherings of cells. The organization of such instruments has been, for the most part, deciphered through the recognizable proof of moderated groups of flagging pathways that spatially and transiently control cell conduct. In any case, how this data is handled to control cell shape and cell elements is an open territory of examination. The structure that rises up out of differing controls, for example, cell science, material science, and formative science, focuses to bond and cortical actin arranges as controllers of cell surface mechanics. In this specific circumstance, a scope of formative marvels can be clarified by the guideline of cell surface pressure.

Keywords: cell, tissue damage, morphogenesis, cell conduct

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3075 Study of the Combinatorial Impact of Substrate Properties on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration Using Microfluidics

Authors: Nishanth Venugopal Menon, Chuah Yon Jin, Samantha Phey, Wu Yingnan, Zhang Ying, Vincent Chan, Kang Yuejun


Cell Migration is a vital phenomenon that the cells undergo in various physiological processes like wound healing, disease progression, embryogenesis, etc. Cell migration depends primarily on the chemical and physical cues available in the cellular environment. The chemical cue involves the chemokines secreted and gradients generated in the environment while physical cues indicate the impact of matrix properties like nanotopography and stiffness on the cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been shown to have a role wound healing in vivo and its migration to the site of the wound has been shown to have a therapeutic effect. In the field of stem cell based tissue regeneration of bones and cartilage, one approach has been to introduce scaffold laden with MSCs into the site of injury to enable tissue regeneration. In this work, we have studied the combinatorial impact of the substrate physical properties on MSC migration. A microfluidic in vitro model was created to perform the migration studies. The microfluidic model used is a three compartment device consisting of two cell seeding compartments and one migration compartment. Four different PDMS substrates with varying substrate roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity were created. Its surface roughness and stiffness was measured using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) while its hydrphobicity was measured from the water contact angle using an optical tensiometer. These PDMS substrates are sealed to the microfluidic chip following which the MSCs are seeded and the cell migration is studied over the period of a week. Cell migration was quantified using fluorescence imaging of the cytoskeleton (F-actin) to find out the area covered by the cells inside the migration compartment. The impact of adhesion proteins on cell migration was also quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR). These results suggested that the optimal substrate for cell migration would be one with an intermediate level of roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity. A higher or lower value of these properties affected cell migration negatively. These observations have helped us in understanding that different substrate properties need to be considered in tandem, especially while designing scaffolds for tissue regeneration as cell migration is normally impacted by the combinatorial impact of the matrix. These observations may lead us to scaffold optimization in future tissue regeneration applications.

Keywords: cell migration, microfluidics, in vitro model, stem cell migration, scaffold, substrate properties

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3074 Optimizing the Morphology and Flow Patterns of Scaffold Perfusion Systems for Effective Cell Deposition Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Vineeth Siripuram, Abhineet Nigam


A bioreactor is an engineered system that supports a biologically active environment. Along the years, the advancements in bioreactors have been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from sewage treatment to tissue cloning. Driven by tissue and organ shortage, tissue engineering has emerged as an alternative to transplantation for the reconstruction of lost or damaged organs. In this study, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model porous medium flow in scaffolds (taken from the literature) with different flow patterns. A detailed analysis of different scaffold geometries and their influence on cell deposition in the perfusion system is been carried out using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Considering the fact that, the scaffold should mimic the organs or tissues structures in a three-dimensional manner, certain assumptions were made accordingly. The research on scaffolds has been extensively carried out in different bioreactors. However, there has been less focus on the morphology of the scaffolds and the flow patterns in which the perfusion system is laid upon. The objective of this paper is to employ a computational approach using CFD simulation to determine the optimal morphology and the anisotropic measurements of the various samples of scaffolds. Using predictive computational modelling approach, variables which exert dominant effects on the cell deposition within the scaffold were prioritised and corresponding changes in morphology of scaffold and flow patterns in the perfusion systems are made. A Eulerian approach was carried on in multiple CFD simulations, and it is observed that the morphological and topological changes in the scaffold perfusion system are of great importance in the commercial applications of scaffolds.

Keywords: cell seeding, CFD, flow patterns, modelling, perfusion systems, scaffold

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3073 Global Analysis of HIV Virus Models with Cell-to-Cell

Authors: Hossein Pourbashash


Recent experimental studies have shown that HIV can be transmitted directly from cell to cell when structures called virological synapses form during interactions between T cells. In this article, we describe a new within-host model of HIV infection that incorporates two mechanisms: infection by free virions and the direct cell-to-cell transmission. We conduct the local and global stability analysis of the model. We show that if the basic reproduction number R0 1, the virus is cleared and the disease dies out; if R0 > 1, the virus persists in the host. We also prove that the unique positive equilibrium attracts all positive solutions under additional assumptions on the parameters.

Keywords: HIV virus model, cell-to-cell transmission, global stability, Lyapunov function, second compound matrices

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3072 Experimental Simulations of Aerosol Effect to Landfalling Tropical Cyclones over Philippine Coast: Virtual Seeding Using WRF Model

Authors: Bhenjamin Jordan L. Ona


Weather modification is an act of altering weather systems that catches interest on scientific studies. Cloud seeding is a common form of weather alteration. On the same principle, tropical cyclone mitigation experiment follows the methods of cloud seeding with intensity to account for. This study will present the effects of aerosol to tropical cyclone cloud microphysics and intensity. The framework of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model incorporated with Thompson aerosol-aware scheme is the prime host to support the aerosol-cloud microphysics calculations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) ingested into the tropical cyclones before making landfall over the Philippine coast. The coupled microphysical and radiative effects of aerosols will be analyzed using numerical data conditions of Tropical Storm Ketsana (2009), Tropical Storm Washi (2011), and Typhoon Haiyan (2013) associated with varying CCN number concentrations per simulation per typhoon: clean maritime, polluted, and very polluted having 300 cm-3, 1000 cm-3, and 2000 cm-3 aerosol number initial concentrations, respectively. Aerosol species like sulphates, sea salts, black carbon, and organic carbon will be used as cloud nuclei and mineral dust as ice nuclei (IN). To make the study as realistic as possible, investigation during the biomass burning due to forest fire in Indonesia starting October 2015 as Typhoons Mujigae/Kabayan and Koppu/Lando had been seeded with aerosol emissions mainly comprises with black carbon and organic carbon, will be considered. Emission data that will be used is from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The physical mechanism/s of intensification or deintensification of tropical cyclones will be determined after the seeding experiment analyses.

Keywords: aerosol, CCN, IN, tropical cylone

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3071 Performances of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Duanal) as Affected by Method of Planting and Source of Nutrients

Authors: Ewon Kaliyadasa, U. L. B. Jayasinghe, S. E. Peiris


Ashwagandha (Withania sominifera Duanal) is an important medicinal herb belongs to family Solanaceae. This plant has raised its popularity after discovering anti stress and sex stimulating properties that mainly due to the presence of biologically active alkaloid compounds. Therefore it is vital to adapt to a proper agro technological package that ensure optimum growth of ashwagandha to obtain the finest quality without degrading pharmacologically active constituents. Organic and inorganic fertilizer mixtures were combined with direct seeding and transplanting as four different treatments in this study. Tuber fresh and dry weights were recorded up to twelve months starting from two months after sowing (MAS) while shoot height, root length, number of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights and root: shoot ratio up to 6MAS. Results revealed that growth of ashwagandha was not affected significantly by method of planting or type of fertilizer or its combinations during most of the harvests. However, tubers harvested at 6MAS recorded the highest dry tuber weight per plant in all four treatments compared to early harvests where two direct seeded treatments are the best. Chemical comparison of these two treatments, direct seeding coupled with organic and inorganic fertilizer shown that direct seeding with organic treatment recorded the highest values for alkaloid and withaferine A content with lower percentage of fiber. Further these values are in concurring with the values of commercially available tuber samples. Having considered all facts, 6MAS can be recommended as the best harvesting stage to obtain high quality tubers of ashwagandha under local conditions.

Keywords: alkaloids, direct seeding, dry tuber weight, inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizer, transplanting, withaferine a

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3070 Single-Cell Visualization with Minimum Volume Embedding

Authors: Zhenqiu Liu


Visualizing the heterogeneity within cell-populations for single-cell RNA-seq data is crucial for studying the functional diversity of a cell. However, because of the high level of noises, outlier, and dropouts, it is very challenging to measure the cell-to-cell similarity (distance), visualize and cluster the data in a low-dimension. Minimum volume embedding (MVE) projects the data into a lower-dimensional space and is a promising tool for data visualization. However, it is computationally inefficient to solve a semi-definite programming (SDP) when the sample size is large. Therefore, it is not applicable to single-cell RNA-seq data with thousands of samples. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm with an accelerated proximal gradient method and visualize the single-cell RNA-seq data efficiently. We demonstrate that the proposed approach separates known subpopulations more accurately in single-cell data sets than other existing dimension reduction methods.

Keywords: single-cell RNA-seq, minimum volume embedding, visualization, accelerated proximal gradient method

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3069 Enhancing Wheat Productivity for Small-Scale Farmers in the Northern State of Sudan through Developing a Local Made Seed Cleaner and Different Seeding Methods

Authors: Yasir Hassan Satti Mohammed


The wheat cleaner was designed, manufactured, and tested in the workshop of the department of agricultural engineering, faculty of agricultural sciences, university of Dongola, the northern state of Sudan, for the purpose of enhancing productivity for small-scale-farmers who used to plant their saved wheat seeds every season with all risk of weed infestation and low viability. A one-season field experiment was then conducted according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) experimental design in the demonstration farm of Dongola research station using clean seeds and unclean seeds of a local wheat variety (Imam); two different planting methods were also adopted in the experiment. One is the traditional seed drilling within the recommended seed rate (50 kg.feddan⁻¹), whereas the other was the precision seeding method using half of the recommended seed rate (25 kg.feddan⁻¹). The effect of seed type and planting method on field parameters were investigated, and the data was then analyzed using a computer application SAS system version 9.3. The results revealed significant (P ≥ 0.05) and highly significant (P ≥ 0.01) differences between treatments. The precision seeding method with clean seeds increased the number of kernels per spike (KS), tillers per plant (TPP), one thousand kernels mass (TKM), the biomass of wheat (BWT), and total yield (TOY), whereas weeds per area (WSM), the biomass of weeds (BWD) and weight of weed seeds were apparently decreased compared to seed drilling with unclean seed. Wheat seed cleaner could be of great benefit for small-scale wheat farmers in Sudan who cannot afford the cleaned seeds commercially provided by the local government.

Keywords: wheat cleaner, precision seeding, seed drilling method, small-scale farmers

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3068 Up-Regulation of SCUBE2 Expression in Co-Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Hirowati Ali, Aisyah Ellyanti, Dewi Rusnita, Septelia Inawati Wanandi


Stem cell has been known for its potency to be differentiated in many cells. Recently stem cell has been used for many treatment of degenerative medicine. It is still controversy whether stem cell can be used for therapy or these cells can activate cancer stem cell. SCUBE2 is a novel secreted and membrane-anchored protein which has been reported to its role in better prognosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our study aims to observe whether stem cell can up-regulate SCUBE2 gene in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We used in vitro study using MCF-7 cell treated with stem cell derived from placenta Wharton's jelly which has been known for its stemness and widely used. Our results showed that MCF-7 cell line grows up rapidly in 6-well culture dish. Stem cell was cultured in 6-well dish. After 50%-60% MCF-7 confluence, we co-cultured these cells with stem cells for 24 hours and 48 hours. We hypothesize SCUBE2 gene which is previously known for its higher expression in better prognosis of breast cancer, is up-regulated after stem cells addition in MCF7 culture dishes.

Keywords: breast cancer cells, inhibition of cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells, SCUBE2

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3067 Efficient Pre-Processing of Single-Cell Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin with High-Throughput Sequencing Data

Authors: Fan Gao, Lior Pachter


The primary tool currently used to pre-process 10X Chromium single-cell ATAC-seq data is Cell Ranger, which can take very long to run on standard datasets. To facilitate rapid pre-processing that enables reproducible workflows, we present a suite of tools called scATAK for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data that is 15 to 18 times faster than Cell Ranger on mouse and human samples. Our tool can also calculate chromatin interaction potential matrices, and generate open chromatin signal and interaction traces for cell groups. We use scATAK tool to explore the chromatin regulatory landscape of a healthy adult human brain and unveil cell-type specific features, and show that it provides a convenient and computational efficient approach for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data.

Keywords: single-cell, ATAC-seq, bioinformatics, open chromatin landscape, chromatin interactome

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3066 Culture of Primary Cortical Neurons on Hydrophobic Nanofibers Induces the Formation of Organoid-Like Structures

Authors: Nick Weir, Robert Stevens, Alan Hargreaves, Martin McGinnity, Chris Tinsley


Hydrophobic materials have previously demonstrated the ability to elevate cell-cell interactions and promote the formation of neural networks whilst aligned nanofibers demonstrate the ability to induce extensive neurite outgrowth in an aligned manner. Hydrophobic materials typically elicit an immune response upon implantation and thus materials used for implantation are typically hydrophilic. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a hydrophobic, non-immunogenic, FDA approved material that can be electrospun to form aligned nanofibers. Primary rat cortical neurons cultured for 10 days on aligned PLLA nanofibers formed 3D cell clusters, approximately 800 microns in diameter. Neurites that extended from these clusters were highly aligned due to the alignment of the nanofibers they were cultured upon and fasciculation was also evident. Plasma treatment of the PLLA nanofibers prior to seeding of cells significantly reduced the hydrophobicity and abolished the cluster formation and neurite fasciculation, whilst reducing the extent and directionality of neurite outgrowth; it is proposed that hydrophobicity induces the changes to cellular behaviors. Aligned PLLA nanofibers induced the formation of a structure that mimics the grey-white matter compartmentalization that is observed in vivo and thus represents a step forward in generating organoids or biomaterial-based implants. Upon implantation into the brain, the biomaterial architectures described here may provide a useful platform for both brain repair and brain remodeling initiatives.

Keywords: hydrophobicity, nanofibers, neurite fasciculation, neurite outgrowth, PLLA

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3065 Preparation of Gramine Nanosuspension and Protective Effect of Gramine on Human Oral Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

Authors: K. Suresh, R. Arunkumar


The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of gramine nano suspension and protective effect of Gramine on the apoptosis of laryngeal cancer cells cell line (HEp-2 and KB). The growth inhibition rate of Hep-2 and KB cells in vitro were measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by, levels of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, morphological changes and flowcytometry. Based on the results, we determined the effective doses of gramine as 127.23µm/ml for 24 hr and 119.81 µm/ml for 48hr in hep-2 cell line and 147.58 µm ml for 24 hr and 123.74µm µm/ml for 48hr in KB cell line. cytotoxicity effects of gramine were confirmed by treatment of HEp-2 cell and KB cell with IC50 concentration of gramine resulted in sequences of events marked by the enhance the apoptosis accompanied by loss of cell viability, modulation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest on HEp-2 cells. Our study suggests that the nanosuspension of gramine possesses the more cytotoxic effect of cancer cells and a novel candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

Keywords: apoptosis, HEp-2 cell line, KB cell line mitochondria, gramine, nanosuspension

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3064 Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level

Authors: Jefunnie Matahum, Yu-Chi Kuo, Chao-Ming Su, Tzong-Rong Ger


Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, single cell, magnetophoresis, image analysis

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3063 In-Situ Quasistatic Compression and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminium Foams of Different Cell Topology

Authors: M. A. Islam, P. J. Hazell, J. P. Escobedo, M. Saadatfar


Quasistatic compression and micro structural characterization of closed cell aluminium foams of different pore size and cell distributions has been carried out. Metallic foams have good potential for lightweight structures for impact and blast mitigation and therefore it is important to find out the optimized foam structure (i.e. cell size, shape, relative density, and distribution) to maximize energy absorption. In this paper, we present results for two different aluminium metal foams of density 0.5 g/cc and 0.7 g/cc respectively that have been tested in quasi-static compression. The influence of cell geometry and cell topology on quasistatic compression behavior has been investigated using computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. The compression behavior and micro structural characterization will be presented.

Keywords: metal foams, micro-CT, cell topology, quasistatic compression

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3062 Air Conditioning Variation of 1kW Open-Cathode Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell

Authors: Mohammad Syahirin Aisha, Khairul Imran Sainan


The PEM fuel cell is a device that generate electric by electrochemical reaction between hydrogen fuel and oxygen in the fuel cell stack. PEM fuel cell consists of an anode (hydrogen supply), a cathode (oxygen supply) and an electrolyte that allow charges move between the two positions of the fuel cell. The only product being developed after the reaction is water (H2O) and heat as the waste which does not emit greenhouse gasses. The performance of fuel cell affected by numerous parameters. This study is restricted to cathode parameters that affect fuel cell performance. At the anode side, the reactant is not going through any changes. Experiments with variation in air velocity (3m/s, 6m/s and 9m/s), temperature (10oC, 20oC, 35oC) and relative humidity (50%, 60%, and 70%) have been carried out. The experiments results are presented in the form of fuel cell stack power output over time, which demonstrate the impacts of the various air condition on the execution of the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the experimental analysis shows that with variation of air conditions, it gives different fuel cell performance behavior. The maximum power output of the experiment was measured at an ambient temperature of 25oC with relative humidity and 9m/s velocity of air.

Keywords: air-breathing PEM fuel cell, cathode side, performance, variation in air condition

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3061 Modelling and Simulation of Light and Temperature Efficient Interdigitated Back- Surface-Contact Solar Cell with 28.81% Efficiency Rate

Authors: Mahfuzur Rahman


Back-contact solar cells improve optical properties by moving all electrically conducting parts to the back of the cell. The cell's structure allows silicon solar cells to surpass the 25% efficiency barrier and interdigitated solar cells are now the most efficient. In this work, the fabrication of a light, efficient and temperature resistant interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cell is investigated. This form of solar cell differs from a conventional solar cell in that the electrodes are located at the back of the cell, eliminating the need for grids on the top, allowing the full surface area of the cell to receive sunlight, resulting in increased efficiency. In this project, we will use SILVACO TCAD, an optoelectronic device simulator, to construct a very thin solar cell with dimensions of 100x250um in 2D Luminous. The influence of sunlight intensity and atmospheric temperature on solar cell output power is highly essential and it has been explored in this work. The cell's optimum performance with 150um bulk thickness provides 28.81% efficiency with an 87.68% fill factor rate making it very thin, flexible and resilient, providing diverse operational capabilities.

Keywords: interdigitated, shading, recombination loss, incident-plane, drift-diffusion, luminous, SILVACO

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3060 Cell Elevator: A Novel Technique for Cell Sorting and Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Discrimination

Authors: Kevin Zhao, Norman J. Horing


A methodology for cells sorting and circulating tumor cell detection and discrimination is presented in this paper. The technique is based on Dielectrophoresis and microfluidic device theory. Specifically, the sorting of the cells is realized by adjusting the relation among the sedimentation forces, the drag force provided by the fluid, and the Dielectrophortic force that is relevant to the bias voltage applied on the device. The relation leads to manipulation of the elevation of the cells of the same kind to a height by controlling the bias voltage. Once the cells have been lifted to a position next to the bottom of the cell collection channel, the buffer fluid flashes them into the cell collection channel. Repeated elevation of the cells leads to a complete sorting of the cells in the sample chamber. A proof-of-principle example is presented which verifies the feasibility of the methodology.

Keywords: cell sorter, CTC cell, detection and discrimination, dielectrophoresisords, simulation

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3059 Adaptive Discharge Time Control for Battery Operation Time Enhancement

Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee


This paper proposes an adaptive discharge time control method to balance cell voltages in alternating battery cell discharging method. In the alternating battery cell discharging method, battery cells are periodically discharged in turn. Recovery effect increases battery output voltage while the given battery cell rests without discharging, thus battery operation time of target system increases. However, voltage mismatch between cells leads two problems. First, voltage difference between cells induces inter-cell current with wasted power. Second, it degrades battery operation time, since system stops when any cell reaches to the minimum system operation voltage. To solve this problem, the proposed method adaptively controls cell discharge time to equalize both cell voltages. In the proposed method, battery operation time increases about 19%, while alternating battery cell discharging method shows about 7% improvement.

Keywords: battery, recovery effect, low-power, alternating battery cell discharging, adaptive discharge time control

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3058 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann


This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization

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3057 Experimental Investigation of Performance Anode Side of PEM Fuel Cell with Spin Method Coated with YSZ+SDC

Authors: Gürol Önal, Kevser Dinçer, Salih Yayla


In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cell was experimentally investigated. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using YSZ+SDC. A solution having 0,1 gr YttriaStabilized Zirconia (YSZ) + 0,1 Samarium-Doped Ceria (SDC) + 10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a micro-pipette. Then the anode side of PEM fuel cell was coated with YSZ+ SDC by using spin method. In the experimental study, current, voltage and power performances before and after coating were recorded and then compared to each other. It was found that the efficiency of PEM fuel cell increases after the coating with YSZ+SDC.

Keywords: fuel cell, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM), membrane, spin method

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3056 Entry Inhibitors Are Less Effective at Preventing Cell-Associated HIV-2 Infection than HIV-1

Authors: A. R. Diniz, P. Borrego, I. Bártolo, N. Taveira


Cell-to-cell transmission plays a critical role in the spread of HIV-1 infection in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of HIV-1 cell-associated infection by antiretroviral drugs and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is more difficult compared to cell-free infection. Limited data exists on cell-associated infection by HIV-2 and its inhibition. In this work, we determined the ability of entry inhibitors to inhibit HIV-1 and HIV-2 cell-to cell fusion as a proxy to cell-associated infection. We developed a method in which Hela-CD4-cells are first transfected with a Tat expressing plasmid (pcDNA3.1+/Tat101) and infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing either the HIV-1 (vPE16: from isolate HTLV-IIIB, clone BH8, X4 tropism) or HIV-2 (vSC50: from HIV-2SBL/ISY, R5 and X4 tropism) envelope glycoproteins (M.O.I.=1 PFU/cell).These cells are added to TZM-bl cells. When cell-to-cell fusion (syncytia) occurs the Tat protein diffuses to the TZM-bl cells activating the expression of a reporter gene (luciferase). We tested several entry inhibitors including the fusion inhibitors T1249, T20 and P3, the CCR5 antagonists MVC and TAK-779, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 and several HIV-2 neutralizing antibodies (Nabs). All compounds inhibited HIV-1 and HIV-2 cell fusion albeit to different levels. Maximum percentage of HIV-2 inhibition (MPI) was higher for fusion inhibitors (T1249- 99.8%; P3- 95%, T20-90%) followed by co-receptor antagonists (MVC- 63%; TAK-779- 55%; AMD3100- 45%). NAbs from HIV-2 infected patients did not prevent cell fusion up to the tested concentration of 4μg/ml. As for HIV-1, MPI reached 100% with TAK-779 and T1249. For the other antivirals, MPIs were: P3-79%; T20-75%; AMD3100-61%; MVC-65%.These results are consistent with published data. Maraviroc had the lowest IC50 both for HIV-2 and HIV-1 (IC50 HIV-2= 0.06 μM; HIV-1=0.0076μM). Highest IC50 were observed with T20 for HIV-2 (3.86μM) and with TAK-779 for HIV-1 (12.64μM). Overall, our results show that entry inhibitors in clinical use are less effective at preventing Env mediated cell-to-cell-fusion in HIV-2 than in HIV-1 which suggests that cell-associated HIV-2 infection will be more difficult to inhibit compared to HIV-1. The method described here will be useful to screen for new HIV entry inhibitors.

Keywords: cell-to-cell fusion, entry inhibitors, HIV, NAbs, vaccinia virus

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3055 The Current Use of Cell Phone in Education

Authors: Elham A. Alsadoon, Hamadah B. Alsadoon


Educators try to design learning environments that are preferred by their students. With the wide-spread adoption of cell phones surpassing any other technology, educators should not fail to invest in the power of such technology. This study aimed to explore the current use of cell phones in education among Saudi students in Saudi universities and how students perceive such use. Data was collected from 237 students at King Saud University. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data. A T-test for independent groups was used to examine whether there was a significant difference between males and females in their perception of using cell phones in education. Findings suggested that students have a positive attitude toward the use of cell phones in education. The most accepted use was for sending notification to students, which has already been experienced through the Twasel system provided by King Saud University. This electronic system allows instructors to easily send any SMS or email to their students. The use of cell phone applications came in the second rank of using cell phones in education. Students have already experienced the benefits of having these applications handy wherever they go. On the other hand, they did not perceive using cell phones for assessment as practical educational usage. No gender difference was detected in terms of students’ perceptions toward using cell phones in education.

Keywords: cell phone, mobile learning, educational sciences, education

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3054 Synthesis and Application of Oligosaccharides Representing Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

Authors: Mads H. Clausen


Plant cell walls are structurally complex and contain a larger number of diverse carbohydrate polymers. These plant fibers are a highly valuable bio-resource and the focus of food, energy and health research. We are interested in studying the interplay of plant cell wall carbohydrates with proteins such as enzymes, cell surface lectins and antibodies. However, detailed molecular level investigations of such interactions are hampered by the heterogeneity and diversity of the polymers of interest. To circumvent this, we target well-defined oligosaccharides with representative structures that can be used for characterizing protein-carbohydrate binding. The presentation will highlight chemical syntheses of plant cell wall oligosaccharides from our group and provide examples from studies of their interactions with proteins.

Keywords: oligosaccharides, carbohydrate chemistry, plant cell walls, carbohydrate-acting enzymes

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3053 Structural Evaluation of Cell-Filled Pavement

Authors: Subrat Roy


This paper describes the findings of a study carried out for evaluating the performance of cell-filled pavement for low volume roads. Details of laboratory investigations and the methodology adopted for construction of cell-filled pavement are presented. The aim of this study is to evaluate the structural behaviour of cement concrete filled cell pavement laid over three different types of subbases (water bound macadam, soil-cement and moorum). A formwork of cells of a thin plastic sheet was used to construct the cell-filled pavements to form flexible, interlocked block pavements. Surface deflections were measured using falling weight deflectometer and benkelman beam methods. Resilient moduli of pavement layers were estimated from the measured deflections. A comparison of deflections obtained from both the methodology is also presented.

Keywords: cell-filled pavement, WBM, FWD, Moorum

Procedia PDF Downloads 231