Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: cross-flow

8 An Experimental Investigation of Air Entrainment Due to Water Jets in Crossflows

Authors: Mina Esmi Jahromi, Mehdi Khiadani


Vertical water jets discharging into free surface turbulent cross flows result in the ingression of a large amount of air in the body of water and form a region of two-phase air-water flow with a considerable interfacial area. This research presents an experimental study of the two-phase bubbly flow using image processing technique. The air ingression and the trajectories of bubble swarms under different experimental conditions are evaluated. The rate of air entrainment and the bubble characteristics such as penetration depth, and dispersion pattern were found to be affected by the most influential parameters of water jet and cross flow including water jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio, water jet falling height, and cross flow depth. This research improves understanding of the underwater flow structure due to the water jet impingement in crossflow and advances the practical applications of water jets such as artificial aeration, circulation, and mixing where crossflow is present.

Keywords: air entrainment, image processing, jet in cross flow, two-phase flow

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7 Experimental Research of High Pressure Jet Interaction with Supersonic Crossflow

Authors: Bartosz Olszanski, Zbigniew Nosal, Jacek Rokicki


An experimental study of cold-jet (nitrogen) reaction control jet system has been carried out to investigate the flow control efficiency for low to moderate jet pressure ratios (total jet pressure p0jet over free stream static pressure in the wind tunnel p∞) and different angles of attack for infinite Mach number equal to 2. An investigation of jet influence was conducted on a flat plate geometry placed in the test section of intermittent supersonic wind tunnel of Department of Aerodynamics, WUT. Various convergent jet nozzle geometries to obtain different jet momentum ratios were tested on the same test model geometry. Surface static pressure measurements, Schlieren flow visualizations (using continuous and photoflash light source), load cell measurements gave insight into the supersonic crossflow interaction for different jet pressure and jet momentum ratios and their influence on the efficiency of side jet control as described by the amplification factor (actual to theoretical net force generated by the control nozzle). Moreover, the quasi-steady numerical simulations of flow through the same wind tunnel geometry (convergent-divergent nozzle plus test section) were performed using ANSYS Fluent basing on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver incorporated with k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model to assess the possible spurious influence of test section walls over the jet exit near field area of interest. The strong bow shock, barrel shock, and Mach disk as well as lambda separation region in front of nozzle were observed as images taken by high-speed camera examine the interaction of the jet and the free stream. In addition, the development of large-scale vortex structures (counter-rotating vortex pair) was detected. The history of complex static pressure pattern on the plate was recorded and compared to the force measurement data as well as numerical simulation data. The analysis of the obtained results, especially in the wake of the jet showed important features of the interaction mechanisms between the lateral jet and the flow field.

Keywords: flow visualization techniques, pressure measurements, reaction control jet, supersonic cross flow

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6 Characterization of Plunging Water Jets in Crossflows: Experimental and Numerical Studies

Authors: Mina Esmi Jahromi, Mehdi Khiadani


Plunging water jets discharging into turbulent crossflows are capable of providing efficient air water interfacial area, which is desirable for the process of mass transfer. Although several studies have been dedicated to the air entrainment by water jets impinging into stagnant water, very few studies have focused on the water jets in crossflows. This study investigates development of the two-phase flow as a result of the jet impingements into crossflows by means of image processing technique and CFD simulations. Investigations are also conducted on the oxygen transfer and a correlation is established between the aeration properties and the oxygenation capacity of water jets in crossflows. This study helps the optimal design and the effective operation of the industrial and the environmental equipment incorporating water jets in crossflows.

Keywords: air entrainment, CFD simulation, image processing, jet in crossflow, oxygen transfer, two-phase flow

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5 Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Rear-Roof Spoiler of Hatchback Vehicle

Authors: See-Yuan Cheng, Kwang-Yhee Chin, Shuhaimi Mansor


Rear-roof spoiler is commonly used for improving the aerodynamic performance of road vehicles. This study aims to investigate the effect of yaw angle on the effectiveness of strip-type rear-roof spoiler in providing lower drag and lift coefficients of a hatchback model. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used. The numerically obtained results were compared to the experimental data for validation of the CFD method. At increasing yaw angle, both the drag and lift coefficients of the model were to increase. In addition, the effectiveness of spoiler was deteriorated. These unfavorable effects were due to the formation of longitudinal vortices around the side edges of the model that had caused the surface pressure of the model to drop. Furthermore, there were significant crossflow structures developed behind the model at larger yaw angle, which were associated with the drop in the surface pressure of the rear section of the model and cause the drag coefficient to rise.

Keywords: Ahmed model, aerodynamics, spoiler, yaw angle

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4 Numerical Investigation of a Slightly Oblique Round Jet Flowing into a Uniform Counterflow Stream

Authors: Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Philippe Bournot, Georges Le Palec


A counterflowing jet is a particular configuration of turbulent jets issuing into a moving ambient which has not carried much attention in literature compared with jet in a coflow or in a crossflow. This is due to the marked instability of the jet in a counterflow coupled with experimental and theoretical difficulties related to the flow inversion phenomenon. Nevertheless, jets in a counterflow are encountered in many engineering applications which required enhanced mixing as combustion, process and environmental engineering. In this work, we propose to investigate a round turbulent jet flowing into a uniform counterflow stream through a numerical approach. A hydrodynamic and thermal study of a slightly oblique round jets issuing into a uniform counterflow stream is carried out for different jet-to-counterflow velocity ratios ranging between 3.1 and 15. It is found that even a slight inclination of the jet in the vertical direction of the flow affects the structure and the velocity field of the counterflowing jet. In addition, the evolution of passive scalar temperature and pertinent length scales are presented at various velocity ratios, confirming that the flow is sensitive to directional perturbations.

Keywords: jet, counterflow, velocity, temperature, jet inclination

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3 Vortex-Induced Vibrations of Two Cylinders in Close Proximity

Authors: Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Abouzar Kaboudian, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman


The phenomenon of vortex-induced vibration has applications in off-shore industry, power transmission, energy extraction, etc. Two cylinders in crossflow whose centers are displaced in transverse direction are considered in the present work. The effects of the gap distance between the cylinders on the vortex shedding are presented. The inline distance between the cylinder centers is kept at zero. Two setups are considered for the study: first, we assume the two cylinders vibrate as a single rigid body mounted on a spring, and in the other case, each cylinder is mounted on a separate spring with no rigid connection to the other cylinder. The study focuses on the effect of transverse gap on the fluid-structure coupled response of two setups mentioned and corresponding flow contours. Incompressible flow is assumed in the Eulerian framework. The cylinder movement is modeled by a single degree of freedom rigid body motion (translational motion) in the Lagrangian framework. The governing equations were numerically solved by standard Petrov-Galerkin second order finite element schemes.

Keywords: cross-flow, vortex-induced vibrations, cylinder, close proximity

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2 Flame Kernel Growth and Related Effects of Spark Plug Electrodes: Fluid Motion Interaction in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Authors: A. Schirru, A. Irimescu, S. Merola, A. d’Adamo, S. Fontanesi


One of the aspects that are usually neglected during the design phase of an engine is the effect of the spark plug on the flow field inside the combustion chamber. Because of the difficulties in the experimental investigation of the mutual interaction between flow alteration and early flame kernel convection effect inside the engine combustion chamber, CFD-3D simulation is usually exploited in such cases. Experimentally speaking, a particular type of engine has to be used in order to directly observe the flame propagation process. In this study, a double electrode spark plug was fitted into an optically accessible engine and a high-speed camera was used to capture the initial stages of the combustion process. Both the arc and the kernel phases were observed. Then, a morphologic analysis was carried out and the position of the center of mass of the flame, relative to the spark plug position, was calculated. The crossflow orientation was chosen for the spark plug and the kernel growth process was observed for different air-fuel ratios. It was observed that during a normal cycle the flow field between the electrodes tends to transport the arc deforming it. Because of that, the kernel growth phase takes place away from the electrodes and the flame propagates with a preferential direction dictated by the flow field.

Keywords: Combustion, Optically Accessible Engine, Spark-Ignition Engine, Sparl Orientation, Kernel Growth

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1 Assessment of Hypersaline Outfalls via Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations: A Case Study of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant Offshore Multiport Brine Diffuser

Authors: Mitchell J. Baum, Badin Gibbes, Greg Collecutt


This study details a three-dimensional field-scale numerical investigation conducted for the Gold Coast Desalination Plant (GCDP) offshore multiport brine diffuser. Quantitative assessment of diffuser performance with regard to trajectory, dilution and mapping of seafloor concentration distributions was conducted for 100% plant operation. The quasi-steady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a k-ω shear stress transport turbulence closure scheme. The study compliments a field investigation, which measured brine plume characteristics under similar conditions. CFD models used an iterative mesh in a domain with dimensions 400 m long, 200 m wide and an average depth of 24.2 m. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements conducted in the companion field study exhibited considerable variability over the water column. The effect of this vertical variability on simulated discharge outcomes was examined. Seafloor slope was also accommodated into the model. Ambient currents varied predominantly in the longshore direction – perpendicular to the diffuser structure. Under these conditions, the alternating port orientation of the GCDP diffuser resulted in simultaneous subjection to co-propagating and counter-propagating ambient regimes. Results from quiescent ambient simulations suggest broad agreement with empirical scaling arguments traditionally employed in design and regulatory assessments. Simulated dynamic ambient regimes showed the influence of ambient crossflow upon jet trajectory, dilution and seafloor concentration is significant. The effect of ambient flow structure and the subsequent influence on jet dynamics is discussed, along with the implications for using these different simulation approaches to inform regulatory decisions.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, desalination, field-scale simulation, multiport brine diffuser, negatively buoyant jet

Procedia PDF Downloads 148