Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Hojat Karami

25 Retrofitting of Bridge Piers against the Scour Damages: Case Study of the Marand-Soofian Route Bridge

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Hossein Basser, Hojat Karami, Afshin Jahangirzadeh


Bridge piers which are constructed in the track of high water rivers cause some variations in the flow patterns. This variation mostly is a result of the changes in river sections. Decreasing the river section, bridge piers significantly impress the flow patterns. Once the flow approaches the piers, the stream lines change their order, causing the appearance of different flow patterns around the bridge piers. New flow patterns are created following the geometry and the other technical characteristics of the piers. One of the most significant consequences of this event is the scour generated around the bridge piers which threatens the safety of the structure. In order to determine the properties of scour holes, to find maximum depth of the scour is an important factor. In this manuscript a numerical simulation of the scour around Marand-Soofian route bridge piers has been carried out via SSIIM 2.0 Software and the amount of maximum scour has been achieved subsequently. Eventually the methods for retrofitting of bridge piers against scours and also the methods for decreasing the amount of scour have been offered.

Keywords: scour, bridge pier, numerical simulation, SSIIM 2.0

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24 A Highly Sensitive Dip Strip for Detection of Phosphate in Water

Authors: Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Amer Charbaji, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri


Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant life which is most frequently found as phosphate in water. Once phosphate is found in abundance in surface water, a series of adverse effects on an ecosystem can be initiated. Therefore, a portable and reliable method is needed to monitor the phosphate concentrations in the field. In this paper, an inexpensive dip strip device with the ascorbic acid/antimony reagent dried on blotting paper along with wet chemistry is developed for the detection of low concentrations of phosphate in water. Ammonium molybdate and sulfuric acid are separately stored in liquid form so as to improve significantly the lifetime of the device and enhance the reproducibility of the device’s performance. The limit of detection and quantification for the optimized device are 0.134 ppm and 0.472 ppm for phosphate in water, respectively. The device’s shelf life, storage conditions, and limit of detection are superior to what has been previously reported for the paper-based phosphate detection devices.

Keywords: phosphate detection, paper-based device, molybdenum blue method, colorimetric assay

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23 An Empirical Investigation of Relationships between Consumer Involvement and Advertisement Effectiveness

Authors: Nasim Karami Mal Amiri, Farhad Razm Azma


Parts of consumer involvement in regards to one product are related to advertisement strategies. Different consumer involvement has different answers to the effectiveness of advertisement. This study has divided the market considering the characteristics and relationship between consumer involvement and the effectiveness of advertisement. The results of this study show consumer involvement which does affect parts of marketing. A positive and direct relationship among consumer involvement and the eventual effectiveness of advertisement has been shown. A great amount of consumer involvement is directly related to advertisement effectiveness. Therefore, consumer involvement is a critical factor in advertisement strategies.

Keywords: consumer involvement, advertisement effectiveness, strategy, effective marketing

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22 Application of Fuzzy Clustering on Classification Agile Supply Chain

Authors: Hamidreza Fallah Lajimi , Elham Karami, Fatemeh Ali nasab, Mostafa Mahdavikia


Being responsive is an increasingly important skill for firms in today’s global economy; thus firms must be agile. Naturally, it follows that an organization’s agility depends on its supply chain being agile. However, achieving supply chain agility is a function of other abilities within the organization. This paper analyses results from a survey of 71 Iran manufacturing companies in order to identify some of the factors for agile organizations in managing their supply chains. Then we classification this company in four cluster with fuzzy c-mean technique and with four validations functional determine automatically the optimal number of clusters.

Keywords: agile supply chain, clustering, fuzzy clustering

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21 Application of Fuzzy Clustering on Classification Agile Supply Chain Firms

Authors: Hamidreza Fallah Lajimi, Elham Karami, Alireza Arab, Fatemeh Alinasab


Being responsive is an increasingly important skill for firms in today’s global economy; thus firms must be agile. Naturally, it follows that an organization’s agility depends on its supply chain being agile. However, achieving supply chain agility is a function of other abilities within the organization. This paper analyses results from a survey of 71 Iran manufacturing companies in order to identify some of the factors for agile organizations in managing their supply chains. Then we classification this company in four cluster with fuzzy c-mean technique and with Four validations functional determine automatically the optimal number of clusters.

Keywords: agile supply chain, clustering, fuzzy clustering, business engineering

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20 Reliability Assessment of Various Empirical Formulas for Prediction of Scour Hole Depth (Plunge Pool) Using a Comprehensive Physical Model

Authors: Majid Galoie, Khodadad Safavi, Abdolreza Karami Nejad, Reza Roshan


In this study, a comprehensive scouring model has been developed in order to evaluate the accuracy of various empirical relationships which were suggested for prediction of scour hole depth in plunge pools by Martins, Mason, Chian and Veronese. For this reason, scour hole depths caused by free falling jets from a flip bucket to a plunge pool were investigated. In this study various discharges, angles, scouring times, etc. have been considered. The final results demonstrated that the all mentioned empirical formulas, except Mason formula, were reasonably agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: scour hole depth, plunge pool, physical model, reliability assessment

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19 Climatic Roots of Piracy in Red Sea

Authors: Nasser Karami


Piracy in the North West of Indian Ocean and the Red Sea has become a global crisis in recent years. Pirates of this area are often very poor people from the Horn of Africa and the western coast of the Red Sea. Climatic and geographical evidence suggests that poverty and destruction of social structures in the region have directly relation to prolonged-drought. Indeed, after the seventies (more than 40 years ago) due to the long-term drought in the region, all political, economic and social structures had declined. Spread of terrorism, violent extremism and of course piracy, are main effects of climate change and drought of this regression. It is disturbing to say the climatic documents say that because of global climate change, severe drought will continue in this region. This mean that the dangers worse than piracy threatens the future of this area. Forty-year data that has assessed in this study indicate that there is direct relationship between spread of drought and piracy in the Red Sea.

Keywords: climate, poverty, climate change, drought, piracy in red sea

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18 Planning for Sustainable Tourism in Chabahar Coastal Zone Using Swot Analysis

Authors: R. Karami, A. Gharaei


The aim of this study was to investigate ecotourism status in Chabahar coastal zone using swot analysis and strategic planning. Firstly, the current status of region was studied by literature review, field survey and statistical analysis. Then strengths and weaknesses (internal factors) were identified as well as opportunities and threats (external factors) using Delphi Method. Based on the obtained results, the total score of 2.46 in IFE matrix and 2.33 in the EFE matrix represents poor condition related to the internal and external factors respectively. This condition means both external and internal factors have not been utilized properly and the zone needs defensive plan; thus appropriate planning and organizational management practices are required to deal with these factors. Furthermore strategic goals, objectives and action plans in short, medium and long term schedule were formulated in attention to swot analysis.

Keywords: tourism, SWOT analysis, strategic planning, Chabahar

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17 Investigation Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation Mineral Mercury in Rutilus frisii Kutum

Authors: A. Gharaei, R. Karami


Rutilus frisii Kutum was exposed to various concentrations of mercuric chloride in water to determine its acute toxicity and bioaccumulation. We carried out ten treatments with three replicates and one control for each of the chemicals using the static O. E. C. D. method in 55-liter-tanks each containing 14 fingerlings. During the experiments, the average pH was recorded as 7.8, total hardness was measured to be 255 mg/l, the average water temperature was 27±1 degrees centigrade and dissolved oxygen was 7.2 mg/l. Mean LC50 values of Hgcl2 for juvenile R. frisii kutum with mean weight 1±0.2 gr were 0.102 and 0.86 mgHg/l at 24h and 96h, respectively. The bioaccumulation values during 24h in tissue, kidney, and gill were 1.55, 16.1, and 22.7 mgHg/l, respectively. So, these values during 96h were 2.8, 16.8, and 26.65 mgHg/l, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in tissue, kidney, and gill during 24h were 14.75, 153.39, and 216.11 and so during 96h were 33.8, 198.1, and 313.5 times. These results show that bioaccumulation was highest in the gill and then kidney and tissue, respectively. This study suggested that between mercury concentrations of water with bioaccumulation in tissue more than kidney and gill.

Keywords: HgCl2, LC5096h, bioaccumulation, Rutilus frisii Kutum, Caspian Sea

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16 Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Engesser-Timoshenko Beams Subjected to Axial Load Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi


This paper studies free vibration of functionally graded beams Subjected to Axial Load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's Equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions and foundation coefficient on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: functionally graded beam, free vibration, elastic foundation, Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory

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15 Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota: A Signature in Fecal Samples from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Mina Hojat Ansari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Ali Reza Safarpour


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common bowel disorder which is usually diagnosed through the abdominal pain, fecal irregularities and bloating. Alteration in the intestinal microbial composition is implicating to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders which is recently also noted as an IBS feature. Owing to the potential importance of microbiota implication in both efficiencies of the treatment and prevention of the diseases, we examined the association between the intestinal microbiota and different bowel patterns in a cohort of subjects with IBS and healthy controls. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 50 subjects, 30 of whom met the Rome IV criteria for IBS and 20 Healthy control. Total DNA was extracted and library preparation was conducted following the standard protocol for small whole genome sequencing. The pooled libraries sequenced on an Illumina Nextseq platform with a 2 × 150 paired-end read length and obtained sequences were analyzed using several bioinformatics programs. The majority of sequences obtained in the current study assigned to bacteria. However, our finding highlighted the significant microbial taxa variation among the studied groups. The result, therefore, suggests a significant association of the microbiota with symptoms and bowel characteristics in patients with IBS. These alterations in fecal microbiota could be exploited as a biomarker for IBS or its subtypes and suggest the modification of the microbiota might be integrated into prevention and treatment strategies for IBS.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal microbiota, small whole genome sequencing, fecal samples, Illumina

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14 Advanced Mechatronic Design of Robot Manipulator Using Hardware-In-The-Loop Simulation

Authors: Reza Karami, Ali Akbar Ebrahimi


This paper discusses concurrent engineering of robot manipulators, based on the Holistic Concurrent Design (HCD) methodology and by using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform. The methodology allows for considering numerous design variables with different natures concurrently. It redefines the ultimate goal of design based on the notion of satisfaction, resulting in the simplification of the multi-objective constrained optimization process. It also formalizes the effect of designer’s subjective attitude in the process. To enhance modeling efficiency for both computation and accuracy, a hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform is used, which involves physical joint modules and the control unit in addition to the software modules. This platform is implemented in the HCD design architecture to reliably evaluate the design attributes and performance super criterion during the design process. The resulting overall architecture is applied to redesigning kinematic, dynamic and control parameters of an industrial robot manipulator.

Keywords: concurrent engineering, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, robot manipulator, multidisciplinary systems, mechatronics

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13 Optimization of Flip Bucket Dents in Order to Reduce Scour Hole Depth (Plunge Pool) Using a Comprehensive Physical Model

Authors: Majid Galoie, Khodadad Safavi, Abdolreza Karami Nejad, Reza Roshan


Scour downstream of a flip bucket in a plunge pool is caused by impingement of water jet force. In order to reduce this force and consequently reduce scour hole depth, flip buckets may equip by dents. The minimum scour hole depth might be occurred by optimization of dents (number, shape, placement) on flip buckets. In this study, a comprehensive physical model has been developed and various options for dents have been investigated. The experimental data for each dent option such as scour hole depth, angle of impingement jet, piezometric pressure in tail-water and jet trajectory have been measured for various discharges. Finally, the best option can be found by analysis of the experimental results which has been expressed in this paper.

Keywords: scouring process, plunge pool, scour hole depth, physical model, flip bucket

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12 Web-Based Intervention for Addressing Cigarette Smoking Prevention among College Students

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Behzad Karami Matin, Abbas Aghaei, Ahmad Ali Eslami


Background: Smoking is introduced as one of the main risky factors to develop different types of diseases around the world, especially related to non-contagious diseases. The goal of the present study was assessment of the effectiveness of web based education program to prevent cigarette smoking among college students. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, during 2014, 150 male college students in Isfahan and Kermanshah University of medical sciences were assigned to intervention group (receiving web based education program) and control groups. The study information was analyzed by SPSS software version 21 using cross-tabulation, t-test, repeated measures and GEE. Results: It was found significantly that average response for attitude towards cigarette smoking and sensation seeking after education reduced (P < 0.05). After intervention there was no significant difference between intervention and control group of cigarette smoking (P > 0.05). Conclusion: web based education have usefulness to reduce belief towards cigarette smoking.

Keywords: web-based intervention, smoking, students, Iran

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11 The Effects of Watching Text-Relevant Video Segments with/without Subtitles on Vocabulary Development of Arabic as a Foreign Language Learners

Authors: Amirreza Karami, Hawraa Nafea Hameed Alzouwain, Freddie A. Bowles


This study investigates the effects of watching text-relevant video segments with/without subtitles on vocabulary development of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL) learners. The participants of the study were assigned to two groups: one control group and one experimental group. The control group received no video-based instruction while the experimental group watched a text-relevant video segment in three stages: pre, while, and post-instruction. The preliminary results of the pre-test and post-test show that watching text-relevant video segments through following a pre-while-post procedure can help the vocabulary development of AFL learners more than non-video-based instruction.

Keywords: text-relevant video segments, vocabulary development, Arabic as a Foreign Language, AFL, pre-while-post instruction

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10 Effect of National Sovereignty of Non-Citizens Human Rights Standards: Mediterranean Irregular Immigrants Case

Authors: Azin Karami, Bahareh Heydari


There is a difference between national sovereignty ( national security guarantee) and human rights standards (human security guarantee). Under the pretext of providing security for the majority, Governments violate human rights standards and lead to populism. This paper illustrates despite the human rights standards of non-citizens, they mostly confront different practical and social realities. (a large gap between the reality and the truth). This paper has focused on one of vulnerable irregular non-citizens immigrants from Mediterranean . In addition, it has considered challenges of the basic and primary human rights standards of this group. It shows how government policies affect the flow of irregular immigration. This paper is based upon UN data about Mediterranean immigrants and polls answered by 68 people who intended to migrate from Mediterranean (28 female and 40 male people, the average age of 30 to 40). The model is supposed to be a convenient one to present objective, real evidence of irregular immigrants and discusses the challenges that this group of immigrants confront them .This paper shows clear concept of immigrants.

Keywords: human rights, human security, national sovereignty, irregular immigrants

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9 Laboratory Simulation of Subway Dynamic Stray Current Interference with Cathodically Protected Structures

Authors: Mohammad Derakhshani, Saeed Reza Allahkaram, Michael Isakani-Zakaria, Masoud Samadian, Hojat Sharifi Rasaey


Dynamic stray currents tend to change their magnitude and polarity with time at their source which will create anodic and cathodic spots on a nearby interfered structure. To date, one of the biggest known dynamic stray current sources are DC traction systems. Laboratory simulation is a suitable method to apply theoretical principles in order to identify effective parameters in dynamic stray current influenced corrosion. Simulation techniques can be utilized for various mitigation methods applied in a small scales for selection of the most efficient method with regards to field applications. In this research, laboratory simulation of potential fluctuations caused by dynamic stray current on a cathodically protected structure was investigated. A lab model capable of generating DC static and dynamic stray currents and simulating its effects on cathodically protected samples were developed based on stray current induced (contact-less) polarization technique. Stray current pick-up and discharge spots on an influenced structure were simulated by inducing fluctuations in the sample’s stationary potential. Two mitigation methods for dynamic stray current interference on buried structures namely application of sacrificial anodes as preferred discharge point for the stray current and potentially controlled cathodic protection was investigated. Results showed that the application of sacrificial anodes can be effective in reducing interference only in discharge spot. But cathodic protection through potential controlling is more suitable for mitigating dynamic stray current effects.

Keywords: simulation, dynamic stray current, fluctuating potentials, sacrificial anode

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8 Factors Predicting Individual Health among Pilgrims of Kurdistan County: An Application of Health Belief Model

Authors: Arsalan Ghaderi, Behzad Karami Matin, Abdolrahim Afkhamzadeh, Abouzar Keshavarzi, Parvin Nokhasi


Background: Lack of individual health as one of the major health problems among the pilgrims can be followed by several complications. The main aim of this study was to determine factors predicting individual health among pilgrims of Kurdistan County; in the west of Iran and health belief model (HBM) was applied as theoretical framework. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 pilgrims who referred in the red crescent of Kurdistan County, the west of Iran which was randomly selected for participation in this study. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data and data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations and linear regression statistical tests. Results: The mean age of respondents was 59.45 years [SD: 11.56], ranged from 50 to 73 years. The HBM predictor variables accounted for 47% of the variation in the outcome measure of the individual health. The best predictors for individual health were perceived severity and cause to action. Conclusion: Based on our result, it seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about complications of lack of individual health and increasing cause to action among the pilgrims may be useful in order to promote individual health among pilgrims.

Keywords: individual health, pilgrims, Iran, health belief model

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7 Investigation of Public Perception of Air Pollution and Life Quality in Tehran

Authors: Roghayeh Karami, Ahmad Gharaei


Backgrounds and objectives: This study was undertaken at four different sites (north polluted, south polluted, south healthy and north healthy) in Tehran, in order to examine whether there was a relationship between publicly available air quality data and the public’s perception of air quality and to suggest some guidelines for reducing air pollution. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 people were accidentally filled out the research questionnaires at mentioned sites and air quality data were obtained simultaneously from the Air Quality Control Department. Data was analyzed in Excel and SPSS software. Results: Clean air and secure job were of great importance to people comparing to other pleasant aspect of life. Also air pollution and fear of dangerous diseases were the most important of people concerns. The Indies bored /news paper services on air quality were little used by the public as a means of obtaining information on air pollution. Using public transportation and avoid unessential journeys are the most important ways for reducing air pollution. Conclusion: The results reveal that the public’s perception of air quality is not a reliable indicator of the actual levels of air pollution. Current earths to down actions are not effective and enough in reducing air pollution, therefore it seems participatory management and public participation is suitable guideline.

Keywords: air pollution, quality of life, opinion poll, public participation

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6 The Effect of Behavioral and Risk Factors of Investment Growth on Stock Returns

Authors: Majid Lotfi Ghahroud, Seyed Jalal Tabatabaei, Ebrahim Karami, AmirArsalan Ghergherechi, Amir Ali Saeidi


In this study, the relationship between investment growth and stock returns of companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange and whether their relationship -behavioral or risk factors- are discussed. Generally, there are two perspectives; risk-based approach and behavioral approach. According to the risk-based approach due to increase investment, systemic risk and consequently the stock returns are reduced. But due to the second approach, an excessive optimism or pessimism leads to assuming stock price with high investment growth in the past, higher than its intrinsic value and the price of stocks with lower investment growth, less than its intrinsic value. The investigation period is eight years from 2007 to 2014. The sample consisted of all companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. The method is a portfolio test, and the analysis is based on the t-student test (t-test). The results indicate that there is a negative relationship between investment growth and stock returns of companies and this negative correlation is stronger for firms with higher cash flow. Also, the negative relationship between asset growth and stock returns is due to behavioral factors.

Keywords: behavioral theory, investment growth, risk-based theory, stock returns

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5 Assessment the Impact of Changes in Cultivation Pattern from Grape to Apple on Drying up of Urmia Lake

Authors: Nasser Karami


The Urmia grapes have been famous for centuries and have been among the most desirable in the production of wine. Interestingly, evidence shows that the Urmia region was the first place in the world where wine was produced and consumed. In fact, the grapes known as “Shiraz” and made popular by “Shiraz Wine” are the grapes cultivated as a local species especially in the West Azerbaijan watershed basin and exported to Europe. But after the Islamic Revolution, because the production, usage, and sale of wine were unlawful (under Islamic rule), they decided to cultivate apples instead of grapes. Before Islamic revolution, about 50 percent of the gardens were producing grapes, but the apple groves took up less than 1.5 percent (100 hectares). Three years after the revolution, in 1982, people were swept up in the revolutionary excitement and grape cultivation decreased, using less than 10 percent of the garden area. Important is the fact that an apple tree needs 12 times more water than a grapevine, it should be noted that in terms of water usage in the area, the agricultural area has not been increased by 2 or 4 times but rather by 12 times. Evaluation of this study showed that contrary to official reports, climate change isn’t major cause of drying up Urmia Lake and 65 percent of this environmental crisis happened due to spreading unsustainable agricultural in basin of this lake.

Keywords: cultivation pattern, unsustainable agriculture, urmia lake drying, water managment

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4 Auto Calibration and Optimization of Large-Scale Water Resources Systems

Authors: Arash Parehkar, S. Jamshid Mousavi, Shoubo Bayazidi, Vahid Karami, Laleh Shahidi, Arash Azaranfar, Ali Moridi, M. Shabakhti, Tayebeh Ariyan, Mitra Tofigh, Kaveh Masoumi, Alireza Motahari


Water resource systems modelling have constantly been a challenge through history for human being. As the innovative methodological development is evolving alongside computer sciences on one hand, researches are likely to confront more complex and larger water resources systems due to new challenges regarding increased water demands, climate change and human interventions, socio-economic concerns, and environment protection and sustainability. In this research, an automatic calibration scheme has been applied on the Gilan’s large-scale water resource model using mathematical programming. The water resource model’s calibration is developed in order to attune unknown water return flows from demand sites in the complex Sefidroud irrigation network and other related areas. The calibration procedure is validated by comparing several gauged river outflows from the system in the past with model results. The calibration results are pleasantly reasonable presenting a rational insight of the system. Subsequently, the unknown optimized parameters were used in a basin-scale linear optimization model with the ability to evaluate the system’s performance against a reduced inflow scenario in future. Results showed an acceptable match between predicted and observed outflows from the system at selected hydrometric stations. Moreover, an efficient operating policy was determined for Sefidroud dam leading to a minimum water shortage in the reduced inflow scenario.

Keywords: auto-calibration, Gilan, large-scale water resources, simulation

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3 Improving Performance of K₂CO₃ Sorbent Using Core/Shell Alumina-Based Supports in a Multicycle CO₂ Capture Process

Authors: S. Toufigh Bararpour, Amir H. Soleimanisalim, Davood Karami, Nader Mahinpey


The continued increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is expected to have great impacts on the climate. In order to reduce CO2 emission to the atmosphere, an efficient and cost-effective technique is required. Using regenerable solid sorbents, especially K2CO3 is a promising method for low-temperature CO2 capture. Pure K2CO3 is a delinquent substance that requires modifications before it can be used for cyclic operations. For this purpose, various types of additives and supports have been used to improve the structure of K2CO3. However, hydrophilicity and reactivity of the support materials with K2CO3 have a negative effect on the CO2 capture capacity of the sorbents. In this research, two kinds of alumina supports (γ-Alumina and Boehmite) were used. In order to decrease the supports' hydrophilicity and reactivity with K2CO3, nonreactive additives such as Titania, Zirconia and Silisium were incorporated into their structures. These materials provide a shell around the alumina to protect it from undesirable reactions and improve its properties. K2CO3-based core/shell-supported sorbents were fabricated using two preparation steps. The sol-gel method was applied for shelling the supports. Then the shelled supports were impregnated on K2CO3. The physicochemical properties of the sorbents were determined using SEM and BET analyses, and their CO2 capture capacity was quantified using a thermogravimetric analyzer. It was shown that type of the shell's material had an important effect on the water adsorption capacity of the sorbents. Supported K2CO3 modified by Titania shell showed the lowest hydrophilicity among the prepared samples. Based on the obtained results, incorporating nonreactive additives in Boehmite had an outstanding impact on the CO2 capture performance of the sorbent. Incorporation of Titania into the Boehmite-supported K2CO3 enhanced its CO2 capture capacity significantly. Therefore, further study of this novel fabrication technique is highly recommended. In the second phase of this research project, the CO2 capture performance of the sorbents in fixed and fluidized bed reactors will be investigated.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, core/shell support, K₂CO₃, post-combustion

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2 Processing and Characterization of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced with Amorphous Zr₃₇.₅Cu₁₈.₆₇Al₄₃.₉₈ Phase

Authors: P. Abachi, S. Karami, K. Purazrang


The amorphous reinforcements (metallic glasses) can be considered as promising options for reinforcing light-weight aluminum and its alloys. By using the proper type of reinforcement, one can overcome to drawbacks such as interfacial de-cohesion and undesirable reactions which can be created at ceramic particle and metallic matrix interface. In this work, the Zr-based amorphous phase was produced via mechanical milling of elemental powders. Based on Miedema semi-empirical Model and diagrams for formation enthalpies and/or Gibbs free energies of Zr-Cu amorphous phase in comparison with the crystalline phase, the glass formability range was predicted. The composite was produced using the powder mixture of the aluminum and metallic glass and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at the temperature slightly above the glass transition Tg of the metallic glass particles. The selected temperature and rapid sintering route were suitable for consolidation of an aluminum matrix without crystallization of amorphous phase. To characterize amorphous phase formation, X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analyses were performed on powder mixture after specified intervals of milling. The microstructure of the composite was studied by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on composite specimens with the dimension of 4 mm long and a cross-section of 2 ˟ 2mm2. The micrographs indicated an appropriate reinforcement distribution in the metallic matrix. The comparison of stress–strain curves of the consolidated composite and the non-reinforced Al matrix alloy in compression showed that the enhancement of yield strength and mechanical strength are combined with an appreciable plastic strain at fracture. It can be concluded that metallic glasses (amorphous phases) are alternative reinforcement material for lightweight metal matrix composites capable of producing high strength and adequate ductility. However, this is in the expense of minor density increase.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composite, amorphous phase, mechanical alloying, spark plasma sintering

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1 Application of Alumina-Aerogel in Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: S. Toufigh Bararpour, Davood Karami, Nader Mahinpey


Dependence of global economics on fossil fuels has led to a large growth in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Among the various GHGs, carbon dioxide is the main contributor to the greenhouse effect due to its huge emission amount. To mitigate the threatening effect of CO₂, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies have been studied widely in recent years. For the combustion processes, three main CO₂ capture techniques have been proposed such as post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion. Post-combustion is the most commonly used CO₂ capture process as it can be readily retrofit into the existing power plants. Multiple advantages have been reported for the post-combustion by solid sorbents such as high CO₂ selectivity, high adsorption capacity, and low required regeneration energy. Chemical adsorption of CO₂ over alkali-metal-based solid sorbents such as K₂CO₃ is a promising method for the selective capture of diluted CO₂ from the huge amount of nitrogen existing in the flue gas. To improve the CO₂ capture performance, K₂CO₃ is supported by a stable and porous material. Al₂O₃ has been employed commonly as the support and enhanced the cyclic CO₂ capture efficiency of K₂CO₃. Different phases of alumina can be obtained by setting the calcination temperature of boehmite at 300, 600 (γ-alumina), 950 (δ-alumina) and 1200 °C (α-alumina). By increasing the calcination temperature, the regeneration capacity of alumina increases, while the surface area reduces. However, sorbents with lower surface areas have lower CO₂ capture capacity as well (except for the sorbents prepared by hydrophilic support materials). To resolve this issue, a highly efficient alumina-aerogel support was synthesized with a BET surface area of over 2000 m²/g and then calcined at a high temperature. The synthesized alumina-aerogel was impregnated on K₂CO₃ based on 50 wt% support/K₂CO₃, which resulted in the preparation of a sorbent with remarkable CO₂ capture performance. The effect of synthesis conditions such as types of alcohols, solvent-to-co-solvent ratios, and aging times was investigated on the performance of the support. The best support was synthesized using methanol as the solvent, after five days of aging time, and at a solvent-to-co-solvent (methanol-to-toluene) ratio (v/v) of 1/5. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of operating parameters such as carbonation temperature and H₂O-to-CO₂ flowrate ratio on the CO₂ capture capacity. The maximum CO₂ capture capacity, at the optimum amounts of operating parameters, was 7.2 mmol CO₂ per gram K₂CO₃. Cyclic behavior of the sorbent was examined over 20 carbonation and regenerations cycles. The alumina-aerogel-supported K₂CO₃ showed a great performance compared to unsupported K₂CO₃ and γ-alumina-supported K₂CO₃. Fundamental performance analyses and long-term thermal and chemical stability test will be performed on the sorbent in the future. The applicability of the sorbent for a bench-scale process will be evaluated, and a corresponding process model will be established. The fundamental material knowledge and respective process development will be delivered to industrial partners for the design of a pilot-scale testing unit, thereby facilitating the industrial application of alumina-aerogel.

Keywords: alumina-aerogel, CO₂ capture, K₂CO₃, optimization

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