Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2683

Search results for: powder characterization

2683 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor

Abstract:

Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved.

Keywords: metronidazole, ball-milling, nanoparticles, characterization, XRD diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
2682 Feasibility of Ground Alkali-Active Sandstone Powder for Use in Concrete as Mineral Admixture

Authors: Xia Chen, Hua-Quan Yang, Shi-Hua Zhou

Abstract:

Alkali-active sandstone aggregate was ground by vertical and ball mill into particles with residue over 45 μm less than 12%, and investigations have been launched on particles distribution and characterization of ground sandstone powder, fluidity, heat of hydration, strength as well as hydration products morphology of pastes with incorporation of ground sandstone powder. Results indicated that ground alkali-active sandstone powder with residue over 45 μm less than 8% was easily obtainable, and specific surface area was more sensitive to characterize its fineness with extension of grinding length. Incorporation of sandstone powder resulted in higher water demand and lower strength, advanced hydration of C3A and C2S within 3days and refined pore structure. Based on its manufacturing, characteristics and influence on properties of pastes, it was concluded that sandstone powder was a good selection for use in concrete as mineral admixture.

Keywords: concrete, mineral admixture, hydration, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2681 Physical Property Characterization of Adult Dairy Nutritional Products for Powder Reconstitution

Authors: Wei Wang, Martin Chen

Abstract:

The reconstitution behaviours of nutritional products could impact user experience. Reconstitution issues such as lump formation and white flecks sticking to bottles surfaces could be very unappealing for the consumers in milk preparation. The controlling steps in dissolving instant milk powders include wetting, swelling, sinking, dispersing, and dissolution as in the literature. Each stage happens simultaneously with the others during milk preparation, and it is challenging to isolate and measure each step individually. This study characterized three adult nutritional products for different properties including particle size, density, dispersibility, stickiness, and capillary wetting to understand the relationship between powder physical properties and their reconstitution behaviours. From the results, the formation of clumps can be caused by different factors limiting the critical steps of powder reconstitution. It can be caused by small particle size distribution, light particle density limiting powder wetting, or the rapid swelling and dissolving of particle surface materials to impede water penetration in the capillary channels formed by powder agglomerates. For the grain or white flecks formation in milk preparation, it was believed to be controlled by dissolution speed of the particles after dispersion into water. By understanding those relationship between fundamental powder structure and their user experience in reconstitution, this information provides us new and multiple perspectives on how to improve the powder characteristics in the commercial manufacturing.

Keywords: characterization, dairy nutritional powder, physical property, reconstitution

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
2680 Characterization of Titanium -Niobium Alloys by Powder Metallurgy as İmplant

Authors: Eyyüp Murat Karakurt, Yan Huang, Mehmet Kaya, Hüseyin Demirtaş, Alper İncesu

Abstract:

In this study, Ti-(x) Nb (at. %) master alloys (x:10, 20, and 30) were fabricated following a standard powder metallurgy route and were sintered at 1200 ˚C for 6h, under 300 MPa by powder metallurgy method. The effect of the Nb concentration in Ti matrix and porosity level was examined experimentally. For metallographic examination, the alloys were analysed by optical microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis. In addition, X-ray diffraction was performed on the alloys to determine which compound formed in the microstructure. The compression test was applied to the alloys to understand the mechanical behaviors of the alloys. According to Nb concentration in Ti matrix, the β phase increased. Also, porosity level played a crucial role on the mechanical performance of the alloys.

Keywords: Nb concentration, porosity level, powder metallurgy, The β phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
2679 Structural Characterization and Application of Tio2 Nano-Partical

Authors: Maru Chetan, Desai Abhilash

Abstract:

The structural characteristics & application of TiO2 powder with different phases are study by various techniques in this paper. TTIP, EG and citric acid use as Ti source and catalyst respectively synthesis for sol gel synthesis of TiO2 powder. To replace sol gel method we develop the new method of making nano particle of TiO2 powder. It is two route method one is physical and second one is chemical route. Specific aim to this process is to minimize the production cost and the large scale production of nano particle The synthesis product work characterize by EDAX, SEM, XRD tests.

Keywords: mortal and pestle, nano particle , TiO2, TTIP

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
2678 Analysis of the Recovery of Burnility Index and Reduction of CO2 for Cement Manufacturing Utilizing Waste Cementitious Powder as Alternative Raw Material of Limestone

Authors: Kwon Eunhee, Park Dongcheon, Jung Jaemin

Abstract:

In countries around the world, environmental regulations are being strengthened, and Korea is no exception to this trend, which means that environment pollution and the environmental load have recently become a significant issue. For this reason, in this study limestone was replaced with cementitious powder to reduce the volume of construction waste as well as the emission of carbon dioxide caused by Tal-carbonate reaction. The research found that cementitious powder can be used as a substitute for limestone. However, the mix proportions of fine aggregate and powder included in the cementitious powder appear to have a great effect on substitution. Thus, future research should focus on developing a technology that can effectively separate and discharge fine aggregate and powder in the cementitious powder.

Keywords: waste cementitious powder, fine aggregate powder, CO2 emission, decarbonation reaction, calcining process

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2677 Production and Characterization of Al-BN Composite Materials by Using Powder Metallurgy

Authors: Ahmet Yonetken, Ayhan Erol

Abstract:

Aluminum matrix composites containing 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% BN has been fabricated by conventional microwave sintering at 550°C temperature. Compounds formation between Al and BN powders is observed after sintering under Ar shroud. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), mechanical testing and measurements were employed to characterize the properties of Al + BN composite. Experimental results suggest that the best properties as hardness 42,62 HV were obtained for Al+12% BN composite. In this study, the powder metallurgy method was used. It is aimed to produce a light composite with Al matrix BN powders. It has been increased in strength and hardness besides its lightness. Ceramic powders are added to improve mechanical properties.

Keywords: ceramic-metal composites, proporties, powder metallurgy, sintering

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2676 Production of Amorphous Boron Powder via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Authors: Meltem Bolluk, Ismail Duman

Abstract:

Boron exhibits the properties of high melting temperature (2273K to 2573 K), high hardness (Mohs: 9,5), low density (2,340 g/cm3), high chemical resistance, high strength, and semiconductivity (band gap:1,6-2,1 eV). These superior properties enable to use it in several high-tech areas from electronics to nuclear industry and especially in high temperature metallurgy. Amorphous boron and crystalline boron have different application areas. Amorphous boron powder (directly amorphous and/or α-rhombohedral) is preferred in rocket firing, airbag inflating and in fabrication of superconducting MgB2 wires. The conventional ways to produce elemental boron with a purity of 85 pct to 95 prc are metallothermic reduction, fused salt electrolysis and mechanochemical synthesis; but the only way to produce high-purity boron powders is Chemical Vapour Deposition (Hot Surface CVD). In this study; amorphous boron powders with a minimum purity of 99,9 prc were synthesized in quartz tubes using BCl3-H2 gas mixture by CVD. Process conditions based on temperature and gas flow rate were determined. Thermodynamical interpretation of BCl3-H2 system for different temperatures and molar rates were performed using Fact Sage software. The characterization of powders was examined by using Xray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Stereo Microscope (SM), Helium gas pycnometer analysis. The purities of final products were determined by titration after lime fusion.

Keywords: amorphous boron, CVD, powder production, powder characterization

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2675 The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.

Keywords: cement sorel, photothermal deflection technique, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity

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2674 Effect of Dietary Spirulina Powder on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Hematological, Biological and Immunological Parameters of Oscar Fish, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin

Abstract:

In this study, the changes in survival, growth, body composition, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus) have been investigated with dietary spirulina powder supplementation. Total of 300 fish with an initial weight of 8.37 ± 0.36 was distributed to three treatments and one control (0%). The fish were fed 8 weeks with diets containing different concentrations of S. powder: (control (0%), 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Then sampling was done, and different parameters were measured by standard methods. Growth performance such as weight gain (%), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly improved in fish fed with S. powder (p < 0.5). Crude protein significantly increased in the S. powder supplemented groups (p < 0.5). However, crude lipid decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Total protein increased in fish fed with 10% S. powder. Triglycerides and cholesterol decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Immunological parameters including C3 and C4 increased significantly with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels, and lysozyme was improved in 10% S. powder. Results of this study indicated that S. powder had positive effects on Oscar fish and the best values were observed at 10 % S. powder.

Keywords: spirulina powder, growth performance, body composition, hematology, immunity, Astronotus ocellatus

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2673 Microstructure Characterization of the Ball Milled Fe50Al30Ni20 (%.wt) Powder

Authors: C. Nakib, N. Ammouchi, A. Otmani, A. Djekoun, J. M. Grenèche

Abstract:

B2-structured FeAl was synthesized by an abrupt reaction during mechanical alloying (MA) of the elemental powders of Fe, Al and Ni. The structural, microstructural and morphological changes occurring in the studied material during MA were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two crystalline phases were found, the major one corresponding to FeAl bcc phase with a crystallite size less than 10 nm, a lattice strain up to 1.6% and a dislocation density of about 2.3 1016m-2. The other phase in low proportion was corresponding to Fe (Al,Ni) solid solution. SEM images showed an irregular morphology of powder particles.

Keywords: mechanical alloying, ternary composition, dislocation density, structural properties

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2672 Mechanical Characterization and Metallography of Sintered Aluminium-Titanium Diboride Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Sai Harshini Irigineni, Suresh Kumar Reddy Narala

Abstract:

The industrial applicability of aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs) has been rapidly growing due to their exceptional materials traits such as low weight, high strength, excellent thermal performance, and corrosion resistance. The increasing demand for AMMCs in automobile, aviation, aerospace and defence ventures has opened up windows of opportunity for the development of processing methods that facilitate low-cost production of AMMCs with superior properties. In the present work, owing to its economy, efficiency, and suitability, powder metallurgy (P/M) technique was employed to develop AMMCs with pure aluminium as matrix material and titanium diboride (TiB₂) as reinforcement. AMMC samples with different weight compositions (Al-0.1%TiB₂, Al-5%TiB₂, Al-10%TiB₂, and Al-15% TiB₂) were prepared through hot press compacting followed by traditional sintering. The developed AMMC was subjected to metallographic studies and mechanical characterization. Experimental evidences show significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness with increasing reinforcement content. The current study demonstrates the superiority of AMMCs over conventional metals and alloys and the results obtained may be of immense in material selection for different structural applications.

Keywords: AMMCs, mechanical characterization, powder metallurgy, TiB₂

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2671 Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys from Recyclable Material by High Energy Milling

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça

Abstract:

This study aimed to obtain an alloy of Iron and Aluminum in the proportion of 50% of atomicity for each constituent. Alloys were obtained by processing recycled aluminum and chips of 1200 series carbon steel in a high-energy mill. For the experiment, raw materials were processed thorough high energy milling before mixing the substances. Subsequently, the mixture of 1200 series carbon steel and Aluminum powder was carried out a milling process. Thereafter, hot compression was performed in a closed die in order to obtain the samples. The pieces underwent heat treatments, sintering and aging. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. In this paper, results are compared with previous studies, which used iron powder of high purity instead of Carbon steel in the composition.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
2670 Experimental Study of Iron Metal Powder Compacting by Controlled Impact

Authors: Todor N. Penchev, Dimitar N. Karastoianov, Stanislav D. Gyoshev

Abstract:

For compacting of iron powder are used hydraulic presses and high velocity hammers. In this paper are presented initial research on application of an innovative powder compacting method, which uses a hammer working with controlled impact. The results show that by this method achieves the reduction of rebounds and improve efficiency of impact, compared with a high-speed compacting. Depending on the power of the engine (industrial rocket engine), this effect may be amplified to such an extent as to obtain a impact without rebound (sticking impact) and in long-time action of the impact force.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, impact, iron powder compacting, rocket engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
2669 Powder Flow with Normalized Powder Particles Size Distribution and Temperature Analyses in Laser Melting Deposition: Analytical Modelling and Experimental Validation

Authors: Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Andrei C. Popescu, Mihai Oane, Diana Chioibascu, Carmen Ristoscu, Ion N. Mihailescu

Abstract:

Powder flow and temperature distributions are recognized as influencing factors during laser melting deposition (LMD) process, that not only affect the consolidation rate but also characteristics of the deposited layers. Herewith, two simplified analytical models will be presented to simulate the powder flow with the inclusion of powder particles size distribution in Gaussian form, under three powder jet nozzles, and temperature analyses during LMD process. The output of the 1st model will serve as the input in the 2nd model. The models will be validated with experimental data, i.e., weight measurement method for powder particles distribution and infrared imaging for temperature analyses. This study will increase the cost-efficiency of the LMD process by adjustment of the operating parameters for reaching optimal powder debit and energy. This research has received funds under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 764935, from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.

Keywords: laser additive manufacturing, powder particles size distribution in Gaussian form, powder stream distribution, temperature analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
2668 XRD and Image Analysis of Low Carbon Type Recycled Cement Using Waste Cementitious Powder

Authors: Hyeonuk Shin, Hun Song, Yongsik Chu, Jongkyu Lee, Dongcheon Park

Abstract:

Although much current research has been devoted to reusing concrete in the form of recycled aggregate, insufficient attention has been given to researching the utilization of waste concrete powder, which constitutes 20 % or more of waste concrete and therefore the majority of waste cementitious powder is currently being discarded or buried in landfills. This study consists of foundational research for the purpose of reusing waste cementitious powder in the form of recycled cement that can answer the need for low carbon green growth. Progressing beyond the conventional practice of using the waste cementitious powder as inert filler material, this study contributes to the aim of manufacturing high value added materials that exploits the chemical properties of the waste cementitious powder, by presenting a pre-treatment method for the material and an optimal method of proportioning the mix of materials to develop a low carbon type of recycled cement.

Keywords: Low carbon type cement, Waste cementitious powder, Waste recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2667 Friction Coefficient of Epiphen Epoxy System Filled with Powder Resulting from the Grinding of Pine Needles

Authors: I. Graur, V. Bria, C. Muntenita

Abstract:

Recent ecological interests have resulted in scientific concerns regarding natural-organic powder composites. Because natural-organic powders are cheap and biodegradable, green composites represent a substantial contribution in polymer science area. The aim of this study is to point out the effect of natural-organic powder resulting from the grinding of pine needles used as a modifying agent for Epiphen epoxy resin and is focused on friction coefficient behavior. A pin-on-disc setup is used for friction coefficient experiments. Epiphen epoxy resin was used with the different ratio of organic powder from the grinding of pine needles. Because of the challenges of natural organic powder, more and more companies are looking at organic composite materials.

Keywords: epoxy, friction coefficient, organic powder, pine needles

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2666 Manufacturing Process of S-Glass Fiber Reinforced PEKK Prepregs

Authors: Nassier A. Nassir, Robert Birch, Zhongwei Guan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the fundamental science/technology related to novel S-glass fiber reinforced polyether- ketone-ketone (GF/PEKK) composites and to gain insight into bonding strength and failure mechanisms. Different manufacturing techniques to make this high-temperature pre-impregnated composite (prepreg) were conducted i.e. mechanical deposition, electrostatic powder deposition, and dry powder prepregging techniques. Generally, the results of this investigation showed that it was difficult to control the distribution of the resin powder evenly on the both sides of the fibers within a specific percentage. Most successful approach was by using a dry powder prepregging where the fibers were coated evenly with an adhesive that served as a temporary binder to hold the resin powder in place onto the glass fiber fabric.

Keywords: sry powder technique, PEKK, S-glass, thermoplastic prepreg

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2665 Production of Banana Milk Powder Using Spray and Freeze Dryer

Authors: Siti Noor Suzila Maqsood-Ul-Haque, Ummi Kalthum Ibrahim, Norekanadirah Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Banana are rich in vitamins, potassium and carbohydrate.The objective for this research work is to produce banana milk powder that can help children that suffers from constipation. Two types of the most common dryers used for this purpose are the spray and freeze dryer. The effects of the type of dryers, pump feed speed in the spray dryer and the ratio proportion of the banana milk powder were investigated in the study. The result indicate that increasing proportion ratio of the banana milk powder produce lower yield of the powder.From the result it is also concluded that speed 2 is more suitable in the production of the banana milk powder since the value of the moisture content is lower.

Keywords: freeze dryer, spray dryer, moisture content, dissolution, banana, milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
2664 Carbon Coated Silicon Nanoparticles Embedded MWCNT/Graphene Matrix Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: Ubeyd Toçoğlu, Miraç Alaf, Hatem Akbulut

Abstract:

We present a work which was conducted in order to improve the cycle life of silicon based lithium ion battery anodes by utilizing novel composite structure. In this study, carbon coated nano sized (50-100 nm) silicon particles were embedded into Graphene/MWCNT silicon matrix to produce free standing silicon based electrodes. Also, conventional Si powder anodes were produced from Si powder slurry on copper current collectors in order to make comparison of composite and conventional anode structures. Free –standing composite anodes (binder-free) were produced via vacuum filtration from a well dispersion of Graphene, MWCNT and carbon coated silicon powders. Carbon coating process of silicon powders was carried out via microwave reaction system. The certain amount of silicon powder and glucose was mixed under ultrasonication and then coating was conducted at 200 °C for two hours in Teflon lined autoclave reaction chamber. Graphene which was used in this study was synthesized from well-known Hummers method and hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide. X-Ray diffraction analysis and RAMAN spectroscopy techniques were used for phase characterization of anodes. Scanning electron microscopy analyses were conducted for morphological characterization. The electrochemical performance tests were carried out by means of galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Keywords: graphene, Li-Ion, MWCNT, silicon

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
2663 Effects of the Usage of Marble Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement on the Durability of High Performance Concrete

Authors: Talah Aissa

Abstract:

This paper reports an experimental study of the influence of marble powder used as a partial substitute for Portland cement (PC) on the mechanical properties and durability of high-performance concretes. The analysis of the experimental results on concrete at 15% content of marble powder with a fineness modulus of 11500 cm2/g, in a chloride environment, showed that it contributes positively to the perfection of its mechanical characteristics, its durability with respect to migration of chloride ions and oxygen permeability. On the basis of the experiments performed, it can be concluded that the marble powder is suitable for formulation of high performance concretes (HPC) and their properties are significantly better compared to the reference concrete (RC).

Keywords: marble powder, durability, concrete, cement

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2662 Synthesis and Characterization of Akermanite Nanoparticles (AMN) as a Bio-Ceramic Nano Powder by Sol-Gel Method for Use in Biomedical

Authors: Seyedmahdi Mousavihashemi

Abstract:

Natural Akermanite (NAM) has been successfully prepared by a modified sol-gel method. Optimization in calcination temperature and mechanical ball milling resulted in a pure and nano-sized powder which characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT–IR). We hypothesized that nano-sized Akermanite (AM) would mimic more efficiently the nanocrystal structure and function of natural bone apatite, owing to the higher surface area, compare to conventional micron-size Akermanite (AM). Accordingly, we used the unique advantage of nanotechnology to improve novel nano akermanite particles as a potential candidate for bone tissue regeneration whether as a per implant filling powder or in combination with other biomaterials as a composite scaffold. Pure Akermanite (PAM) powders were successfully obtained via a simple sol-gel method followed by calcination at 1250 °C. Mechanical grinding in a ceramic ball mill for 7 hours resulted in akermanite (AM) nanoparticles in the range of about 30- 45 nm.

Keywords: biomedical engineering, nano composite, SEM, TEM

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2661 Obtaining Nutritive Powder from Peel of Mangifera Indica L. (Mango) as a Food Additive

Authors: Chajira Garrote, Laura Arango, Lourdes Merino

Abstract:

This research explains how to obtain nutritious powder from a variety of ripe mango peels Hilacha (Mangifera indica L.) to use it as a food additive. Also, this study intends to use efficiently the by-products resulting from the operations of mango pulp manufacturing process by processing companies with the aim of giving them an added value. The physical and chemical characteristics of the mango peels and the benefits that may help humans, were studied. Unit operations are explained for the processing of mango peels and the production of nutritive powder as a food additive. Emphasis is placed on the preliminary operations applied to the raw material and on the drying method, which is very important in this project to obtain the suitable characteristics of the nutritive powder. Once the powder was obtained, it was subjected to laboratory tests to determine its functional properties: water retention capacity (WRC) and oil retention capacity (ORC), also a sensory analysis for the powder was performed to determine the product profile. The nutritive powder from the ripe mango peels reported excellent WRC and ORC values: 7.236 g of water / g B.S. and 1.796 g water / g B.S. respectively and the sensory analysis defined a complete profile of color, odor and texture of the nutritive powder, which is suitable to use it in the food industry.

Keywords: mango, peel, powder, nutritive, functional properties, sensory analysis

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2660 Steel Industry Waste as Recyclable Raw Material for the Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça

Abstract:

The study aims to assess if high-purity iron powder in iron-aluminum alloys can be replaced by SAE 1020 steel chips with an atomicity proportion of 50% for each element. Chips of SAE 1020 are rejected in industrial processes. Thus, the use of SAE 1020 as a replaceable composite for iron increase the sustainability of ferrous alloys by recycling industrial waste. The alloys were processed by high energy milling, of which the main advantage is the minimal loss of raw material. The raw material for three of the six samples were high purity iron powder and recyclable aluminum cans. For the other three samples, the high purity iron powder has been replaced with chips of SAE 1020 steel. The process started with the separate milling of chips of aluminum and SAE 1020 steel to obtain the powder. Subsequently, the raw material was mixed in the pre-defined proportions, milled together for five hours and then underwent a closed-die hot compaction at the temperature of 500 °C. Thereafter, the compacted samples underwent heat treatments known as sintering and solubilization. All samples were sintered one hour, and 4 samples were solubilized for either 4 or 10 hours under well-controlled atmosphere conditions. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. The samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing. The results of the analysis showed a similar chemical composition and interesting hardness levels with low standard deviations. This verified that the use of SAE 1020 steel chips can be a low-cost alternative for high-purity iron powder and could possibly replace high-purity Iron in industrial applications.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, iron-aluminum alloys, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy, recycling ferrous alloy, SAE 1020 steel recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
2659 Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Orange Marmalade Supplemented with Aloe vera Powder

Authors: Farhat Rashid

Abstract:

A study was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, to evaluate the effect of different concentration of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) powder on physicochemical and sensory properties of orange marmalade. All treatments (0, 2, 4 6, 8 and 10% Aloe vera powder) were analyzed for titratable acidity, TSS, pH, moisture, fat, fiber and protein contents. The data indicated gradual increase in titratable acidity (0.08 to 0.18%), moisture (0.23 to 0.48%), protein (0.09 to 0.40%) and fiber (0.12 to 1.03%) among all treatments with increasing concentration of Aloe vera powder. However, a decreasing trend in pH (3.81 to 2.74), TSS (68 to 56 °Brix) and fat content (1.1 to 0.08%) was noticed with gradual increase in concentration of Aloe vera powder in orange marmalade. Sensory attributes like color, taste, texture, flavor and overall acceptability were found acceptable among all treatments but T1 (2% Aloe vera powder) was liked most and T5 (10% Aloe vera powder) was least appealing to the judges. It is concluded from present study that the addition of different concentrations of Aloe vera powder in orange marmalade significantly affected the physicochemical and sensory properties of marmalade.

Keywords: orange marmalade, Aloe vera, Aloe barbadensis mill, physicochemical, characteristics, organoleptic properties, Pakistan, treatments, significance

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
2658 Durability Study of Binary Blended High Performance Concrete

Authors: Vatsal Patel, Niraj Shah

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on the properties of binary blended High Performance cementitious systems containing blends of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Porcelain Powder or Marble Powder blend proportions of 100:00, 95:05, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20 for OPC: Porcelain Powder/Marble Powder. Studies on the Engineering Properties of the cementitious concrete, namely compressive strength, flexural strength, sorptivity, rapid chloride penetration test and accelerated corrosion test have been performed and those of OPC concrete. The results show that the inclusion of Porcelain powder or Marble Powder as binary blended cement alters to a great degree the properties of the binder as well as the resulting concrete. In addition, the results show that the Porcelain powder with 85:15 proportions and Marble powder with 90:10 proportions as binary systems to produce high-performance concrete could potentially be used in the concrete construction industry particular in lowering down the volume of OPC used and lowering emission of CO2 produces during manufacturing of cement.

Keywords: accelerated corrosion, binary blended cementitious system, rapid chloride penetration, sorptivity

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2657 Production of Premium Quality Cinnamon Bark Powder Using Cryogenic Grinding

Authors: Monika R. Bhoi, R. F. Sutar, Bhaumik B. Patel

Abstract:

The objective of this research paper is to obtain the premium quality of cinnamon bark powder through cryogenic grinding technology. The effect of grinding temperature (0, -20, -40, -60, -80 and -100˚C), feed rate (8, 9 and 10 kg/h), and sieve size (0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm) were evaluated with respect to grinding time, volatile oil content, particle size, energy consumption, and liquid nitrogen consumption. Cryogenic grinding process parameters were optimized to obtain premium quality cinnamon bark powder was carried out using three factorial completely randomized design. The optimization revealed that grinding of cinnamon bark at -80⁰C temperature using 0.8 mm sieve size and 10 kg/h feed rate resulted in premium quality cinnamon bark powder containing volatile oil 3.01%. In addition, volatile oil retention in cryogenically ground powder was 88.23%, whereas control (ambient grinding) had 33.11%. Storage study of premium quality cryogenically ground powder was carried out under accelerated storage conditions (38˚C & 90% R.H). Accelerated storage of cryoground powder was found to be advantageous over the conventional ground for extended storage of the ground cinnamon powder with retention of its nutritional quality. Hence, grinding of spices at optimally low cryogenic temperature is a promising technology for the production of its premium quality powder economically.

Keywords: cinnamon bark, cryogenic grinding, feed rate, volatile oil

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2656 Effects of Spray Dryer Atomizer Speed on Casein Micelle Size in Whole Fat Milk Powder and Physicochemical Properties of White Cheese

Authors: Mohammad Goli, Akram Sharifi, Mohammad Yousefi Jozdani, Seyed Ali Mortazavi

Abstract:

An industrial spray dryer was used, and the effects of atomizer speed on the physicochemical properties of milk powder, the textural and sensory characteristics of white cheese made from this milk powder, were evaluated. For this purpose, whole milk was converted into powder by using three different speeds (10,000, 11,000, and 12,000 rpm). Results showed that with increasing atomizer speed in the spray dryer, the average size of casein micelle is significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas no significant effect is observed on the chemical properties of milk powder. White cheese characteristics indicated that with increasing atomizer speed, texture parameters, such as hardness, mastication, and gumminess, were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Sensory evaluation also revealed that cheese samples prepared with dried milk produced at 12,000 rpm were highly accepted by panelists. Overall, the findings suggested that 12,000 rpm is the optimal atomizer speed for milk powder production.

Keywords: spray drying, powder technology, atomizer speed, particle size, white cheese physical properties

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2655 Egg Production Performance of Old Laying Hen Fed Dietary Turmeric Powder

Authors: D. P. Rahardja, M. Rahman Hakim, V. Sri Lestari

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of turmeric powder supplementation on egg production performance of old laying hens (104 weeks of age). There were 40 hens of Hysex Brown strain used in the study. They were caged individually, and randomly divided into 4 treatment groups of diet containing 0 (control), 1, 2 and 4 % oven dried turmeric powder for 3 periods of 4 weeks; Egg production (% hen day) and feed intake of the 4 treatment groups at the commencement of the experiment were not significantly different. In addition to egg production performance (%HD and egg weight), feed and water intakes were measured daily. The results indicated that feed intakes of the hen were significantly lowered when 4% turmeric powder supplemented, while there were no significant changes in water intakes. Egg production (%HD) were significantly increased and maintained at a higher level by turmeric powder supplementation up to 4% compared with the control, while the weight of eggs were not significantly affected. The research markedly demonstrated that supplementation of turmeric powder up to 4% could improve and maintain egg production performance of the old laying hen.

Keywords: curcumin, feed and water intake, old laying hen, egg production

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2654 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Powder Injection Molded Alumina Nano-Powder

Authors: Mostafa Rezaee Saraji, Ali Keshavarz Panahi

Abstract:

In this work, the processing steps for producing alumina parts using powder injection molding (PIM) technique and nano-powder were investigated and the thermal conductivity and flexural strength of samples were determined as a function of sintering temperature and holding time. In the first step, the feedstock with 58 vol. % of alumina nano-powder with average particle size of 100nm was prepared using Extrumixing method to obtain appropriate homogeneity. This feedstock was injection molded into the two cavity mold with rectangular shape. After injection molding step, thermal and solvent debinding methods were used for debinding of molded samples and then these debinded samples were sintered in different sintering temperatures and holding times. From the results, it was found that the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of samples increased by increasing sintering temperature and holding time; in sintering temperature of 1600ºC and holding time of 5h, the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of sintered samples reached to maximum values of 488MPa and 40.8 W/mK, respectively.

Keywords: alumina nano-powder, thermal conductivity, flexural strength, powder injection molding

Procedia PDF Downloads 253