Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 167

Search results for: multilevel inverters

167 Hybrid PWM Techniques for the Reduction of Switching Losses and Voltage Harmonics in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters

Authors: Venkata Reddy Kota

Abstract:

These days, the industrial trend is moving away from heavy and bulky passive components to power converter systems that use more and more semiconductor elements. Also, it is difficult to connect the traditional converters to the high and medium voltage. For these reasons, a new family of multilevel inverters has appeared as a solution for working with higher voltage levels. Different modulation topologies like Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHE-PWM) are available for multilevel inverters. In this work, different hybrid modulation techniques which are combination of fundamental frequency modulation and multilevel sinusoidal-modulation are compared. The main characteristic of these modulations are reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance and balanced power loss dissipation among the device. The proposed hybrid modulation schemes are developed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink for cascaded H-bridge inverter. The results validate the applicability of the proposed schemes for cascaded multilevel inverter.

Keywords: hybrid PWM techniques, cascaded multilevel inverters, switching loss minimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 522
166 Minimization of Switching Losses in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters Using Efficient Sequential Switching Hybrid-Modulation Techniques

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, Ch. Lokeshwar Reddy, G. Sridhar

Abstract:

This paper presents two different sequential switching hybrid-modulation strategies and implemented for cascaded multilevel inverters. Hybrid modulation strategies represent the combinations of Fundamental-Frequency Pulse Width Modulation (FFPWM) and Multilevel Sinusoidal-Modulation (MSPWM) strategies, and are designed for performance of the well-known Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD), Phase Shifted Carrier (PSC). The main characteristics of these modulations are the reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance, balanced power loss dissipation among the devices with in a cell, and among the series-connected cells. The feasibility of these modulations is verified through spectral analysis, power loss analysis and simulation.

Keywords: cascaded multilevel inverters, hybrid modulation, power loss analysis, pulse width modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
165 Separate Powers Control Structure of DFIG Based on Fractional Regulator Fed by Multilevel Inverters DC Bus Voltages of a photovoltaic System

Authors: S. Ghoudelbourk, A. Omeiri, D. Dib, H. Cheghib

Abstract:

This paper shows that we can improve the performance of the auto-adjustable electric machines if a fractional dynamic is considered in the algorithm of the controlling order. This structure is particularly interested in the separate control of active and reactive power of the double-fed induction generator (DFIG) of wind power conversion chain. Fractional regulators are used in the regulation of chain of powers. Knowing that, usually, the source of DFIG is provided by converters through controlled rectifiers, all this system makes the currents of lines strongly polluted that can have a harmful effect for the connected loads and sensitive equipment nearby. The solution to overcome these problems is to replace the power of the rotor DFIG by multilevel inverters supplied by PV which improve the THD. The structure of the adopted adjustment is tested using Matlab/Simulink and the results are presented and analyzed for a variable wind.

Keywords: DFIG, fractional regulator, multilevel inverters, PV

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
164 Reducing Total Harmonic Content of 9-Level Inverter by Use of Cuckoo Algorithm

Authors: Mahmoud Enayati, Sirous Mohammadi

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel procedure to find the firing angles of the multilevel inverters of supply voltage and, consequently, to decline the total harmonic distortion (THD), has been presented. In order to eliminate more harmonics in the multilevel inverters, its number of levels can be lessened or pulse width modulation waveform, in which more than one switching occur in each level, be used. Both cases complicate the non-algebraic equations and their solution cannot be performed by the conventional methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear equations such as Newton-Raphson method. In this paper, Cuckoo algorithm is used to compute the optimal firing angle of the pulse width modulation voltage waveform in the multilevel inverter. These angles should be calculated in such a way that the voltage amplitude of the fundamental frequency be generated while the total harmonic distortion of the output voltage be small. The simulation and theoretical results for the 9-levels inverter offer the high applicability of the proposed algorithm to identify the suitable firing angles for declining the low order harmonics and generate a waveform whose total harmonic distortion is very small and it is almost a sinusoidal waveform.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithms, multilevel inverters, total harmonic content, Cuckoo Algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
163 Recent Advances in Pulse Width Modulation Techniques and Multilevel Inverters

Authors: Satish Kumar Peddapelli

Abstract:

This paper presents advances in pulse width modulation techniques which refers to a method of carrying information on train of pulses and the information be encoded in the width of pulses. Pulse Width Modulation is used to control the inverter output voltage. This is done by exercising the control within the inverter itself by adjusting the ON and OFF periods of inverter. By fixing the DC input voltage we get AC output voltage. In variable speed AC motors the AC output voltage from a constant DC voltage is obtained by using inverter. Recent developments in power electronics and semiconductor technology have lead improvements in power electronic systems. Hence, different circuit configurations namely multilevel inverters have become popular and considerable interest by researcher are given on them. A fast Space-Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) method for five-level inverter is also discussed. In this method, the space vector diagram of the five-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of three-level inverters. In turn, each of these six space vector diagrams of three-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of two-level inverters. After decomposition, all the remaining necessary procedures for the three-level SVPWM are done like conventional two-level inverter. The proposed method reduces the algorithm complexity and the execution time. It can be applied to the multilevel inverters above the five-level also. The experimental setup for three-level diode-clamped inverter is developed using TMS320LF2407 DSP controller and the experimental results are analysed.

Keywords: five-level inverter, space vector pulse wide modulation, diode clamped inverter, electrical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
162 Modelling and Simulation of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Single Source Inverter Using PSIM

Authors: Gaddafi Sani Shehu, Tankut Yalcınoz, Abdullahi Bala Kunya

Abstract:

Multilevel inverters such as flying capacitor, diode-clamped, and cascaded H-bridge inverters are very popular particularly in medium and high power applications. This paper focuses on a cascaded H-bridge module using a single direct current (DC) source in order to generate an 11-level output voltage. The noble approach reduces the number of switches and gate drivers, in comparison with a conventional method. The anticipated topology produces more accurate result with an isolation transformer at high switching frequency. Different modulation techniques can be used for the multilevel inverter, but this work features modulation techniques known as selective harmonic elimination (SHE).This modulation approach reduces the number of carriers with reduction in Switching Losses, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), and thereby increasing Power Quality (PQ). Based on the simulation result obtained, it appears SHE has the ability to eliminate selected harmonics by chopping off the fundamental output component. The performance evaluation of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter is performed using PSIM simulation package and THD of 0.94% is obtained.

Keywords: cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter, power quality, selective harmonic elimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
161 Analysis and Comparison of Asymmetric H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Topologies

Authors: Manel Hammami, Gabriele Grandi

Abstract:

In recent years, multilevel inverters have become more attractive for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems, due to their known advantages over conventional H-bridge pulse width-modulated (PWM) inverters. They offer improved output waveforms, smaller filter size, lower total harmonic distortion (THD), higher output voltages and others. The most common multilevel converter topologies, presented in literature, are the neutral-point-clamped (NPC), flying capacitor (FC) and Cascaded H-Bridge (CHB) converters. In both NPC and FC configurations, the number of components drastically increases with the number of levels what leads to complexity of the control strategy, high volume, and cost. Whereas, increasing the number of levels in case of the cascaded H-bridge configuration is a flexible solution. However, it needs isolated power sources for each stage, and it can be applied to PV systems only in case of PV sub-fields. In order to improve the ratio between the number of output voltage levels and the number of components, several hybrids and asymmetric topologies of multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature such as the FC asymmetric H-bridge (FCAH) and the NPC asymmetric H-bridge (NPCAH) topologies. Another asymmetric multilevel inverter configuration that could have interesting applications is the cascaded asymmetric H-bridge (CAH), which is based on a modular half-bridge (two switches and one capacitor, also called level doubling network, LDN) cascaded to a full H-bridge in order to double the output voltage level. This solution has the same number of switches as the above mentioned AH configurations (i.e., six), and just one capacitor (as the FCAH). CAH is becoming popular, due to its simple, modular and reliable structure, and it can be considered as a retrofit which can be added in series to an existing H-Bridge configuration in order to double the output voltage levels. In this paper, an original and effective method for the analysis of the DC-link voltage ripple is given for single-phase asymmetric H-bridge multilevel inverters based on level doubling network (LDN). Different possible configurations of the asymmetric H-Bridge multilevel inverters have been considered and the analysis of input voltage and current are analytically determined and numerically verified by Matlab/Simulink for the case of cascaded asymmetric H-bridge multilevel inverters. A comparison between FCAH and the CAH configurations is done on the basis of the analysis of the DC and voltage ripple for the DC source (i.e., the PV system). The peak-to-peak DC and voltage ripple amplitudes are analytically calculated over the fundamental period as a function of the modulation index. On the basis of the maximum peak-to-peak values of low frequency and switching ripple voltage components, the DC capacitors can be designed. Reference is made to unity output power factor, as in case of most of the grid-connected PV generation systems. Simulation results will be presented in the full paper in order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed developments in all the operating conditions.

Keywords: asymmetric inverters, dc-link voltage, level doubling network, single-phase multilevel inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
160 Improved Multilevel Inverter with Hybrid Power Selector and Solar Panel Cleaner in a Solar System

Authors: S. Oladoyinbo, A. A. Tijani

Abstract:

Multilevel inverters (MLI) are used at high power application based on their operation. There are 3 main types of multilevel inverters (MLI); diode clamped, flying capacitor and cascaded MLI. A cascaded MLI requires the least number of components to achieve same number of voltage levels when compared to other types of MLI while the flying capacitor has the minimum harmonic distortion. However, maximizing the advantage of cascaded H-bridge MLI and flying capacitor MLI, an improved MLI can be achieved with fewer components and better performance. In this paper an improved MLI is presented by asymmetrically integrating a flying capacitor to a cascaded H-bridge MLI also integrating an auxiliary transformer to the main transformer to decrease the total harmonics distortion (THD) with increased number of output voltage levels. Furthermore, the system is incorporated with a hybrid time and climate based solar panel cleaner and power selector which intelligently manage the input of the MLI and clean the solar panel weekly ensuring the environmental factor effect on the panel is reduced to minimum.

Keywords: multilevel inverter, total harmonics distortion, cascaded h-bridge inverter, flying capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
159 Direct Power Control Applied on 5-Level Diode Clamped Inverter Powered by a Renewable Energy Source

Authors: A. Elnady

Abstract:

This paper presents an improved Direct Power Control (DPC) scheme applied to the multilevel inverter that forms a Distributed Generation Unit (DGU). This paper demonstrates the performance of active and reactive power injected by the DGU to the smart grid. The DPC is traditionally operated by the hysteresis controller with the Space Vector Modulation (SVM) which is applied on the 2-level inverters or 3-level inverters. In this paper, the DPC is operated by the PI controller with the Phase-Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PD-PWM) applied to the 5-level diode clamped inverter. The new combination of the DPC, PI controller, PD-PWM and multilevel inverter proves that its performance is much better than the conventional hysteresis-SVM based DPC. Simulations results have been presented to validate the performance of the suggested control scheme in the grid-connected mode.

Keywords: direct power control, PI controller, PD-PWM, and power control

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
158 Elimination of Low Order Harmonics in Multilevel Inverter Using Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithm

Authors: N. Ould Cherchali, A. Tlemçani, M. S. Boucherit, A. Morsli

Abstract:

Nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms, particularly those founded on swarm intelligence, have attracted much attention over the past decade. Firefly algorithm has appeared in approximately seven years ago, its literature has enlarged considerably with different applications. It is inspired by the behavior of fireflies. The aim of this paper is the application of firefly algorithm for solving a nonlinear algebraic system. This resolution is needed to study the Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse Width Modulation strategy (SHEPWM) to eliminate the low order harmonics; results have been applied on multilevel inverters. The final results from simulations indicate the elimination of the low order harmonics as desired. Finally, experimental results are presented to confirm the simulation results and validate the efficaciousness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, metaheuristic algorithm, multilevel inverter, SHEPWM

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
157 Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor

Authors: L. Lakhdari, B. Bouchiba, M. Bechar

Abstract:

The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.

Keywords: induction motor, multilevel inverters, SVPWM, SPWM, THD

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
156 Proactive SoC Balancing of Li-ion Batteries for Automotive Application

Authors: Ali Mashayekh, Mahdiye Khorasani, Thomas weyh

Abstract:

The demand for battery electric vehicles (BEV) is steadily increasing, and it can be assumed that electric mobility will dominate the market for individual transportation in the future. Regarding BEVs, the focus of state-of-the-art research and development is on vehicle batteries since their properties primarily determine vehicles' characteristic parameters, such as price, driving range, charging time, and lifetime. State-of-the-art battery packs consist of invariable configurations of battery cells, connected in series and parallel. A promising alternative is battery systems based on multilevel inverters, which can alter the configuration of the battery cells during operation via semiconductor switches. The main benefit of such topologies is that a three-phase AC voltage can be directly generated from the battery pack, and no separate power inverters are required. Therefore, modular battery systems based on different multilevel inverter topologies and reconfigurable battery systems are currently under investigation. Another advantage of the multilevel concept is that the possibility to reconfigure the battery pack allows battery cells with different states of charge (SoC) to be connected in parallel, and thus low-loss balancing can take place between such cells. In contrast, in conventional battery systems, parallel connected (hard-wired) battery cells are discharged via bleeder resistors to keep the individual SoCs of the parallel battery strands balanced, ultimately reducing the vehicle range. Different multilevel inverter topologies and reconfigurable batteries have been described in the available literature that makes the before-mentioned advantages possible. However, what has not yet been described is how an intelligent operating algorithm needs to look like to keep the SoCs of the individual battery strands of a modular battery system with integrated power electronics balanced. Therefore, this paper suggests an SoC balancing approach for Battery Modular Multilevel Management (BM3) converter systems, which can be similarly used for reconfigurable battery systems or other multilevel inverter topologies with parallel connectivity. The here suggested approach attempts to simultaneously utilize all converter modules (bypassing individual modules should be avoided) because the parallel connection of adjacent modules reduces the phase-strand's battery impedance. Furthermore, the presented approach tries to reduce the number of switching events when changing the switching state combination. Thereby, the ohmic battery losses and switching losses are kept as low as possible. Since no power is dissipated in any designated bleeder resistors and no designated active balancing circuitry is required, the suggested approach can be categorized as a proactive balancing approach. To verify the algorithm's validity, simulations are used.

Keywords: battery management system, BEV, battery modular multilevel management (BM3), SoC balancing

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
155 Estimation of Harmonics in Three-Phase and Six-Phase-Phase (Multi-Phase) Load Circuits

Authors: Zakir Husain, Deepak Kumar

Abstract:

The harmonics are very harmful within an electrical system and can have serious consequences such as reducing the life of apparatus, stress on cable and equipment etc. This paper cites extensive analytical study of harmonic characteristics of multiphase (six-phase) and three-phase system equipped with two and three level inverters for non-linear loads. Multilevel inverter has elevated voltage capability with voltage limited devices, low harmonic distortion, abridged switching losses. Multiphase technology also pays a promising role in harmonic reduction. Matlab simulation is carried out to compare the advantage of multi-phase over three phase systems equipped with two or three level inverters for non-linear load harmonic reduction. The extensive simulation results are presented based on case studies.

Keywords: fast Fourier transform (FFT), harmonics, inverter, ripples, total harmonic distortion (THD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
154 The Stability Study of Large-Scale Grid-Tied Photovoltaic System Containing Different Types of Inverter

Authors: Chen Zheng, Lin Zhou, Bao Xie, Xiao Du, Nianbin Shao

Abstract:

Power generated by large-scale photovoltaic plants (LSPVPs) is usually transmitted to the grid through several transformers and long distance overhead lines. Impedance of transformers and transmission lines results in complex interactions between the plant and the grid and among different inverters. In accordance with the topological structure of LSPV in reality, an equivalent model containing different inverters was built and then interactions between the plant and the grid and among different inverters were studied. Based on the vector composition principle of voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC), the mathematic function of PCC voltage in regard to the total power and grid impedance was deduced, from which the uttermost total power to guarantee the system stable is obtained. Taking the influence of different inverters numbers and the length of transmission lines to the system stability into account, the stability criterion of LSPV containing different inverters was derived. The result of simulation validated the theory analysis in the paper.

Keywords: LSPVPs, stability analysis, grid impedance, different types of inverter, PCC voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
153 Enhancing the Dynamic Performance of Grid-Tied Inverters Using Manta Ray Foraging Algorithm

Authors: H. E. Keshta, A. A. Ali

Abstract:

Three phase grid-tied inverters are widely employed in micro-grids (MGs) as interphase between DC and AC systems. These inverters are usually controlled through standard decoupled d–q vector control strategy based on proportional integral (PI) controllers. Recently, advanced meta-heuristic optimization techniques have been used instead of deterministic methods to obtain optimum PI controller parameters. This paper provides a comparative study between the performance of the global Porcellio Scaber algorithm (GPSA) based PI controller and Manta Ray foraging optimization (MRFO) based PI controller.

Keywords: micro-grids, optimization techniques, grid-tied inverter control, PI controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
152 Cascaded Multi-Level Single-Phase Switched Boost Inverter

Authors: Van-Thuan Tran, Minh-Khai Nguyen, Geum-Bae Cho

Abstract:

Recently, multilevel inverters have become more attractive for researchers due to low total harmonic distortion (THD) in the output voltage and low electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper proposes a single-phase cascaded H-bridge quasi switched boost inverter (CHB-qSBI) for renewable energy sources applications. The proposed inverter has the advantage over the cascaded H-bridge quasi-Z-source inverter (CHB-qZSI) in reducing two capacitors and two inductors. As a result, cost, weight, and size are reduced. Furthermore, the dc-link voltage of each module is controlled by individual shoot-through duty cycle to get the same values. Therefore, the proposed inverter solves the imbalance problem of dc-link voltage in traditional CHB inverter. This paper shows the operating principles and analysis of the single-phase cascaded H-bridge quasi switched boost inverter. Also, a control strategy for the proposed inverter is shown. Experimental and simulation results are shown to verify the operating principle of the proposed inverter.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, cascaded h-bridge inverter, quasi switched boost inverter, quasi z-source inverter, multilevel inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
151 Investigation of the Effects of Sampling Frequency on the THD of 3-Phase Inverters Using Space Vector Modulation

Authors: Khattab Al Qaisi, Nicholas Bowring

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation results of the effects of sampling frequency on the total harmonic distortion (THD) of three-phase inverters using the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and space vector control (SVC) algorithms. The relationship between the variables was studied using curve fitting techniques, and it has been shown that, for 50 Hz inverters, there is an exponential relation between the sampling frequency and THD up to around 8500 Hz, beyond which the performance of the model becomes irregular, and there is an negative exponential relation between the sampling frequency and the marginal improvement to the THD. It has also been found that the performance of SVPWM is better than that of SVC with the same sampling frequency in most frequency range, including the range where the performance of the former is irregular.

Keywords: DSI, SVPWM, THD, DC-AC converter, sampling frequency, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
150 Performance Comparison of Droop Control Methods for Parallel Inverters in Microgrid

Authors: Ahmed Ismail, Mustafa Baysal

Abstract:

Although the energy source in the world is mainly based on fossil fuels today, there is a need for alternative energy generation systems, which are more economic and environmentally friendly, due to continuously increasing demand of electric energy and lacking power resources and networks. Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as fuel cells, wind and solar power have recently become widespread as alternative generation. In order to solve several problems that might be encountered when integrating DERs to power system, the microgrid concept has been proposed. A microgrid can operate both grid connected and island mode to benefit both utility and customers. For most distributed energy resources (DER) which are connected in parallel in LV-grid like micro-turbines, wind plants, fuel cells and PV cells electrical power is generated as a direct current (DC) and converted to an alternative currents (AC) by inverters. So the inverters are assumed to be primary components in a microgrid. There are many control techniques of parallel inverters to manage active and reactive sharing of the loads. Some of them are based on droop method. In literature, the studies are usually focused on improving the transient performance of inverters. In this study, the performance of two different controllers based on droop control method is compared for the inverters operated in parallel without any communication feedback. For this aim, a microgrid in which inverters are controlled by conventional droop controller and modified droop controller is designed. Modified controller is obtained by adding PID into conventional droop control. Active and reactive power sharing performance, voltage and frequency responses of those control methods are measured in several operational cases. Study cases have been simulated by MATLAB-SIMULINK.

Keywords: active and reactive power sharing, distributed generation, droop control, microgrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
149 Implementation of a Novel Modified Multilevel Inverter Topology for Grid Connected PV System

Authors: Dhivya Balakrishnan, Dhamodharan Shanmugam

Abstract:

Multilevel converters offer high power capability, associated with lower output harmonics and lower commutation losses. Their main disadvantage is their complexity requiring a great number of power devices and passive components, and a rather complex control circuitry. This paper proposes a single-phase seven-level inverter for grid connected PV systems, With a novel pulse width-modulated (PWM) control scheme. Three reference signals that are identical to each other with an offset that is equivalent to the amplitude of the triangular carrier signal were used to generate the PWM signals. The inverter is capable of producing seven levels of output-voltage levels from the dc supply voltage. This paper proposes a new multilevel inverter topology using an H-bridge output stage with two bidirectional auxiliary switches. The new topology produces a significant reduction in the number of power devices and capacitors required to implement a multilevel output using the asymmetric cascade configuration.

Keywords: asymmetric cascade configuration, H-Bridge, multilevel inverter, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
148 Switching of Series-Parallel Connected Modules in an Array for Partially Shaded Conditions in a Pollution Intensive Area Using High Powered MOSFETs

Authors: Osamede Asowata, Christo Pienaar, Johan Bekker

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) modules may become a trend for future PV systems because of their greater flexibility in distributed system expansion, easier installation due to their nature, and higher system-level energy harnessing capabilities under shaded or PV manufacturing mismatch conditions. This is as compared to the single or multi-string inverters. Novel residential scale PV arrays are commonly connected to the grid by a single DC–AC inverter connected to a series, parallel or series-parallel string of PV panels, or many small DC–AC inverters which connect one or two panels directly to the AC grid. With an increasing worldwide interest in sustainable energy production and use, there is renewed focus on the power electronic converter interface for DC energy sources. Three specific examples of such DC energy sources that will have a role in distributed generation and sustainable energy systems are the photovoltaic (PV) panel, the fuel cell stack, and batteries of various chemistries. A high-efficiency inverter using Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) for all active switches is presented for a non-isolated photovoltaic and AC-module applications. The proposed configuration features a high efficiency over a wide load range, low ground leakage current and low-output AC-current distortion with no need for split capacitors. The detailed power stage operating principles, pulse width modulation scheme, multilevel bootstrap power supply, and integrated gate drivers for the proposed inverter is described. Experimental results of a hardware prototype, show that not only are MOSFET efficient in the system, it also shows that the ground leakage current issues are alleviated in the proposed inverter and also a 98 % maximum associated driver circuit is achieved. This, in turn, provides the need for a possible photovoltaic panel switching technique. This will help to reduce the effect of cloud movements as well as improve the overall efficiency of the system.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic (PV), Matlab efficiency simulation, maximum power point tracking (MPPT), module integrated converters (MICs), multilevel converter, series connected converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
147 Ant Colony Optimization Control for Multilevel STATCOM

Authors: H. Tédjini, Y. Meslem, B. Guesbaoui, A. Safa

Abstract:

Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) are potentially becoming more flexible and more economical local controllers in the power system; and because of the high MVA ratings, it would be expensive to provide independent, equal, regulated DC voltage sources to power the multilevel converters which are presently proposed for STATCOMs. DC voltage sources can be derived from the DC link capacitances which are charged by the rectified ac power. In this paper a new stronger control combined of nonlinear control based Lyapunov’s theorem and Ant Colony Algorithm (ACA) to maintain stability of multilevel STATCOM and the utility.

Keywords: Static Compensator (STATCOM), ant colony optimization (ACO), lyapunov control theory, Decoupled power control, neutral point clamped (NPC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
146 A Multilevel-Synthesis Approach with Reduced Number of Switches for 99-Level Inverter

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, V. Ramu, K. Ramakrishna

Abstract:

In this paper, an efficient multilevel wave form synthesis technique is proposed and applied to a 99-level inverter. The basic principle of the proposed scheme is that the continuous output voltage levels can be synthesized by the addition or subtraction of the instantaneous voltages generated from different voltage levels. This synthesis technique can be realized by an array of switching devices composing full-bridge inverter modules and proper mixing of each bi-directional switch modules. The most different aspect, compared to the conventional approach, in the synthesis of the multilevel output waveform is the utilization of a combination of bidirectional switches and full bridge inverter modules with reduced number of components. A 99-level inverter consists of three full-bridge modules and six bi-directional switch modules. The validity of the proposed scheme is verified by the simulation.

Keywords: cascaded connection, multilevel inverter, synthesis, total harmonic distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
145 [Keynote Talk]: Implementation of 5 Level and 7 Level Multilevel Inverter in Local Trains of Mumbai

Authors: Sharvari Sane, Swati Sharma, Sanjay K. Prasad

Abstract:

Local trains are the lifelines of Mumbai city. Earlier 1500 Volt D.C. supply, is now completely and successfully converted into 25 KV A.C. in central, western and harbour routes. This task is the outcome of the advancement in the area of power electronics. Author has already done the comparative study between D.C. and A.C. supply of traction and predicted the serious problem regarding the harmonics. In this paper, the simulation for 5 level as well as 7 level multilevel inverter has been done which is the substitute for the present cascade type inverter. This paper also showed the reduced level of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the traction system.

Keywords: total harmonic distortion (THD), traction sub station (TSS), harmonics, multilevel inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
144 Design and Advancement of Hybrid Multilevel Inverter Interface with PhotoVoltaic

Authors: P.Kiruthika, K. Ramani

Abstract:

This paper presented the design and advancement of a single-phase 27-level Hybrid Multilevel DC-AC Converter interfacing with Photo Voltaic. In this context, the Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method can be implemented in 27-level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter for generating a switching pulse. Perturb & Observer algorithm can be used in the Maximum Power Point Tracking method for the Photo Voltaic system. By implementing Maximum Power Point Tracking with three separate solar panels as an input source to the 27-level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter. This proposed method can be simulated by using MATLAB/simulink. The result shown that the proposed method can achieve silky output wave forms, more flexibility in voltage range, and to reduce Total Harmonic Distortion in medium-voltage drives.

Keywords: Multi Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Technique (MCPWM), Multi Level Inverter (MLI), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Perturb and Observer (P&O)

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
143 A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter

Authors: Bachir Belmadani, Rachid Taleb, Zinelaabidine Boudjema, Adil Yahdou

Abstract:

Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.

Keywords: flying capacitor inverter, multicarrier sinusoidal pulse width modulation, space vector modulation, total harmonic distortion, induction motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
142 Digital Control Techniques for Power Electronic Devices

Authors: Rakesh Krishna, Abhishek Poddar

Abstract:

The paper discusses the work carried out on the implementation of control techniques like Digital Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and Digital Pulse Fired control(PFC). These techniques are often used in devices like inverters, battery chargers, DC-to-DC converters can also be implemented on household devices like heaters. The advantage being the control and improved life span of device. In case of batteries using these techniques are known to increase the life span of battery in mobiles and other hand-held devices. 8051 microcontroller is used to implement these methods.Thyristors are used for switching operations.

Keywords: PWM, SVM, PFC, bidirectional inverters, snubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
141 Towards a Multilevel System of Talent Management in Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: French Context Exploration

Authors: Abid Kousay

Abstract:

Appeared and developed essentially in large companies and multinationals, Talent Management (TM) in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) has remained an under-explored subject till today. Although the literature on TM in the Anglo-Saxon context is developing, it remains monopolized in non-European contexts, especially in France. Therefore, this article aims to address these shortcomings through contributing to TM issues, by adopting a multilevel approach holding the goal of reaching a global holistic vision of interactions between various levels, while applying TM. A qualitative research study carried out within 12 SMEs in France, built on the methodological perspective of grounded theory, will be used in order to go beyond description, to generate or discover a theory or even a unified theoretical explanation. Our theoretical contributions are the results of the grounded theory, the fruit of context considerations and the dynamic of the multilevel approach. We aim firstly to determine the perception of talent and TM in SMEs. Secondly, we formalize TM in SME through the empowerment of all 3 levels in the organization (individual, collective, and organizational). And we generate a multilevel dynamic system model, highlighting the institutionalization dimension in SMEs and the managerial conviction characterized by the domination of the leader's role. Thirdly, this first study shed the light on the importance of rigorous implementation of TM in SMEs in France by directing CEO and HR and TM managers to focus on elements that upstream TM implementation and influence the system internally. Indeed, our systematic multilevel approach policy reminds them of the importance of the strategic alignment while translating TM policy into strategies and practices in SMEs.

Keywords: French context, institutionalization, talent, multilevel approach, talent management system

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
140 Multidisciplinary and Multilevel Design Methodology of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Enhanced Collaborative Optimization

Authors: Pedro F. Albuquerque, Pedro V. Gamboa, Miguel A. Silvestre

Abstract:

The present work describes the implementation of the Enhanced Collaborative Optimization (ECO) multilevel architecture with a gradient-based optimization algorithm with the aim of performing a multidisciplinary design optimization of a generic unmanned aerial vehicle with morphing technologies. The concepts of weighting coefficient and a dynamic compatibility parameter are presented for the ECO architecture. A routine that calculates the aircraft performance for the user defined mission profile and vehicle’s performance requirements has been implemented using low fidelity models for the aerodynamics, stability, propulsion, weight, balance and flight performance. A benchmarking case study for evaluating the advantage of using a variable span wing within the optimization methodology developed is presented.

Keywords: multidisciplinary, multilevel, morphing, enhanced collaborative optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
139 Anatomically-Based Oropharyngeal Rehabilitation for the Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Using a Multilevel Approach

Authors: Hsin-Yu Lin, Ching-Hsia Hung

Abstract:

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by a complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. The vulnerable sites of upper airway collapses are consequences of sleep state-dependent reductions in tone in specific pharyngeal dilators. Clinical examinations reveal multilevel collapses of the upper airway among the patients with OSA. Therefore, an anatomically-based oropharyngeal rehabilitation should comprise a multilevel approach, including retropalatal, retroglossal, hypopharyngeal, temporomandibular, and facial levels, all of which involve different muscle groups and contribute to multifunctional interaction and coordination, such as swallowing, breathing, and phonation. The purpose of the study was to exam the effects of this rehabilitation program with a multilevel approach. In this study, fifteen subjects with newly diagnosed moderate or severe OSA (Apnea-Hypopnea-Index≥15) were randomized into an intervention group and control group. The intervention group (N=8) underwent a 12-week-intervention of a hospital-based rehabilitation program, while the control group (N=7) was kept on the waiting list. The 12-week-intervention comprised an anatomically based multilevel approach. The primary outcome was Polysomnography (PSG) data, and the secondary outcome was oropharyngeal and respiratory muscle function. In the intervention group, Apnea-Hypopnea-Index significantly improved (46.96±19.45 versus 32.78±10.78 events/h, p=0.017) compared with control group (35.77±17.49 versus 42.96±17.32 events/h, p=0.043). While the control group remained no change, the intervention group demonstrated other PSG outcomes significantly improvement, including arousal index (46.04±18.9 versus 32.98±8.35/h, p=0.035), mean SpO2 (92.88±2.1 versus 94.13±1.46%, p=0.039). Besides, the intervention group demonstrated significant improvement in oropharyngeal and respiratory muscle function compared to the control group. This anatomically-based oropharyngeal rehabilitation with a multilevel approach can be proven as a non-invasive therapy for patients with OSA.

Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, upper airway, oropharyngeal rehabilitation, multilevel approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
138 Directors’ Compensation: Analyzing the Multilevel Factors That Exert the Greatest Influence

Authors: Isabel Acero, Nuria Alcalde

Abstract:

The economic crisis and notorious corporate scandals have caused social indignation and sparked the debate concerning the underlying rationality of the compensation that directors receive. In this context, this study examines the determinants of the remuneration of directors in listed Spanish companies using individualized data. A multilevel methodology appropriate for this type of data has been used that allows us to differentiate between inter-company variations and intra-company variations. The results show that company size is the variable (at the company level) that exerts the greatest influence on the level of director´s compensation. One surprising finding is that the presence of independent directors on the board has a positive influence on remuneration. At the individual level, tenure and experience have a significant influence on the level of compensation, while the director´s level of education does not appear to have an effect on it.

Keywords: board of directors, compensation, experience, multilevel, tenure

Procedia PDF Downloads 237