Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4984

Search results for: open cell

4984 Surface-Quenching Induced Cell Opening Technique in Extrusion of Thermoplastic Foamed Sheets

Authors: Abhishek Gandhi, Naresh Bhatnagar

Abstract:

In this article, a new technique has been developed to manufacture open cell extruded thermoplastic foamed sheets with the aid of extrudate surface-quenching phenomenon. As the extrudate foam exits the die, its surface is rapidly quenched which results in freezing of cells on the surface, while the cells at the core continue to grow and leads to development of open-cellular microstructure at the core. Influence of chill roll temperature was found to be extremely significant in developing porous morphological attributes. Subsequently, synergistic effect of blowing agent content and chill roll temperature was examined for their expansion ratio and open-cell microstructure. Further, chill roll rotating speed was found extremely significant in obtaining open-cellular foam structures. This study intends to enhance the understanding of researchers working in the area of open-cell foam processing.

Keywords: foams, porous materials, morphology, composite, microscopy, open-cell foams

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
4983 Efficient Pre-Processing of Single-Cell Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin with High-Throughput Sequencing Data

Authors: Fan Gao, Lior Pachter

Abstract:

The primary tool currently used to pre-process 10X Chromium single-cell ATAC-seq data is Cell Ranger, which can take very long to run on standard datasets. To facilitate rapid pre-processing that enables reproducible workflows, we present a suite of tools called scATAK for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data that is 15 to 18 times faster than Cell Ranger on mouse and human samples. Our tool can also calculate chromatin interaction potential matrices, and generate open chromatin signal and interaction traces for cell groups. We use scATAK tool to explore the chromatin regulatory landscape of a healthy adult human brain and unveil cell-type specific features, and show that it provides a convenient and computational efficient approach for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data.

Keywords: single-cell, ATAC-seq, bioinformatics, open chromatin landscape, chromatin interactome

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
4982 A Review on Enhancing Heat Transfer Processes by Open-Cell Metal Foams and Industrial Applications

Authors: S. Cheragh Dar, M. Saljooghi, A. Babrgir

Abstract:

In the last couple of decades researchers' attitudes were focused on developing and enhancing heat transfer processes by using new components or cellular solids that divide into stochastic structures and periodic structures. Open-cell metal foams are part of stochastic structures families that they can be considered as an avant-garde technology and they have unique properties, this porous media can have tremendous achievements in thermal processes. This paper argues and surveys postulating possible in industrial thermal issues which include: compact electronic cooling, heat exchanger, aerospace, fines, turbo machinery, automobiles, crygen tanks, biomechanics, high temperature filters and etc. Recently, by surveying exponential rate of publications in thermal open-cell metal foams, all can be demonstrated in a holistic view which can lead researchers to a new level of understanding in different industrial thermal sections.

Keywords: heat transfer, industrial thermal, cellular solids, open cell metal foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
4981 A Fluid-Walled Microfluidic Device for Cell Migration Studies

Authors: Cyril Deroy, Agata Rumianek, David R. Greaves, Peter R. Cook, Edmond J. Walsh

Abstract:

Various microfluidic platforms have been developed in the past couple of decades offering experimental methods for the study of cell migration; however, their implementation in the laboratory has remained limited. Some reasons cited for the lack of uptake include the technical complexity of the devices, high failure rate associated with gas-bubbles, biocompatibility concerns with the use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and equipment/time/expertise requirements for operation and manufacture. As sample handling remains challenging due to the closed format of microfluidic devices, open microfluidic systems have been developed offering versatility and simplicity of use. Rather than confining fluids by solid walls, samples can be accessed directly over the open platform, by removing at least one of the solid boundaries, such as the cover. In this paper, a method for the fabrication of open fluid-walled microfluidic circuits for cell migration studies is introduced, where only materials commonly used by the life-science community are required; tissue culture dishes and cell media. The simplicity of the method, and ability to retrieve cells of interest are two key features of the method. Both passive and active flow-devices can be created in this way. To demonstrate the versatility of the method a cell migration assay is performed, which requires fabricating circuits for establishing chemical gradients, loading cells and incubating, creating chemical gradients, real time imaging of cell migration and finally retrieval of cells. The open architecture has high fidelity as it eliminates air bubble related failures and enables the precise control of gradients. The ability to fabricate custom microfluidic designs in minutes should make this method suitable for use in a wide range of cell migration studies.

Keywords: chemotaxis, fluid walls, gradient generation, open microfluidics

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4980 Air Conditioning Variation of 1kW Open-Cathode Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell

Authors: Mohammad Syahirin Aisha, Khairul Imran Sainan

Abstract:

The PEM fuel cell is a device that generate electric by electrochemical reaction between hydrogen fuel and oxygen in the fuel cell stack. PEM fuel cell consists of an anode (hydrogen supply), a cathode (oxygen supply) and an electrolyte that allow charges move between the two positions of the fuel cell. The only product being developed after the reaction is water (H2O) and heat as the waste which does not emit greenhouse gasses. The performance of fuel cell affected by numerous parameters. This study is restricted to cathode parameters that affect fuel cell performance. At the anode side, the reactant is not going through any changes. Experiments with variation in air velocity (3m/s, 6m/s and 9m/s), temperature (10oC, 20oC, 35oC) and relative humidity (50%, 60%, and 70%) have been carried out. The experiments results are presented in the form of fuel cell stack power output over time, which demonstrate the impacts of the various air condition on the execution of the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the experimental analysis shows that with variation of air conditions, it gives different fuel cell performance behavior. The maximum power output of the experiment was measured at an ambient temperature of 25oC with relative humidity and 9m/s velocity of air.

Keywords: air-breathing PEM fuel cell, cathode side, performance, variation in air condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
4979 Electrochemical Studies of Si, Si-Ge- and Ge-Air Batteries

Authors: R. C. Sharma, Rishabh Bansal, Prajwal Menon, Manoj K. Sharma

Abstract:

Silicon-air battery is highly promising for electric vehicles due to its high theoretical energy density (8470 Whkg⁻¹) and its discharge products are non-toxic. For the first time, pure silicon and germanium powders are used as anode material. Nickel wire meshes embedded with charcoal and manganese dioxide powder as cathode and concentrated potassium hydroxide is used as electrolyte. Voltage-time curves have been presented in this study for pure silicon and germanium powder and 5% and 10% germanium with silicon powder. Silicon powder cell assembly gives a stable voltage of 0.88 V for ~20 minutes while Si-Ge provides cell voltage of 0.80-0.76 V for ~10-12 minutes, and pure germanium cell provides cell voltage 0.80-0.76 V for ~30 minutes. The cell voltage is higher for concentrated (10%) sodium hydroxide solution (1.08 V) and it is stable for ~40 minutes. A sharp decrease in cell voltage beyond 40 min may be due to rapid corrosion.

Keywords: Silicon-air battery, Germanium-air battery, voltage-time curve, open circuit voltage, Anodic corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
4978 Technology Planning with Internal and External Resource for Open Innovation

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

Technology planning with both internal capacity and external resource is necessary for successful open innovation. Until now, many types of research have been conducted for this issue. However, technology planning for open innovation at the national level has not been researched sufficiently. This study proposes Open roadmap for open innovation at the national level. The proposed open roadmap can manage the inflow & outflow open innovation systematically. Six types of open roadmap are classified with respect to the innovation direction and characteristics. The proposed open roadmap is applied to the open innovation cases of the Roman period. The proposed open roadmap is expected to be helpful tool for technology policy planning at the national level.

Keywords: technology planning, open innovation, internal resource, external resource, technology management

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
4977 Optimization of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using AMPS-1D

Authors: Benmoussa Dennai, H. Benslimane, A. Helmaoui

Abstract:

Photo voltaic conversion is the direct conversion of electromagnetic energy into electrical energy continuously. This electromagnetic energy is the most solar radiation. In this work we performed a computer modelling using AMPS 1D optimization of hetero-junction solar cells GaInP/GaAs configuration for p/ n. We studied the influence of the thickness the base layer in the cell offers on the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current and efficiency.

Keywords: optimization, photovoltaic cell, GaInP / GaAs AMPS-1D, hetetro-junction

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
4976 Optimization of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using AMPS-1D

Authors: Benmoussa Dennai, H. Benslimane, A. Helmaoui

Abstract:

Photovoltaic conversion is the direct conversion of electromagnetic energy into electrical energy continuously. This electromagnetic energy is the most solar radiation. In this work we performed a computer modelling using AMPS 1D optimization of hetero-junction solar cells GaInP / GaAs configuration for p / n. We studied the influence of the thickness the base layer in the cell offers on the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current and efficiency.

Keywords: optimization, photovoltaic cell, GaInP / GaAs AMPS-1D, hetetro-junction

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
4975 Electricity Production from Vermicompost Liquid Using Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Pratthana Ammaraphitak, Piyachon Ketsuwan, Rattapoom Prommana

Abstract:

Electricity production from vermicompost liquid was investigated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The aim of this study was to determine the performance of vermicompost liquid as a biocatalyst for electricity production by MFCs. Chemical and physical parameters of vermicompost liquid as total nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, potassium, organic matter, C:N ratio, pH, and electrical conductivity in MFCs were studied. The performance of MFCs was operated in open circuit mode for 7 days. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) was 0.45 V. The maximum power density of 5.29 ± 0.75 W/m² corresponding to a current density of 0.024 2 ± 0.0017 A/m² was achieved by the 1000 Ω on day 2. Vermicompost liquid has efficiency to generate electricity from organic waste.

Keywords: vermicompost liquid, microbial fuel cell, nutrient, electricity production

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
4974 Optimal Design of InGaP/GaAs Heterojonction Solar Cell

Authors: Djaafar F., Hadri B., Bachir G.

Abstract:

We studied mainly the influence of temperature, thickness, molar fraction and the doping of the various layers (emitter, base, BSF and window) on the performances of a photovoltaic solar cell. In a first stage, we optimized the performances of the InGaP/GaAs dual-junction solar cell while varying its operation temperature from 275°K to 375 °K with an increment of 25°C using a virtual wafer fabrication TCAD Silvaco. The optimization at 300°K led to the following result Icc =14.22 mA/cm2, Voc =2.42V, FF =91.32 %, η = 22.76 % which is close with those found in the literature. In a second stage ,we have varied the molar fraction of different layers as well their thickness and the doping of both emitters and bases and we have registered the result of each variation until obtaining an optimal efficiency of the proposed solar cell at 300°K which was of Icc=14.35mA/cm2,Voc=2.47V,FF=91.34,and η =23.33% for In(1-x)Ga(x)P molar fraction( x=0.5).The elimination of a layer BSF on the back face of our cell, enabled us to make a remarkable improvement of the short-circuit current (Icc=14.70 mA/cm2) and a decrease in open circuit voltage Voc and output η which reached 1.46V and 11.97% respectively. Therefore, we could determine the critical parameters of the cell and optimize its various technological parameters to obtain the best performance for a dual junction solar cell. This work opens the way with new prospects in the field of the photovoltaic one. Such structures will thus simplify the manufacturing processes of the cells; will thus reduce the costs while producing high outputs of photovoltaic conversion.

Keywords: modeling, simulation, multijunction, optimization, silvaco ATLAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 521
4973 The Choicest Design of InGaP/GaAs Heterojunction Solar Cell

Authors: Djaafar Fatiha, Ghalem Bachir, Hadri Bagdad

Abstract:

We studied mainly the influence of temperature, thickness, molar fraction and the doping of the various layers (emitter, base, BSF and window) on the performances of a photovoltaic solar cell. In a first stage, we optimized the performances of the InGaP/GaAs dual-junction solar cell while varying its operation temperature from 275°K to 375 °K with an increment of 25°C using a virtual wafer fabrication TCAD Silvaco. The optimization at 300 °K led to the following result: Icc =14.22 mA/cm2, Voc =2.42V, FF=91.32 %, η= 22.76 % which is close with those found in the literature. In a second stage ,we have varied the molar fraction of different layers as well their thickness and the doping of both emitters and bases and we have registered the result of each variation until obtaining an optimal efficiency of the proposed solar cell at 300°K which was of Icc=14.35mA/cm2,Voc=2.47V,FF=91.34,and η=23.33% for In(1-x)Ga(x)P molar fraction( x=0.5).The elimination of a layer BSF on the back face of our cell, enabled us to make a remarkable improvement of the short-circuit current (Icc=14.70 mA/cm2) and a decrease in open circuit voltage Voc and output η which reached 1.46V and 11.97% respectively. Therefore, we could determine the critical parameters of the cell and optimize its various technological parameters to obtain the best performance for a dual junction solar cell .This work opens the way with new prospects in the field of the photovoltaic one. Such structures will thus simplify the manufacturing processes of the cells; will thus reduce the costs while producing high outputs of photovoltaic conversion.

Keywords: modeling, simulation, multijunction, optimization, Silvaco ATLAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
4972 Global Analysis of HIV Virus Models with Cell-to-Cell

Authors: Hossein Pourbashash

Abstract:

Recent experimental studies have shown that HIV can be transmitted directly from cell to cell when structures called virological synapses form during interactions between T cells. In this article, we describe a new within-host model of HIV infection that incorporates two mechanisms: infection by free virions and the direct cell-to-cell transmission. We conduct the local and global stability analysis of the model. We show that if the basic reproduction number R0 1, the virus is cleared and the disease dies out; if R0 > 1, the virus persists in the host. We also prove that the unique positive equilibrium attracts all positive solutions under additional assumptions on the parameters.

Keywords: HIV virus model, cell-to-cell transmission, global stability, Lyapunov function, second compound matrices

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
4971 Sensitivity Studies for a Pin Homojunction a-Si:H Solar Cell

Authors: Leila Ayat, Afak Meftah

Abstract:

Amorphous-silicon alloys have great promise as low cost solar cell materials. They have excellent photo-conductivity and high optical absorption to sunlight. Now PIN a-Si:H based solar cells are widely used in power generation modules. However, to improve the performance of these cells further, a better fundamental under-standing of the factors limiting cell performance in the homo junction PIN structure is necessary. In this paper we discuss the sensitivity of light J-V characteristics to various device and material parameters in PIN homo junction solar cells. This work is a numerical simulation of the output parameters of a PIN a-Si:H solar cell under AM1.5 spectrum. These parameters are the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), the fill factor (FF), the conversion efficiency. The simulation was performed with SCAPS-1D software version 3.3 developed at ELIS in Belgium by Marc Burgelman et al. The obtained results are in agreement with experiment. In addition, the effect of the thickness, doping density, capture cross sections of the gap states and the band microscopic mobilities on the output parameters of the cell are also presented.

Keywords: amorphous silicon p-i-n junctions, thin film, solar cells, sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
4970 Spatial Architecture Impact in Mediation Open Circuit Voltage Control of Quantum Solar Cell Recovery Systems

Authors: Moustafa Osman Mohammed

Abstract:

The photocurrent generations are influencing ultra-high efficiency solar cells based on self-assembled quantum dot (QD) nanostructures. Nanocrystal quantum dots (QD) provide a great enhancement toward solar cell efficiencies through the use of quantum confinement to tune absorbance across the solar spectrum enabled multi-exciton generation. Based on theoretical predictions, QDs have potential to improve systems efficiency in approximate regular electrons excitation intensity greater than 50%. In solar cell devices, an intermediate band formed by the electron levels in quantum dot systems. The spatial architecture is exploring how can solar cell integrate and produce not only high open circuit voltage (> 1.7 eV) but also large short-circuit currents due to the efficient absorption of sub-bandgap photons. In the proposed QD system, the structure allows barrier material to absorb wavelengths below 700 nm while multi-photon processes in the used quantum dots to absorb wavelengths up to 2 µm. The assembly of the electronic model is flexible to demonstrate the atoms and molecules structure and material properties to tune control energy bandgap of the barrier quantum dot to their respective optimum values. In terms of energy virtual conversion, the efficiency and cost of the electronic structure are unified outperform a pair of multi-junction solar cell that obtained in the rigorous test to quantify the errors. The milestone toward achieving the claimed high-efficiency solar cell device is controlling the edge causes of energy bandgap between the barrier material and quantum dot systems according to the media design limits. Despite this remarkable potential for high photocurrent generation, the achievable open-circuit voltage (Voc) is fundamentally limited due to non-radiative recombination processes in QD solar cells. The orientation of voltage recovery system is compared theoretically with experimental Voc variation in mediation upper–limit obtained one diode modeling form at the cells with different bandgap (Eg) as classified in the proposed spatial architecture. The opportunity for improvement Voc is valued approximately greater than 1V by using smaller QDs through QD solar cell recovery systems as confined to other micro and nano operations states.

Keywords: nanotechnology, photovoltaic solar cell, quantum systems, renewable energy, environmental modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
4969 A Case Study of Open Source Development Practices within a Large Company Setting

Authors: Alma Orucevic-Alagic, Martin Höst

Abstract:

Open source communities have demonstrated that complex and enterprise grade software can be produced, supported, and maintained by self-organizing groups of developers using primarily electronic form of communication. Due to the inherent nature of open source development, a specific set of open source software development practices has evolved. While there is an ongoing research on the topic of applicability of open source development practices within a company setting, still little is known about their benefits and challenges. The objective of this research is to understand if and to what degree open source development practices observed within a mature open source community are aligned with development practices within a large software and hardware company setting. For the purpose of this case study a set of open source development practices that are present in a mature open source community has been identified. Then, development practices of a large, international, hardware and software company based in Sweden were assessed and compared to the identified open source community practices. It is shown that there are many similarities between a mature open source community and a large company setting in regard to software development practices. We also identify practices that exist in open source communities and that are not standard within a company setting, but whose implementation can result in an improved software development efficiency within the company setting.

Keywords: development practices, open source software, innersource, closed open source

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
4968 The Methods of Immobilization of Laccase for Direct Transfer in an Enzymatic Fuel Cell

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Hoda Khodadadi

Abstract:

In this paper, we compare five methods of biological fuel cell fabrication by combining a Shewanella oneidensis microbial anode and a laccase-modified air-breathing cathode. As a result of biofuel cell laccase with graphite nanofibers, carbon surface (PAMAN) on the pt/hpg electrode, graphite sheets MWCNT and with (PG) and (MWCNT) showed, respectively. Describes methods for creating controllable and reproducible bio-anodes and demonstrates the versatility of hybrid biological fuel cells. The laccase-based biocathodes prepared either with the crude extract or with the purified enzyme can provide electrochemically active and stable biomaterials. The laccase-based biocathodes prepared either with the crude extract or with the purified enzyme can provide electrochemically active and stable biomaterials. When the device was fed with transdermal extracts, containing only 30μM of glucose, the average peak power was proportionally lower (0.004mW). The result of biofuel cell with graphite nanofibers showed the enzymatic fuel cell reaches 0.5 V at open circuit voltage with both, ethanol and methanol and the maximum current density observed for E2electrode was 228.94mAcm.

Keywords: enzymatic electrode, fuel cell, immobilization, laccase

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
4967 Solar Cell Using Chemical Bath Deposited PbS:Bi3+ Films as Electron Collecting Layer

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Oscar Portillo Moreno

Abstract:

Chemical bath deposited PbS:Bi3+ as an electron collection layer is introduced between the silicon wafer and the Ag electrode the performance of the PbS heterojunction thin film solar thin film solar cells with 1 cm2 active area. We employed Bi-doping to transform it into an n-type semiconductor. The experimental results reveal that the cell response parameters depend critically on the deposition procedures in terms of bath temperature, deposition time. The device achieves an open-circuit voltage of 0.4 V. The simple and low-cost deposition method of PbS:Bi3+ films is promising for the fabrication.

Keywords: Bi doping, PbS, thin films, solar cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
4966 Single-Cell Visualization with Minimum Volume Embedding

Authors: Zhenqiu Liu

Abstract:

Visualizing the heterogeneity within cell-populations for single-cell RNA-seq data is crucial for studying the functional diversity of a cell. However, because of the high level of noises, outlier, and dropouts, it is very challenging to measure the cell-to-cell similarity (distance), visualize and cluster the data in a low-dimension. Minimum volume embedding (MVE) projects the data into a lower-dimensional space and is a promising tool for data visualization. However, it is computationally inefficient to solve a semi-definite programming (SDP) when the sample size is large. Therefore, it is not applicable to single-cell RNA-seq data with thousands of samples. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm with an accelerated proximal gradient method and visualize the single-cell RNA-seq data efficiently. We demonstrate that the proposed approach separates known subpopulations more accurately in single-cell data sets than other existing dimension reduction methods.

Keywords: single-cell RNA-seq, minimum volume embedding, visualization, accelerated proximal gradient method

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
4965 Optimization of Hydrogel Conductive Nanocomposite as Solar Cell

Authors: Shimaa M. Elsaeed, Reem K. Farag, Ibrahim M. Nassar

Abstract:

Hydrogel conductive polymer nanocomposite fabricated via in-situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) inside thermosensitive hydrogels based on hydroxy ethyl meth acrylate (HEMA) copolymer with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS). SEM micrographs show the nanometric size of the conductive material (polyaniline, PANI) dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. The swelling parameters of hydrogel are measured. The incorporation of PANI improves the mechanical properties and swelling up to 30,000% without breaking. X-ray diffraction shows that typical polyaniline crystallization is formed in composite, which is advantageous to increase the electrical conductivity of the composite hydrogel. Open-circuit voltage (I-V) curve fill factor of the highest photo-conversion efficiency and enhanced to use in solar cell.

Keywords: hydrogel, solar cell, conductive polymer, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
4964 Up-Regulation of SCUBE2 Expression in Co-Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Hirowati Ali, Aisyah Ellyanti, Dewi Rusnita, Septelia Inawati Wanandi

Abstract:

Stem cell has been known for its potency to be differentiated in many cells. Recently stem cell has been used for many treatment of degenerative medicine. It is still controversy whether stem cell can be used for therapy or these cells can activate cancer stem cell. SCUBE2 is a novel secreted and membrane-anchored protein which has been reported to its role in better prognosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our study aims to observe whether stem cell can up-regulate SCUBE2 gene in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We used in vitro study using MCF-7 cell treated with stem cell derived from placenta Wharton's jelly which has been known for its stemness and widely used. Our results showed that MCF-7 cell line grows up rapidly in 6-well culture dish. Stem cell was cultured in 6-well dish. After 50%-60% MCF-7 confluence, we co-cultured these cells with stem cells for 24 hours and 48 hours. We hypothesize SCUBE2 gene which is previously known for its higher expression in better prognosis of breast cancer, is up-regulated after stem cells addition in MCF7 culture dishes.

Keywords: breast cancer cells, inhibition of cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells, SCUBE2

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
4963 Comparison of Performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies Prepared from 10 and 15-Micron Proton Exchange Membranes

Authors: Yingjeng James Li, Chiao-Chih Hu

Abstract:

Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications were prepared by using 10 and 15 um PEMs. Except for different membrane thicknesses, these MEAs were prepared by the same conditions. They were prepared by using catalyst coated membrane (CCM) process. The catalyst employed is 40% Pt/C, and the Pt loading is 0.5mg/cm² for the sum of anode and cathode. Active area of the MEAs employed in this study is 5cm*5cm=25cm². In polarization measurements, the flow rates were always set at 1.2 stoic for anode and 3.0 stoic for cathode. The outlets were in open-end mode. The flow filed is tri-serpentine design. The cell temperatures and the humidification conditions were varied for the purpose of MEA performance observations. It was found that the performance of these two types of MEAs is about the same at fully or partially humidified operation conditions; however, 10um MEA exhibits higher current density in dry or low humidified conditions. For example, at 70C cell, 100% RH, and 0.6V condition, both MEAs have similar current density which is 1320 and 1342mA/cm² for 15um and 10um product, respectively. However, when in operation without external humidification, 10um MEA can produce 1085mA/cm²; whereas 15um MEA produces only 720mA/cm².

Keywords: fuel cell, membrane electrode assembly, PEFC, PEMFC, proton exchange membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
4962 A Low Cost Education Proposal Using Strain Gauges and Arduino to Develop a Balance

Authors: Thais Cavalheri Santos, Pedro Jose Gabriel Ferreira, Alexandre Daliberto Frugoli, Lucio Leonardo, Pedro Americo Frugoli

Abstract:

This paper presents a low cost education proposal to be used in engineering courses. The engineering education in universities of a developing country that is in need of an increasing number of engineers carried out with quality and affordably, pose a difficult problem to solve. In Brazil, the political and economic scenario requires academic managers able to reduce costs without compromising the quality of education. Within this context, the elaboration of a physics principles teaching method with the construction of an electronic balance is proposed. First, a method to develop and construct a load cell through which the students can understand the physical principle of strain gauges and bridge circuit will be proposed. The load cell structure was made with aluminum 6351T6, in dimensions of 80 mm x 13 mm x 13 mm and for its instrumentation, a complete Wheatstone Bridge was assembled with strain gauges of 350 ohms. Additionally, the process involves the use of a software tool to document the prototypes (design circuits), the conditioning of the signal, a microcontroller, C language programming as well as the development of the prototype. The project also intends to use an open-source I/O board (Arduino Microcontroller). To design the circuit, the Fritizing software will be used and, to program the controller, an open-source software named IDE®. A load cell was chosen because strain gauges have accuracy and their use has several applications in the industry. A prototype was developed for this study, and it confirmed the affordability of this educational idea. Furthermore, the goal of this proposal is to motivate the students to understand the several possible applications in high technology of the use of load cells and microcontroller.

Keywords: Arduino, load cell, low-cost education, strain gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
4961 Impact of Schools' Open and Semi-Open Spaces on Student's Studying Behavior

Authors: Chaithanya Pothuganti

Abstract:

Open and semi-open spaces in educational buildings like corridors, mid landings, seating spaces, lobby, courtyards are traditionally have been the places of social communion and interaction which helps in promoting the knowledge, performance, activeness, and motivation in students. Factors like availability of land, commercialization, of educational facilities, especially in e-techno and smart schools, led to closed classrooms to accommodate students thereby lack quality open and semi-open spaces. This insufficient attention towards open space design which is a means of informal learning misses an opportunity to encourage the student’s skill development, behavior and learning skills. The core objective of this paper is to find the level of impact on student learning behavior and to identify the suitable proportions and configuration of spaces that shape the schools. In order to achieve this, different types of open spaces in schools and their impact on student’s performance in various existing models are analysed using case studies to draw some design principles. The study is limited to indoor open spaces like corridors, break out spaces and courtyards. The expected outcome of the paper is to suggest better design considerations for the development of semi-open and open spaces which functions as an element for informal learnings. Its focus is to provide further thinking on designing and development of open spaces in educational buildings.

Keywords: configuration of spaces and proportions, informal learning, open spaces, schools, student’s behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
4960 Open Minds but Closed Access: Why Are There so Few Gold Open Access LIS Journals And Why Are so Many Librarians Unwilling to Unlock Their Scholarship?

Authors: Sarah Baker, Jayati Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Librarians have embraced the open access movement in all disciplines but their own. They are strong advocates on college campuses and curate institutional repositories, yet there are surprisingly few open access LIS journals. Presenters evaluated the open access availability of library and information science literature. After analyzing the top 100 library science journals (the top 50 journals from Scimago and JCR) and finding very few gold open access journals, they then investigated the availability of open access articles from the top 10 closed access journals. Presenters would like to generate a conversation on what type of proactive approach librarians can take to increase open access to literature within our discipline. Librarians like their colleagues in other disciplines are not motivated to submit their articles to their institutional repositories. Presenters have found a similar reluctance from their fellow colleagues regarding open access initiatives on campus. Presenters will describe Open Access Week activities as part of a campus-wide initiative and share some faculty comments, concerns, and misconceptions that came up as a part of this dialog. Presenters will discuss their personal experiences providing access to faculty publications through the California State University Los Angeles institutional repository.

Keywords: faculty scholarship, institutional repositories, library and information science journals, open access

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
4959 Preparation of Gramine Nanosuspension and Protective Effect of Gramine on Human Oral Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

Authors: K. Suresh, R. Arunkumar

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of gramine nano suspension and protective effect of Gramine on the apoptosis of laryngeal cancer cells cell line (HEp-2 and KB). The growth inhibition rate of Hep-2 and KB cells in vitro were measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by, levels of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, morphological changes and flowcytometry. Based on the results, we determined the effective doses of gramine as 127.23µm/ml for 24 hr and 119.81 µm/ml for 48hr in hep-2 cell line and 147.58 µm ml for 24 hr and 123.74µm µm/ml for 48hr in KB cell line. cytotoxicity effects of gramine were confirmed by treatment of HEp-2 cell and KB cell with IC50 concentration of gramine resulted in sequences of events marked by the enhance the apoptosis accompanied by loss of cell viability, modulation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest on HEp-2 cells. Our study suggests that the nanosuspension of gramine possesses the more cytotoxic effect of cancer cells and a novel candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

Keywords: apoptosis, HEp-2 cell line, KB cell line mitochondria, gramine, nanosuspension

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
4958 Open educational Resources' Metadata: Towards the First Star to Quality of Open Educational Resources

Authors: Audrey Romero-Pelaez, Juan Carlos Morocho-Yunga

Abstract:

The increasing amount of open educational resources (OER) published on the web for consumption in teaching and learning environments also generates a growing need to ensure the quality of these resources. The low level of OER discovery is one of the most significant drawbacks when faced with its reuse, and as a consequence, high-quality educational resources can go unnoticed. Metadata enables the discovery of resources on the web. The purpose of this study is to lay the foundations for open educational resources to achieve their first quality star within the Quality4OER Framework. In this study, we evaluate the quality of OER metadata and establish the main guidelines on metadata quality in this context.

Keywords: open educational resources, OER quality, quality metadata

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
4957 PNIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles as Delivery Vehicles for Curcumin Against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: H. Tayefih, F. farajzade ahari, F. Zarghami, V. Zeighamian, N. Zarghami, Y. Pilehvar-soltanahmadi

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women throughout the world. Natural compounds such as curcumin hold promise to treat a variety of cancers including breast cancer. However, curcumin's therapeutic application is limited, due to its rapid degradation and poor aqueous solubility. On the other hand, previous studies have stated that drug delivery using nanoparticles might improve the therapeutic response to anticancer drugs. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (PNIPAAm–MAA) is one of the hydrogel copolymers utilized in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic potential of curcumin encapsulated within the NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticle, on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In this work, polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized through the free radical mechanism, and curcumin was encapsulated into NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles. Then, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was measured by MTT assays. The evaluation of the results showed that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA has more cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 cell line and efficiently inhibited the growth of the breast cancer cell population, compared with free curcumin. In conclusion, this study indicates that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA suppresses the growth of the MCF-7 cell line. Overall, it is concluded that encapsulating curcumin into the NIPAAm-MAA copolymer could open up new avenues for breast cancer treatment.

Keywords: PNIPAAm-MAA, breast cancer, curcumin, drug delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
4956 Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level

Authors: Jefunnie Matahum, Yu-Chi Kuo, Chao-Ming Su, Tzong-Rong Ger

Abstract:

Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, single cell, magnetophoresis, image analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
4955 In-Situ Quasistatic Compression and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminium Foams of Different Cell Topology

Authors: M. A. Islam, P. J. Hazell, J. P. Escobedo, M. Saadatfar

Abstract:

Quasistatic compression and micro structural characterization of closed cell aluminium foams of different pore size and cell distributions has been carried out. Metallic foams have good potential for lightweight structures for impact and blast mitigation and therefore it is important to find out the optimized foam structure (i.e. cell size, shape, relative density, and distribution) to maximize energy absorption. In this paper, we present results for two different aluminium metal foams of density 0.5 g/cc and 0.7 g/cc respectively that have been tested in quasi-static compression. The influence of cell geometry and cell topology on quasistatic compression behavior has been investigated using computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. The compression behavior and micro structural characterization will be presented.

Keywords: metal foams, micro-CT, cell topology, quasistatic compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 353