Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Afshin Jahangirzadeh

45 Effects of Coastal Structure Construction on Ecosystem

Authors: Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Shatirah Akib, Keyvan Kimiaei, Hossein Basser

Abstract:

Coastal defense structures were built to protect part of shore from beach erosion and flooding by sea water. Effects of coastal defense structures can be negative or positive. Some of the effects are beneficial in socioeconomic aspect, but environment matters should be given more concerns because it can bring bad consequences to the earth landscape and make the ecosystem be unbalanced. This study concerns on the negative impacts as they are dominant. Coastal structures can extremely impact the shoreline configuration. Artificial structures can influence sediment transport, split the coastal space, etc. This can result in habitats loss and lead to noise and visual disturbance of birds. There are two types of coastal defense structures, hard coastal structure and soft coastal structure. Both coastal structures have their own impacts. The impacts are induced during the construction, maintaining, and operation of the structures.

Keywords: ecosystem, environmental impact, hard coastal structures, soft coastal structures

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44 Retrofitting of Bridge Piers against the Scour Damages: Case Study of the Marand-Soofian Route Bridge

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Hossein Basser, Hojat Karami, Afshin Jahangirzadeh

Abstract:

Bridge piers which are constructed in the track of high water rivers cause some variations in the flow patterns. This variation mostly is a result of the changes in river sections. Decreasing the river section, bridge piers significantly impress the flow patterns. Once the flow approaches the piers, the stream lines change their order, causing the appearance of different flow patterns around the bridge piers. New flow patterns are created following the geometry and the other technical characteristics of the piers. One of the most significant consequences of this event is the scour generated around the bridge piers which threatens the safety of the structure. In order to determine the properties of scour holes, to find maximum depth of the scour is an important factor. In this manuscript a numerical simulation of the scour around Marand-Soofian route bridge piers has been carried out via SSIIM 2.0 Software and the amount of maximum scour has been achieved subsequently. Eventually the methods for retrofitting of bridge piers against scours and also the methods for decreasing the amount of scour have been offered.

Keywords: scour, bridge pier, numerical simulation, SSIIM 2.0

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43 Comparison of Pbs/Zns Quantum Dots Synthesis Methods

Authors: Mahbobeh Bozhmehrani, Afshin Farah Bakhsh

Abstract:

Nanoparticles with PbS core of 12 nm and shell of approximately 3 nm were synthesized at PbS:ZnS ratios of 1.01:0.1 using Merca Ptopropionic Acid as stabilizing agent. PbS/ZnS nanoparticles present a dramatically increase of Photoluminescence intensity, confirming the confinement of the PbS core by increasing the Quantum Yield from 0.63 to 0.92 by the addition of the ZnS shell. In this case, the synthesis by microwave method allows obtaining nanoparticles with enhanced optical characteristics than those of nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal method.

Keywords: Pbs/Zns, quantum dots, colloidal method, microwave

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
42 Different Methods of Fe3O4 Nano Particles Synthesis

Authors: Arezoo Hakimi, Afshin Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

Herein, we comparison synthesized Fe3O4 using, hydrothermal method, Mechanochemical processes and solvent thermal method. The Hydrothermal Technique has been the most popular one, gathering interest from scientists and technologists of different disciplines, particularly in the last fifteen years. In the hydrothermal method Fe3O4 microspheres, in which many nearly monodisperse spherical particles with diameters of about 400nm, in the mechanochemical method regular morphology indicates that the particles are well crystallized and in the solvent thermal method Fe3O4 nanoparticles have good properties of uniform size and good dispersion.

Keywords: Fe3O4 nanoparticles, hydrothermal method, mechanochemical processes, solvent thermal method

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41 Service-Based Application Adaptation Strategies: A Survey

Authors: Sahba Paktinat, Afshin Salajeghe, Mir Ali Seyyedi, Yousef Rastegari

Abstract:

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) allows modeling of dynamic interaction between incongruous providers, which enables governing the development of complex applications. However, implementation of SOA comes with some challenges, including its adaptability and robustness. Dynamism is inherent to the nature of service-based applications and of their running environment. These factors lead to necessity for dynamic adaptation. In this paper, we try to describe basics and main structure of SOA adaptation process with a conceptual view to this issue. In this survey, we will review the relevant adaptation approaches. This paper allows studying how different approaches deal with service oriented architecture adaptation life-cycle and provides basic guidelines for their analysis, evaluation and comparison.

Keywords: context-aware, dynamic adaptation, quality of services, service oriented architecture, service based application

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40 Using Submerge Fermentation Method to Production of Extracellular Lipase by Aspergillus niger

Authors: Masoumeh Ghasemi, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Arman Farahbakhsh, Ali Asghar Safari

Abstract:

In this study, lipase production has been investigated using submerge fermentation by Aspergillus niger in Kilka fish oil as main substrate. The Taguchi method with an L9 orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of parameters and their levels on lipase productivity. The optimum conditions for Kilka fish oil concentration, incubation temperature and pH were obtained 3 gr./ml 35°C and 7, respectively. The amount of lipase activity in optimum condition was obtained 4.59IU/ml. By comparing this amount with the amount of productivity in the olive oil medium based on the cost of each medium, it was that using Kilka fish oil is 84% economical. Therefore Kilka fish oil can be used as an economical and suitable substrate in the lipase production and industrial usages.

Keywords: lipase, Aspergillus niger, Kilka fish oil, submerge fermentation method

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39 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20° to +20° using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction

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38 Different Methods of Producing Bioemulsifier by Bacillus licheniformis Strains

Authors: Saba Pajuhan, Afshin Farahbakhsh, S. M. M. Dastgheib

Abstract:

Biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers are a structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms, they are amphipathic molecules which reduce surface and interfacial tensions and widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and petroleum industries. In this paper, several methods of bioemulsifer synthesis and purification by Bacillus licheniformis strains (namely ACO1, PTCC 1595 and ACO4) were investigated. Strains were grown in nutrient broth with different conditions in order to get maximum production of bioemulsifer. The purification of bio emulsifier and the quality evaluation of the product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) (98%), Ethanol or HCl to the solution followed by centrifuging. To determine the optimal conditions yielding the highest bioemulsifier production, the effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, NaCl concentration, pH, O₂ levels, incubation time are indispensable and all of them were highly effective in bioemulsifiers production.

Keywords: biosurfactant, bioemulsifier, purification, surface tension, interfacial tension

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37 Effect of Ginger, Red Pepper, and Their Mixture in Diet on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Sarah Jorjani, Afshin Ghelichi, Mazyar Kamali

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of addition of ginger and red pepper and their mixture in diet on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Astronotus ocellatus (Oscar fish). This study had been carried out for 8 weeks. For this reason 132 oscar fishes with intial weight of 2.44±0.26 (gr) were divided into 4 treatments with three replicate as compeletly randomize design test and fed by 100% Biomar diet (T1), Biomar + red pepper (55 mg/kg) (T2), Biomar + ginger (1%) (T3) and Biomar + mixture of red pepper and ginger (T4).The fish were fed in 5% of their body weight. The results showed T2 have significant differences in most of growth parameters in compare with other treatments, such as PBWI, SGR, PER and SR (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences between treatments in FCR and FE (P > 0.05).

Keywords: red pepper, ginger, oscar fish, growth performance, body composition

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36 An Investigation into the Interaction of Concrete Frames and Infilled Masonry Walls with Emphasis on the Connections

Authors: Hamid Fazlollahi, Behzad Rafezy, Hassan Afshin

Abstract:

There masonry infill increases the stiffness of reinforced concrete frames, thus increasing the force of the earthquake also the interaction between the frame and infill, which can have devastating effects on structures. In contrast presence of infill to increase the structural strength and stability. What is seen in the construction and design of structures has largely ignored the effects of infill and regardless infill structure and its positive and negative effects analyzes and designs, that it is not economically justified and the positive effects of positive infill to be increased and almost all of the useful capacity of moment frames used for infill. In this paper, by using ABAQUS software, reinforced concrete frame with masonry infill will be modeled, then add a mechanical rubber element to modify the interaction between the frame and infill and thus reduce the losses caused by the presence of infill explains. Finally, by comparing the analytical curves, benefits of this approach we will study and to present the results of the interaction between the frame and infill masonry needs modification and methods it will provide.

Keywords: masonry infill, mechanical rubber, reinforced concrete frame, interaction, ductility

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35 Urea Amperometric Biosensor Based on Entrapment Immobilization of Urease onto a Nanostructured Polypyrrol and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Hamide Amani, Afshin FarahBakhsh, Iman Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

In this paper, an amprometric biosensor based on surface modified polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed for the quantitative estimation of urea in aqueous solutions. The incorporation of urease (Urs) into a bipolymeric substrate consisting of PPy was performed by entrapment to the polymeric matrix, PPy acts as amperometric transducer in these biosensors. To increase the membrane conductivity, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were added to the PPy solution. The entrapped MWCNT in PPy film and the bipolymer layers were prepared for construction of Pt/PPy/MWCNT/Urs. Two different configurations of working electrodes were evaluated to investigate the potential use of the modified membranes in biosensors. The evaluation of two different configurations of working electrodes suggested that the second configuration, which was composed of an electrode-mediator-(pyrrole and multi-walled carbon nanotube) structure and enzyme, is the best candidate for biosensor applications.

Keywords: urea biosensor, polypyrrole, multi-walled carbon nanotube, urease

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34 Understanding Mudrocks and Their Shear Strength Deterioration Associated with Inundation

Authors: Haslinda Nahazanan, Afshin Asadi, Zainuddin Md. Yusoff, Nik Nor Syahariati Nik Daud

Abstract:

Mudrocks is considered as a problematic material due to their unexpected behaviour specifically when they are contacting with water or being exposed to the atmosphere. Many instability problems of cutting slopes were found lying on high slaking mudrocks. It has become one of the major concerns to geotechnical engineer as mudrocks cover up to 50% of sedimentary rocks in the geologic records. Mudrocks display properties between soils and rocks which can be very hard to understand. Therefore, this paper aims to review the definition, mineralogy, geo-chemistry, classification and engineering properties of mudrocks. As water has become one of the major factors that will rapidly change the behaviour of mudrocks, a review on the shear strength of mudrocks in Derbyshire has been made using a fully automated hydraulic stress path testing system under three states: dry, short-term inundated and long-term inundated. It can be seen that the strength of mudrocks has deteriorated as it condition changed from dry to short-term inundated and finally to long-term inundated.

Keywords: mudrocks, sedimentary rocks, inundation, shear strength

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33 Durability of Lime Treated Soil Reinforced by Natural Fibre under Bending Force

Authors: Vivi Anggraini, Afshin Asadi, Bujang B. K. Huat

Abstract:

Earth structures constructed of marine clay soils have tendency to crack. In order to improve the flexural strength and brittleness, a technique of mixing short fibers is introduced to the soil lime mixture. Coir fiber was used in this study as reinforcing elements. An experimental investigation consisting primarily of flexural tensile tests was conducted to examine the influence of coir fibers on the flexural behaviour of the reinforced soils. The test results demonstrated that the coir fibers were effective in improving the flexural strength and young’s modulus of all soils were examined and ductility after peak strength for reinforced marine clay soil was treated by lime. 5% lime treated soil and 1% coir fiber reinforced soil specimen’s demonstrated good strength and durability when submerged in water and retained 45% of their air-cured strengths.

Keywords: flexural strength, durabilty, lime, coir fibers, bending force, ductility

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32 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Number of Waves on Heat Transfer in a Wavy Wall Enclosure

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard

Abstract:

In this paper the effect of wall waviness of side walls in a two-dimensional wavy enclosure is numerically investigated. Two vertical wavy walls and straight top wall are kept isothermal and the bottom wall temperature is higher and spatially varying with cosinusoidal temperature distribution. A computational code based on Finite-volume approach is used to solve governing equations and SIMPLE method is used for pressure velocity coupling. Test is performed for several different numbers of undulations. The Prandtl number was kept constant and the Ra number denotes that the flow is laminar. Temperature and velocity fields are determined. Therefore, according to the obtained results a correlation is proposed for average Nusselt number as a function of number of side wall waves. The results indicate that the Nusselt number is highly affected by number of waves and increasing it decreases the wavy walls Nusselt number; although the Nusselt number is not highly affected by surface waviness when the number of undulations is below one.

Keywords: cavity, natural convection, Nusselt number, wavy wall

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31 Crystalline Structure of Starch Based Nano Composites

Authors: Farid Amidi Fazli, Afshin Babazadeh, Farnaz Amidi Fazli

Abstract:

In contrast with literal meaning of nano, researchers have been achieving mega adventures in this area and every day more nanomaterials are being introduced to the market. After long time application of fossil-based plastics, nowadays accumulation of their waste seems to be a big problem to the environment. On the other hand, mankind has more attention to safety and living environment. Replacing common plastic packaging materials with degradable ones that degrade faster and convert to non-dangerous components like water and carbon dioxide have more attractions; these new materials are based on renewable and inexpensive sources of starch and cellulose. However, the functional properties of them do not suitable for packaging. At this point, nanotechnology has an important role. Utilizing of nanomaterials in polymer structure will improve mechanical and physical properties of them; nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has this ability. This work has employed a chemical method to produce NCC and starch bio nanocomposite containing NCC. X-Ray Diffraction technique has characterized the obtained materials. Results showed that applied method is a suitable one as well as applicable one to NCC production.

Keywords: biofilm, cellulose, nanocomposite, starch

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30 Immobilization of Enzymes and Proteins on Epoxy-Activated Supports

Authors: Ehsan Khorshidian, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Sina Aghili

Abstract:

Enzymes are promising biocatalysts for many organic reactions. They have excellent features like high activity, specificity and selectivity, and can catalyze under mild and environment friendly conditions. Epoxy-activated supports are almost-ideal ones to perform very easy immobilization of proteins and enzymes at both laboratory and industrial scale. The activated epoxy supports (chitosan/alginate, Eupergit C) may be very suitable to achieve the multipoint covalent attachment of proteins and enzymes, therefore, to stabilize their three-dimensional structure. The enzyme is firstly covalently immobilized under conditions pH 7.0 and 10.0. The remaining groups of the support are blocked to stop additional interaction between the enzyme and support by mercaptoethanol or Triton X-100. The results show support allowed obtaining biocatalysts with high immobilized protein amount and hydrolytic activity. The immobilization of lipases on epoxy support may be considered as attractive tool for obtaining highly active biocatalysts to be used in both aqueous and anhydrous aqueous media.

Keywords: immobilization of enzymes, epoxy supports, enzyme multipoint covalent attachment, microbial lipases

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29 Comparative Study of Propensity for Amyloidogenesis in Male and Female Mice

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi

Abstract:

Reactive amyloidosis is a condition that complicates a long list of chronic inflammation, chronic infectious, malignant, and hereditary disorders. In the present study the propensity for amyloidogenesis in male and female rats on spatio-temporal pattern was evaluated. For this purpose a total of 40 male and female Swiss mice, obtained from Pasteur Institute Tehran, after being weighted were randomly divided into 4 groups including 2 treatment groups [ 10 male (Group A1) and 10 female (Group B1) each], and 2 control groups [10 male (Group A2) and 10 female (Group B2) each]. At the end of 3rd, 5th and 7th weeks of experiment 3 mice were randomly selected and euthnised. Spleen samples of each animal were obtained and preserved in 10% neutral buffer formalin. Sample were then processed through different stages of dehydration, clearing and impregnation and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by alkaline Congo red techniques. The data obtained from polarized microscopic quantitative analysis did show significant differences between groups A1 and B1. A preferential expression of reactive amyloidosis is concluded in male, indicating sex differences in amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, amyloidogenesis, mice, gender

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28 An Abbattoir-Based Study on Relative Prevalence of Histopathologic Patterns of Hepatic Lesions in One-Humped Camels (Camelus deromedarius), Semnan, Iran

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi

Abstract:

An abattoir based study was carried out during spring 2011 to investigate pathological conditions of the liver in camels (Camelus deromedarius) slaughtered in the Semnan slaughter house, Northern East of Iran. In this study, 40 carcasses out of 150 randomly selected carcasses inspected at postmortem, found with liver lesions. Proper tissue samples obtained from the livers with macroscopic lesions, fixed in 10% neutral buffer formaldehyde, processed for routine histopathological techniques, and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by H&E staining techniques. In histopathological examination of hepatic tissues, following changes were observed: Hydatid cysts; 65%, Cirrhosis; 10%, Hepatic lipidosis (Mild to Severe fatty changes); 12.5%, Glycogen deposition; 2.5%, Cholangitis; 2.8%, Cholangiohepatitis; 5%, Calcified hydatid cyst; 2.5%, Hepatic abscess; 2.5%, lipofuscin pigments; 17.5%. It is concluded that the highest and lowest prevalent patterns of hepatic lesions were hydatid cysts and Hepatic abscess respectively.

Keywords: camel, liver, lesion, pathology, slaughterhouse

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27 Functionalized DOX Nanocapsules by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Afsaneh Ghorbanzadeh, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Zakieh Bayat

Abstract:

The drug capsulation was used for release and targeted delivery in determined time, place and temperature or pH. The DOX nanocapsules were used to reduce and to minimize the unwanted side effects of drug. In this paper, the encapsulation methods of doxorubicin (DOX) and the labeling it by the magnetic core of iron (Fe3O4) has been studied. The Fe3O4 was conjugated with DOX via hydrazine bond. The solution was capsuled by the sensitive polymer of heat or pH such as chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide), dextran-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and mPEG-G2.5 PAMAM by hydrazine bond. The drug release was very slow at temperatures lower than 380°C. There was a rapid and controlled drug release at temperatures higher than 380°C. According to experiments, the use mPEG-G2.5PAMAM is the best method of DOX nanocapsules synthesis, because in this method, the drug delivery time to certain place is lower than other methods and the percentage of released drug is higher. The synthesized magnetic carrier system has potential applications in magnetic drug-targeting delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords: drug carrier, drug release, doxorubicin, iron oxide NPs

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26 Effects of Allium Sativum Essential Oil on MIC, MBC and Growth Curve of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus ATCC 43996 and Its Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Production

Authors: Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Zohreh Mashak, Ali Khanjari, Mohammad Adel Rezaei, Fatemeh Mohammadkhan

Abstract:

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium and often causes gastroenteritis because of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked seafood. Studies showed a strong association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) produced by members of this species with its pathogenicity. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil at concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.045% on the minimum inhibitiotory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), growth curve and production of TDH toxin of vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied in BHI model. MIC and MBC of Allium sativum essential oil was estimated 0.03%. The results of this study revealed that the TDH production was significantly affected by Allium sativum EO and titers of TDH production in 0 and 0.005 % were 1/256 whereas this titer in 0.015 % concentration of EO. Concentrations of 0.005 and 0/015 % of garlic essential oil reduced the bacterial growth rate significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. According to the results Allium sativum essential oil showed to be effective against bacterial growth and production of TDH toxin. Its potential application in food systems may be suggested.

Keywords: allium sativum essential oil, vibrio parahaemolyticus, TDH, consumption

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25 Visualized Flow Patterns around and inside a Two-Sided Wind-Catcher in the Presence of Upstream Structures

Authors: M. Afshin, A. Sohankar, M. Dehghan Manshadi, M. R. Daneshgar, G. R. Dehghan Kamaragi

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of an upstream structure on the flow pattern within and around the wind-catcher is experimentally investigated by smoke flow visualization techniques. Wind-catchers are an important part of natural ventilation in residential buildings or public places such as shopping centers, libraries, etc. Wind-catchers might be also used in places of high urban densities; hence their potential to provide natural ventilation in this case is dependent on the presence of upstream objects. In this study, the two-sided wind-catcher model was based on a real wind-catcher observed in the city of Yazd, Iran. The present study focuses on the flow patterns inside and outside the isolated two-sided wind-catcher, and on a two-sided wind-catcher in the presence of an upstream structure. The results show that the presence of an upstream structure influences the airflow pattern force and direction. Placing a high upstream object reverses the airflow direction inside the wind-catcher.

Keywords: natural ventilation, smoke flow visualization, two-sided wind-catcher, flow patterns

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24 Acrylamide Induced Chronic Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Afshin Zahedi, Keivan Jmahidi

Abstract:

Acrylamide (AA) has been shown to cause neurotoxic effects in humans and neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the nephrotoxic effect of acrylamide (ACR) 50 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) were randomly assigned in 4 groups; including 3 treatment groups and 1 control group named as A, B, C, and D respectively. Rats in treatment groups were exposed to 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg ACR per day×90 days p.o (gavage) respectively. The remaining 10 rats in control group received daily p.o (gavage) of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). On day 91, two rats were randomly selected, perfused, dissected and proper samples were collected from their kidneys. Results of histopathological studies based on H&E technique did not show morphologic changes in kidneys of rats belong to groups A, B and D, while moderate to severe morphologic changes including glomerular hypercellularity, global pattern of proliferative glomerulonephritis, occupation of capsular space, and tubular cell swelling and hyaline cast formation, were observed in different stained sections obtained from the kidneys of rats belong to group, C. This finding, beside neurotoxic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects, indicates for the first time another important aspect of toxic effect of ACR, ie, chronic nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: acrylamide, nephrotoxicity, glomerulonephritis, rats

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23 Different Methods Anthocyanins Extracted from Saffron

Authors: Hashem Barati, Afshin Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

The flowers of saffron contain anthocyanins. Generally, extraction of anthocyanins takes place at low temperatures (below 30 °C), preferably under vacuum (to minimize degradation) and in an acidic environment. In order to extract anthocyanins, the dried petals were added to 30 ml of acidic ethanol (pH=2). Amount of petals, extraction time, temperature, and ethanol percentage which were selected. Total anthocyanin content was a function of both variables of ethanol percent and extraction time.To prepare SW with pH of 3.5, different concentrations of 100, 400, 700, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm of sodium metabisulfite were added to aqueous sodium citrate. At this selected concentration, different extraction times of 20, 40, 60, 120, 180 min were tested to determine the optimum extraction time. When the extraction time was extended from 20 to 60 min, the total recovered anthocyanins of sulfur method changed from 650 to 710 mg/100 g. In the EW method Cellubrix and Pectinex enzymes were added separately to the buffer solution at different concentrations of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7%, 10%, and 12.5% and held for 2 hours reaction time at an ambient temperature of 40 °C. There was a considerable and significant difference in trends of Acys content of tepals extracted by pectinex enzymes at 5% concentration and AE solution.

Keywords: saffron, anthocyanins, acidic environment, acidic ethanol, pectinex enzymes, Cellubrix enzymes, sodium metabisulfite

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22 Determination of Safety Distance Around Gas Pipelines Using Numerical Methods

Authors: Omid Adibi, Nategheh Najafpour, Bijan Farhanieh, Hossein Afshin

Abstract:

Energy transmission pipelines are one of the most vital parts of each country which several strict laws have been conducted to enhance the safety of these lines and their vicinity. One of these laws is the safety distance around high pressure gas pipelines. Safety distance refers to the minimum distance from the pipeline where people and equipment do not confront with serious damages. In the present study, safety distance around high pressure gas transmission pipelines were determined by using numerical methods. For this purpose, gas leakages from cracked pipeline and created jet fires were simulated as continuous ignition, three dimensional, unsteady and turbulent cases. Numerical simulations were based on finite volume method and turbulence of flow was considered using k-ω SST model. Also, the combustion of natural gas and air mixture was applied using the eddy dissipation method. The results show that, due to the high pressure difference between pipeline and environment, flow chocks in the cracked area and velocity of the exhausted gas reaches to sound speed. Also, analysis of the incident radiation results shows that safety distances around 42 inches high pressure natural gas pipeline based on 5 and 15 kW/m2 criteria are 205 and 272 meters, respectively.

Keywords: gas pipelines, incident radiation, numerical simulation, safety distance

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21 Acrylamide-Induced Acute Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi

Abstract:

Acrylamide (ACR) has been shown to cause neurotoxic effects in humans and neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the nephrotoxic effect of Acrylamide (ACR), 50 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) housed in polycarbonate boxes as 5 per each, and randomly assigned in 5 groups including 4 exposure groups as A, B, C, and D groups of rats (10 rats per exposure group., total) and were exposed to 0.5, 5, 50, 100 mg/kg ACR per day×11days i.p. respectively. The remaining 10 rats were housed in group (E) as control group. Control rats received daily i.p. injections of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). On day 12, four rats, were randomly selected, perfused , dissected and proper samples were collected from their kidneys. Results of histopathological studies based on H&E technique did show no morphologic changes in kidneys of rats belong to groups A, B and E, while moderate to severe morphologic changes including glomerular hypercellularity, global pattern of proliferative glomerulonephritis, occupation of capsular space, tubular cell swelling and hyaline cast formation, were observed in different stained sections obtained from the kidneys of rats belong to group, C, and D. This finding, beside neurotoxic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects, seems to indicate for the first time another important aspect of toxic effect of ACR, i.e., acute nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: acrylamide, nephrotoxicity, glomerulonephritis, rats

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20 The Methods of Immobilization of Laccase for Direct Transfer in an Enzymatic Fuel Cell

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Hoda Khodadadi

Abstract:

In this paper, we compare five methods of biological fuel cell fabrication by combining a Shewanella oneidensis microbial anode and a laccase-modified air-breathing cathode. As a result of biofuel cell laccase with graphite nanofibers, carbon surface (PAMAN) on the pt/hpg electrode, graphite sheets MWCNT and with (PG) and (MWCNT) showed, respectively. Describes methods for creating controllable and reproducible bio-anodes and demonstrates the versatility of hybrid biological fuel cells. The laccase-based biocathodes prepared either with the crude extract or with the purified enzyme can provide electrochemically active and stable biomaterials. The laccase-based biocathodes prepared either with the crude extract or with the purified enzyme can provide electrochemically active and stable biomaterials. When the device was fed with transdermal extracts, containing only 30μM of glucose, the average peak power was proportionally lower (0.004mW). The result of biofuel cell with graphite nanofibers showed the enzymatic fuel cell reaches 0.5 V at open circuit voltage with both, ethanol and methanol and the maximum current density observed for E2electrode was 228.94mAcm.

Keywords: enzymatic electrode, fuel cell, immobilization, laccase

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19 Detection of Latent Fingerprints Recovered from Arson Simulation by a Novel Fluorescent Method

Authors: Somayeh Khanjani, Samaneh Nabavi, Shirin Jalili, Afshin Khara

Abstract:

Fingerprints are area source of ubiquitous evidence and consequential for establishing identity. The detection and subsequent development of fingerprints are thus inevitable in criminal investigations. This becomes a difficult task in the case of certain extreme conditions like fire. A fire scene may be accidental or arson. The evidence subjected to fire is generally overlooked as there is a misconception that they are damaged. There are several scientific approaches to determine whether the fire was deliberate or not. In such as scenario, fingerprints may be most critical to link the perpetrator to the crime. The reason for this may be the destructive nature of fire. Fingerprints subjected to fire are exposed to high temperatures, soot deposition, electromagnetic radiation, and subsequent water force. It is believed that these phenomena damage the fingerprint. A novel fluorescent and a pre existing small particle reagent were investigated for the same. Zinc carbonates based fluorescent small particle reagent was capable of developing latent fingerprints exposed to a maximum temperature of 800 ̊C. Fluorescent SPR may prove very useful in such cases. Fluorescent SPR reagent based on zinc carbonate is a potential method for developing fingerprints from arson sites. The method is cost effective and non hazardous. This formulation is suitable for developing fingerprints exposed to fire/ arson.

Keywords: fingerprint, small particle reagent (SPR), arson, novel fluorescent

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18 Numerical Simulation of Natural Gas Dispersion from Low Pressure Pipelines

Authors: Omid Adibi, Nategheh Najafpour, Bijan Farhanieh, Hossein Afshin

Abstract:

Gas release from the pipelines is one of the main factors in the gas industry accidents. Released gas ejects from the pipeline as a free jet and in the growth process, the fuel gets mixed with the ambient air. Accordingly, an accidental spark will release the chemical energy of the mixture with an explosion. Gas explosion damages the equipment and endangers the life of staffs. So due to importance of safety in gas industries, prevision of accident can reduce the number of the casualties. In this paper, natural gas leakages from the low pressure pipelines are studied in two steps: 1) the simulation of mixing process and identification of flammable zones and 2) the simulation of wind effects on the mixing process. The numerical simulations were performed by using the finite volume method and the pressure-based algorithm. Also, for the grid generation the structured method was used. The results show that, in just 6.4 s after accident, released natural gas could penetrate to 40 m in vertical and 20 m in horizontal direction. Moreover, the results show that the wind speed is a key factor in dispersion process. In fact, the wind transports the flammable zones into the downstream. Hence, to improve the safety of the people and human property, it is preferable to construct gas facilities and buildings in the opposite side of prevailing wind direction.

Keywords: flammable zones, gas pipelines, numerical simulation, wind effects

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17 Effect of Cuminum Cyminum L. Essential Oil on Staphylococcus Aureus during the Manufacture, Ripening and Storage of White Brined Cheese

Authors: Ali Misaghi, Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Ehsan Sadeghi

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern for clinical infection and food borne illness. Humans and most domesticated animals harbor S. aureus, and so we may expect staphylococci to be present in food products of animal origin or in those handled directly by humans, unless heat processing is applied to destroy them. Cuminum cyminum L. has been allocated the topic of some recent studies in addition to its well-documented traditional usage for treatment of toothache, dyspepsia, diarrhea, epilepsy and jaundice. The air-dried seed of the plant was completely immersed in water and subjected to hydro distillation for 3 h, using a clevenger-type apparatus. In this study, the effect of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil (EO) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus in white brined cheese was evaluated. The experiment included different levels of EO (0, 7.5, 15 and 30 mL/ 100 mL milk) to assess their effects on S. aureus count during the manufacture, ripening and storage of Iranian white brined cheese for up to 75 days. The significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effects of EO (even at its lowest concentration) on this organism were observed. The significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect of the EO on S. aureus shown in this study may improve the scope of the EO function in the food industry.

Keywords: cuminum cyminum L. essential oil, staphylococcus aureus, white brined cheese

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16 Comparison of the Effects of Fresh Leaf, Septum and Peel Extracts of Walnut on Blood Glucose and Pancreatic Structure

Authors: Tahmineh Hasanzadeh, Afshin Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intraperitoneally.In Iranian traditional medicine, septum of walnut shell (SWS) was recommended to reduce blood glucose. For this purpose, 41 male bulb/C mice 25-30 gm were divided into five groups. All the animals received IP injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (220 mg/kg). Two weeks later, the diabetic animals were received daily oral treatment of normal saline and aqueous extract of SWS (200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg) respectively for four weeks. Blood samples were taken from retro orbital sinus before the start of the experiment and repeated each two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and the pancreatic tissues were fixed, prepared and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin for light microscope studies. The results showed that in each group, the SWS extract reduced blood glucose in a long time (p < 0.05). metabolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by the hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract. However, this effect should be determined with scientific researches. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of SWS on blood glucose and histopathological structure of pancreas.

Keywords: septum of walnut, blood glucose, pancreas, diabetes, walnut leaf, walnut peel, insulin

Procedia PDF Downloads 180