Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7423

Search results for: perfusion systems

7423 Optimizing the Morphology and Flow Patterns of Scaffold Perfusion Systems for Effective Cell Deposition Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Vineeth Siripuram, Abhineet Nigam


A bioreactor is an engineered system that supports a biologically active environment. Along the years, the advancements in bioreactors have been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from sewage treatment to tissue cloning. Driven by tissue and organ shortage, tissue engineering has emerged as an alternative to transplantation for the reconstruction of lost or damaged organs. In this study, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model porous medium flow in scaffolds (taken from the literature) with different flow patterns. A detailed analysis of different scaffold geometries and their influence on cell deposition in the perfusion system is been carried out using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Considering the fact that, the scaffold should mimic the organs or tissues structures in a three-dimensional manner, certain assumptions were made accordingly. The research on scaffolds has been extensively carried out in different bioreactors. However, there has been less focus on the morphology of the scaffolds and the flow patterns in which the perfusion system is laid upon. The objective of this paper is to employ a computational approach using CFD simulation to determine the optimal morphology and the anisotropic measurements of the various samples of scaffolds. Using predictive computational modelling approach, variables which exert dominant effects on the cell deposition within the scaffold were prioritised and corresponding changes in morphology of scaffold and flow patterns in the perfusion systems are made. A Eulerian approach was carried on in multiple CFD simulations, and it is observed that the morphological and topological changes in the scaffold perfusion system are of great importance in the commercial applications of scaffolds.

Keywords: cell seeding, CFD, flow patterns, modelling, perfusion systems, scaffold

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7422 Intraoperative ICG-NIR Fluorescence Angiography Visualization of Intestinal Perfusion in Primary Pull-Through for Hirschsprung Disease

Authors: Mohammad Emran, Colton Wayne, Shannon M Koehler, P. Stephen Almond, Haroon Patel


Purpose: Assessment of anastomotic perfusion in Hirschsprung disease using Indocyanine Green (ICG)-near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence angiography. Introduction: Anastomotic stricture and leak are well-known complications of Hirschsprung pull-through procedures. Complications are due to tension, infection, and/or poor perfusion. While a surgeon can visually determine and control the amount of tension and contamination, assessment of perfusion is subject to surgeon determination. Intraoperative use of ICG-NIR enhances this decision-making process by illustrating perfusion intensity and adequacy in the pulled-through bowel segment. This technique, proven to reduce anastomotic stricture and leak in adults, has not been studied in children to our knowledge. ICG, an FDA approved, nontoxic, non-immunogenic, intravascular (IV) dye, has been used in adults and children for over 60 years, with few side effects. ICG-NIR was used in this report to demonstrate the adequacy of perfusion during transanal pullthrough for Hirschsprung’s disease. Method: 8 patients with Hirschsprung disease were evaluated with ICG-NIR technology. Levels of affected area ranged from sigmoid to total colonic Hirschsprung disease. After leveling, but prior to anastomosis, ICG was administered at 1.25 mg (< 2 mg/kg) and perfusion visualized using an NIR camera, before and during anastomosis. Video and photo imaging was performed and perfusion of the bowel was compared to surrounding tissues. This showed the degree of perfusion and demarcation of perfused and non-perfused bowel. The anastomosis was completed uneventfully and the patients all did well. Results: There were no complications of stricture or leak. 5 of 8 patients (62.5%) had modification of the plan based on ICG-NIR imaging. Conclusion: Technologies that enhance surgeons’ ability to visualize bowel perfusion prior to anastomosis in Hirschsprung’s patients may help reduce post-operative complications. Further studies are needed to assess the potential benefits.

Keywords: colonic anastomosis, fluorescence angiography, Hirschsprung disease, pediatric surgery, SPY

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7421 Balanced Ischemia Misleading to a False Negative Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (Stress) Test

Authors: Devam Sheth


Nuclear imaging with stress myocardial perfusion (stress test) is the preferred first line investigation for noninvasive evaluation of ischaemic heart condition. The sensitivity of this test is close to 90 % making it a very reliable test. However, rarely it gives a false negative result which can be explained by the phenomenon termed as “balanced ischaemia”. We present the case of a 78 year Caucasian female without any significant past cardiac history, who presents with chest pain and shortness of breath since one day. The initial ECG and cardiac enzymes were non-impressive. Few hours later, she had some substernal chest pain along with some ST segment depression in the lateral leads. Stress test comes back negative for any significant perfusion defects. However, given her typical symptoms, she underwent a cardiac catheterization which revealed significant triple vessel disease mandating her to get a bypass surgery. This unusual phenomenon of false nuclear stress test in the setting of positive ECG changes can be explained only by balanced ischemia wherein due to global myocardial ischemia, the stress test fails to reveal relative perfusion defects in the affected segments.

Keywords: balanced, false positive, ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging

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7420 Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion on a Patient with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Authors: Jitendra Pratap, Daphne Prybyszcuk, Luke Elliott, Arnold Ng


Introduction: Coronary CT angiography is a non-invasive imaging technique for the assessment of coronary artery disease and has high sensitivity and negative predictive value. However, the correlation between the degree of CT coronary stenosis and the significance of hemodynamic obstruction is poor. The assessment of myocardial perfusion has mostly been undertaken by Nuclear Medicine (SPECT), but it is now possible to perform stress myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) scans quickly and effectively using CT scanners with high temporal resolution. Myocardial CTP is in many ways similar to neuro perfusion imaging technique, where radiopaque iodinated contrast is injected intravenously, transits the pulmonary and cardiac structures, and then perfuses through the coronary arteries into the myocardium. On the Siemens Force CT scanner, a myocardial perfusion scan is performed using a dynamic axial acquisition, where the scanner shuffles in and out every 1-3 seconds (heart rate dependent) to be able to cover the heart in the z plane. This is usually performed over 38 seconds. Report: A CT myocardial perfusion scan can be utilised to complement the findings of a CT Coronary Angiogram. Implementing a CT Myocardial Perfusion study as part of a routine CT Coronary Angiogram procedure provides a ‘One Stop Shop’ for diagnosis of coronary artery disease. This case study demonstrates that although the CT Coronary Angiogram was within normal limits, the perfusion scan provided additional, clinically significant information in regards to the haemodynamics within the myocardium of a patient with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardio Myopathy (HOCM). This negated the need for further diagnostics studies such as cardiac ECHO or Nuclear Medicine Stress tests. Conclusion: CT coronary angiography with adenosine stress myocardial CTP was utilised in this case to specifically exclude coronary artery disease in conjunction with accessing perfusion within the hypertrophic myocardium. Adenosine stress myocardial CTP demonstrated the reduced myocardial blood flow within the hypertrophic myocardium, but the coronary arteries did not show any obstructive disease. A CT coronary angiogram scan protocol that incorporates myocardial perfusion can provide diagnostic information on the haemodynamic significance of any coronary artery stenosis and has the potential to be a “One Stop Shop” for cardiac imaging.

Keywords: CT, cardiac, myocardium, perfusion

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7419 The Role of LSTM Recurrent Neural Network Model with Multiparametric MR Parameters in the Discrimination Between Cerebellar Medulloblastoma and Brainstem Glioma: Most Informative MR Parameters

Authors: Emine Akpınar, Nguyen Minh Duc, Bilgin Keserci


Brain tumors are the second most common cause of death after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in all childhood cancers. The majority of pediatric brain tumors, about 60-70%, originate in the posterior fossa (PF). Medulloblastoma (MB), which is the most common malignant primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood, accounts for approximately 20–25% of all paediatric brain tumors and 40% of all posterior fossa tumors. Brain stem glioma (BG) is account for 10–20% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors in childhood. Although MB is usually locate in the cerebellum, it can either originate in the brainstem or directly invade the brainstem, which can cause the misdiagnosis of MB as a BG. In addition, the treatment and prognosis of MB and BG are different. Thus, the differentiation between these two types of tumors is essential in the field of pediatric radiology. Therefore, in the first part of the study, using filter based feature selection methods, we aimed to find the most informative MR features to discriminate MB from BG. In the second part, obtained most informative features was used as an input for the proposed Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) model, and its classifier performance was measured. The screening MR examinations of 76 patients; MB (n=42) and BG (n=34), were included in the analysis. We, in this study, used mpMRI features, including tissue characteristics of lesion outlining its cellularity, diffusivity, and vascularity.Each LSTM layer consisting of 64 neurons. In addition, the model was compiled with Adam optimizer and Binary Cross-Entropy loss function as parameters and was trained in a batch size of 8 and for 200 epochs. The obtained most relevant features were;The ratio of mean ADC value of tumor to mean ADC value of parenchyma, T1WCE SI of tumor, T1W SI ratio of tumor to parenchyma, T2W SI of tumor, DWI SI of tumor, FLAIR SI of tumor, Semi-quantitative maximum relative enhancement T1-perfusion value of tumor, Semi-quantitative wash-in-rate T1-perfusion value of tumor, Semi-quantitative AUC (Area under the Curve) T1-perfusion value of tumor, The ratio of Semi-quantitative maximum enhancement T1-perfusion value of tumor to Semi-quantitative maximum enhancement T1-perfusion value of parenchyma, The ratio of Semi-quantitative wash-out-rate T1-perfusion value of tumor to Semi-quantitative wash-out-rate T1-perfusion value of parenchyma, The Semi-quantitative wash-out-rate T1-perfusion value of tumor, The ratio of Semi-quantitative maximum relative enhancement T1-perfusion value of tumor to Semi-quantitative maximum relative enhancement T1-perfusion value of parenchyma, The ratio of Semi-quantitative AUCT1-perfusion value of tumor to Semi-quantitative AUCT1-perfusion value of parenchyma, FLAIR SI of tumor, The ratio of Semi-quantitative relative enhancement T1-perfusion value of tumor to Semi-quantitative relative enhancement T1-perfusion value of parenchyma, The ratio of Semi-quantitative wash-in-rate T1-perfusion value of tumor to Semi-quantitative wash-in-rate T1-perfusion value of parenchyma, The ratio of Semi-quantitative time to peak T1-perfusion value of tumor to Semi-quantitative time to peak T1-perfusion value of parenchyma, mean ADC value of parenchyma, DWI SI of parenchyma. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and accuracy are the performance metrics used for analyzing the model. The proposed LSTM model had AUROC value of 0.96 and an accuracy value of 0.95. This preliminary study indicates that LSTMmodel should be considered for discriminating of posterior fossa tumors.

Keywords: medulloblastoma, brainstem glioma, magnetic resonance imaging, long short-term memory network

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7418 Diagnostic Properties of Exercise or Pharmacological Stress Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy in Per-Vessel Basis: A Clinical Validation Study

Authors: Ahmadreza Bagheri, Seyyed S. Eftekhari, Shervin Rashidinia


Background: Various stress tests have been proposed yet to assess patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, their diagnostic properties in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are variable and their applicability remained somewhat vague. The aim of this study is to validate per-vessel diagnostic properties of 3 types of stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in gated SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) using either exercise or pharmacological stress testing with dipyridamole or dobutamine. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of 314 patients who referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran between September 2015 and January 2017 were completely reviewed in this study. All patients underwent coronary angiography within 3 months after stress myocardial perfusion scan. Eventually, the results were analyzed in per-vessel basis to find the proper modality for each involved vessel or scanned site. Results: The mean age of patients was 62.15 ± 4.94 years (30-85) and 35.03% were women. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated as 56.59%, 54.24%, and 55.09%, respectively. These values were 56.43% and 53.25%, 54.46% and 47.36%, 56.75% and 54.83% for dipyridamole and exercise, respectively. Ischemia of the anterior wall through exercise stress testing has the highest diagnostic accuracy in detecting LAD (Left Anterior Descending artery) involvement. Inferior wall hypokinesia and anterolateral wall ischemia during exercise stress testing have the highest diagnostic accuracy in detecting RCA (Right Coronary Artery) and LCX artery (Left Circumflex Artery) stenosis, respectively. Conclusion: Stress myocardial perfusion scan should be carried out on the basis of the findings of the preliminary investigations on suspicion of a specific coronary artery or involved myocardial wall.

Keywords: dipyridamole, dobutamine, single-photon emission computed tomography, stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

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7417 Assessing the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Permeability in PEA-15 Mutant Cat Brain using Magnetization Transfer (MT) Effect at 7T

Authors: Sultan Z. Mahmud, Emily C. Graff, Adil Bashir


Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa (PEA-15) is a multifunctional adapter protein which is associated with the regulation of apoptotic cell death. Recently it has been discovered that PEA-15 is crucial in normal neurodevelopment of domestic cats, a gyrencephalic animal model, although the exact function of PEA-15 in neurodevelopment is unknown. This study investigates how PEA-15 affects the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in cat brain, which can cause abnormalities in tissue metabolite and energy supplies. Severe polymicrogyria and microcephaly have been observed in cats with a loss of function PEA-15 mutation, affecting the normal neurodevelopment of the cat. This suggests that the vital role of PEA-15 in neurodevelopment is associated with gyrification. Neurodevelopment is a highly energy demanding process. The mammalian brain depends on glucose as its main energy source. PEA-15 plays a very important role in glucose uptake and utilization by interacting with phospholipase D1 (PLD1). Mitochondria also plays a critical role in bioenergetics and essential to supply adequate energy needed for neurodevelopment. Cerebral blood flow regulates adequate metabolite supply and recent findings also showed that blood plasma contains mitochondria as well. So the BBB can play a very important role in regulating metabolite and energy supply in the brain. In this study the blood-brain permeability in cat brain was measured using MRI magnetization transfer (MT) effect on the perfusion signal. Perfusion is the tissue mass normalized supply of blood to the capillary bed. Perfusion also accommodates the supply of oxygen and other metabolites to the tissue. A fraction of the arterial blood can diffuse to the tissue, which depends on the BBB permeability. This fraction is known as water extraction fraction (EF). MT is a process of saturating the macromolecules, which has an effect on the blood that has been diffused into the tissue while having minimal effect on intravascular blood water that has not been exchanged with the tissue. Measurement of perfusion signal with and without MT enables to estimate the microvascular blood flow, EF and permeability surface area product (PS) in the brain. All the experiments were performed with Siemens 7T Magnetom with 32 channel head coil. Three control cats and three PEA-15 mutant cats were used for the study. Average EF in white and gray matter was 0.9±0.1 and 0.86±0.15 respectively, perfusion in white and gray matter was 85±15 mL/100g/min and 97±20 mL/100g/min respectively, PS in white and gray matter was 201±25 mL/100g/min and 225±35 mL/100g/min respectively for control cats. For PEA-15 mutant cats, average EF in white and gray matter was 0.81±0.15 and 0.77±0.2 respectively, perfusion in white and gray matter was 140±25 mL/100g/min and 165±18 mL/100g/min respectively, PS in white and gray matter was 240±30 mL/100g/min and 259±21 mL/100g/min respectively. This results show that BBB is compromised in PEA-15 mutant cat brain, where EF is decreased and perfusion as well as PS are increased in the mutant cats compared to the control cats. This findings might further explain the function of PEA-15 in neurodevelopment.

Keywords: BBB, cat brain, magnetization transfer, PEA-15

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7416 Consumption and Diffusion Based Model of Tissue Organoid Development

Authors: Elena Petersen, Inna Kornienko, Svetlana Guryeva, Sergey Simakov


In vitro organoid cultivation requires the simultaneous provision of necessary vascularization and nutrients perfusion of cells during organoid development. However, many aspects of this problem are still unsolved. The functionality of vascular network intergrowth is limited during early stages of organoid development since a function of the vascular network initiated on final stages of in vitro organoid cultivation. Therefore, a microchannel network should be created in early stages of organoid cultivation in hydrogel matrix aimed to conduct and maintain minimally required the level of nutrients perfusion for all cells in the expanding organoid. The network configuration should be designed properly in order to exclude hypoxic and necrotic zones in expanding organoid at all stages of its cultivation. In vitro vascularization is currently the main issue within the field of tissue engineering. As perfusion and oxygen transport have direct effects on cell viability and differentiation, researchers are currently limited only to tissues of few millimeters in thickness. These limitations are imposed by mass transfer and are defined by the balance between the metabolic demand of the cellular components in the system and the size of the scaffold. Current approaches include growth factor delivery, channeled scaffolds, perfusion bioreactors, microfluidics, cell co-cultures, cell functionalization, modular assembly, and in vivo systems. These approaches may improve cell viability or generate capillary-like structures within a tissue construct. Thus, there is a fundamental disconnect between defining the metabolic needs of tissue through quantitative measurements of oxygen and nutrient diffusion and the potential ease of integration into host vasculature for future in vivo implantation. A model is proposed for growth prognosis of the organoid perfusion based on joint simulations of general nutrient diffusion, nutrient diffusion to the hydrogel matrix through the contact surfaces and microchannels walls, nutrient consumption by the cells of expanding organoid, including biomatrix contraction during tissue development, which is associated with changed consumption rate of growing organoid cells. The model allows computing effective microchannel network design giving minimally required the level of nutrients concentration in all parts of growing organoid. It can be used for preliminary planning of microchannel network design and simulations of nutrients supply rate depending on the stage of organoid development.

Keywords: 3D model, consumption model, diffusion, spheroid, tissue organoid

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7415 Development of an Automatic Control System for ex vivo Heart Perfusion

Authors: Pengzhou Lu, Liming Xin, Payam Tavakoli, Zhonghua Lin, Roberto V. P. Ribeiro, Mitesh V. Badiwala


Ex vivo Heart Perfusion (EVHP) has been developed as an alternative strategy to expand cardiac donation by enabling resuscitation and functional assessment of hearts donated from marginal donors, which were previously not accepted. EVHP parameters, such as perfusion flow (PF) and perfusion pressure (PP) are crucial for optimal organ preservation. However, with the heart’s constant physiological changes during EVHP, such as coronary vascular resistance, manual control of these parameters is rendered imprecise and cumbersome for the operator. Additionally, low control precision and the long adjusting time may lead to irreversible damage to the myocardial tissue. To solve this problem, an automatic heart perfusion system was developed by applying a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and a Programmable-Logic-Controller (PLC)-based circuit to control PF and PP. The PLC-based control system collects the data of PF and PP through flow probes and pressure transducers. It has two control modes: the RPM-flow mode and the pressure mode. The RPM-flow control mode is an open-loop system. It influences PF through providing and maintaining the desired speed inputted through the HMI to the centrifugal pump with a maximum error of 20 rpm. The pressure control mode is a closed-loop system where the operator selects a target Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) to control PP. The inputs of the pressure control mode are the target MAP, received through the HMI, and the real MAP, received from the pressure transducer. A PID algorithm is applied to maintain the real MAP at the target value with a maximum error of 1mmHg. The precision and control speed of the RPM-flow control mode were examined by comparing the PLC-based system to an experienced operator (EO) across seven RPM adjustment ranges (500, 1000, 2000 and random RPM changes; 8 trials per range) tested in a random order. System’s PID algorithm performance in pressure control was assessed during 10 EVHP experiments using porcine hearts. Precision was examined through monitoring the steady-state pressure error throughout perfusion period, and stabilizing speed was tested by performing two MAP adjustment changes (4 trials per change) of 15 and 20mmHg. A total of 56 trials were performed to validate the RPM-flow control mode. Overall, the PLC-based system demonstrated the significantly faster speed than the EO in all trials (PLC 1.21±0.03, EO 3.69±0.23 seconds; p < 0.001) and greater precision to reach the desired RPM (PLC 10±0.7, EO 33±2.7 mean RPM error; p < 0.001). Regarding pressure control, the PLC-based system has the median precision of ±1mmHg error and the median stabilizing times in changing 15 and 20mmHg of MAP are 15 and 19.5 seconds respectively. The novel PLC-based control system was 3 times faster with 60% less error than the EO for RPM-flow control. In pressure control mode, it demonstrates a high precision and fast stabilizing speed. In summary, this novel system successfully controlled perfusion flow and pressure with high precision, stability and a fast response time through a user-friendly interface. This design may provide a viable technique for future development of novel heart preservation and assessment strategies during EVHP.

Keywords: automatic control system, biomedical engineering, ex-vivo heart perfusion, human-machine interface, programmable logic controller

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7414 Systematic Formulation Development and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems of Rosuvastatin Employing QbD Approach and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, O. P. Katare, Bhupinder Singh


The current studies entail development of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin, employing rational QbD-based approach for enhancing its oral bioavailability. SNEDDS were prepared using the blend of lipidic and emulsifying excipients, i.e., Peceol, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP. The prepared formulations evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, in situ perfusion studies and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats, which demonstrated 3-4 fold improvement in biopharmaceutical performance of the developed formulations. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay and histopathological studies in intestinal cells revealed the lack of cytotoxicity and thereby safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.

Keywords: SNEDDS, bioavailability, solubility, Quality by Design (QbD)

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7413 Influence of the Local External Pressure on Measured Parameters of Cutaneous Microcirculation

Authors: Irina Mizeva, Elena Potapova, Viktor Dremin, Mikhail Mezentsev, Valeri Shupletsov


The local tissue perfusion is regulated by the microvascular tone which is under the control of a number of physiological mechanisms. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) together with wavelet analyses is the most commonly used technique to study the regulatory mechanisms of cutaneous microcirculation. External factors such as temperature, local pressure of the probe on the skin, etc. influence on the blood flow characteristics and are used as physiological tests to evaluate microvascular regulatory mechanisms. Local probe pressure influences on the microcirculation parameters measured by optical methods: diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and LDF. Therefore, further study of probe pressure effects can be useful to improve the reliability of optical measurement. During pressure tests variation of the mean perfusion measured by means of LDF usually is estimated. An additional information concerning the physiological mechanisms of the vascular tone regulation system in response to local pressure can be obtained using spectral analyses of LDF samples. The aim of the present work was to develop protocol and algorithm of data processing appropriate for study physiological response to the local pressure test. Involving 6 subjects (20±2 years) and providing 5 measurements for every subject we estimated intersubject and-inter group variability of response of both averaged and oscillating parts of the LDF sample on external surface pressure. The final purpose of the work was to find special features which further can be used in wider clinic studies. The cutaneous perfusion measurements were carried out by LAKK-02 (SPE LAZMA Ltd., Russia), the skin loading was provided by the originally designed device which allows one to distribute the pressure around the LDF probe. The probe was installed on the dorsal part of the distal finger of the index figure. We collected measurements continuously for one hour and varied loading from 0 to 180mmHg stepwise with a step duration of 10 minutes. Further, we post-processed the samples using the wavelet transform and traced the energy of oscillations in five frequency bands over time. Weak loading leads to pressure-induced vasodilation, so one should take into account that the perfusion measured under pressure conditions will be overestimated. On the other hand, we revealed a decrease in endothelial associated fluctuations. Further loading (88 mmHg) induces amplification of pulsations in all frequency bands. We assume that such loading leads to a higher number of closed capillaries, higher input of arterioles in the LDF signal and as a consequence more vivid oscillations which mainly are formed in arterioles. External pressure higher than 144 mmHg leads to the decrease of oscillating components, after removing the loading very rapid restore of the tissue perfusion takes place. In this work, we have demonstrated that local skin loading influence on the microcirculation parameters measured by optic technique; this should be taken into account while developing portable electronic devices. The proposed protocol of local loading allows one to evaluate PIV as far as to trace dynamic of blood flow oscillations. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation under project N 18-15-00201.

Keywords: blood microcirculation, laser Doppler flowmetry, pressure-induced vasodilation, wavelet analyses blood

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7412 Quantification of Dispersion Effects in Arterial Spin Labelling Perfusion MRI

Authors: Rutej R. Mehta, Michael A. Chappell


Introduction: Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is an increasingly popular perfusion MRI technique, in which arterial blood water is magnetically labelled in the neck before flowing into the brain, providing a non-invasive measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF). The accuracy of ASL CBF measurements, however, is hampered by dispersion effects; the distortion of the ASL labelled bolus during its transit through the vasculature. In spite of this, the current recommended implementation of ASL – the white paper (Alsop et al., MRM, 73.1 (2015): 102-116) – does not account for dispersion, which leads to the introduction of errors in CBF. Given that the transport time from the labelling region to the tissue – the arterial transit time (ATT) – depends on the region of the brain and the condition of the patient, it is likely that these errors will also vary with the ATT. In this study, various dispersion models are assessed in comparison with the white paper (WP) formula for CBF quantification, enabling the errors introduced by the WP to be quantified. Additionally, this study examines the relationship between the errors associated with the WP and the ATT – and how this is influenced by dispersion. Methods: Data were simulated using the standard model for pseudo-continuous ASL, along with various dispersion models, and then quantified using the formula in the WP. The ATT was varied from 0.5s-1.3s, and the errors associated with noise artefacts were computed in order to define the concept of significant error. The instantaneous slope of the error was also computed as an indicator of the sensitivity of the error with fluctuations in ATT. Finally, a regression analysis was performed to obtain the mean error against ATT. Results: An error of 20.9% was found to be comparable to that introduced by typical measurement noise. The WP formula was shown to introduce errors exceeding 20.9% for ATTs beyond 1.25s even when dispersion effects were ignored. Using a Gaussian dispersion model, a mean error of 16% was introduced by using the WP, and a dispersion threshold of σ=0.6 was determined, beyond which the error was found to increase considerably with ATT. The mean error ranged from 44.5% to 73.5% when other physiologically plausible dispersion models were implemented, and the instantaneous slope varied from 35 to 75 as dispersion levels were varied. Conclusion: It has been shown that the WP quantification formula holds only within an ATT window of 0.5 to 1.25s, and that this window gets narrower as dispersion occurs. Provided that the dispersion levels fall below the threshold evaluated in this study, however, the WP can measure CBF with reasonable accuracy if dispersion is correctly modelled by the Gaussian model. However, substantial errors were observed with other common models for dispersion with dispersion levels similar to those that have been observed in literature.

Keywords: arterial spin labelling, dispersion, MRI, perfusion

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7411 The Nursing Experience in a Stroke Patient after Lumbar Surgery at Surgical Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Yu-Chieh Chen, Kuei-Feng Shen, Chia-Ling Chao


The purpose of this report was to present the nursing experience and case of an unexpected cerebellar hemorrhagic stroke with acute hydrocephalus patient after lumbar spine surgery. The patient had been suffering from an emergent external ventricular drainage and stayed in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit from July 8, 2016, to July 22, 2016. During the period of the case, the data were collected for attendance, evaluation, observation, interview, searching medical record, etc. An integral evaluation of the patient's physiological 'psychological' social and spiritual states was also noted. The author noticed the following major nursing problems including ineffective cerebral perfusion 'physical activity dysfunction' family resource preparation for disability. The author provided nursing care to maintain normal intracranial pressure, along with a well-therapeutic relationship and applied interdisciplinary medical/nursing team to draft an individualized and appropriate nursing plan for them to face the psychosocial impact of the patient disabilities. We also actively participated in the rehabilitation treatments to improve daily activity and confidence. This was deemed necessary to empower them to a more positive attitude in the future.

Keywords: family resourace preparation inability, hemorrhagic sroke, ineffective tissue cerebral perfusion, lumbar spine surgery

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7410 Optimization of Perfusion Distribution in Custom Vascular Stent-Grafts Through Patient-Specific CFD Models

Authors: Scott M. Black, Craig Maclean, Pauline Hall Barrientos, Konstantinos Ritos, Asimina Kazakidi


Aortic aneurysms and dissections are leading causes of death in cardiovascular disease. Both inevitably lead to hemodynamic instability without surgical intervention in the form of vascular stent-graft deployment. An accurate description of the aortic geometry and blood flow in patient-specific cases is vital for treatment planning and long-term success of such grafts, as they must generate physiological branch perfusion and in-stent hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to create patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models through a multi-modality, multi-dimensional approach with boundary condition optimization to predict branch flow rates and in-stent hemodynamics in custom stent-graft configurations. Three-dimensional (3D) thoracoabdominal aortae were reconstructed from four-dimensional flow-magnetic resonance imaging (4D Flow-MRI) and computed tomography (CT) medical images. The former employed a novel approach to generate and enhance vessel lumen contrast via through-plane velocity at discrete, user defined cardiac time steps post-hoc. To produce patient-specific boundary conditions (BCs), the aortic geometry was reduced to a one-dimensional (1D) model. Thereafter, a zero-dimensional (0D) 3-Element Windkessel model (3EWM) was coupled to each terminal branch to represent the distal vasculature. In this coupled 0D-1D model, the 3EWM parameters were optimized to yield branch flow waveforms which are representative of the 4D Flow-MRI-derived in-vivo data. Thereafter, a 0D-3D CFD model was created, utilizing the optimized 3EWM BCs and a 4D Flow-MRI-obtained inlet velocity profile. A sensitivity analysis on the effects of stent-graft configuration and BC parameters was then undertaken using multiple stent-graft configurations and a range of distal vasculature conditions. 4D Flow-MRI granted unparalleled visualization of blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle in both the pre- and postsurgical states. Segmentation and reconstruction of healthy and stented regions from retrospective 4D Flow-MRI images also generated 3D models with geometries which were successfully validated against their CT-derived counterparts. 0D-1D coupling efficiently captured branch flow and pressure waveforms, while 0D-3D models also enabled 3D flow visualization and quantification of clinically relevant hemodynamic parameters for in-stent thrombosis and graft limb occlusion. It was apparent that changes in 3EWM BC parameters had a pronounced effect on perfusion distribution and near-wall hemodynamics. Results show that the 3EWM parameters could be iteratively changed to simulate a range of graft limb diameters and distal vasculature conditions for a given stent-graft to determine the optimal configuration prior to surgery. To conclude, this study outlined a methodology to aid in the prediction post-surgical branch perfusion and in-stent hemodynamics in patient specific cases for the implementation of custom stent-grafts.

Keywords: 4D flow-MRI, computational fluid dynamics, vascular stent-grafts, windkessel

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7409 System for Mechanical Stimulation of the Mesenchymal Stem Cells Supporting Differentiation into Osteogenic Cells

Authors: Jana Stepanovska, Roman Matejka, Jozef Rosina, Marta Vandrovcova, Lucie Bacakova


The aim of this study was to develop a system for mechanical and also electrical stimulation controlling in vitro osteogenesis under conditions more similar to the in vivo bone microenvironment than traditional static cultivation, which would achieve good adhesion, growth and other specific behaviors of osteogenic cells in cultures. An engineered culture system for mechanical stimulation of the mesenchymal stem cells on the charged surface was designed. The bioreactor allows efficient mechanical loading inducing an electrical response and perfusion of the culture chamber with seeded cells. The mesenchymal stem cells were seeded to specific charged materials, like polarized hydroxyapatite (Hap) or other materials with piezoelectric and ferroelectric features, to create electrical potentials for stimulating of the cells. The material of the matrix was TiNb alloy designed for these purposes, and it was covered by BaTiO3 film, like a kind of piezoelectric material. The process of mechanical stimulation inducing electrical response is controlled by measuring electrical potential in the chamber. It was performed a series of experiments, where the cells were seeded, perfused and stimulated up to 48 hours under different conditions, especially pressure and perfusion. The analysis of the proteins expression was done, which demonstrated the effective mechanical and electrical stimulation. The experiments demonstrated effective stimulation of the cells in comparison with the static culture. This work was supported by the Ministry of Health, grant No. 15-29153A and the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic grant No. GA15-01558S.

Keywords: charged surface, dynamic cultivation, electrical stimulation, ferroelectric layers, mechanical stimulation, piezoelectric layers

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7408 Ex-vivo Bio-distribution Studies of a Potential Lung Perfusion Agent

Authors: Shabnam Sarwar, Franck Lacoeuille, Nadia Withofs, Roland Hustinx


After the development of a potential surrogate of MAA, and its successful application for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in artificially embolized rats’ lungs, this microparticulate system were radiolabelled with gallium-68 to synthesize 68Ga-SBMP with high radiochemical purity >99%. As a prerequisite step of clinical trials, 68Ga- labelled starch based microparticles (SBMP) were analysed for their in-vivo behavior in small animals. The purpose of the presented work includes the ex-vivo biodistribution studies of 68Ga-SBMP in order to assess the activity uptake in target organs with respect to time, excretion pathways of the radiopharmaceutical, %ID/g in major organs, T/NT ratios, in-vivo stability of the radiotracer and subsequently the microparticles in the target organs. Radiolabelling of starch based microparticles was performed by incubating it with 68Ga generator eluate (430±26 MBq) at room temperature and pressure without using any harsh reaction condition. For Ex-vivo biodistribution studies healthy White Wistar rats weighing between 345-460 g were injected intravenously 68Ga-SBMP 20±8 MBq, containing about 2,00,000-6,00,000 SBMP particles in a volume of 700µL. The rats were euthanized at predefined time intervals (5min, 30min, 60min and 120min) and their organ parts were cut, washed, and put in the pre-weighed tubes and measured for radioactivity counts through automatic Gamma counter. The 68Ga-SBMP produced >99% RCP just after 10-20 min incubation through a simple and robust procedure. Biodistribution of 68Ga-SBMP showed that initially just after 5 min post injection major uptake was observed in the lungs following by blood, heart, liver, kidneys, bladder, urine, spleen, stomach, small intestine, colon, skin and skeleton, thymus and at last the smallest activity was found in brain. Radioactivity counts stayed stable in lungs with gradual decrease with the passage of time, and after 2h post injection, almost half of the activity were seen in lungs. This is a sufficient time to perform PET/CT lungs scanning in humans while activity in the liver, spleen, gut and urinary system decreased with time. The results showed that urinary system is the excretion pathways instead of hepatobiliary excretion. There was a high value of T/NT ratios which suggest fine tune images for PET/CT lung perfusion studies henceforth further pre-clinical studies and then clinical trials should be planned in order to utilize this potential lung perfusion agent.

Keywords: starch based microparticles, gallium-68, biodistribution, target organs, excretion pathways

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7407 Improving 99mTc-tetrofosmin Myocardial Perfusion Images by Time Subtraction Technique

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Hayato Ishimura, Masao Miyagawa, Teruhito Mochizuki


Quantitative measurement of myocardium perfusion is possible with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using a semiconductor detector. However, accumulation of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in the liver may make it difficult to assess that accurately in the inferior myocardium. Our idea is to reduce the high accumulation in the liver by using dynamic SPECT imaging and a technique called time subtraction. We evaluated the performance of a new SPECT system with a cadmium-zinc-telluride solid-state semi- conductor detector (Discovery NM 530c; GE Healthcare). Our system acquired list-mode raw data over 10 minutes for a typical patient. From the data, ten SPECT images were reconstructed, one for every minute of acquired data. Reconstruction with the semiconductor detector was based on an implementation of a 3-D iterative Bayesian reconstruction algorithm. We studied 20 patients with coronary artery disease (mean age 75.4 ± 12.1 years; range 42-86; 16 males and 4 females). In each subject, 259 MBq of 99mTc-tetrofosmin was injected intravenously. We performed both a phantom and a clinical study using dynamic SPECT. An approximation to a liver-only image is obtained by reconstructing an image from the early projections during which time the liver accumulation dominates (0.5~2.5 minutes SPECT image-5~10 minutes SPECT image). The extracted liver-only image is then subtracted from a later SPECT image that shows both the liver and the myocardial uptake (5~10 minutes SPECT image-liver-only image). The time subtraction of liver was possible in both a phantom and the clinical study. The visualization of the inferior myocardium was improved. In past reports, higher accumulation in the myocardium due to the overlap of the liver is un-diagnosable. Using our time subtraction method, the image quality of the 99mTc-tetorofosmin myocardial SPECT image is considerably improved.

Keywords: 99mTc-tetrofosmin, dynamic SPECT, time subtraction, semiconductor detector

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7406 A 3d Intestine-On-Chip Model Allows Colonization with Commensal Bacteria to Study Host-Microbiota Interaction

Authors: Michelle Maurer, Antonia Last, Mark S. Gresnigt, Bernhard Hube, Alexander S. Mosig


The intestinal epithelium forms an essential barrier to prevent translocation of microorganisms, toxins or other potentially harmful molecules into the bloodstream. In particular, dendritic cells of the intestinal epithelium orchestrate an adapted response of immune tolerance to commensals and immune defense against invading pathogens. Systemic inflammation is typically associated with a dysregulation of this adapted immune response and is accompanied by a disruption of the epithelial and endothelial gut barrier which enables dissemination of pathogens within the human body. To understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the inflammation-associated gut barrier breakdown, it is crucial to elucidate the complex interplay of the host and the intestinal microbiome. A microfluidically perfused three-dimensional intestine-on-chip model was established to emulate these processes in the presence of immune cells, commensal bacteria, and facultative pathogens. Multi-organ tissue flow (MOTiF) biochips made from polystyrene were used for microfluidic perfusion of the intestinal tissue model. The biochips are composed of two chambers separated by a microporous membrane. Each chamber is connected to inlet and outlet channels allowing independent perfusion of the individual channels and application of microfluidic shear stress. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), monocyte-derived macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were assembled on the biochip membrane. Following 7 – 14 days of growth in the presence of physiological flow conditions, the epithelium was colonized with the commensal bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, while the endothelium was perfused with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Additionally, L. rhamnosus was co-cultivated with the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Within one week of perfusion, the epithelial cells formed self-organized and well-polarized villus- and crypt-like structures that resemble essential morphological characteristics of the human intestine. Dendritic cells were differentiated in the epithelial tissue that specifically responds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. LPS is well-tolerated at the luminal epithelial side of the intestinal model without signs of tissue damage or induction of an inflammatory response, even in the presence of circulating PBMC at the endothelial lining. In contrast, LPS stimulation at the endothelial side of the intestinal model triggered the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 via activation of macrophages residing in the endothelium. Perfusion of the endothelium with PBMCs led to an enhanced cytokine release. L. rhamnosus colonization of the model was tolerated in the immune competent tissue model and was demonstrated to reduce damage induced by C. albicans infection. A microfluidic intestine-on-chip model was developed to mimic a systemic infection with a dysregulated immune response under physiological conditions. The model facilitates the colonization of commensal bacteria and co-cultivation with facultative pathogenic microorganisms. Both, commensal bacteria alone and facultative pathogens controlled by commensals, are tolerated by the host and contribute to cell signaling. The human intestine-on-chip model represents a promising tool to mimic microphysiological conditions of the human intestine and paves the way for more detailed in vitro studies of host-microbiota interactions under physiologically relevant conditions.

Keywords: host-microbiota interaction, immune tolerance, microfluidics, organ-on-chip

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7405 Piled Critical Size Bone-Biomimetic and Biominerizable Nanocomposites: Formation of Bioreactor-Induced Stem Cell Gradients under Perfusion and Compression

Authors: W. Baumgartner, M. Welti, N. Hild, S. C. Hess, W. J. Stark, G. Meier Bürgisser, P. Giovanoli, J. Buschmann


Perfusion bioreactors are used to solve problems in tissue engineering in terms of sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply. Such problems especially occur in critical size grafts because vascularization is often too slow after implantation ending up in necrotic cores. Biominerizable and biocompatible nanocomposite materials are attractive and suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering because they offer mineral components in organic carriers – mimicking natural bone tissue. In addition, human adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) can potentially be used to increase bone healing as they are capable of differentiating towards osteoblasts or endothelial cells among others. In the present study, electrospun nanocomposite disks of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (PLGA/a-CaP) were seeded with human ASCs and eight disks were stacked in a bioreactor running with normal culture medium (no differentiation supplements). Under continuous perfusion and uniaxial cyclic compression, load-displacement curves as a function of time were assessed. Stiffness and energy dissipation were recorded. Moreover, stem cell densities in the layers of the piled scaffold were determined as well as their morphologies and differentiation status (endothelial cell differentiation, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis). While the stiffness of the cell free constructs increased over time caused by the transformation of the a-CaP nanoparticles into flake-like apatite, ASC-seeded constructs showed a constant stiffness. Stem cell density gradients were histologically determined with a linear increase in the flow direction from the bottom to the top of the 3.5 mm high pile (r2 > 0.95). Cell morphology was influenced by the flow rate, with stem cells getting more roundish at higher flow rates. Less than 1 % osteogenesis was found upon osteopontin immunostaining at the end of the experiment (9 days), while no endothelial cell differentiation and no chondrogenesis was triggered under these conditions. All ASCs had mainly remained in their original pluripotent status within this time frame. In summary, we have fabricated a critical size bone graft based on a biominerizable bone-biomimetic nanocomposite with preserved stiffness when seeded with human ASCs. The special feature of this bone graft was that ASC densities inside the piled construct varied with a linear gradient, which is a good starting point for tissue engineering interfaces such as bone-cartilage where the bone tissue is cell rich while the cartilage exhibits low cell densities. As such, this tissue-engineered graft may act as a bone-cartilage interface after the corresponding differentiation of the ASCs.

Keywords: bioreactor, bone, cartilage, nanocomposite, stem cell gradient

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7404 Isolation and Transplantation of Hepatocytes in an Experimental Model

Authors: Inas Raafat, Azza El Bassiouny, Waldemar L. Olszewsky, Nagui E. Mikhail, Mona Nossier, Nora E. I. El-Bassiouni, Mona Zoheiry, Houda Abou Taleb, Noha Abd El-Aal, Ali Baioumy, Shimaa Attia


Background: Orthotopic liver transplantation is an established treatment for patients with severe acute and end-stage chronic liver disease. The shortage of donor organs continues to be the rate-limiting factor for liver transplantation throughout the world. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising treatment for several liver diseases and can, also, be used as a "bridge" to liver transplantation in cases of liver failure. Aim of the work: This study was designed to develop a highly efficient protocol for isolation and transplantation of hepatocytes in experimental Lewis rat model to provide satisfactory guidelines for future application on humans.Materials and Methods: Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver by double perfusion technique and bone marrow cells were isolated by centrifugation of shafts of tibia and femur of donor Lewis rats. Recipient rats were subjected to sub-lethal dose of irradiation 2 days before transplantation. In a laparotomy operation the spleen was injected by freshly isolated hepatocytes and bone marrow cells were injected intravenously. The animals were sacrificed 45 day latter and splenic sections were prepared and stained with H & E, PAS AFP and Prox1. Results: The data obtained from this study showed that the double perfusion technique is successful in separation of hepatocytes regarding cell number and viability. Also the method used for bone marrow cells separation gave excellent results regarding cell number and viability. Intrasplenic engraftment of hepatocytes and live tissue formation within the splenic tissue were found in 70% of cases. Hematoxylin and eosin stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed sheets and clusters of cells among the splenic tissues. Periodic Acid Schiff stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed clusters of hepatocytes with intensely stained pink cytoplasmic granules denoting the presence of glycogen. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-α-fetoprotein antibody showed brownish cytoplasmic staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of AFP. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-Prox1 showed brownish nuclear staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of Prox1 gene on these cells. Also, positive expression of Prox1 gene was detected on lymphocytes aggregations in the spleens. Conclusions: Isolation of liver cells by double perfusion technique using collagenase buffer is a reliable method that has a very satisfactory yield regarding cell number and viability. The intrasplenic route of transplantation of the freshly isolated liver cells in an immunocompromised model was found to give good results regarding cell engraftment and tissue formation. Further studies are needed to assess function of engrafted hepatocytes by measuring prothrombin time, serum albumin and bilirubin levels.

Keywords: Lewis rats, hepatocytes, BMCs, transplantation, AFP, Prox1

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7403 Automatic Classification Using Dynamic Fuzzy C Means Algorithm and Mathematical Morphology: Application in 3D MRI Image

Authors: Abdelkhalek Bakkari


Image segmentation is a critical step in image processing and pattern recognition. In this paper, we proposed a new robust automatic image classification based on a dynamic fuzzy c-means algorithm and mathematical morphology. The proposed segmentation algorithm (DFCM_MM) has been applied to MR perfusion images. The obtained results show the validity and robustness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: segmentation, classification, dynamic, fuzzy c-means, MR image

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7402 Considerations When Using the Beach Chair Position for Surgery

Authors: Aniko Babits, Ahmad Daoud


Introduction: The beach chair position (BCP) is a good approach to almost all types of shoulder procedures. However, moving an anaesthetized patient from the supine to sitting position may pose a risk of cerebral hypoperfusion and potential cerebral ischaemia as a result of significant reductions in blood pressure and cardiac output. Hypocapnia in ventilated patients and impaired blood flow to the vertebral artery due to hyperextension, rotation, or tilt of the head may have an impact too. Co-morbidities that may increase the risk of cerebral ischaemia in the BCP include diabetes with autonomic neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease, cardiac disease, severe hypertension, generalized vascular disease, history of fainting, and febrile conditions. Beach chair surgery requires a careful anaesthetic and surgical management to optimize patient safety and minimize the risk of adverse outcomes. Methods: We describe the necessary steps for optimal patient positioning and the aims of intraoperative management, including anaesthetic techniques to ensure patient safety in the BCP. Results: Regardless of the anaesthetic technique, adequate patient positioning is paramount in the BCP. The key steps to BCP are aimed at optimizing surgical success and minimizing the risk of severe neurovascular complications. The primary aim of anaesthetic management is to maintain cardiac output and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to protect cerebral perfusion. Blood pressure management includes treating a fall in MAP of more than 25% from baseline or a MAP less than 70 mmHg. This can be achieved by using intravenous fluids or vasopressors. A number of anaesthetic techniques could also improve cerebral oxygenation, including avoidance of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with general anaesthesia (GA), using regional anaesthesia, maintaining normocapnia and normothermia, and the application of compression stockings. Conclusions: In summary, BCP is a reliable and effective position to perform shoulder procedures. Simple steps to patient positioning and careful anaesthetic management could maximize patient safety and avoid unwanted adverse outcomes in patients undergoing surgery in BCP.

Keywords: beach chair position, cerebral oxygenation, cerebral perfusion, sitting position

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7401 Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing Ibuprofen Derivative Can Protect Heart After Ischemia-Reperfusion

Authors: Virag Vass, Ilona Bereczki, Erzsebet Szabo, Nora Debreczeni, Aniko Borbas, Pal Herczegh, Arpad Tosaki


Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a toxic gas, but it is produced by certain tissues in a small quantity. According to earlier studies, ibuprofen and H₂S has a protective effect against damaging heart tissue caused by ischemia-reperfusion. Recently, we have been investigating the effect of a new water-soluble H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule administered after artificially generated ischemia-reperfusion on isolated rat hearts. The H₂S releasing property of the new ibuprofen derivative was investigated in vitro in medium derived from heart endothelial cell isolation at two concentrations. The ex vivo examinations were carried out on rat hearts. Rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine, xylazine, and heparin. After thoracotomy, hearts were excised and placed into ice-cold perfusion buffer. Perfusion of hearts was conducted in Langendorff mode via the cannulated aorta. In our experiments, we studied the dose-effect of the H₂S releasing molecule in Langendorff-perfused hearts with the application of gradually increasing concentration of the compound (0- 20 µM). The H₂S releasing ibuprofen derivative was applied before the ischemia for 10 minutes. H₂S concentration was measured with an H₂S detecting electrochemical sensor from the coronary effluent solution. The 10 µM concentration was chosen for further experiments when the treatment with this solution was occurred after the ischemia. The release of H₂S is occurred by the hydrolyzing enzymes that are present in the heart endothelial cells. The protective effect of the new H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule can be confirmed by the infarct sizes of hearts using the Triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining method. Furthermore, we aimed to define the effect of the H₂S releasing ibuprofen derivative on autophagic and apoptotic processes in damaged hearts after investigating the molecular markers of these events by western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques. Our further studies will include the examination of LC3I/II, p62, Beclin1, caspase-3, and other apoptotic molecules. We hope that confirming the protective effect of new H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule will open a new possibility for the development of more effective cardioprotective agents with exerting fewer side effects. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the grants of NKFIH- K-124719 and the European Union and the State of Hungary co- financed by the European Social Fund in the framework of GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00043.

Keywords: autophagy, hydrogen sulfide, ibuprofen, ischemia, reperfusion

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7400 A Dynamic Cardiac Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography Using Conventional Gamma Camera to Estimate Coronary Flow Reserve

Authors: Maria Sciammarella, Uttam M. Shrestha, Youngho Seo, Grant T. Gullberg, Elias H. Botvinick


Background: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually assessed for perfusion defects based on the relative intensity distribution. Dynamic cardiac SPECT, on the other hand, is a new imaging technique that is based on time varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF). In this abstract, we report a progress and current status of dynamic cardiac SPECT using conventional gamma camera (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) for estimation of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve. Methods: A group of patients who had high risk of coronary artery disease was enrolled to evaluate our methodology. A low-dose/high-dose rest/pharmacologic-induced-stress protocol was implemented. A standard rest and a standard stress radionuclide dose of ⁹⁹ᵐTc-tetrofosmin (140 keV) was administered. The dynamic SPECT data for each patient were reconstructed using the standard 4-dimensional maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. Acquired data were used to estimate the myocardial blood flow (MBF). The correspondence between flow values in the main coronary vasculature with myocardial segments defined by the standardized myocardial segmentation and nomenclature were derived. The coronary flow reserve, CFR, was defined as the ratio of stress to rest MBF values. CFR values estimated with SPECT were also validated with dynamic PET. Results: The range of territorial MBF in LAD, RCA, and LCX was 0.44 ml/min/g to 3.81 ml/min/g. The MBF between estimated with PET and SPECT in the group of independent cohort of 7 patients showed statistically significant correlation, r = 0.71 (p < 0.001). But the corresponding CFR correlation was moderate r = 0.39 yet statistically significant (p = 0.037). The mean stress MBF value was significantly lower for angiographically abnormal than that for the normal (Normal Mean MBF = 2.49 ± 0.61, Abnormal Mean MBF = 1.43 ± 0. 0.62, P < .001). Conclusions: The visually assessed image findings in clinical SPECT are subjective, and may not reflect direct physiologic measures of coronary lesion. The MBF and CFR measured with dynamic SPECT are fully objective and available only with the data generated from the dynamic SPECT method. A quantitative approach such as measuring CFR using dynamic SPECT imaging is a better mode of diagnosing CAD than visual assessment of stress and rest images from static SPECT images Coronary Flow Reserve.

Keywords: dynamic SPECT, clinical SPECT/CT, selective coronary angiograph, ⁹⁹ᵐTc-Tetrofosmin

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7399 Laser Based Microfabrication of a Microheater Chip for Cell Culture

Authors: Daniel Nieto, Ramiro Couceiro


Microfluidic chips have demonstrated their significant application potentials in microbiological processing and chemical reactions, with the goal of developing monolithic and compact chip-sized multifunctional systems. Heat generation and thermal control are critical in some of the biochemical processes. The paper presents a laser direct-write technique for rapid prototyping and manufacturing of microheater chips and its applicability for perfusion cell culture outside a cell incubator. The aim of the microheater is to take the role of conventional incubators for cell culture for facilitating microscopic observation or other online monitoring activities during cell culture and provides portability of cell culture operation. Microheaters (5 mm × 5 mm) have been successfully fabricated on soda-lime glass substrates covered with aluminum layer of thickness 120 nm. Experimental results show that the microheaters exhibit good performance in temperature rise and decay characteristics, with localized heating at targeted spatial domains. These microheaters were suitable for a maximum long-term operation temperature of 120ºC and validated for long-time operation at 37ºC. for 24 hours. Results demonstrated that the physiology of the cultured SW480 adenocarcinoma of the colon cell line on the developed microheater chip was consistent with that of an incubator.

Keywords: laser microfabrication, microheater, bioengineering, cell culture

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7398 A Radiomics Approach to Predict the Evolution of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Score 3/5 Prostate Areas in Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Natascha C. D'Amico, Enzo Grossi, Giovanni Valbusa, Ala Malasevschi, Gianpiero Cardone, Sergio Papa


Purpose: To characterize, through a radiomic approach, the nature of areas classified PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) 3/5, recognized in multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance with T2-weighted (T2w), diffusion and perfusion sequences with paramagnetic contrast. Methods and Materials: 24 cases undergoing multiparametric prostate MR and biopsy were admitted to this pilot study. Clinical outcome of the PI-RADS 3/5 was found through biopsy, finding 8 malignant tumours. The analysed images were acquired with a Philips achieva 1.5T machine with a CE- T2-weighted sequence in the axial plane. Semi-automatic tumour segmentation was carried out on MR images using 3DSlicer image analysis software. 45 shape-based, intensity-based and texture-based features were extracted and represented the input for preprocessing. An evolutionary algorithm (a TWIST system based on KNN algorithm) was used to subdivide the dataset into training and testing set and select features yielding the maximal amount of information. After this pre-processing 20 input variables were selected and different machine learning systems were used to develop a predictive model based on a training testing crossover procedure. Results: The best machine learning system (three-layers feed-forward neural network) obtained a global accuracy of 90% ( 80 % sensitivity and 100% specificity ) with a ROC of 0.82. Conclusion: Machine learning systems coupled with radiomics show a promising potential in distinguishing benign from malign tumours in PI-RADS 3/5 areas.

Keywords: machine learning, MR prostate, PI-Rads 3, radiomics

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7397 Consequence of Multi-Templating of Closely Related Structural Analogues on a Chitosan-Methacryllic Acid Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Matrix-Thermal and Chromatographic Traits

Authors: O.Ofoegbu, S. Roongnapa, A.N. Eboatu


Most polluted environments, most challengingly, aerosol types, contain a cocktail of different toxicants. Multi-templating of matrices have been the recent target by researchers in a bid to solving complex mixed-toxicant challenges using single or common remediation systems. This investigation looks at the effect of such multi-templated system vis-a-vis the synthesis by non-covalent interaction, of a molecularly imprinted polymer architecture using nicotine and its structural analogue Phenylalanine amide individually and, in the blend, (50:50), as template materials in a Chitosan-Methacrylic acid functional monomer matrix. The temperature for polymerization is 60OC and time for polymerization, 12hrs (water bath heating), 4mins for (microwave heating). The characteristic thermal properties of the molecularly imprinted materials are investigated using Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) profiling, while the absorption and separation efficiencies based on the relative retention times and peak areas of templates were studied amongst other properties. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results obtained, show the creation of heterogeneous nanocavities, regardless, the introduction of Caffeine a close structural analogue presented near-zero perfusion. This confirms the selectivity and specificity of the templated polymers despite its dual-templated nature. The STA results presented the materials as having decomposition temperatures above 250OC and a relative loss in mass of less than19% over a period within 50mins of heating. Consequent to this outcome, multi-templated systems can be fabricated to sequester specifically and selectively targeted toxicants in a mixed toxicant populated system effectively.

Keywords: chitosan, dual-templated, methacrylic acid, mixed-toxicants, molecularly-imprinted-polymer

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7396 Nanotechnology-Based Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections

Authors: Lucian Mocan, Teodora Mocan, Matea Cristian, Cornel Iancu


We present method of nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, using gold nanoparticles combined with a specific growth factor and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy. Ab (antibody solution) bound to GNPs (gold nanoparticles) was administered in vitro and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the microorganism. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy, and at the same time, normal cells were not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the infected tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of Ab bound to GNPs into bacteria following perfusion. These results may represent a major step in antibiotherapy treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, Klebsiella pneumoniae, nanoparticle functionalization, laser irradiation, antibody

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
7395 Direct Current Electric Field Stimulation against PC12 Cells in 3D Bio-Reactor to Enhance Axonal Extension

Authors: E. Nakamachi, S. Tanaka, K. Yamamoto, Y. Morita


In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) direct current electric field (DCEF) stimulation bio-reactor for axonal outgrowth enhancement to generate the neural network of the central nervous system (CNS). By using our newly developed 3D DCEF stimulation bio-reactor, we cultured the rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and investigated the effects on the axonal extension enhancement and network generation. Firstly, we designed and fabricated a 3D bio-reactor, which can load DCEF stimulation on PC12 cells embedded in the collagen gel as extracellular environment. The connection between the electrolyte and the medium using salt bridges for DCEF stimulation was introduced to avoid the cell death by the toxicity of metal ion. The distance between the salt bridges was adopted as the design variable to optimize a structure for uniform DCEF stimulation, where the finite element (FE) analyses results were used. Uniform DCEF strength and electric flux vector direction in the PC12 cells embedded in collagen gel were examined through measurements of the fabricated 3D bio-reactor chamber. Measurement results of DCEF strength in the bio-reactor showed a good agreement with FE results. In addition, the perfusion system was attached to maintain pH 7.2 ~ 7.6 of the medium because pH change was caused by DCEF stimulation loading. Secondly, we disseminated PC12 cells in collagen gel and carried out 3D culture. Finally, we measured the morphology of PC12 cell bodies and neurites by the multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscope (MPM). The effectiveness of DCEF stimulation to enhance the axonal outgrowth and the neural network generation was investigated. We confirmed that both an increase of mean axonal length and axogenesis rate of PC12, which have been exposed 5 mV/mm for 6 hours a day for 4 days in the bioreactor. We found following conclusions in our study. 1) Design and fabrication of DCEF stimulation bio-reactor capable of 3D culture nerve cell were completed. A uniform electric field strength of average value of 17 mV/mm within the 1.2% error range was confirmed by using FE analyses, after the structure determination through the optimization process. In addition, we attached a perfusion system capable of suppressing the pH change of the culture solution due to DCEF stimulation loading. 2) Evaluation of DCEF stimulation effects on PC12 cell activity was executed. The 3D culture of PC 12 was carried out adopting the embedding culture method using collagen gel as a scaffold for four days under the condition of 5.0 mV/mm and 10mV/mm. There was a significant effect on the enhancement of axonal extension, as 11.3% increase in an average length, and the increase of axogenesis rate. On the other hand, no effects on the orientation of axon against the DCEF flux direction was observed. Further, the network generation was enhanced to connect longer distance between the target neighbor cells by DCEF stimulation.

Keywords: PC12, DCEF stimulation, 3D bio-reactor, axonal extension, neural network generation

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7394 Study of Silent Myocardial Ischemia in Type 2 Diabeic Males: Egyptian Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem, Yhea Kishik, Ali Hassan, Mohamed Abdelwahab


Introduction: Accelerated coronary and peripheral vascular atherosclerosis is one of the most common and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. A recent aspect of coronary artery disease in this condition is its silent nature. The aim of the work: Detection of the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) in Upper Egypt type 2 diabetic males and to select male diabetic population who should be screened for SMI. Patients and methods: 100 type 2 diabetic male patients with a negative history of angina or anginal equivalent symptoms and 30 healthy control were included. Full medical history and thorough clinical examination were done for all participants. Fasting and post prandial blood glucose level, lipid profile, (HbA1c), microalbuminuria, and C-reactive protein were done for all participants Resting ECG, trans-thoracic echocardiography, treadmill exercise ECG, myocardial perfusion imaging were done for all participants and patients positive for one or more NITs were subjected for coronary angiography. Results Twenty nine patients (29%) were positive for one or more NITs in the patients group compared to only one case (3.3%) in the controls. After coronary angiography, 20 patients were positive for significant coronary artery stenosis in the patients group, while it was refused to be done by the patient in the controls. There were statistical significant difference between the two groups regarding, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity, family history of DM and IHD with higher levels of microalbuminuria, C-reactive protein, total lipids in patient group versus controls According to coronary angiography, patients were subdivided into two subgroups, 20 positive for SMI (positive for coronary angiography) and 80 negative for SMI (negative for coronary angiography). No statistical difference regarding family history of DM and type of diabetic therapy was found between the two subgroups. Yet, smoking, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and family history of IHD were significantly higher in diabetics positive versus those negative for SMI. 90% of patients in subgroup positive for SMI had two or more cardiac risk factors while only two patients had one cardiac risk factor (10%). Uncontrolled DM was detected more in patients positive for SMI. Diabetic complications were more prevalent in patients positive for SMI versus those negative for SMI. Most of the patients positive for SMI have DM more than 5 years duration. Resting ECG and resting Echo detected only 6 and 11 cases, respectively, of the 20 positive cases in group positive for SMI compared to treadmill exercise ECG and myocardial perfusion imaging that detected 16 and 18 cases respectively, Conclusion: Type 2 diabetic male patients should be screened for detection of SMI when aged above 50 years old, diabetes duration is more than 5 years, presence of two or more cardiac risk factors and/or patients suffering from one or more of the chronic diabetic complications. CRP, is an important parameter for selection of type 2 diabetic male patients who should be screened for SMI. Non invasive cardiac tests are reliable for screening of SMI in these patients in our locality.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, Silent myocardial ischemia, Stress tests, type 2 DM

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